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Dr Soe Kyaw Kyaw

(Ph D, Chemistry)

CHEMISTRY
GRADE 11

Study Guide

CHAPTER 4
ELECTROLYSIS
DrSKK PhD (Chemistry)

CHAPTER ( 4 )
ELECTROLYSIS
Conductor
A substance which conducts or allows the passage of electricity is called conductor.

Non-conductor or Insulator
A solid substance which does not conduct electricity is known as a non-conductor or
insulator.

Electrolyte
Those substances, other than metals, which in the molten state or as a solution in
water, allow the passage of electricity, are called electrolytes.

Non-electrolytes
A substance in a solution that does not conduct electric current is called non-
electrolyte.

Electrolysis
The decomposition of a compound, in solution or in the molten state, brought about
by the passage of an electric current through it, is known as electrolysis.

Electrical Conductivity of Metals


In metals, the atoms are packed tightly together to form what is known as the
metallic lattice. The valence electrons from each atom in the lattice can move freely
through the entire lattice.

Fig., Metallic lattice

Battery
In a battery, there is a difference of potential between the two terminals. When the terminal is
linked by a metal wire, electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal through
the wire.
DrSKK 2 PhD (Chemistry)

Electron flow and Current flow

Fig., Electron flow and Current flow

Arrhenius Ionic Theory ( 1880 )


1. Electrolytes contain electrically charged particles called ions.
2. Electrolytes can conduct electricity due to the movement of these ions.
3. Non-electrolytes do not contain ions and so they cannot conduct electricity.

Cation
Cation is an ion with a positive charge.
Anion
Anion is an ion with a negative charge.

Ions in some substances

Compound Formulae Ions


+ -
Sodium chloride NaCl Na , Cl
Sodium hydroxide NaOH Na+, OH-
Copper (II) sulphate CuSO 4 Cu2+, SO 4 2-
Lead (II) bromide PbBr 2 Pb 2+ , Br -
Sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 H + , SO 4 2-
Silver nitrate AgNO 3 Ag + , NO 3 -
Potassium iodie KI K+, I-
Water H2O H+, OH-
DrSKK 3 PhD (Chemistry)

Electrolysis
Electrodes
Electrodes are cathode and anode in the electrolysis.
Cathode
Cathode is negative electrode in electrolysis.
(Cations (Positive ions) move to negative electrode. This electrode is called cathode.)
Anode
Anode is positive electrode in electrolysis.
(Anions (Negative ions) move to positive electrode. This electrode is called anode.)
In the electrolysis, positive terminal in a battery is connected to the anode (positive electrode)
and negative terminal to the cathode (negative electrode).

Electrolysis of Molten Salts


(I ) Electrolysis of molten sodium chloride using Pt electrodes

Figure; Electrolysis of molten sodium chloride using Pt electrodes


Molten or fused sodium chloride contains Na+ and Cl- ions. On electrolysis, sodium ions
move to the cathode and they accept electrons and are discharged as sodium atoms. The chloride
ions move to the anode and they lose electrons and chlorine gas is evolved.
Reaction at the cathode, Na+ + e → Na
Reaction at the anode, 2 Cl - → Cl2 + 2e
Note: Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity, because in the solid state, the movment
of Na+ and Cl- ions are restricted.

(2) Electrolysis of molten lead (II) bromide using Pt electrodes


Reaction at the cathode, Pb2+ + 2e → Pb
Reaction at the anode, 2 Br- → Br2 + 2e
DrSKK 4 PhD (Chemistry)

Conduction of electricity by Aqueous Solution


In the previous experiment, sodium atoms discharged at the cathode cannot attack the
platinum electrode. In general, ions discharged at the platinum electrode cannot attack the
electrode.
Aqueous solutions of organic substances such as sugar and urea do not conduct
electricity.
Aqueous solutions of inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, calcium chloride, coppre
(II) sulphate etc., conduct electricity.

Selective Discharged of Ions


1. In an aqueous solution of an electrolyte, there are usually more than one species of cations or
anions e.g., in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, there are Na+, H+ and OH- ions.
2. When electricity is passed through such a solution, the cations move towards the cathode and
anions move toward the anode but not all the positive ions or all the negative ions are
discharged at the cathode or the anode at the same time.
3. Usually one species of cations or anions is selectively discharged at respective electrodes.

Factors affecting the electrolysis products


(i) Position of the metal or group in the electrochemical series
(ii) Concentration and
(iii) Nature of the electrode.
(i) Position of metal or group in electrochemical series

If all other factors are equal, any ion lower in the series will be discharged from solution
in preference to those above it, positive ions at the cathode and negative ions at anode.
For example, in sodium hydroxide solution, containing positive ions of H+, and Na+, H+
discharges in preference to Na+ in copper (II) sulphate solution, containing OH- and SO 4 2- as
negative ions, OH- is discharged in preference to SO 4 2-.
DrSKK 5 PhD (Chemistry)

(ii ) Concentration
As the concentration of an ion increases, the tendency of the ion to discharge from
solution also increases.
For example, in concentrated hydrochloric acid containing OH- and Cl-, the
concentration of Cl- is very much greater than that of OH-. In these circumstances, Cl- is
discharged first. But if the acid is very dilute, discharged of OH- will also occur.
The concentration effect can also be seen when saturated aqueous solution of sodium
chloride (brine) solution is electrolysed.
Here the order of discharged stated by the electrochemical series may be reversed by
concentration effect.
(iii) Nature of the electrode
The nature of electrode is the deciding factor in some cases.
The products of the electrolysis of a solution of sodium chloride with mercury cathode
are quite different from those obtained by using the platinum cathode.
With a platinum electrode, H+ is discharged and the cathode product is hydrogen gas
(according to electrochemical series).
With a mercury electrode, Na+ is discharged and the cathode product is sodium which is
dissolve in the mercury forming sodium amalgam.

(1) Electrolysis of saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (brine) using platinum
electrodes
Aqueous sodium chloride solution contains Na+, Cl-, H+ and OH- ions. On electrolysis, the
cations, Na+ and H+ ions move to cathode.
In the electrochemical series, sodium is above hydrogen and so hydrogen ions accept
electrons more readily than sodium ions. Hydrogen ion is discharged and hydrogen gas is
evolved at cathode. The anions, OH- and Cl- ions move to anode.
If the amount of OH- ions and Cl- ions are similar in the solution, OH- ions will lose
electrons more readily than Cl- ions. But, in brine (saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution),
the concentration of Cl- ions is very higher than that of OH- ions. Therefore, Cl- ions is
discharged and chlorine gas is evolved at anode.
Reaction at the cathode, 2H+ + 2e → H2
Reaction at the anode, 2 Cl - → Cl2 + 2e

(2) Electrolysis of dilute aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution using platinum electrodes
Dilute aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution contains Cu2+, SO42- H+ and OH- ions. On
electrolysis,
The cations, Cu2+ and H+ ions move to cathode. In the electrochemical series, hydrogen is
above copper and so copper ion accepts electrons more readily than hydrogen ions. Copper ion is
discharged and copper is deposited at cathode.
DrSKK 6 PhD (Chemistry)

The anions, SO42- and OH- ions move to anode. The concentrations of SO42- and OH- ions
are similar. In the electrochemical series, SO42- is above OH- and so OH- ions accept electrons
more readily than SO42- ions. The OH- ions is discharged and oxygen gas is evolved at anode.
Reaction at the cathode, Cu2+ + 2e → Cu
Reaction at the anode, 4OH- → 2H2O + O2 + 4e

Electrolysis of Aqueous Solution of Alkali and Acid Using Platinum Electrodes


(3) Electrolysis of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution using platinum electrodes

Figure; Hofmann’s voltametre for Electrolysis of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution


using platinum electrodes
Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution contains Na+, H+ and OH- ions. On electrolysis, the
cations, Na+ and H+ ions move to cathode.
In the electrochemical series, sodium is above hydrogen and so hydrogen ions accept
electrons more readily than sodium ions. Hydrogen ion is discharged and hydrogen gas is
evolved at cathode.
The anions, OH- ions move to the anode. The OH- ions move to the anode and they lose
electrons and oxygen gas is evolved.
Reaction at the cathode, 2H+ + 2e → H2
Reaction at the anode, 4OH - → 2H2O + O2 +4e

(4) Electrolysis of dilute aqueous sulphuric acid solution using platinum electrodes
Dilute sulphuric acid solution contains H+, SO42-and OH- ions. On electrolysis, the H+ ions
move to the cathode and they accept electrons and hydrogen gas is evolved. Hydrogen ion is
discharged and hydrogen gas is evolved at cathode.
The anions, SO42- and OH- ions move to anode. In the electrochemical series, SO42- is
above OH- and so OH- ions lose electrons more readily than SO42- ions. The OH- ions is
discharged and oxygen gas is evolved at anode.
Reaction at the cathode, 2H+ + 2e → H2
Reaction at the anode, 4OH - → 2H2O + O2 + 4e
DrSKK 7 PhD (Chemistry)

(4) Electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution using copper electrodes

Figure; Apparatus for electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution using copper
electrodes
Aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution contains Cu2+, H+, SO42-and OH- ions. On
electrolysis, Cu2+ ions are discharged at the cathode, metallic copper is deposited.
The anions, SO42- and OH- ions move to anode where three different reactions are
possible:
(1) SO42- ions can be discharged,
(2) OH- ions can be discharged and
(3) Cu atoms from the anode can be lose electrons forming Cu2+ anions which can dissolved
into solution.
Actually the last process occurs.
Therefore, reaction at cathode Cu2+ + 2e → Cu
reaction at anode Cu → Cu2+ + 2e
The net result of the electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate using copper electrodes is the loss
of copper from the anode and the deposition of copper at the cathode. The colour of solution
does not change.
This process is used for purification of crude copper, which is made the anode in the electrolytic
process.
DrSKK 8 PhD (Chemistry)

Summary of the Effects of Electrolysis


Electrolytes Cathode of Anode of At cathode At anode
Fused sodium platinum platinum sodium chlorine evolved
chloride deposited
Molten lead (II) platinum platinum Lead deposited Bromine evolved
bromide solution
Molten potassium platinum platinum Potassium Iodine evolved
iodide deposited
Saturated sodium platinum platinum Hydrogen chlorine evolved
chloride evolved
Sodium hydroxide platinum platinum hydrogen oxygen evolved
solution evolved
Dilute sulphuric platinum platinum hydrogen oxygen evolved
acid solution evolved
Copper(II)sulphate platinum platinum copper deposited oxygen evolved
solution
Copper(II)sulphate copper copper copper deposited copper anode
solution dissolved
Silver nitrate platinum platinum Silver deposited Oxygen evolved
solution
Silver nitrate silver silver Silver deposited Silver anode
solution dissolved

Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy


An electric current can be produced from a chemical reaction.

Figure; A chemical cell


At the zinc plate;
Zinc, the more electropositive of the two metals, ionizes by loss of electrons and these
electrons pass from zinc to copper through the wire.
At the copper plate;
At copper surface, the electrons reduce hydrogen ions from the electrolyte which are
eventually discharged as hydrogen gas.
DrSKK 9 PhD (Chemistry)

Reaction at zinc plate


Zn → Zn2+ + 2e
Reaction at copper plate
2H+ + 2e → H2
Polarizes
Current should continue to flow as long as materials last, but the bubbles of
hydrogen adhere to surface of copper electrode, cutting off these surface areas of the
electrode form contact with the electrolyte. This phenomenon slows down the
reaction at electrode. Therefore, the cell is said to be polarized.

Overe all reaction;


Zn (s) + 2H+ (aq) → Zn2+(aq) + H2 (g)

Electrochemical Series
The series obtained by placing the metals in order of decreasing negative
potential is known as electrochemical series.

Element Standard electrode potential (volt )


Potassium -2.92 K+ + e K
Calcium -2.87
Sodium -2.71
Magnesium -2.39
Aluminium -1.66
Zinc -0.76
Iron -0.44
Tin -0.14
Lead -0.13
Hydrogen 0.0
Copper +0.34
Silver +0.8

Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis


Faraday’s first laws
The mass of given element liberated during electrolysis is directly
proportional: (1) to the magnitude of the steady current used and (2) to the time for
which the current passes.
(OR)
DrSKK 10 PhD (Chemistry)

The mass of element liberated is directly proportional to the quantity of


electricity passed through the solution during electrolysis.

Faraday’s second laws


When the same quantity of electricity is passed through solution of different
electrolytes, the relative numbers of moles of elements deposited are inversely
proportional to the charges on the ions of each of the elements respectively.

Faraday as a Unit Quantity of Electricity


One Faraday
The quantity of electricity required to liberate one mole of a univalent
element is 96500 coulombs ( One Faraday ).
One faraday = 96500 C
One mole electron = 1 F
eg,. M+(aq) + e → M (s)
1F (96500 C ) 1 mole ( RMM in gram )
Where M is an univalent metal.

Electroplating
Electroplating is the electrical precipitation of one metal on another.

Silver plating
Cathode made- the articles to be electroplate such as spoons or ornaments, made of base alloys,
(eg,. cupornickel)
Anode made - pure silver
Use of electrolytes - potassium argentocyanide, KAg (CN )2 solution.
Ionic reaction for it, KAg(CN) 2 (aq) K+(aq) + Ag+(aq) + 2CN-(aq)
Reaction at cathode; Ag +(aq) + e → Ag (s)
Reaction at anode Ag (s) → Ag +(aq) + e

Chromium Plating
Steel parts are chromium plated. In chromium plating, a steel object is plated first with
nickel or copper, because chromium does not stick well onto a steel surface.
Cahode made - the aricle to be electroplate (objects)
Anode made - lead
Electrolyte - chromium sulphate in sulphuric acid and water
DrSKK 11 PhD (Chemistry)

Reaction at cathode ; Cr3+(aq) + 3e → Cr(s)


Reaction at anode ; 4OH - → 2H2O + O2 + 4e
Chromium is deposited on the object at the cathode as a bright coherent layer. This
chromium layer resists rusting and gives a bright “silvery” surface.

Notes for Objectives


Conductors and Non-conductors
1. Conductors are usually solid.
2. Mercury is a liquid conductor.
3. All metals whether they are in the solid state or liquid state are conductor.
4. A substance in a solid state does not conduct electricity is non-conductor or insulator. (eg.
wood, rubber)

Electrolytes and Non-electrodes


1. Electrolytes are ionic compounds.
2. Non-electrolytes are covalent compounds.
3. Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity.
4. Aqueous solution of urea and sugar do not conduct electricity.

Electrolysis
1. The passage of electricity through electrolytes is usually accompanied by chemical
decomposition.
Electrical Conductivity of Metals
1. In metals, the atoms are packed tightly together to form what is known as the metallic lattice.
2. The valence electrons from each atom in the lattice can move freely through the entire lattice.
3. Metals are good conductors of electricity.
4. When the terminal is linked by a metal wire, electrons flow from the negative terminal to the
positive terminal through the wire.
5. A metal like copper, conducts electricity both in its solid and liquid states.
6. The electrical conductance of a metal is much greater than that of a solution of an electrolyte.
7. The metallic conductance decreases with increases in temperature.
8. Silver, copper, gold and aluminium, in the order given, have the highest conductance among
the metals.

Ionic Theory
1. The atom of an element and the ion obtained from it has the same properties.
2. Ions are derived from atoms (or group of atoms) but differ from them by having electrical
charges.
3. Positive ions are called cation and negative ions are called anions.
4. The number of electrical charges on an ion is equal to the valence of the corresponding atom
or group.

Electrolysis of Molten Salts


1. Cations (Positive ions) move to negative electrode (cathode).
2. Anion (Negative ions) migrates to positive electrode (anode).
DrSKK 12 PhD (Chemistry)

3. In the electrolysis, cation reduced at the cathode (CRC) and anions oxidized at the anode
(AOA).
4. Cations accept (gains) electrons and cathode loses electron.
5. Anions lose electrons and anode gain electrons.
6. Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity.

Electrochemical Series
1. A high negative electrode potential shows that the metals have a strong tendency to go into
solution as positive ions.
2. The electrochemical series and activity series are similar but not identical.
Conduction of Electricity by Aqueous Solutions
1. Aqueous solutions of organic substances such as sugar and urea do not conduct electricity.
2. Aqueous solutions of inorganic salts conduct electricity.
3. The electrochemical series is similar but not identical to the activity series.
4. Cations of element lower in the electrochemical series accept electron more readily than
those above it.

Selective Discharged of Ions


1. Cations and anions are arranged in the order of increasing readiness with which they are
discharged from solution on passage electricity.
2. As concentration of an ion increases, the tendency of the ion to discharge from solution also
increases.
3. The nature of electrode is the deciding factor in some cases.

Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy (Chemical Cell)


1. An electric current can be produced from a chemical reaction.
2. A chemical cell produces electricity due to the chemical reaction.
3. Chemical cell are used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy.
4. More separate two metals in the electrochemical series produce more e.m.f in a chemical
cell.
5. The greater the difference in reactivity between the two metals, the grater the voltage or
electromotive force (emf) of the cell.

Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis


1. Faraday’s laws express the quantitative results of electrolysis.
2. For the same quantity of electricity only half as many moles of copper will be obtained as
silver.
3. One Faraday is the equivalent to one mole of electrons.

Electroplating
1. Articles to be electroplated are connected to the cathode.
2. Pure silver is attached to the anode in the silver plating.
3. Lead is used to anode in the chromium plating.
4. Steel parts are usually chromium plated.
5. In chromium plating, a steel object is plated first with nickel or copper.
DrSKK 13 PhD (Chemistry)

Questions and Problems


For Question No. 6
1. Write down the reactions at the anode and the cathode for the silver plating. Write down the
cathode reaction for chromium plating.
2. Write down the reactions at the cathode and anode for the electrolysis of lead (II) bromide
solution.
3. Write down the reactions at the cathode and anode for the electrolysis of aqueous copper (II)
sulphate solution using platinum electrodes.
4. What is the net result for electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution using copper
electrodes?
5. Write down the cathode reaction and anode reaction of molten potassium iodide using Pt
electrodes.
6. Write down the reactions at the cathode and anode for the electrolysis of aqueous sodium
chloride solution using platinum electrodes.
7. Write down the reactions at the cathode and anode for the electrolysis of fused sodium
chloride using platinum electrodes.
8. Write down the electrode reactions for the electrolysis of aqueous solution of alkali using
platinum electrodes.
9. Write down the electrode reaction for the electrolysis of aqueous solution of acid using Pt
electrodes.
10. Write down the cathode and anode reactions for the electrolysis of silver nitrate solution by
using platinum electrodes.
11. Write down the equation for ionization of potassium argentocyanide KAg(CN)2 solution.
12. Write down the reactions at zinc and copper electrodes in chemical cell using dilute sulphuric
acid.
13. Name the main cathode and anode products during electrolysis of sodium hydroxide solution
using Pt electrodes.
14. Give the names of the electrodes used as cathode and anode in chromium plating and write
down the cathode reaction of it.
15. What type of electrodes is used in the electrolysis of molten lead (II) bromide? Write
equation for the reaction taking place at the electrodes.
16. What are the factors affecting the electrolysis products?
17. Who put forward the ionic theory about the year 1880.Write down the theory?
18. Identify the following substances whether it is conductor or non-conductor or electrolyte or
non-electrolytes.
Alcohol, Mercury, Copper (II) sulphate solution, Wood
DrSKK 14 PhD (Chemistry)

For Question No. 7


Faraday’s First Law
Type 1.
1. What mass of (a) copper, (b) silver, (c) aluminium and what volume at STP of (d) oxygen
and (e) chlorine will be liberated during electrolysis by a charge of one Faraday? (Cu= 63,
Al=27, O=16, Cl=35.5)
2. What mass of aluminium, copper, silver and what volume of oxygen, chlorine will be
liberated during electrolysis by 9650 C?
(Al=27, Ag=108, Cu=63, 1F=96500)
3. What mass of copper and what volume hydrogen will be liberated at STP during electrolysis
by 48250 C? (Cu = 63, H=1)
4. What volume at STP of chlorine and what mass of aluminium will be liberated during
electrolysis by 19300 C? (Al=27)
5. What mass of copper and what volume of chlorine at STP will be liberated during by a
charge of two Faraday. (Cu=63, Cl=35.5)

Type 2
1. On passing a steady current of 0.75 A for 25 minutes through a copper (II) sulphate solution,
0.369 g of copper is deposited. Calculate the relative atomic mass of copper.( One Faraday =
96500 coulombs )
2. On passing a steady current of 0.85A for 40 minutes through a metal (II) sulphate solution,
0.825 g of metal is deposited. Calculate the relative atomic mass of this metal. ( One Faraday
= 96500 coulombs )
3. On passing a steady current of 0.5A for 25 minutes through a metal (I) nitrate solution, 0.250
g of metal is deposited. Calculate the relative atomic mass of the metal.
4. The mass of silver deposited by passing a steady current of 0.7 A for 30 minutes through an
excess of silver nitrate solution is 1.41 g. Calculate the relative atomic mass of silver.

Type 3
1. Calculate the mass of silver in grams deposited by passing a steady current of 0.1 A for one
hour through an excess of silver nitrate solution. (Ag = 108, one Faraday = 96500 C)
2. Calculate the mass of copper in grams deposited by passing a steady current of 0.1 A for two
hours through an excess of copper (II) sulphate solution. (Cu= 63.54, one Faraday = 96500
C)
3. Calculate the mass of silver in grams deposited by passing a steady current of 0.8 A for two
hours through an excess of silver nitrate solution. (Ag = 108, one Faraday = 96500 C)
4. Calculate the mass of copper in grams deposited by passing a steady current of 0.75 A for 42
minutes through an excess of copper (II) sulphate solution. (Cu= 63.54, one Faraday = 96500
C)
DrSKK 15 PhD (Chemistry)

Type 4
1. A steady current of 0.85 A was switched on and allowed to flow 50 minutes through a dilute
sulphuric acid. Calculate the volume of H2 gas which would be liberated at STP during
electrolysis. (1F = 96500C, O = 16)
2. A steady current of 0.5 A was switched on and allowed to flow 15 minutes through a dilute
sulphuric acid. Calculate the volume of O2 gas which would be liberated at STP during
electrolysis. (1F = 96500C, O = 16)

Type 5
1. What will be the quantity of electricity required for the deposition of 5.4 g of silver on the
cathode? (Ag=108, 1F=96500C)

Type 6
1. A current of 1 A is passed through a solution of 0.1 M copper (II) sulphate solution using
copper electrodes. How long would a current of 1A need to pass the cell, so as to deposite
0.0635 g of copper. (Cu =63.5, 1F=96500C)
2. How many electric current uses for the electrolysis of 1.41 g of silver deposited during 30
minutes? (Ag=108, 1F=96500C)
3. Calculate the time required to discharge 5.4 g of silver by passing a current of 5 A through
silver nitrate solution. (Ag=108)
4. How long would a current of 2 ampere need to pass the cell, so as to deposit 0.635 g of
copper? (Cu= 63, 1F =96500C)

Faraday’s Second Law


1. An electric current is passed in terms through solutions of silver nitrate and copper (II)
sulphate solution in series. If 5.4 g of silver were deposited at the cathode of the first cell,
calculate the mass of copper deposited in the second cell. (Ag=108, Cu=63)
2. An electric current is passed in terms through solutions of copper (II) sulphate and
aluminium sulphate solutions in series. If 12.6 g of copper were deposited at the cathode of
the first cell, calculate the mass of aluminium deposited in the second cell. (Cu=63, Al =27)
3. An electric current is passed in terms through solutions of silver nitrate and dilute sulphuric
acid in series. If 0.7g of silver were deposited at the cathode of the first cell, calculate the
volume of hydrogen liberated at STP in the second cell. (Ag=108, H=1)
4. An electric current is passed in terms through solutions of silver nitrate and dilute sulphuric
acid in series. If 0.7g of silver were deposited at the cathode of the first cell, calculate the
volume of hydrogen liberated at 35oC and 760 mmHg in the second cell. (Ag=108, H=1)

Electrolysis in Molten and Aqueous Solutions


1. Explain the electrolysis of dilute aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution using platinum
electrodes.
DrSKK 16 PhD (Chemistry)

Complement Text Questions


1. An aqueous solution of copper (II) sulphate is electrolysed using copper electrodes.
(a) Draw a labeled diagram of the electrolysis apparatus.
(b) During electrolysis what ions are moving towards the anode and cathode?
(c) Write down the equations for the reactions taking place at the anode and cathode.
(d) Explain the net results of these electrolyte during electrolysis..
2. When the aqueous solution of silver nitrate is electrolysed with platinum electrodes, the
products at the cathode and anode are two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen
respectively. Also the cathode liquid becomes alkaline and the anode liquid acidic, explain
these results.
3. The apparatus is set up as show in the following diagram.

A current of 0.5 A was switched on and allowed to flow for 15 minutes.


(a) Describe how the electricity is conducted in the copper (II) sulphate solution.
(b) Name the products formed during the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide solution at
electrodes.
(c) State, whether the masses of the copper cathode and the copper anode will increase,
decrease or remain constant during electrolysis.
(d) Write equations for the reactions take place in dilute sulphuric acid at the cathode and
anode.
(e) Calculate the volume of hydrogen which would be released from the dilute sulphuric (at
STP) during the electrolysis.
(f) What would happen to the concentration of each solution during the passage of the
current?
4. Two plates, one of zinc and one of copper, held apart and connected to a small light bulb, are
dipped into sulphuric acid. The bulb lights up but the light soon becomes dim.
(a) What would be observed at the copper plate? Write an equation for the reaction which
occurs.
(b) What would happen at the zinc plate? Write an equation for this reaction.
(c) Explain why the light fades after a short time.
(d) If the zinc plate were replaced by an iron plate, would the lamp glow more or less
brightly?
(e) If the zinc plate were retained but the copper plate were replaced by a silver plate, would
the lamp glow more or less brightly?
(f) What type of cell?
(g) Draw a labeled diagram of the electrolysis apparatus.
DrSKK 17 PhD (Chemistry)

5. Draw a fully labeled diagram of the apparatus you would use to electrolyse brine and
measure the volumes of the gases produced at the electrodes.
(a) Name these gases and state their relative volumes.
(b) How can these gases be made to react with one another?
(c) What is the product of the reaction of these two gases?
(d) What will be the actual volume at STP of this product, if 96500 coulombs were
used in the electrolysis, assuming that complete combination of the reacting gases
occurred?
6. Draw a fully labeled diagram of a voltameter suitable for the electrolysis of water acidified
with dilute sulphuric acid, showing how the gaseous products are collected.
(a) Give the names and relative proportions of these gases evolved.
(b) Write down the equations for the reactions at the electrodes?
(c) The same result would be obtained if the water was made alkaline by adding sodium
hydroxide instead of acidifying with sulphuric acid.
(d) State and explain the effect of electrolysing a dilute solution of sodium sulphate in the
same voltameter.
7. Distinguish between the following
(a) electrolysis and electrolyte (b) cathode and anode
(c) conductor and insulator.
8. Complete the following table and name the main anode and cathode products.
Electrodes Electrolytes Anode Cathode
product product
platinum Fused sodium chloride
platinum Saturated sodium chloride solution
platinum Sodium hydroxide solution
copper Copper (II) sulphate solution
platinum Copper (II) sulphate solution.

9. 0.03 faraday of electricity were passed through a sodium hydroxide solution using Pt
electrode. Calculate the number of mole of each gas produced at the anode and cathode.

Objective Questions
A. Write TRUE or FALSE for each of the following statements.
1. Metals are good insulators of electricity.
2. Metals are good conductors.
3. Conductors are usually solid.
4. A conductor contains electrically charged ions.
5. A solid substance that does not conduct electricity is non-conductor.
6. Electrolytes are ionic compounds.
7. Electrolytes are covalent compounds.
8. Electrolytes contain electrically charged particles.
9. Non-electrolytes are ionic compounds.
10. Non-electrolytes are covalent compounds.
11. Non-electrolytes contain ions.
12. In metals, the atoms are packed tightly together to form what is known as metallic lattic.
DrSKK 18 PhD (Chemistry)

13. The valence electrons from each atom in the lattice can move freely through the entire lattice.
14. Metallic conductance is inversely proportional to its temperature.
15. Metallic conductance decreases with increases in temperature.
16. A metal, like copper conducts electricity both in solid and liquid state.
17. Electrical conductance of a metal is much greater than that of electrolyte.
18. Electrolytes do not contain ions and they cannot conduct electricity.
19. Electrolytes can conduct electricity due to the movement of electrons.
20. Ions are derived from atoms but differ from them by having electrical charges.
21. The number of electrical charges on an ion is equal to the valence of the corresponding atom
or group.
22. The negative ions are called anode.
23. The positive ions are called cathode.
24. Aqueous solution of sugar conducts electricity.
25. Solid sodium chloride conducts electricity.
26. Molten sodium chloride contains Na+ and Cl- ions.
27. Aqueous solution of urea conducts electricity.
28. Cations are reduced at the anode.
29. Anions are oxidized at the anode.
30. Anions are oxidized at the cathode.
31. Positive ions migrate to the anode.
32. Positive ions migrate to the cathode and negative ions move to the anode.
33. Negative ions move to the cathode.
34. A cathode is an electron donor.
35. Cathode reaction is an oxidation reaction.
36. In the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, graphite is used as anode.
37. In a battery, there is a flow of electrons towards the negative terminal.
38. The series obtained by placing the metals in order of increasing negative potential is known
as the electrochemical series.
39. Electrochemical series and activity series are identical.
40. Electrochemical and activity series are similar but not identical.
41. Aluminium has lower negative potential than potassium.
42. The greater is the difference in the reactivity between the two metals the greater is the emf of
the cell.
43. K+ ions are difficult to discharge.
44. As the concentration of an ion increases, the tendency to discharge also increases.
45. A chemical cell produces electricity due to the chemical reaction.
46. An electric current can be produced from the chemical reaction.
47. In the electrolysis, the quantity of element discharged is directly proportional to the quantity
of electricity used.
48. The quantity of electricity to liberate one mole of a univalent element is one faraday.
49. The quantity of electricity to liberate one mole of a univalent element is one coulomb.
50. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis express the quantitative analysis of electrolysis.
51. Electroplating is the electrical precipitation of a metal.
52. Lead is used as anode in chromium plating.

B. Fill in the blanks with correct word(s), phrases(s) term(s), unit(s) etc.
DrSKK 19 PhD (Chemistry)

1. The decomposition of a molten salts brought about by the passage of electricity through it is
known as the .............. .
2. Cation is reduced at the ........... .
3. The ions at the lower position of the ........... are easier to discharged.
4. The electrical precipititation of one metal on another is known as ......... .
5. The metals more separate in the electrochemical series produce more ............ when they are
used as the electrodes.

C. Select the correct word(s), notation(s), term(s), unit(s), etc., given in the brackets.
1. Conductors are usually (solids, liquids, gases).
2. A substance in asolution that does not conduct electric current is called a (non-conductor,
non-electrolyte, insulator).
3. Electrolytes can conduct electricity due to the movement of (ions, electrons, molecules).
4. The passage of electricity through electrolytes is usually accompained by (physical change,
heat, chemical decomposition).
5. Electrolytes are (covalent, ionic, coordinate) compounds.
6. At sufficient (high, low, medium) temperature NaCl may be melted.
7. Aqueous solution of (sodium chloride, sugar, urea) conducts electricity.
8. Metals are good (conductor, non-electrolyte, insulator).
9. A substance which conducts or allows the passage of electricity is called (conductor, non-
electrolyte, insulator).
10. (Ag, Na, K) has the highest conductance among the metals.
11. Coper is good (conductor, non-electrolyte, insulator) of electricity.
12. (Cu, Hg, Pt) is a liquid conductor.
13. (Wood, rubber, Zinc) is a insulator.
14. At room temperature mercury is referred to as (conductor, non-conductor, insulator).
15. Cation is reduced at the (anode, cathode, electrode).
16. Anion is oxidized at the (anode, cathode, electrode).
17. A cathode is a (an) (source of electrons, electron acceptor, electron donor).
18. Anode is a (source of electrons, electron acceptor, electron donor).
19. (K+, H+, Cu++) ions are difficult to discharge.
20. (K+, H+, Cu++) ions are easier to discharge.
21. Negative ions migrate to the (anode, cathode, electrode).
22. Those ions which migrate towards the negative electrode are called (cations, anions, ions).
23. As the concentration of an ion increases, the tendency of the ion to discharge from solution
(decreases, increases, remains the same).
24. In the electrolysis of molten PbBr2 (graphite, platinum, copper) is used as cathode.
25. On electrolysis of molten sodium chloride (graphite, platinum, copper) is used as cathode.
26. In the electrolysis of brine, using platinum electrodes, chlorine gas is liberated at the
(cathode, anode, both electrodes).
27. In the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution using platinum electrodes (H2, O2,
Cl2) evolves at anode.
28. In the electrolysis of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution using platinum electrodes (O2, H2,
Cl2) is liberated at cathode.
29. In the electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate solution using copper electrodes (copper deposited,
copper dissolve, oxygen is evolved) at the cathode.
DrSKK 20 PhD (Chemistry)

30. In the electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate solution using platinum electrodes (Cl2, H2, O2) are
evolved at the cathode.
31. The ions discharged at Pt cathode and Pt anode in electrolysis of dilute CuSO4 is (Cu2+ and
OH-, H+ and OH-, Cu2+ and SO42-).
32. (K+, H+, Cu2+) ion is easier to discharge.
33. For the same quantity of electricity only (half, one, two) as many moles of copper will be
obtained as silver.
34. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis express the (qualitative, quantitative, volumetric) results of
electrolysis.
35. Articles to be electroplated are connected to the (cathode, anode, electrode).
36. In silver plating (silver is deposited, silver dissolves, oxygen is evolved) at the anode.
37. The electrical precipitation of one metal on another is known as (electrolysis, electroplating,
polarization).
38. Electroplating is the electrical (separation, neutralization, precipitation) of one metal on
another.
39. Polarization occurs in a chemical cell due to the (hydrogen bubbles, discharge of OH- ions,
disconnection of current).
40. For a chemical cell, the greater the difference in reactivity between the two metals the
(greater, lighter, smaller) would be the voltage or emf of the cell.
41. More (separate, closed, adjacent) metals in the electrochemical series produce more e.m.f in
a chemical cell.

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