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Practical No.

Examination of the Visible Mucous Membrane
Meticulous examination of visible mucous membrane may provide useful clinical
information about the sate of health of animal. Inspection should be made in day light. Artificial
light may stand in the way of getting actual coloration in very many cases. A faint yellow
discoloration may mislead the clinician when the mucous membrane is viewed through any oil
lamp. Mucous membrane may be viewed in the following parts.
• Conjunctival mucous membrane in all species of animals.
• Buccal mucous membrane in all species of animals.
• Vulvar mucous membrane in all female species of animals.
• Anal mucous membrane in all species of animals.
• Prepusal mucous membrane in all species of animals.
• Mucous membrane of third eyelid (membrane nictitan) of horse and dog.
• Ventral surface of tongue of cattle, buffalo, horse, sheep, goat, pig, dog and cat.
• Hard palate in cattle and buffalo
• Nasal mucous membrane in horse
Examination of conjunctival mucous membrane
The conjunctiva can be divided into two parts viz. bulbar conjunctiva and palpebral
conjunctiva. The bulbar conjunctiva denotes the part that covers the anterior aspect of the eye
globe extending upon corneal limbus. The Palperal conjunctiva denotes the part which lines the
inner surface of eyelids and both surfaces of the third eyelids.
Palpebral conjunctiva can be inspected by the following sequences:
i. Close the upper eyelid with the mid digital pressure of left thumb initially.
ii. Then push back the eyeball into the orbit with the same left thumb.
iii. Finally, Evert the lower eyelid by pulling it down the pressure of the right thumb and
index finger.
The third eyelid of the horse can be seen by tapping under the jaw with the help if the fingers
or else it can be inspected by laying the forefinger and thumb along the upper eyelid and then
driving them wide apart to expose the membrane nictitians. Conjunctival mucous membrane of
both the eyes should be examined to delineate the eye problem as a local or general one.
Animals Normal colour of conjunctival mucous
Horse Pale roseate
Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep and Pale Pink
Pig Reddish tinged
Dog Roseate
Cat Pale

It is advisable to note the changes of the mucous membrane rather than the changes in the
skin. The common changes can be described as their appearance as:
Pale or Anemic or Paleness or Palidity or pallor
The conjunctiva appears lighter in colour. These changes indicate that there is acute or
chronic blood loss. Extreme paleness of mucous membrane may look like white blotting paper or
a piece of white porcelain. A pale blenched mucous membrane may ensue due to hemorrhagic
Congested or Injected

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When the mucous membrane is red, it is called congested but when it is intensely red, it is
called injected. “Blood shot” is the extreme stage. This is due to hyperemic condition of the blood
vessels which cause increased blood content in a particular area.

Congested conjunctiva is generally seen in:

• Local inflammatory condition of the conjunctiva.
• Systemic diseases like encephalitis, meningitis, enteritis, rhinitis, impactive colic etc.
• Allergic sensitization
• Prolonged exposure to sunlight
• Effect of unusual stimuli like poison, toxins, hyperthermia etc.
• Venous congestion
Petechiated or petechiation or petechial hemorrhage
In this case, there are minute pinpoint hemorrhagic spots over the conjunctival mucous
membrane. Minute hemorrhage is petechiae and if bigger called ecchymoses whereas hematomas
are localized invasion of blood.
Cyanosis or cyanosed or bluish discolouration
The mucous membrane takes bluish grey or bluish violet discolouration. This is observed
due to the defective or reduced oxygenation. The causes of cyanosis are: CHF, Circulatory
disorder due to vulvular insufficiency, severe respiratory disorders, Tympani, diaphragm rupture,
HCN and Nitrate poisoning etc.
Yellowness or icteric condition or jaundice
Mucous membrane appears pale yellow or lemon yellow. This discolouration is mainly
due to the deposition of bile pigments in the mucous membrane and other tissues and
integuments. Jaundice may be accompanied by accumulation of bile salts and other bile
components in the blood. This type of conjunctiva is better appreciated in bright day light. Causes
may be:
• Pre-hepatic or hemolytic causes
• Hepatic or toxic causes
• Post-hepatic or obstructive causes
It may accompany liver cirrhosis, liver fluke infestation, hemoprotozoal infection,etc.
It hepatocellular jaundice, the mucous membrane shoes orange yellow discolouration while
hemolytic jaundice shows the pale yellow or grayish yellow discoloration.

Conclusion: Thus we were acquainted with the knowledge about the method of examination of
visible mucous membrane in animals and the colour of mucous membrane in different pathologic

Prepared by: Suraj Subedi

Practical No. 3
Anamnesis (History Taking)
History taking is one of the most significant facets to diagnose a disease. In human
practice lots of information can be obtained from the patient but in veterinary practice there is
obvious limitations as the animal are incapable to place their symptoms and signs. Disease
processes are thus presented to the clinician through the medium of complaint from the owner of
the animal or his animal attendant. The deposition of statement may be spontaneous or may
require to be obtained through a careful interrogation or cross questioning. This procedure is
considered as “taking the history”. Clinician should make an effort to gather correct history. For
this, one has to acquire confidence of the owner by polite, simple and humorous language. Care
should be taken to avoid leading and technical question in professional language. It is not wise to
put direct questions e.g. “Why have you brought the cattle?” “What is wrong with your dog?” But
sometimes it is rather impossible to avoid the leading questions; e.g. “Did the calf scour?”
“Whether there is any vomiting in your dog?” Clinicians should not expect that the owner will
tell the history in the language of the clinician but the owner should be encouraged to tell the
history in his own language.

 If cooperative owner, the true history is deposited to the doctor which will help in disease
 Clinician should make notes on the paper to review the entire episode which you consider
 In majority of cases, the history procures is accurate to a great extent. But still history may
be colored by the personal conception of a client. It is logical to verify validity of history
and to evaluate or supplement it through detailed clinical examination of the patient.
Incorrect history is not s\consistent with clinical observation.
 The history enumerates not only the key of accurate diagnosis but also foretell about the
probabilities of a disease.
 History provides background information on the nature of disease and the nature of the
 To obtain detail, one may ask questions to the owner, attendant, milker or allow that
person to relate his own account depending on circumstances and the value of information
 Very valuable information may be obtained from hospital record of a patient who is under
treatment in the same hospital. Such records unfold much information which is likely to be
useful adjunct for diagnosis.

History of a case is divided into main parts:

a. Immediate history or Present history
b. Past history or Previous history
Immediate history (present history)
The immediate history deals with the present problem and sequence of events associated with it.
Following points are relevant and to be included while collecting immediate history.
A. Location of illness
a. Absence of ruminal or tympani or colic of diarrhea indicate that the location of the
disease is in the digestive system
b. Nasal discharge, coughing or dyspnoea indicate that he disease location is in the
respiratory system
c. Posture or frequent micturition, passage of red urine or cloudy urine indicate that
probable location of he disease is in the urinary system
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d. Lameness, in coordination of gait or paralysis may reveal that the disease lies in
the nervous or locomotory system.
B. Nature and manifestation of illness
a. When was the present disorder noticed?
b. Under what circumstances the disease prevailed?
c. What type of the symptoms the animal exhibited?
d. Did the illness appear in the stall or grazed cattle at pasture?
e. Did the disease owe its origin to exercise, insemination, lactation, or transport?
f. Whether any other animals of the owner or in the same or adjoining localities are
showing illness?
g. Did the disease occur after introduction of new sick animal to the farm?
h. What steps have been adopted to treat the animal?
i. Whether the animals were immunized against notified disease?
Past history (Previous history)
In collecting the past history following considerations are to be given due attachment.
a. Whether the animal(s) exhibited such illness previously? If so, the nature and course of
illness, identical in manifestation or not?
b. Whether any other animal of the same herd or herd nearby were affected with similar
c. Whether the offspring of the dame animal suffered from identical illness or deformities?
d. Whether the onset if such illness prevailed in a particular season or month of the year?
e. Whether the disease was observed after the introduction of a new stock in the herd?
f. Whether the disease was observed following managemental changes concerning housing,
nutrition, etc.? If so these are to be attended carefully?
g. Whether the animals were previously treated or not?
h. How many animals of the herd sustained illness and how many of them died showing
similar manifestation?
i. Whether the animals were protected against scheduled infectious disease or not? If so, date
of last vaccination, follow up of vaccination scheduled should be noted carefully.
History of Environment
Environment surrounding the animal have got direct or indirect bearing on the health of
animals. Meticulous examination of the environment may give a fair guideline to diagnose the
forthcoming illness of a single animal or a fair percentage of animals in a herd.
Outdoor Environment
Topography of the region, grass, land and soils are to be examined and assessed in relation
to disease. Marshy land encourages the spread of fly and mosquito borne diseases; damp soil
permits the soil borne diseases lie leptospirosis etc. Sometimes the various agricultural pesticides
become the source of victimization to the animals when thrown indiscriminately in the field.
Indoor Environment
Inadequate ventilation, inadequate water supply, damp of the house floor may predispose
the animals to suffer from illness. Attention regarding house spacing, sanitation and hygienic
measures is a must. Stall fed animals are more prone to metabolic diseases and dietary
abnormalities; e.g. Ketosis is mainly found in stall fed high yielding cattle. So investigation of
the indoor environment along with the feeds and feeding leads to proper disease diagnosis.

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Effect of Climates and Environment on the health of Animals
• Climatic stress depresses the appetite of the animals.
• High ambient temperature reduces the feed intake, milk yield and metabolic rate.
• Intense chilling modifies the mucous secretions and causes sub-mucous edema of
animals (bottle jaw).
• Cold moist situation during the spring may augment hypomagnesaemic tetany in
• Industrial fumes and smoke produce respiratory affections in animals while they graze
in the vicinity.
• Liver fluke infestation in the cattle is co-related with high temperature and high

Conclusion: Thus we were able to know about the method of history taking and its types.

Prepared by: Suraj Subedi

Practical No: 4
The temperature of the body of different animals varies widely. The temperature of the
body surface is usually less than the temperature of the deeper structures of the body. During the
process of the examination of the mucous membrane, skin and mouth, the clinicians may
appreciate the rise or fall of body temperature. But, the exact temperature has to be recorded with
the help of a clinical thermometer. Recording of temperature helps in establishing a diagnosis of
febrile disease from an afebrile one. Temperature chart, if maintained properly, may help in
determining the progress and fate of a disease.
Sites of recording of temperature
The temperature of domestic animals is recorded in the rectum. A fair amount of idea may be
gained by digital feeling over the skin and base of ear. In female animal, the vaginal temperature
may also be considered but it should be borne in mind that vaginal temperature may remain high
during estrus. Vaginal temperature is 10F higher than the rectal temperature of healthy animal.
Techniques in Recording of temperature
The temperature is recorded with the help of clinical thermometer. Short blunt clinical
thermometer is preferred.
i. The thermometer should be sterilized with the help of disinfectant like dettol prior to use.
ii. It should be well shaken before recording of temperature to bring the mercury column
down below the lowest point likely to be observed in different species of animals.
iii. The bulb end of thermometer to be lubricated with liquid paraffin or glycerin or soap
especially in case of small pup and kitten.
iv. Care should be taken so that the bulb of the thermometer remains in contact with the rectal
mucous membrane. For this in large animals the thermometer is slanted so that it will
remain in contact with the rectal mucous membrane.
v. The Thermometer should be kept in site for at least 1 to 2 minutes.
Precautions while Recording the Temperature
⇒ The animal should be placed in an isolated place away from human annoyance.
⇒ Care should be taken that it is less frightened and less excited.
⇒ The animal should be restrained properly with less mutilation.
⇒ The reliability of thermometer should be judged as a defective thermometer may result
erroneous result.
⇒ The animal should be kept away from hot exposure prior to recording of temperature.
⇒ The animal should be given rest for at least 20-30minutes if it has traversed a long
distance especially in hot summer.
⇒ The temperature should not be recorded immediately after prolonged walking, ploughing,
working or race.
⇒ The animal should not be offered any hot or cold drink at least 15-20 minutes prior to
recording of temperature.
⇒ The thermometer should be kept strictly in touch with the rectal mucosa to obtain the
desired result.
⇒ The thermometer should be washed with antiseptic solution before use against each
Variations in Normal Temperature
Temperature of healthy animal varies during morning and evening. Diurnal variation in
body temperature of healthy animals is seen, lowest being in the morning and highest in the

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evening. This variation is about 1.50F. Contrary wise, in certain diseases e.g. pulmonary
tuberculosis, the temperature of animal may be higher in the morning than in the evening.
Normal Temperature of Different Animals
Animal Temperature (Range)
0 0
Cattle (adult) 100 – 102.5 37.8 – 39.2
Calf 101.5 – 103.5 38.6 – 39.8
Buffalo 99 – 102 37.2 – 38.9
Sheep 101.5 – 105.5 38.9 – 39.8
Goat 101.5 – 103.5 38.6 – 39.8
Pig (adult) 100.0 – 102.0 37.8 - 38.9
Piglets 102.0 – 104.0 38.9 – 40.0
Horse (adult) 99 – 100.5 37.2 – 38
Foal 99.5 – 101.5 37.5 – 38.6
Dog (large) 99.5 101.5 37.5 – 38.6
Dog (small) 101.5 – 102.5 38.6 – 39.2

Factors affecting the body temperature

 Age  Pain
 Sex  Estrus
 Breeds  Exercise
 Body weight  Rectal affection
 Feeding  Infection
 Pregnancy  Environment
 Excitement

Conclusion: Thus we were able to know the temperature taking methods and the normal
temperature of common farm animals.

Prepared by: Suraj Subedi

Practical No: 5
Pulse is defined as the expansion and elongation of the arterial wall imparted by the
column of arterial blood due to the contraction of the left ventricle. Pulse foretells us the useful
information regarding the health state concerning the cardiovascular abnormalities. Pulse rate may
be adversely affected by the influence of exercise, excitement, annoyance, irritation, high
environmental temperature, relative humidity etc. While examining the pulse, it is always
necessary to keep the animals at rest with no external disturbance as far as possible.
Animal Sites
• External Maxillary artery
Horse, Donkey, Mule
• Great metatarsal artery
• Middle coccygeal artery (about 10 cm below the level of anus)
Cattle, Buffalo
• Facial artery
Goat, Sheep • Femoral artery high up in the inguinal region
Small Pig • Femoral artery
Small calf • Femoral artery
Large Pig • Middle coccygeal artery (if difficult, heart beat as an alternative)
Dog, Cat • Femoral artery

Procedure of pulse recording

Pulse is recorded by means of tactile senses. So sensitive part of finger is used for counting.
Generally index finger is avoided for measuring pulse.
Animal shouldn’t be disturbed prior to recording of pulse.
Pulse recorded for at least 30 seconds to 1 minute.
It is important to palpate the artery of both the sides (left and right femoral) to assess the quality
of the pulse wave.
Rate, Rhythm, volume and character of the pulse is recorded along with the size and strength. A
full pressure may help in obliteration of the pulse wave.
Note: Heart rate commensurate with the pulse rate except in some pathological conditions like
extrasystolic arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation or premature beat.
Pulse rate:
It indicates no of beats per second. Increased pulse rate is trachycardia and decrease pulse rate is
Pulse rate is more during last trimester of pregnancy, at parturition.
Pulse rate increases immediately after exercise
Athletic animals have less pulse rate than other non-athletic animals.

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Normal pulse rate in animals
Animal Pulse rate / minute
Horse, donkey, asses 33 – 41
Cattle, buffalo 42 – 60
Goat, sheep 60 – 70
Dog (large) 70 – 90
Dog (small) 90 – 120
Pig (adult) 60 – 90

It denotes regularity of successive pulse waves within a defined time period. In some occasion
interval between pulses may vary.
a. Irregular Pulse: Interval between pulses varies. Also called arrhythmia. It may develop
under conditions: Sinus arrhythmia, Atrial Fibrillation, Toxemia, Myocarditis, Febrile
b. Intermittent pulse: Pulse beat is absent as a regular sequence or at irregular intervals
known as regularly intermittent of irregularly intermittent pulse respectively.
It can be observed under following conditions like etopic beat, partial heart block, sino
atrial block, sinus arrest, focal myocarditis, atrial flutter etc.
It is the amplitude or degree of expansion of atrial wall that occurs during the transmission of
pulse wave.
a. High volume Pulse: Observed in hyperkinetic circulating disease following specific
diseases like aortic incompetence, fever, severe anaemia, liver cirrhosis etc.
b. Low volume pulse: Observed in loss of body fluid, loss of plasma, loss of blood, aortic
stenosis, mitral stenosis, Peripheral circulatory failure etc.
Character or Quality of Pulse
1. Frequent pulse: No. of beats per minute exceeds the normal range.
2. Infrequent Pulse: No. of beats below the normal range. Generally seen in disease of CNS.
3. Slow Pulse (Sluggish Pulse): Each beat takes more time than the normal. Pulse duration is
4. Quick Pulse (Skipping Pulse): Each beat occupies less time than the normal. E.g.
Inflammatory disease of CNS
5. Large Pulse (Full Pulse): In each pulse, there is extensive distension of the arterial wall.
e.g. Pulmonary congestion
6. Small Pulse (Empty Pulse): Artery poorly distended and remains empty. E.g. Myocardial
7. Hard Pulse: Wall of artery very rigid and pulse cannot be obliterated with digital pressure.
e.g. impairment of vascular tone
8. Soft Pulse: Pulse is poorly developed. Pulse wave can be compressed fairly easily. E.g.
Toxemia, Septicaemia, thinning of pulse etc.

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9. Strong bonding Pulse: Artery much distended. Amplitude of Pulse wave is very high and
the pulse wave cannot be resisted with digital pressure. e.g. Hypertension, increased stroke
volume of the heart, hypertrophy of the myocardium, laminitis is horse and chronic
interstitial nephritis.
10. Soft Small Pulse: Pulse weak and infrequent. Pulse cannot be obliterate very easily. E.g.
myocardial asthenia
11. Wiry Pulse: Pulse brief, small and hard in nature. E.g. Cerebral hemorrhage, endocarditis,
pleurisy, acute peritonitis. Outcome of this is very bad indicates approaching death.
12. Thready Pulse: Pulse weak, small and prolonged. Wave can be prevented by digital
pressure. This may lead to stage where the pulse is considered as running down pulse.
This is a very grave condition leading to fatality. Temperature may drop down to a
critically low level along with this pulse.
13. Water hammer or Corrigan’s or collapsing pulse: Rapid rise of pulse wave with high
volume until artery is over filled up, followed by an equally sudden sharp collapse of the
arterial wall. e.g. Aortic incompetence, complete heart block, aortic valve defect, severe
14. Alternate pulse: High and low volume pulse follows each other equidistantly and
alternately. e.g. Acute left ventricular failure
15. Pulsus myurus: Group of continuous weak waves of pulse. E.g. Cardiac damage
16. Dicrotic-pulse: Immediately after the main pulse wave a second wave follows. E.g. Acute
17. Pulsus paradoxus: Volume of pulse decreases during deep inspiration and increases during
deep expiration e.g. Pericardial effusion, traumatic pericarditis, obstruction
18. Pulsus bisferiens: A single pulse beat is split into 2 waves, e.g. Combine aortic stenosis,
aortic incompetence
19. Pulsus bigeminus: Two pulse beat followed by a gap e.g. Ectopic beat of ventricle, A-V
Jugular Pulse: Pulsation of the jugular vein is known as jugular pulse.
a. Positive jugular pulse: It indicates a true pulse wave running from the angle of mandible to
the shoulder region. This results due to traumatic pericarditis, incompetence of tricuspid
vulve. There is regurgitation of blood in the jugular vein. This positive pulse is often
accompanied by brisket edema. N
b. Negative jugular pulse: It is seen in lean cattle when the blood is unable to enter the right
atrium and there is eventual backflow in the jugular vein. This may be observed in
tricuspid valve stenosis.
In some lean animals, pulse wave of underlying carotid artery may produce
movement in the jugular vein resembling positive jugular pulse and is known as false
jugular pulse. A true jugular pulse can be obliterated by pressure while a false jugular
pulse cannot be obliterated.

Conclusion: Thus we were able to know the pulse taking method, site of pulse in different
animals along with the different types of pulse seen in various abnormal condition.

Suraj subedi