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EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR THE SAFETY OF AIR NAVIGATION

EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR THE SAFETY OF AIR NAVIGATION EUROCONTROL Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels DAP /

EUROCONTROL

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

DAP / APT

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1.1

Edition Date

:

09/11/05

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Released Issue

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Document Title

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

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1.1

EDITION DATE:

09/11/05

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Paul Adamson

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Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

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The following table identifies all management authorities that have successively approved the present issue of this document.

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A-SMGCS

Project Manager

Paul Adamson

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

DOCUMENT CHANGE RECORD

The following table records the complete history of the successive editions of the present document.

     

SECTIONS

EDITION

DATE

REASON FOR CHANGE

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0.g

18/10/2002

Internal review

all

0.h

28/11/2002

Consistency checking with D3

all

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04/08/2003

Consistency checking with D4

3.3.3

1.0

30/09/2003

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1.1

09/11/2005

Editorial changes

2.4

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 Scope of the document

1

1.2 Structure of the document

1

1.3 Reference Documents

1

1.4 Explanation of terms

2

2. METHODOLOGY FOR DEFINING IMPLEMENTATION LEVELS

8

2.1 Urgency of the operational need

8

2.2 Dependencies between A-SMGCS services

8

2.3 A-SMGCS Enablers Development

8

2.4 Airport and Users’ equipment

9

2.5 Cost

9

2.6 Types of airports

10

3. GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION LEVELS

13

3.1 Levels overview

13

3.2 Level I

14

3.3 Level II

15

3.4 Level III

15

3.5 Level IV

16

4. IMPLEMENTATION ROAD MAP

17

5. IMPLEMENTATION LEVELS BY TYPE OF AIRPORT

18

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Scope of the document

This document aims at defining the A-SMGCS implementation levels corresponding to the A-SMGCS project strategy exposed in [D1].

These Implementation Levels form a coherent series that :

Recognises operational needs;

Reflects the evolution of technologies and procedures;

Enables airports to equip according to local requirements.

The EUROCONTROL A-SMGCS project will focus on the A-SMGCS implementation level I and II through the Operational Concept & Requirements documents [D3] and [D4]. The levels III and IV, proposed in this document, address medium or long-term implementations of A-SMGCS and will be revisited when required.

Note: The present document contains a draft version of the implementation levels definition to support validation activity. The document will be updated according to the validation results.

1.2 Structure of the document

Introduction

Describes, in Chapter 1, the purpose of this document, its structure, and the reference documents.

Methodology for defining implementation levels

Chapter 2 provides the guidelines used to define the implementation levels.

General implementation levels

Chapter 3 proposes the general implementation levels.

Implementation Road Map

Provides, in Chapter 4, the time-frame for the implementation of each A-SMGCS function and level.

Implementation levels by type of airport

Provides, in Chapter 5, the A-SMGCS target in terms of implementation level for each type of airport.

1.3 Reference Documents

[D1]

A-SMGCS Project Strategy

[D3]

Operational Concept & Requirements for A-SMGCS Implementation

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

Level I

[D4]

Operational Concept & Requirements for A-SMGCS Implementation Level II

[ICAO-SMGCS]

ICAO Manual of Surface Movement Control and Guidance Systems (SMGCS) doc 9476-AN/927 First Edition 1986

[ICAO-A-SMGCS]

ICAO European Manual on Advanced Surface Movement Control and Guidance Systems (A-SMGCS) AOPG, Final Draft, Nov 2001

[ICAO-Annex14]

ICAO Annex 14, Volume I, Chapter 8

[AOS-Vol2]

EUROCONTROL Airport Operations Unit, AOP Strategy Volume 2,

[ICAO-4444]

Proposed Edition, Sept 2001 ICAO Doc 4444-RAC/501 RULES OF THE AIR AND AIR TRAFFIC

[ICAO-7030]

SERVICES ICAO Doc 7030- European Supplementary Procedures

[EUROCAE-MASP]

EUROCAE WG-41, MASPS for A-SMGCS, Edition ED-87A, January

2001

[AOPG-Procedures]

ICAO AOPG2, Proposed Implementation of A-SMGCS Procedures and amendments to ICAO Documentation, 2002

[AOP-Req]

EUROCONTROL Airport Operations Group, Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems Concept Justification and User Requirements, AOT/10 WP3, June 2002

[EC-BETA]

European Commission DG TREN, BETA Project – Review of Existing Concepts (DERA), Edition 1.0, February 2001

[EC-ATOPS]

European Commission DG TREN, ATOPS Final Report (DERA), Draft 0.3, September 2000

1.4 Explanation of terms

This section provides the explanation of terms required for a correct understanding of the present document. Most of the following explanations are drawn from the A- SMGCS manual [ICAO-A-SMGCS], the ICAO Annex 14 [ICAO-Annex14] or the EUROCAE MASPS for A-SMGCS [EUROCAE-MASP], in that case it is indicated in the definition. [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definitions are used as a first option. In general, other definitions are only used where there is no ICAO definition. If not, it is explained why another definition is preferred to the ICAO one.

Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS)

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

Systems providing routing, guidance, surveillance and control to aircraft and affected vehicles in order to maintain movement rates under all local weather conditions within the Aerodrome Visibility Operational Level (AVOL) whilst maintaining the required level of safety.

Aerodrome

[ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.

Aerodrome movement

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition addresses only aircraft movement, we extended the definition to all mobiles.

The movement of a mobile (aircraft or vehicle) on the movement area.

Aerodrome Visibility Operational Level (AVOL)

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

The minimum visibility at or above which the declared movement rate can be sustained.

Airport authority

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

The person(s) responsible for the operational management of the airport.

Alert

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

An indication of an existing or pending situation during aerodrome operations, or an indication of abnormal A-SMGCS operation, that requires attention/action.

Alert Situation

[EUROCAE-MASP] definition

Any situation relating to aerodrome operations which has been defined as requiring particular attention or action.

Apron

[ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

A defined area on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes

of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance.

A-SMGCS capacity

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

The maximum number of simultaneous movements of aircraft and vehicles that the system can safely support within an acceptable delay commensurate with the runway and taxiway capacity at a particular aerodrome.

Conflict

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

A situation when there is a possibility of a collision between aircraft and/or vehicles.

Control

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

Application of measures to prevent collisions, runway incursions and to ensure safe, expeditious and efficient movement.

Cooperative mobile

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

“Cooperative target” [EUROCAE-MASP] definition in which “target” is replaced by “mobile” (see mobile definition)

Mobile which is equipped with systems capable of automatically and continuously providing information including its Identity to the A-SMGCS.

Note : as several cooperative surveillance technologies exist, a mobile is cooperative on an aerodrome only if the mobile and the aerodrome are equipped with cooperative surveillance technologies which are interoperable.

Cooperative surveillance

The surveillance of mobiles is cooperative when a sensor, named cooperative surveillance sensor, collects information about the mobiles from an active element of the transponder type which equips the mobiles. This technique allows to collect more mobile parameters than the non-cooperative surveillance, for instance the mobiles identity.

The cooperative surveillance may be :

Either dependant on the cooperative mobile, when the mobile automatically generates the information and transmits it to the surveillance sensor, for instance via ADS-B;

Or Non-dependant on the cooperative mobile, when the mobile is interrogated by the surveillance sensor, for instance Mode S Multilateration.

Data Fusion

[EUROCAE-MASP] definition

A generic term used to describe the process of combining surveillance information

from two or more sensor systems or sources.

False Alert

[EUROCAE-MASP] definition

Alert which does not correspond to an actual alert situation.

Note : It is important to understand that it refers only to false alerts and does not address nuisance alerts (i.e. alerts which are correctly generated according to the rule set but are inappropriate to the desired outcome).

Guidance

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

Facilities, information and advice necessary to provide continuous, unambiguous and reliable information to pilots of aircraft and drivers of vehicles to keep their aircraft or vehicles on the surfaces and assigned routes intended for their use.

Identification

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

The correlation of a known aerodrome movement callsign with the displayed target

of that mobile on the display of the surveillance system.

Identity

“Aircraft identification” [ICAO-4444] definition extended to all mobiles.

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

A group of letters, figures or a combination thereof which is either identical to, or the

coded equivalent of, the mobile call sign to be used in air-ground communications, and which is used to identify the mobile in ground-ground air traffic services communications.

Incursion

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

The unauthorized entry by an aircraft, vehicle or obstacle into the defined protected areas surrounding an active runway, taxiway or apron.

Intruder

Any mobile which is detected in a specific airport area into which it is not allowed to enter.

Manoeuvring area

[ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons.

Mobile

A mobile is either an aircraft or a vehicle.

Note : when referring to an aircraft or a vehicle, and not another obstacle, the term “Mobile” will be preferred to “Target”. The term “Target” will only be used when considering an image of a mobile or other obstacle displayed on a surveillance screen.

Modularity

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

Capability of a system to be enhanced by the addition of one or more modules to improve its technical or functional performance.

Movement area

[ICAO-Annex14] , [ICAO-4444] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and apron(s).

Non-Cooperative mobile

“Non-cooperative target” [EUROCAE-MASP] definition in which “target” is replaced by “mobile” (see mobile definition)

Mobile which is not equipped with systems capable of automatically and continuously providing information including its Identity to the A-SMGCS.

Non-Cooperative surveillance

The surveillance of mobiles is non-cooperative when a sensor, named non- cooperative surveillance sensor, detects the mobiles, without any action on their behalf. This technique allows to determine the position of any mobile in the surveillance area and in particular to detect intruders. Examples of non-cooperative surveillance sensors are the Primary Surveillance Radars.

Normal Visibility

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

Visibility conditions sufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance (correspond to visibility condition 1 defined by ICAO [ICAO-A-SMGCS]).

Nuisance Alert

[EUROCAE-MASP] definition

Alert which is correctly generated according to the rule set but are inappropriate to the desired outcome.

Obstacle

[ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition extended to all mobiles.

All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile obstacles, or parts thereof, that are located on an area intended for the surface movement of mobiles or that extend above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight.

Participating mobile

Mobile whose identity is known by the aerodrome authority, and likely to move on airport movement areas. As illustrated in the Figure 1-1, a participating mobile is either cooperative or non-cooperative.

ALL MOBILES

PARTICIPATING MOBILES INTRUDERS Cooperative mobiles Non cooperative mobiles
PARTICIPATING
MOBILES
INTRUDERS
Cooperative
mobiles
Non cooperative
mobiles

Figure 1-1 : Types of Mobiles

Protection area

A protection area is a virtual volume around a runway, a restricted area or a mobile. This protection area is used to detect an alert situation. For instance, an alert situation is detected when a mobile is on a runway and one or more mobiles enter the runway protection area.

Reduced Visibility

Visibility conditions insufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance (correspond to visibility conditions 2, 3, and 4 defined by ICAO [ICAO-A-SMGCS]).

Restricted Area

Aerodrome area where the presence of an aircraft or a vehicle is permanently or temporarily forbidden.

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

Route

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

A track from a defined start point to a defined endpoint on the movement area.

Routing

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

The planning and assignment of a route to individual aircraft and vehicles to provide safe, expeditious and efficient movement from its current position to its intended position.

Runway Incursion

EUROCONTROL Runway Incursion Task Force definition

The unintended presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the runway or runway strip.

Stand

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

A stand is a designated area on an apron intended to be used for the parking of an

aircraft.

Surveillance

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition

A function of the system which provides identification and accurate positional information on aircraft, vehicles and obstacles within the required area.

Target

[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition (this definition has been preferred to the [EUROCAE-MASP] definition)

An aircraft, vehicle or other obstacle, which image is displayed on a surveillance display.

Note : when referring to an aircraft or a vehicle, and not another obstacle, the term “Mobile” will be preferred to “Target”. The term “Target” will only be used when considering an image of a mobile or other obstacle displayed on a surveillance screen.

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

2.

METHODOLOGY FOR DEFINING IMPLEMENTATION LEVELS

This section defines the criteria used to determine the different implementation levels.

Each implementation level consists in a package of services that have been introduced in [D1] : surveillance, Control, guidance, route planning.

2.1

Urgency of the operational need

The first criteria for implementing A-SMGCS is the operational need. The services that address urgent operational needs should be implemented first. This means that services like surveillance and Control, have priority on route planning, which serves the efficiency of ground movements.

2.2

Dependencies between A-SMGCS services

The dependencies between the A-SMGCS services will also have to be taken into account. For instance, the surveillance service is a pre-requisite for implementing the Control service.

Surveillance Traffic situation Route Conflict resolutions Assigned routes Control Guidance planning
Surveillance
Traffic
situation
Route
Conflict resolutions
Assigned routes
Control
Guidance
planning

Figure 2-1 : Dependencies between A-SMGCS services

2.3

A-SMGCS Enablers Development

The implementation of each service of the A-SMGCS will be a gradual following of the developments in procedures, technologies. A recognised issue for

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

implementation of the Control service is the false alarms that interfere with controller operations. The difficulty is to define accurately the alarm situations in all operations cases. It does not seem feasible to directly implement an Control service detecting any hazardous situation.

Consequently, in order to reduce the false alarms, a Control service may first only detect easiest or most dangerous alarm situations, and progressively be completed with other alarm situations when they are well understood. For instance such a tool may be first developed to detect basic runway incursions and later to deal with more complex situations or less critical hazardous situations (e.g. entry of non-authorised vehicle in the manoeuvring area).

2.4 Airport and Users’ equipment

The implementation levels must take into account that the airport or users may be equipped or not with enabler systems. As a consequence, transition periods have to be envisaged where A-SMGCS services will be fulfilled by mixed equipage. There may be a variety of technologies that could be used to meet the requirements of A- SMGCS, some examples of which are mentioned below.

One of the main implementation issues is the choice of the sensor used to retrieve surveillance data. In order to cope with any mobile in the movement area a non- cooperative sensor is needed. This non-cooperative sensor should provide a global coverage. Consequently, it cannot only rely on means like induction or magnetic loops, near-range radar or optical cells that cover specific and reduced areas. In order to provide an all-weather capability, the non-cooperative sensor should also rely on means unaffected by fog or rain. In taking into account the existing technology, the all-weather requirement points to the use of a Surface Movement Radar (SMR). However, other technologies meeting these requirements should not be excluded.

This SMR is nevertheless a primary radar and thus not able to provide an identification of the detected targets. In order to provide an automated labelling system, to monitor automatically entry of authorised vehicles onto restricted areas or to detect any intruder, the SMR should be complemented with a cooperative sensor.

The choice of a cooperative sensor depends on the type of mobile to be identified. On the one hand, the sensor dealing with aircraft should be the same for each airport in order to provide inter-compatibility. Furthermore, its price has to be affordable as airlines do not want to incur additional avionics costs without a proven benefit. In the short term period, those requirements refer to the Mode S transponder as this equipment presents the advantage of already being part of the commercial aircraft standard avionics. However, there may also be other technical solutions the can be considered.

On the other hand, the airport sensor choice for ground vehicles surveillance could be left to the initiative of the airport authorities since it will have an impact on a limited number of airport vehicles.

2.5 Cost

The costs of the systems will drive the choice of the type of A-SMGCS to be implemented. This choice will be local depending on each airport implementation :

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

A-SMGCS services chosen, number of mobiles to be equipped… Then, according to the A-SMGCS cost category (low / medium / high) targeted in each local implementation, the choice of the suitable A-SMGCS technologies will be performed.

2.6 Types of airports

As explained by ICAO in Appendix A of the A-SMGCS manual [ICAO-A-SMGCS], to provide guidance on the level of A-SMGCS appropriate to a specific aerodrome it is necessary to consider :

Visibility conditions ;

Traffic density ;

Aerodrome layout.

2.6.1 Visibility conditions

If the airport operations take place in all visibility conditions, an A-SMGCS will improve the safety and maintain the runway throughput in low visibility conditions, as explained in the strategy document [D1]. Consequently, the number of low visibility days per year is a key factor in determining the level of A-SMGCS to implement in an airport. An airport with no low visibility conditions does not need the same type A- SMGCS level as an airport with a substantial number of days of fog for instance.

ICAO defined 4 levels of visibility conditions in the A-SMGCS manual:

Condition 1: Visibility sufficient for the pilot to taxi and to avoid collision with other traffic on taxiways and at intersections by visual reference, and for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance ;

Condition 2 : Visibility sufficient for the pilot to taxi and to avoid collision with other traffic on taxiways and at intersections by visual reference, but insufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance ;

Condition 3 : Visibility sufficient for the pilot to taxi but insufficient for the pilot to avoid collision with other traffic on taxiways and at intersections by visual reference with other traffic, and insufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance. For taxiing this is normally taken as visibilities equivalent to a RVR less than 400 m but more than 75 m;

Condition 4 : Visibility insufficient for the pilot to taxi by visual guidance only. This is normally taken as a RVR of 75 m or less.

In order to simplify, we consider that visibility conditions 3 and 4 represent low visibility conditions and that an aerodrome is affected by low visibility conditions when conditions 3 and 4 are met during more than 15 days per year.

2.6.2 Traffic density

The second criteria by which an airport can be characterised is the structure and level of the traffic movements. ICAO defined 3 airport categories light / medium / heavy by the traffic density which takes into account the mean peak hour :

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

Light traffic which is characterised by a peak not greater than 15 take-offs or landings per runway or typically less than 20 total aerodrome movements;

Medium traffic which is characterised by a peak comprised between 16 to 25 take-offs or landings per runway or typically between 20 to 35 total aerodrome movements;

Heavy traffic which is characterised by a peak of 26 or more take-offs or landings per runway or typically more than 35 total aerodrome movements.

The traffic density parameter could be complemented by the notion of the annual number of movements. This figure is useful to establish a ranking among airports. Above a certain threshold one can consider that the traffic management requires specific tools to achieve an efficient use of the nominal airport capacity. According to ICAO traffic density and ATC experience, we could define two thresholds to distinguish the light / medium / heavy airports, as follows :

First threshold light / medium : between 40 000 and 60 000 movements per year

Second threshold medium / heavy : between 140 000 and 160 000 movements per year

For instance, an airport with 100 000 movements per year is between both categories. It should be noticed that this notion is compatible with the ICAO traffic density categories.

Another aspect is the mix of arriving and departing movements on the airport that means crossing flows of aircraft going to and from different aprons or parking areas. This situation increases the risks of conflict on the airport. It could also be noticed that there is a strong correlation with the weather conditions which increase the size of the problem as they worsen to the limit of VFR operation.

In adverse weather conditions such as low visibility, the surface traffic on the aforementioned airports is further reduced by the absence of VFR flights. Therefore the tower controllers are able to focus their concentration on the guidance of the mobiles.

2.6.3 Aerodrome layout

A complex airport layout requires close attention from the air traffic controllers and from the pilots and vehicle drivers. In particular in adverse weather conditions the complexity of an airport can provoke high stress situations for the tower controllers and can lead to misinterpretations and false estimations by pilots and drivers.

ICAO defined 3 categories of aerodrome layout basic, simple, complex :

Basic : An aerodrome with one runway and one taxiway to one apron area;

Simple : An aerodrome with one runway, having more than one taxiway to one or more apron areas;

Complex : An aerodrome with more than one runway, having many taxiways to one or more apron areas.

Some other parameters could also make a layout complex :

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

an airport has a taxiway system with a great number of apron intersections. Especially in bad weather conditions, a false estimation by pilots or drivers is possible and likely to occur;

a taxiway has to be shared by landing and departing aircraft or by aircraft and vehicles at the same time. These situations occur when the airport has an adverse location with reference to the runway.

All the above parameters help to define a complex layout that is important to consider in order to determine the A-SMGCS level for a given airport, as proposed in the last section of the present document.

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

3.

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION LEVELS

3.1

Levels overview

A-SMGCS should be evolutionary implemented through successive levels of implementation. These implementation levels form a coherent series that match with the criteria exposed in section 1.4. The main concerns of the levels I and II rely on the improvements of safety, whereas the ground movements efficiency is dealt with in levels III and IV.

On the basis of the SMGCS provisions defined by ICAO [ICAO-SMGCS], and which could be considered as the level 0 (pre-requisite).

The following table shows the proposed levels for A-SMGCS implementation. Each level is further explained in the following sections. These levels are only a proposal according to the present state of the art and are subject to changes in the future.

 

Surveillance

 

Control

Route

 

Guidance

 

Levels

 

Planning

 

Users

Mobiles and areas covered

Users

Conflicts

Users

Users

 

Type

 

detected

 

0

 

Strict application of SMGCS

 
 

Surveillance

       
 

Controller

All vehicles in the manoeuvring area

All

aircraft

in

the

movement area

II

           
 

Controller

All vehicles in the manoeuvring area

Control

 

Guidance

Controller

RWY

Drivers

Airport Static

Map

&

mobile

All

aircraft

in

the

incursions

position on a screen as an option

movement area

III

           
 

Controller

All vehicles in the manoeuvring area

Controller

All conflicts

Route

Pilots

Airport Dynamic Map (with

All

Equipped

Planning

Drivers

runway status,…), mobile position on a screen

   

participating

All

aircraft

in

the

mobiles

Controller

   

mobiles

movement area

Automatic

switch

of

ground

 

signals

IV

           
 

Controller

All vehicles in the manoeuvring area

Controller

All conflicts + Conflict Resolution

Controller

Pilots

Airport Dynamic Map (with runway status,…), mobile position & route from route planning function on a screen

All

All

Equipped

Drivers

participating

All

aircraft

in

the

participating

 

mobiles

mobiles

movement area

mobiles

 
 

Automatic

switch

of

ground

signals

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

3.2 Level I

The implementation level I corresponds to the shorter step in terms of urgency, technology and cost.

3.2.1 Surveillance

At the first level, the ATCO will be assisted by a surveillance service which completes its visual observation by displaying on a screen :

The airport traffic context (Airport layout,…);

Position of all vehicles in the manoeuvring area;

Position of all aircraft in the movement Area;

Identity of all aircraft in the movement Area;

Identity of all cooperative vehicles.

Since ATC is responsible for the manoeuvring area, the surveillance service should cover all mobiles on this area. In the same way, the surveillance service should also cover aircraft in the apron area as controllers deliver push-back clearances when aircraft are on the apron area. At level I, aircraft and vehicles are expected to be cooperative, so the surveillance service will automatically provide their identity.

However, it should also be possible for ATC to cope with a VERY limited number of non-cooperative mobiles (grass cutting vehicle, aircraft with transponder out of service). These non-cooperative mobiles will not be labelled.

3.2.2 Guidance

The A-SMGCS level I will focus on the surveillance function. No new guidance function is foreseen at this level. The guidance will continue to be performed as in the current SMGCS.

3.2.3 Route Planning

The route planning function requires first the implementation of a planning function which is not yet operational, is more beneficial for movement efficiency than safety, and only concerns airports with a complex layout. Consequently, we do not foresee this function to be implemented in levels I and II of A-SMGCS.

3.2.4 Control

As reported from several airfields, the detection of runway incursion conflict is a particularly difficult issue to tackle. In particular, it requires an accurate definition of the conflict cases and the associated operational procedures or working methods. False alerts should be reduced to provide the controller with the necessary confidence in such automated support. Moreover, the Control service, as explained in [EUROCAE-MASP], requires technical performances that may not be delivered by the technology implemented in Level I surveillance.

For all the above reasons, the Control function will only be implemented at Level II.

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

3.3 Level II

The implementation of Level II consists in the improvement of Level I existing functions and in the introduction of the Control and guidance functions.

3.3.1 Surveillance

At level II, it is not envisaged to extend the provision of the surveillance function to pilots and drivers because the required technologies such as ADS-B / TIS-B will not yet be thoroughly available. As a consequence, the surveillance function will be the same at levels I and II.

3.3.2 Control

A initial Control function dedicated to runway incursion alerting, taking benefit of the

harmonisation of local working methods (multiple line-ups, conditional clearances, etc.) in major airports, will be introduced. The function will not detect all runway conflicts, but only the more hazardous (runway incursion) and will alert controllers in due time.

3.3.3 Guidance

A guidance service, already available for cars, may be easily implemented on-board

the vehicles. This technology consists in an airport map showing taxiways, runways, obstacles and the mobile position given by GNSS. With this system, driver could visualise his position and his destination on a display. This may reduce navigation mistakes which occur in low visibility conditions. At this level, this guidance service will be provided to vehicle drivers as an option.

3.3.4 Route Planning

The route planning function requires first the implementation of a planning function which will not exist at this level. Consequently, this function will not be implemented

at this level.

3.4 Level III

Level III consist in the level II functions complemented with the sharing of traffic situation awareness amongst pilots and drivers and the introduction of the automated routing function.

3.4.1 Surveillance

At this level, the surveillance function provided to the controller at the level II will be delivered to and shared with other users : pilots and drivers. This function requires the implementation of technologies such as ADS-B / TIS-B to transmit the traffic information to pilots and drivers. All participating mobiles will be required to be co- operative in order to automatically provide the mobile identity on the users displays. At this level, a non-cooperative sensor will still be necessary in order to detect intruders.

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

3.4.2 Control

On the basis of the Level IIII surveillance function, the Control function will be able to detect any conflict concerning mobiles on the movement area. The alarms will be provided to the controller as in Level II but also to pilots and drivers. The conflict detection information should be customised depending on the users (controllers, vehicle drivers, aircrew).

3.4.3 Guidance

The guidance function implemented at the level II, may be improved by :

Display of the airport map showing taxiways, runways, obstacles and the mobile position to aircrew and drivers;

providing dynamic map with updates of the runway status for instance, through the use of technology like TIS-B;

triggering automatically the dynamic ground signs (stop bars, centreline lights,…) according to the route issued by the controller.

3.4.4 Route Planning

On the basis of a planning function which should be implemented first, the route planning function shall determine the best route to users. The best route is calculated by minimising the delay according to planning, ground rules and potential conflict with other mobiles. This function will address airports with a complex layout. This function will be provided to controllers only, who will issue ATC clearance to pilot / drivers.

3.5 Level IV

The implementation level IV corresponds to the improvement of the functions implemented at the level III.

3.5.1 Surveillance

At this level, the surveillance function will be the same as in level III.

3.5.2 Control

The Control function will be provided to controllers, pilots and drivers in the

conflict

movement

resolution function.

area.

Moreover,

the

function

will

be

complemented

by

a

3.5.3 Route Planning

The route planning function will be extended to equipped mobiles. This implies that the route proposed by the route planning function and validated by controllers will be down-linked to pilots and drivers.

3.5.4 Guidance

The guidance function will be the same as the level III one.

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

4. IMPLEMENTATION ROAD MAP

The following table shows the timeframe foreseen for the implementation of the 4 A- SMGCS levels as well as the associated introduction of surveillance, control, route planning and guidance services.

For instance, the Control function will be introduced at the level II and then further elaborated .

2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14
2000
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
Start
Levels
I
II
III
IV
Surveillance
Control
Route planning
Guidance

Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels

5. IMPLEMENTATION LEVELS BY TYPE OF AIRPORT

The need for implementing A-SMGCS on a given airport results from a trade-off between the cost of the equipment and the probability of runway incursion which depends on the following airport characteristics : traffic movements, all weather operation categories and airport complexity.

This is clearly underlined by the current European situation, where few airports have SMGCS capabilities although a number of them have encountered runways incursions. When questioned about this situation, the ATM stakeholders reply is that the main impediment in equipping airports with SMGCS is the cost of the system.

Defining a strategy for a European A-SMGCS implementation leads to the definitions of A-SMGCS categories (low, medium, high costs) and airport typologies (mid size airport, high size airports).

This section proposes the level of A-SMGCS implementation targeted for each type of airport in terms of cost and functions. In order to implement a targeted level, each airport may start by implementing an A-SMGCS level I and progressively upgrade the system to the targeted level.

Note : the table below is an indication of A-SMGCS levels which airports of different types may target. It will need to be updated to reflect evolutions observed during A- SMGCS implementation.

Airport type

A-SMGCS

Surveillance

Control

Route

Guidance

cost

Planning

Light

No (full)

partly

partly

-

-

A-SMGCS

Medium

Low cost

I / II

 

II -

II

Medium with complex layout or more than 15 low visibility days

Medium

I / II

 

III III

III

cost

Heavy

High cost

III / IV

 

IV IV

IV

Table 1 : A-SMGCS levels by type of airport