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Starting Simulink

Model Files

Basic Elements

Running Simulations

Building Systems

simulation of systems.

Many elements of block diagrams are available, such as transfer

functions, summing junctions, etc., as well as virtual input and

output devices such as function generators and oscilloscopes.

transfered between the programs.

environments; and is included in the student version of MATLAB

for personal computers

1

STARTING SIMULINK

Simulink is started from the MATLAB command prompt

>> Simulink

Alternatively, you can hit the New Simulink Model button at the

top of the MATLAB command window

which a new model can be drawn.

2

MODEL FILES

In Simulink, a model is a collection of blocks which, in general,

represents a system.

previously saved model files can be loaded either from the File

menu or from the MATLAB command prompt.

Example:

simple.mdl

The following model window should appear.

3

BASIC ELEMENTS

There are two major classes of items in Simulink: blocks and

lines.

signals. Lines are used to transfer signals from one block to

another.

Blocks

There are several general classes of blocks:

• Sinks: Used to output or display signals

• Discrete: Linear, discrete-time system elements (transfer

functions, state-space models, etc.)

• Linear: Linear, continuous-time system elements and

connections (summing junctions, gains, etc.)

• Nonlinear: Nonlinear operators (arbitrary functions,

saturation, delay, etc.)

• Connections: Multiplex, Demultiplex, System Macros, etc.

Lines

Lines transmit signals in the direction indicated by the arrow.

Lines must always transmit signals from the output terminal of

one block to the input terminal of another block.

One exception to this is a line can tap off of another line, splitting

the signal to each of two destination blocks, as shown below

4

Lines can never inject a signal into another line; lines must be

combined through the use of a block such as a summing junction.

Simple Example

and Scope.

originates.

modifies its input signal and outputs a new signal.

oscilloscope.

5

MODIFYING BLOCKS

A block can be modified by double-clicking on it.

This dialog box contains fields for the numerator and the

denominator of the block's transfer function.

numerator or denominator polynomial, the desired transfer

function can be entered.

following into the denominator field: [1 2 1]

6

The "step" block can also be double-clicked, bringing up the

following dialog box.

occurring at time =1 s, from an initial level of zero to a level of 1.

Double clicking on this brings up a blank oscilloscope screen.

7

When a simulation is performed, the signal which feeds into the

scope will be displayed in this window. Use of the autoscale

button, which appears as a pair of binoculars.

8

RUNNING SIMULATIONS

To run a simulation, we will work with the following model file:

simple2.mdl

window by double-clicking on the scope block.

Simulation menu

The simulation should run very quickly and the scope window

will appear.

9

Note that the simulation output (shown in yellow) is at a very low

level relative to the axes of the scope. To fix this, hit the autoscale

button (binoculars)

model window, select Parameters from the Simulation menu.

You will see the following dialog box.

10

There are many simulation parameter options; we will only be

concerned with the start and stop times, which tell Simulink over

what time period to perform the simulation. Change Start time

from 0.0 to 0.. Change Stop time from 10.0 to 2.0, which should

be only shortly after the system settles.

.

11

BUILDING SYSTEMS

Learn how to build systems in Simulink using the building blocks

in Simulink's Block Libraries.

desired model

12

Gathering Blocks

Create a new model (New from the File menu or Ctrl-N).

window.

13

Drag the the Sum, Gain, and two instances of the Transfer Fcn

(drag it two times) and a Sink into your model window

14

Modifying Blocks

Follow these steps to properly modify the blocks in your model.

• Modify the Gain block. Change the gain to 2.5.

• Modify the left-most Transfer Function block. Change the

numerator to [1 2] and the denominator to [1 0].

• Modify the rightmost Transfer Function block. Leave the

numerator [1], but change the denominator to [1 2 4].

Controller", and the name of the second Transfer Function

block to "Plant".

15

Connecting Blocks with Lines

Now that the blocks are properly laid out, connect them together.

connecting the output of the Plant to the negative input of the

Sum block

signals. To place a label anywhere in your model, double click

at the point you want the label to be.

16

To save the model, select Save As in the File menu and type in

any desired model name.

Simulation

Now that the model is complete, you can simulate the model.

Select Start from the Simulation menu to run the simulation.

Double-click on the Scope block to view its output.

17

Taking Variables from MATLAB

In some cases, parameters may be calculated in MATLAB to be

used in a Simulink model. If this is the case, it is not necessary to

enter the result of the MATLAB calculation directly into

Simulink.

variable K

>> K=2.5

Re-run the simulation and view the output on the Scope. The

result should be the same as before.

18

Now, if any calculations are done in MATLAB to change any of

the variables used in the Simulink model, the simulation will use

the new values the next time it is run.

>> K=5

19

Simulink Modeling Tutorial

In Simulink, it is very straightforward to represent a physical

system or a model. In general, a dynamic system can be

constructed from just basic physical laws. We will demonstrate

through an example.

Train system

In this example, we will consider a toy train consisting of an

engine and a car. Assuming that the train only travels in one

direction, we want to apply control to the train so that it has a

smooth start-up and stop, along with a constant-speed ride.

The mass of the engine and the car will be represented by M1 and

M2, respectively. The two are held together by a spring, which

has the stiffness coefficient of k. F represents the force applied by

the engine, and the Greek letter, mu (which will also be

represented by the letter u), represents the coefficient of rolling

friction.

20

Free body diagram and Newton's law

The system can be represented by following Free Body Diagrams.

From Newton's law, you know that the sum of forces acting on a

mass equals the mass times its acceleration.

In this case, the forces acting on M1 are the spring, the friction

and the force applied by the engine. The forces acting on M2 are

the spring and the friction.

Sum(forces_on_M1)=M1*x1''

Sum(forces_on_M2)=M1*x2''

First, we will construct two copies (one for each mass) of the

expressions

a=x’’=1/M*sum_F.

21

The outputs of these gain blocks are the accelerations of each of

the masses.

masses. Since velocity is the integral of acceleration, and position

is the integral of velocity, we can generate these signals using

integrator blocks.

22

Now, drag two Scopes from the Sinks library into your model and

connect them to the outputs of these integrators. Label them

"View_x1" and "View_x2".

Now we are ready to add in the forces acting on each mass. First,

you need to adjust the inputs on each Sum block to represent the

proper number.

23

The first force acting on M1 is just the input force, F.

equal to:

F_friction_1=mu*g*M1*v1

24

The last force acting on M1 is the spring force between masses.

This is equal to:

F_spring = k*(x1-x2)

First, we need to generate (x1-x2). Since this summation comes

from right to left, we need to flip the block around. Select the bloc

by single-clicking on it and select Flip from the Format menu

25

Now, we can apply forces to M2. For the first force, we will use

the same spring force we just generated, except that it adds in

with positive sign.

The last force to add in the the friction on M2. This is done in the

exact same manner as the friction on M1, tapping off v2,

multiplying by a gain of mu*g*M2

26

Now the model is complete. We simply need to supply the proper

input and view the proper output. The input of the system will be

the force, F, provided by the engine. We already have placed the

function generator at the input. The output of the system will be

the velocity of the engine.

Before running the model, we need to assign numerical values to

each of the variables used in the model. Create an new m-file and

enter the following commands.

M1=1;

M2=0.5;

k=1;

F=1;

mu=0.002;

g=9.8;

recognize MATLAB variables for use in the model.

click on the function generator (F block). Select a square wave

27

with frequency .001Hz and amplitude -1 (positive amplitude steps

negative before stepping positive).

appropriate simulation time. To view one cycle of the .001Hz

square wave, we should simulate for 1000 seconds. Select

Parameters from the Simulation menu Now, run the simulation

and open the View_v1 scope

28

Simulink Basics Tutorial - Block Libraries

Sources

Sinks

Discrete

Linear

Nonlinear

Connections

can be built. These blocks are arranged in Block Libraries which

are accessed in the main Simulink window.

bring up the corresponding block library. Blocks in each library

can then be dragged into a model window to build a model.

29

SOURCES

Source Blocks are used to generate signals. Double-click on the

Sources icon in the main Simulink window to bring up the

Sources window.

Notice that all of the source blocks have a single output and no

inputs. While parameters in each of these blocks in the library can

be modified by double-clicking the block, it is best to not modify

the blocks until they have been copied into a model window.

30

Constant

The Constant Source Block simply generates a constant signal.

The constant output value is displayed in the middle of the block,

with a default value of 1.

your model window to bring up the following dialog box.

Change the constant value field from 1 to some other value, say,

5, and close the dialog box. Your model window will reflect the

update by displaying a 5 in the middle of the constant block.

31

Signal Generator

The Signal Generator Source Block is a general-purpose source

which encompasses some of the other blocks' functions. It

generates periodic waveforms such as sine, square, and saw-tooth

waves as well as a random signal.

amplitude of 1 and a frequency of 1 Hz. To change this, double-

click the Signal Generator in your model window to bring up the

following dialog box.

32

The Amplitude and Frequency can be changed in this dialog box,

as well as the type of waveform. To change the waveform, click

on the Waveform field to bring up a list of possible waveforms.

Ramp

The Ramp Source Block generates a signal which is initially

constant and begins to increase (or decrease) at a constant rate at a

specified time. The slope, start time, and initial output can be

specified.

Sine Wave

The Sine Wave Source Block generates a sinusoidal signal. The

Amplitude and Frequency can be specified, as well as the Phase

(unlike the Signal Generator). There is a fourth parameter, the

Sample Time, which can be used to force the Sine Wave Source

to operate in discrete-time mode (more about Discrete Time

systems in Simulink later.)

Step

As described earlier, the Step Source Block generates a step

function. The initial and final values can be specified, as well as

the step time.

33

Chirp Signal

The Chirp Signal Source Block generates a sinusoidal signal

which scans over a range of frequencies. The initial and final

frequencies as well as the scan time can be specified. The

amplitude is always 1, and the chirp signal repeats itself after each

frequency scan.

Pulse Generator

The Pulse Generator Source Block generates a pulse train of

varying duty cycle. The signal switches between 0 and the

specified value starting at a particular time. The Period, Duty

Cycle, Amplitude, and Start Time can be specified.

Repeating Sequence

An arbitrary set of points (t,y) can be specified. These points are

entered as a vector specifying the time values, and a vector

specifying the corresponding output values at those times. The

output is linearly interpolated between the specified time values.

At the last time value, the output immediately starts over, possibly

with a discontinuous transition.

Clock

The Clock Source Block generates a signal equal to the current

time in the simulation. This is useful when the output of a

simulation is exported to MATLAB but occurs at uneven time

steps. The clock's output reflects the times at which the other

signals outputs occur.

Digital Clock

The Digital Clock Source Block generates a strictly periodic time

signal at a specified sampling interval.

34

From File

The From File Source Block outputs a signal taken from a

specified .mat file. A matrix saved in MATLAB as a .mat file will

become a signal where the first row of the matrix specifies the

time values. This is similar to the Repeating Sequence Source

Block.

From Workspace

The From Workspace Source Block is identical to the From File

Source Block except the values are taken from a variable (or

expression) in the MATLAB Workspace.

Random Number

The Random Number Source Block generates a sequence of

random numbers generated with the specified random number

seed. Because of the seed, the same sequence can be applied to

more than one simulation.

The Band-Limited White Noise Source Block generates a random

signal which changes at a specified sample period. The strength of

the signal and a random number seed can also be specified.

35

SINKS

Sink Blocks are used to display or output signals.

Notice that all of the sink blocks have inputs and no outputs. Most

have a single input.

Scope

The Scope Sink Block was described earlier. It is used to display

a signal as a function of time.

XY Graph

The XY Graph Sink Block plots one signal against another. It is

useful for phase-plane plots, etc.

36

Display

The Display Sink Block is a digital readout of a signal at the

current simulation time.

To File

The To File Sink Block saves a signal to a .mat file in the same

way that the From File Source Block reads from a file. The

sampling time can be specified, but is not necessary.

To Workspace

The To Workspace Sink Block stores a signal in a specified

workspace variable. Unlike the To File Sink Block, the time is not

saved in the variable, and must be stored separately.

Stop Simulation

This is a special control block which is triggered to stop the

current simulation when its input is non-zero.

37

DISCRETE

Discrete Blocks are elements of discrete time dynamic systems.

Double-click on the Discrete icon in the main Simulink window

to bring up the Discrete window.

(sources and sinks, for example) the sample time can be specified

in all of the Discrete Blocks.

Unit Delay

The Unit Delay's output is equal to the input delayed by one

sample time.

38

Discrete-Time Integrator

This is the discrete time approximation of a continuous-time

integrator. The approximation method can be specified as well as

the initial condition and saturation limits.

Zero-Order Hold

Outputs a stepwise-constant version of the input signal with a

specified sampling period.

First-Order Hold

Outputs a piecewise-linear version of the input signal with a

specified sampling period.

Discrete State-Space

This is a discrete-time dynamic system in state-space form. A, B,

C, and D matrices can be specified, as well as initial conditions.

Discrete Filter

This is a discrete-time filter in rational function form. Vectors

containing coefficients of the polynomials in z^-1 are specified.

This is the standard form of a SISO LTI discrete time system. The

transfer function polynomials are represented as coefficient

vectors in terms of z.

Discrete Zero-Pole

A discrete-time transfer function can be represented as list of z-

plane poles and zeros. The gain can also be specified.

39

LINEAR

Linear Blocks are elements of linear continuous-time dynamic

systems

Gain

This is a scalar or vector gain. The specified gain multiplies the

input. The output is either a scalar or vector signal following

normal vector-scalar multiplication rules.

Sum

The Sum Block adds (or subtracts) two (or more) signals and

outputs their sum (or difference). The two inputs must either all

be scalars, or all be vectors of the same dimension. The output is

the same dimension as the inputs.

40

By default, the Sum block adds two signals. The list of signs field

represents both the number of inputs and whether to add or

subtract them. To make the Sum block add two signals and

subtract a third, change the list of signs to the following:

++-

Each element in the list corresponds to one of the signals. Close

the dialog box. The Sum block in your model window should now

have three inputs, one of which has a minus sign as shown below.

Integrator

The output of the Integrator is the integral of the input. An initial

condition can be specified, as well as saturation limits. This block

is very useful for modeling systems.

Transfer Function

Numerator and denominator polynomials can be specified to

create a standard SISO LTI system transfer function.

41

State Space

A, B, C, and D matrices can be specified to create a LTI state

space system. Inputs and outputs may be vector signals depending

on the sizes of the matrices.

Zero-Pole

Vector lists of zeros and poles can be specified to create a transfer

function. DC gain is also specified.

Derivative

The output is equal to the derivative of the input.

Dot Product

The output is equal to the dot product of two vector signals.

Matrix Gain

The output is equal to the input times a specified constant matrix.

The size of the input and output vector signals must match the

size of the matrix.

Slider Gain

This multiplies the input by a scalar constant which is specified

by moving a slider on the screen as shown below. The limits of

the slider can be specified.

42

NONLINEAR

Nonlinear Blocks are elements of nonlinear continuous-time

dynamic systems. Most of these have special-purpose applications

and will not be used in the tutorials. Only the most relevant

Nonlinear blocks will be discussed here. Double-click on the

Nonlinear icon in the main Simulink window to bring up the

Nonlinear window.

43

Elementary Math

The output of this block is a basic mathematical function applied

to the input. Copy this block into your model window and double

click on it. The resulting dialog box has one field, which when

clicked on, give the following menu of functions.

The desired function can be selected from the list, and the choice

will be displayed in the block in your model window.

Product

The output is equal to the product of the inputs. The number of

inputs can be specified.

Fcn

Arbitrary MATLAB expressions can be represented by this block.

44

CONNECTIONS

Connection Blocks are used to organize and combine signals and

systems. These also have special purpose applications, and only

some of these will be described here. Double-click on the

Connections icon in the main Simulink window to bring up the

Connections window.

45

Mux, Demux

The Mux (Multiplexer) block is used to combine two or more

scalar signals into a single vector signal. Similarly, a Demux

(Demultiplexer) block breaks a vector signal into scalar signal

components. The number of vector components must be specified

in each case.

The Subsystem block is used as a system "macro", where one

Subsystem block can be used to represent an entire set of blocks.

When double-clicked, the subsystem block brings up a blank

model window. Note that the Subsystem block has no inputs or

outputs. For each input a Subsystem has, an In block is used. For

each output a Subsystem has, an Out block is used.

the Interaction with MATLAB tutorial page.

46

Simulink Basics Tutorial - Interaction With

MATLAB

Defining Block Parameters Using MATLAB

Variables

Exchanging Signals With MATLAB

Extracting Models From Simulink Into MATLAB

with MATLAB.

• Signals can be exchanged between Simulink and MATLAB.

• Entire systems can be extracted from Simulink into

MATLAB.

47

BLOCK PARAMETERS FROM MATLAB

VARIABLES

Often, a controller will be designed in MATLAB and verified in a

Simulink model. Normally, numerical parameters such as gains

and controller transfer functions are entered into simulink

manually by entering the numbers in the block dialog boxes.

Rather than enter numbers directly, it is possible to use MATLAB

variables in Simulink block dialog boxes.

s+2

2.5 -----

s

Suppose this transfer function were generated by some

computation in MATLAB. In this case, there would most likely

be three variables, the numerator polynomial, the denominator

polynomial, and the gain. Enter the following commands in

MATLAB to generate these variables.

K=2.5

num=[1 2]

den=[1 0]

48

These variables can now be used in the blocks in Simulink.

Numerator field and den into the Denominator field.

49

You can simulate the model with the MATLAB variable

parameters. Select Start from the Simulation menu to run the

simulation. Double-click on the Scope block to view its output.

Hit the autoscale button (binoculars) and you should see the

following.

50

51

EXCHANGING SIGNALS WITH MATLAB

VARIABLES

Sometimes, we would like to use the results of a Simulink

simulation in the MATLAB command window for further

calculations and plotting. Less often, we would like to generate

signals in MATLAB which we then use as inputs in a Simulink

model. These tasks are accomplished through the use of the To

Workspace Sink Block and the From Workspace Source Block.

We will only transfer signals from Simulink to MATLAB. Doing

the reverse is a very similar process.

MATLAB Workspace.

Suppose we would like to use both the output signal and the

control signal for calculations in MATLAB. We will save these

two variab as well as a time signal from our Simulink model.

First, you need to generate a time signal

52

Before connecting these blocks to the rest of your system, first

you will name the variable to which they output.

53

The To Workspace block near the Plant block will output the

control signal to the MATLAB variable u. Edit this block to

output to the variable u. The last To Workspace block will output

the output signal to the MATLAB variable y.

54

You can now examine the outputted variab in the MATLAB

window with plot(t,u,t,y);

55

EXTRACTING MODELS FROM

SIMULINK INTO MATLAB

Sometimes, we may build a complicated model in simulink and

would like to derive either a transfer function or a state space

model of the entire system. In order to do this, you first need to

define the input and output signals of the model to be extracted.

we can generate an input-to-output transfer function or a

disturbance-to-error transfer function. These signals are defined

using the In and Out Connection Blocks.

be saved to a .mdl file.

Therefore, The virtual input will be put in place of the step input

to the system.

First, delete the Step block and connect an In block from the

Connections window to your model window in place of the Step

block you just deleted.

56

The virtual output does not need to replace an existing block - the

signal can be tapped off an existing line. Drag an Out block from

the Connections window and place it just above the Scope block.

systems of ord. diff. equations (ODEs).

>> [A,B,C,D]=linmod('mymodel')

57

A =

-2 -9 2

1 0 0

0 -5 0

B =

5

0

5

C =

0 1 0

D =

>>step(A,B,C,D)

You should see the following plot which is similar to the previous

Simulink Scope output.

58

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