Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

English phonology

1. Stages plosive consonant :


a. The closure the act of drawing together the two articulators in order to perform the
complete obstruction
b. The stoppage Period during checked which the outgoing air is checked so that it
can not pass out of the mouth
c. The realease that isthe act of separating the two articulators from each other so
suddenly that the air escapes with a plosive sound.
2. Phonemes in complemetary distribution :
a. Complementary distribution is when the phonemes never have a identical
environtment Ex: clear l and dark l. Clear l will always occurs in initial word before
vowel or y but dark l never found. The dark l will always occurs in final position
before consonants so they have a differrent environtment.so it call for coplemetary
distribution of phonemes

3. Assimilation and similitude :


a. Similitude: the schanges of the basic form of a phoneme into its allophonic variants
depending on the costiguous or adjacent sounds in the same word.. Or similitude
isthe condition when the phonemes or consonants have a similiar condition in
tongue postition, voicng/unvoiceing,and lip- position which have a chenges a basic
form of phoneme in allophonetic level
b. Assimilation: The process chanhging one phoneme into another phoneme as the
result of putting morphemes together.

4. Morphophonemic changes:
a. Ellision: dropping sounds takes places espcially because morphemes are juxtaposed
to each other and also because of their occurances in unstressed syllables or in rapid
speech. He is ( hi iz) z for is dropped, kindness d for kind dropped
b. Addition of sound: add the morphemes for each word and changes a sound contoh
solemn: solemnity, Hymn: hymnal
c. Vowel changes : caused shift of stressed. Apply : application Prefer: Preferences,
d. Shift of stress: shift of stress usually results in a change of a vowel quality Admire:
admireable, Prepare: Preparation
e. Dissimilation: base of morpheme may in some cases when a changes may be made
dissimiliar or different from. In and noble become n become g ignoble, n become g
ignominous
f. Synthesis : Two sounds belonging to different morphemes may be used or
synthesized into each other and become new sound. Act : Action, decide: decision,
proceed become Procedure.
g. Suppletion: when allomorph is completely different go becomes went, good become
went
5. Dark lateral and clear lateral
a. Clear l will always occurs in initial word before vowel or y but dark l never found. The
dark l will always occurs in final position before consonants so they have a differrent
environtment.so it call for coplemetary distribution of phonemes
b. Africative and fricative
i. Fricative : The way of production therough a whole of sound production but
it is not completely obstruct
ii. Africative : the way of production through a whole of sound production but
it is not release sudennly but releadse gradually
c. Regressive assimilation : in which the sound that undergoes the changes come
earlier in the word than the trigger of assimilation
d. Progreessive assimilation : the trigger come before the target