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Business Statistics

Ans:1

The coefficient of relationship is a measure of the degree of consanguinity (or biological


relationship) between two individuals.

(i) The First Quartile denoted by Q1 is the median of lower half of data set. That means
about 25% of the numbers in the data set lie below Q 1 and about 75% lie above Q1.

First Quartile of fixed Acidity are:-

Fixed Acidity
5.6
6.3
6.7
6.9
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.9
8.1
8.5
8.5
8.9
8.9
8.9
11.2

Q1 = 5.6, 6.3, 6.7, 6.9, 7.3, 7.4, 7.4, 7.4, 7.4, 7.5, 7.5, 7.6

Q1 = 7.4 + 7.4 / 2 = 14.4/2 = 7.4


Q1 = 7.4

The Second Quartile Q2 is the median of the entire data set.

Q2 = 7.8

The Third Quartile Q3 is the median of the lower half of the data set. This means that
about 75% of the numbers in data set lie below Q3 and about 25% lie above Q3.

Fixed Acidity
5.6
6.3
6.7
6.9
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.9
8.1
8.5
8.5
8.9
8.9
8.9
11.2

Q3 = 7.8, 7.8, 7.9, 7.9, 7.9, 8.1, 8.5, 8.5, 8.9, 8.9, 8.9, 11.2

Q3 = 8.1 + 8.5 / 2 =16.6/2 = 8.3

Q3 = 8.3

Maximum Value of Acidity table is = 11.2


Solution (ii) CORRELATION COEFFICIENT BETWEEN FIXED ACIDITY AND
VOLATILE ACIDITY

Fixed Acidity Volatile Acidity


A B A*B A2 B2
8.5 0.22 1.87 72.25 0.0484
6.9 0.28 1.932 47.61 0.0784
7.9 0.28 2.212 62.41 0.0784
8.1 0.32 2.592 65.61 0.1024
8.5 0.39 3.315 72.25 0.1521
11.2 0.39 4.368 125.44 0.1521
8.9 0.4 3.56 79.21 0.16
8.9 0.43 3.827 79.21 0.1849
8.9 0.49 4.361 79.21 0.2401
7.5 0.5 3.75 56.25 0.25
7.6 0.5 3.8 57.76 0.25
7.9 0.56 4.424 62.41 0.3136
7.4 0.58 4.292 54.76 0.3364
7.5 0.58 4.35 56.25 0.3364
7.9 0.59 4.661 62.41 0.3481
7.4 0.6 4.44 54.76 0.36
7.8 0.61 4.758 60.84 0.3721
7.8 0.615 4.797 60.84 0.378225
7.8 0.62 4.836 60.84 0.3844
7.8 0.62 4.836 60.84 0.3844
7.4 0.65 4.81 54.76 0.4225
7.4 0.66 4.884 54.76 0.4356
5.6 0.7 3.92 31.36 0.49
7.3 0.7 5.11 53.29 0.49
6.7 0.76 5.092 44.89 0.5776
6.3 0.88 5.544 39.69 0.7744
202.9 13.925 106.341 1609.91 8.100525

z = number of observation
A = 1st column variables
B = 2nd column variables

n = 26
∑ A = 202.9
∑ B = 13.925
A*B = 106.341
A2 = 1609.91
B2 = 8.100525
z = n( ∑ AB) – ( ∑ A ) ( ∑ B) ÷ √[ n ∑A2 – (∑ A )2 ][ n ∑B2 – (∑ B )2

z = 26 (106.341) – (202.9) (13.925) ÷ √ [26 * 1609.91 – (202.9)2] [26*8.100525 –


(13.925)2]

z = 2764.866 – 2825.3825 ÷ √ [41857.66 – 41168.41] [210.61365 – 193.905625]

z = - 60.5165 ÷ √ [689.25] [16.708025]

z = - 60.5165 ÷ √ 11516.006

z = - 60.5165 ÷ 107.312

z = - 0.5639

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT BETWEEN RESIDUAL SUGAR AND CHLORIDES

Residual Sugar
A Chlorides B A*B A2 B2
1.2 0.065 0.078 1.44 0.004225
1.6 0.069 0.1104 2.56 0.004761
6.1 0.071 0.4331 37.21 0.005041
6.1 0.071 0.4331 37.21 0.005041
2 0.073 0.146 4 0.005329
1.8 0.075 0.135 3.24 0.005625
1.9 0.075 0.1425 3.61 0.005625
1.9 0.076 0.1444 3.61 0.005776
1.9 0.076 0.1444 3.61 0.005776
1.8 0.077 0.1386 3.24 0.005929
1.4 0.08 0.112 1.96 0.0064
2.3 0.082 0.1886 5.29 0.006724
2.3 0.084 0.1932 5.29 0.007056
2.4 0.085 0.204 5.76 0.007225
4.4 0.086 0.3784 19.36 0.007396
1.6 0.089 0.1424 2.56 0.007921
1.8 0.092 0.1656 3.24 0.008464
2.3 0.092 0.2116 5.29 0.008464
1.8 0.097 0.1746 3.24 0.009409
2.6 0.098 0.2548 6.76 0.009604
1.6 0.106 0.1696 2.56 0.011236
1.6 0.114 0.1824 2.56 0.012996
3.9 0.17 0.663 15.21 0.0289
3.8 0.176 0.6688 14.44 0.030976
1.8 0.341 0.6138 3.24 0.116281
1.7 0.368 0.6256 2.89 0.135424
63.6 2.888 6.8539 199.38 0.467604

z = coefficient of correlation
A = 1st column variables
B = 2nd column variables
n = number of observations

n = 26
A = 63.6
B = 2.888
A*B = 6.8539
A2 = 199.38
B2 = 0.467604

z = n( ∑ AB) – ( ∑ A ) ( ∑ B) ÷ √[ n ∑A2 – (∑ A )2 ][ n ∑B2 – (∑ B )2

z = 26 ( 6.8539) – ( 63.6) ( 2.888) ÷ √ [26 * 199.38 – (63.6)2][26*0.467604 –


(2.888)2]

z = 178.2014 – 183.6768 ÷ √ [5183.88 – 4044.96] [12.157704 – 8.340544]

z = - 5.4754 ÷ √ [1138.92] [3.81716]

z = - 5.4754 ÷ √ 4347.4398

z = - 5.4754 ÷ 65.9351

z = - 0.08

z = - 0.5639 and z = - 0.08 shows strong strength between fixed acidity and
volatile acidity associates its correlation coefficient strong rather than residual
sugar and chlorides associates pair.

(iii) In that connection between fixed acidity and volatile acidity rely on relationship
coefficient high score of r = 0.5639 it shows the PH of wine is low which mean the
sourness of wine depends upon this. The total acidity of a wine is the combined sum of
titratable and volatile acids present. To determine the total acidity of a wine you must first
perform the titration to measure the titratable acids and the then the steam distillation of a
wine sample to determine the concentrations of volatile acids.
Ans:2.

A. Skewness-It is the degree of distortion from the symmetrical bell curve or the
normal distribution. It measures the lack of symmetry in data distribution.
It differentiates extreme values in one versus the other tail.
B. Kurtosis is all about the tails of the distribution — not the peakedness or
flatness. It is used to describe the extreme values in one versus the other tail. It
is actually the measure of outliers present in the distribution.
High kurtosis in a data set is an indicator that data has heavy tails or outliers. If
there is a high kurtosis, then, we need to investigate why we have so many
outliers. It indicates a lot of things, maybe wrong data entry or other things.

Kurtosis is a level of whether the data overpowering – scanned for after or lighter
checked for after relative with a typical scattering. That is lighting up records with high
kurtosis will keep running in delicacy have liberal tails, to amazing cases. Informational
parties with low kurtosis will when all is said in done have light tails or nonattendance of
remarkable cases. A uniform dispersal would be the silly case.

The Skewness and Kurtosis bits of learning have a large portion of the stores of being
incredibly destitution stricken upon the model size. The table above shows the technique.
Genuinely, even a few hundred server properties didn't shock appraisals of the veritable
kurtosis and skewness. Reasonably unassuming acceptable sizes can give results that are
remarkably bewildering.

In short skewness and kurtosis are all around that truly gives insignificant. Shewhart
referenced this target affirmation in his first book. The bits of learning for skewness and
kurtosis in a general sense don't give any urgent information past that starting late given
by the level of zone and scattering".

Everything considered high in fact, chloride gives high figure demonstrates skewness and
high kurtosis are 37.56 and 5.02 independently.

(ii) The mean, median and modes of Sulphur dioxide and Total sulphur dioxide are
differing substantially from each other and its mention in the table below -

Desc free sulphur total sulphur


Stats dioxide dioxide
Mean 35.31 138.36
Med 34 134
Mode 29 111
The relationship of the mean, median, and mode to each other can provide some
information about the relative shape of the data distribution. If the mean, median, and
mode are approximately equal to each other, the distribution can be assumed to be
approximately symmetrical. If the mean > median > mode, the distribution will be
skewed to the right. If the mean < median < mode, the distribution will be skewed to the
left.

So in above case it follows the pattern of mean > median > mode. That means the
distribution will be positive skew. And the pattern it follows will be positive skewness or
right skewness.

(iii) As from the data given below it is clearly seen that the density and chlorides Are
somewhat normally distributed

As the data above shows the mean, mode and median of all the values differ hugely and
their SD lies above 0.10 so from the data above it is clearly visible the chlorides and
density are seems to have normally distributive.

From their mean, mode and median data it is clearly visible that the values are somewhat
closer to each other and their standard deviation seems below 0.10.

Ans: 3 (a)

Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with calculating the likelihood of a


given event's occurrence, which is expressed as a number between 1 and 0. An event with
a probability of 1 can be considered a certainty: for example, the probability of a coin toss
resulting in either "heads" or "tails" is 1, because there are no other options, assuming the
coin lands flat. An event with a probability of .5 can be considered to have equal odds of
occurring or not occurring: for example, the probability of a coin toss resulting in "heads"
is .5, because the toss is equally as likely to result in "tails." An event with a probability
of 0 can be considered an impossibility: for example, the probability that the coin will
land (flat) without either side facing up is 0, because either "heads" or "tails" must be
facing up. A little paradoxical, probability theory applies precise calculations to quantify
uncertain measures of random events.
If p = 0.6, q = 1 - 0.6 = 0.4,

Pn (k) = Cn (k) x p k x q {n-k}

Then the probability that the ruling party will win 0 rounds is:

P4 (0) = q4= 0.44 = 0.0256

The probability that the ruling party will win 1 round is:

P4 (1) = 4! / (1! x 3!) x 0.61 x 0.43 = 0.1536

The probability that the ruling party will win 2 rounds is:

P4 (2) = 4! / (2! x 2!) x 0.62 x 0.42 = 0.3456

The probability that the ruling party will win 3 rounds is:

P4 (3) = 4! / (3! x 1!) x 0.63 x 0.41 = 0.3456

The probability that the ruling party will win all 4 rounds is:

P4 (4) = 0.64 = 0.1296

Ans: 3 (b)

The probability that the ruling party will win at least 1 round is:

P (1, 2, 3, 4) = 1 - q4 = 1 - 0.64 = 0.9744.