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ROLLS-ROYCE wA

MAINTENANCE
* E R 0 EWGllE

CHAPTER 73 - ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL


LIST OF ROLLS-ROYCE EFFECTIVE PAGES
This chapter c o n s i s t s of the following pages

CHAPTER CHAPTER CW T E R
SECTION SECTION SECTION
AND PAGE DATE AND PAGE DATE AND PAGE DATE

L i s t of e f f e c t i v e pages Nov. 3/67


R l/ Mar.99 Mar.12168
2 Mar. 12/68
Apr. 86 Mar. 15/60
73 Table of contenks Apr. 86 Mar. 15/60
1 Feb. 93 Mar. 15/60
Mar. 15/60
Mar. 9/60
Mar. 9/60 Mar. 9/60
Mar. 9/60 Mar. 9/60 Mar. 16/60
Mar. 9/60 Apr. 80 Mar. 16/60
Mar. 9/60 Apr .80 Mar. 16/60
Sept .3/68 Apr. 80 Mar. 16/60
Nov. 73 Feb .87 Mar. 16/60
Nov. 73 Feb. 87 Dec. 10166
Dec. 10166
Nov. 73 Oct .86 June 77
Nov. 78 Dec. 82 June 77
J u l y 83 June 77

Feb. 93 Mar. 12/68 Mar. 15/72


Feb. 93 May 30170 Mar. 15/72
Feb. 93 NOV. 80 J u l y 79
Feb. 93 'Mar.99 Jan. 79
Feb. 91 June 77
73-10
1 Mar. 8/60 Nov. 78
2 Mar. 8/60 Nov. 15/72 Aug. 30168
Nov. 15/72 ~ug.30168
Nov.15172 J u l y 15/72 ,

73-10-1 Nov. 15/72 Aug .3O/68


1 Nov. 3/67

Mar. 99 L i s t of e f f e c r i v e pages 73
. '. Pages 112
ROLLS-ROYCE IBA W l'
MAINTENANCE
AERO E
,
~ H E

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 73 - Engine fuel and control

General

Distribution

Fuel manifold
Fuel pumps
Fuel burners

Control

Fuel control unit

73
Feb. 93 Pages 112
ROLLS-ROYCE DA R
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL

Mar. 9/ 60 73-00 I
Page 1
I
Engine fuel and contro%t (cont. 1

INTAKE

SERVO SPILL VALVE I,

iACK PRESSURE VALVE

BURNER MANIFOLD
--I

Fpel system @hgfh


Fig.1
Mar. 9/60
ROLLS-ROYCE DA R
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

GENERAL - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ,

Purpose

The power developed by t h e engine i s mainly dependent on t h e mass of t h e a i r


flowing through it and t h e temperature of t h e gases a t t h e e n t r y t o t h e t u r b i n e s .
The f u e l system provides a c o n t r o l l e d q u a n t i t y of f u e l t o h e a t t h e air, t h e
temperature achieved being governed by t h e amount of f u e l being b u r n t i n t h e
combustion chamber. The amount of f u e l r e q u i r e d f o r a g i v e n power output,
however, w i l l vary with changes i n t h e mass a i r flow due t o v a r i a t i o n i n
a l t i t u d e , c l i m a t i c conditions and t h e forward speed of t h e a i r c r a f t . The
e f f e c t of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s on t h e engine f u e l requirement i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n
f i g . 3 and 4; f i g . 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e v a r i a t i o n i n f u e l flow with varying engine
speeds.

R.P.M. - Increasing I, ALTITUDE - Increasing I,


8423 8424

V a r i a t i o n of f u e l fl%w V a r i a t i o n of f u e l f l o w
with engine r, p.m. with a l t i t u d e
Fig. 2 Fig. 3

The f u e l system provides t h e engine w i t h f u e l i n a form s u i t a b l e f o r combustion, '

aria .controls t h e q u a n t i t y t o t h a t amount which w i l l g i v e t h e r e q u i r e d engine


power output under a l l operating conditions without exceeding t h e temperature
l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e t u r b i n e assembly.

2, D i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n t r o l

As shown i n f i g . 5 , f u e l from t h e a i r c r a f t tanks flows through a flowmeter,


a h e a t e r , and a f i l t e r t o a v a r i a b l e s t r o k e , p o s i t i v e displacement, h i g h
pressure pump. The H.P. pump output i s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e combustion chambers
through a flow c o n t r o l u n i t (F.c.u. ) which meters t h e q u a n t i t y and burners
which atomize t h e f u e l . a n d f e e d i t i n t o t h e flame tubes.

I n f l i g h t , t h e q u a n t i t y of f u e l s u p p l i e d t o t h e engine i s governed by manual


and .automatic c o n t r o l s housed i n t h e F.C.U. which c o n t r o l t h e f l o w according

Mar. 9/60 73-00


Page 3
ROLLS-ROKCE B hi I2 U AERO. ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

General - D e s c r i p t i o n and o p e r a t i o n (cont. )

-
AIR SPEED Increasing
(r.p.m. and altitude constant)
8425

V a r i a t i o n of f u e l f l o w with forward speed


Fig. 4
t o t h r o t t l e p o s i t i o n and t h e pressure a t t h e a i r i n t a k e a s d i c t a t e d by
a l t i t u d e , forward speed and ambient temperature. The d i s t r i b u t i n g and
c o n t r o l l i n g u n i t s a r e l i s t e d below and f u l l e r explanations of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s
a r e g i v e n & 73-10 D i s t r i b u t i o n and 73-20 Control. The r e f e r e n c e s a f t e r t h e
u n i t s i n d i c a t e t h e s e c t i o n s i n which t h e i r p h y s i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s
a r e given.
Distribution control

Fuel heater 73-10-1 Flow c o n t r o l u n i t 73-20-1


Fuel filter 73-20-1 Filter 73-20-1
Fuel pump 73-10-2
Nigh p r e s s u r e cock 73-20-1
Fuel burners 73-10-3

FUEL PUMP
L.P. COCK ,--'I4-.
-..---
BACK PRESSUR ---.-
-F-.

FLOW METER

.-
H -/-
---
.----.--
/

AIR INTAKE 1928 A

F u e l flow diagram
.Fig. 5
3. I n t e r a c t i o n with t h e p r o p e l l e r

To ensure t h e c o r r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e mass a i r f l o w and t h e f u e l


flow, t h e F.C.U. and t h e p r o p e l l e r c o n t r o l l e r u n i t a r e mechanically
i n t e r c o n n e c t e d through a l i n k a g e described i n 76-10-1. The i n t e r a c t i o n
of t h e p r o p e l l e r and t h e f u e l f l o w under various operating conditions i s
described i n 72-00.

73-00 Mar. 9/ 60
Page 4
R O L L S - R O Y CE DART'
MAINTENANCE
*ER0 ENGINE

ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL - MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

1. Servicing

A. B l e e d i n g t h e f u e l system

(1) Fuel system b l e e d i n g i s r e q u i r e d :

(a) B e f o r e e n g i n e r u n when t h e f u e l s y s t e m c o n t a i n s i n h i b i t i n g o i l a s i n
i n an e n g i n e newly removed from s t o r a g e .

(b) When an a i r c r a f t o r e n g i n e f u e l s y s t e m j o i n t , o t h e r t h a n on t h e h i g h
p r e s s u r e s i d e of t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t (F.C.U.), h a s been d i s c o n n e c t e d .

(c) When a f u e l t a n k h a s been c o m p l e t e l y d r a i n e d and r e f i l l e d .

(d) I f f l u c t u a t i n g r.p.m. w i t h f a l l i n g t o r q u e p r e s s u r e and T.G.T. is


experienced.

l (e) I f t h e a i r c r a f t h a s been f l y i n g w i t h b o o s t e r pumps OFF o r i n o p e r a t i v e a t


a l t i t u d e , a l l o w i n g a i r t o come o u t o f s o l u t i o n from t h e f u e l .

(f) I f t h e f u e l s u p p l y t o t h e e n g i n e pump h a s been t e m p o r a r i l y i n t e r r u p t e d ,


a s by a d e l a y e d changeover from an empty t a n k o r by t h e c l o s u r e of t h e
low p r e s s u r e (L.P.) cock b e f o r e t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e (H.P.) cock.

NOTE: In t h e e v e n t of m i s h a n d l i n g t h e c o n t r o l s whereby a n a t t e m p t i s
made t o s t a r t an e n g i n e w i t h t h e L.P. c o c k c l o s e d , t h e f u e l
system need n o t b e b l e d i f Mod.733 i s i n c o r p o r a t e d (F.C.U. w i t h
m o d i f i e d back p r e s s u r e v a l v e ) . S u b j e c t t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y ground
r u n i n c l u d i n g an e n g i n e power c h e c k , t h e e n g i n e may c o n t i n u e i n
service. I f Mod.733 i s n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d b l e e d t h e f u e l system.

(g) Whenever t h e a i r c r a f t f u e l s y s t e m h a s been d i s t u r b e d u p s t r e a m of t h e


L.P. cock, b l e e d f h e f u e l s y s t e m t o remove a i r l o c k s a s d e t a i l e d i n
C h a p t e r 28, t h e n b l e e d t h e f u e l s y s t e m on e a c h e n g i n e a s d e t a i l e d i n
para. ( 2 ) .

(h) Whenever t h e a i r c r a f t f u e l s y s t e m h a s been d i s t u r b e d downstream of t h e


L.P. c q c k , b l e e d t h e f u e l s y s t e m of t h e a f f e c t e d e n g i n e a s d e s c r i b e d
i n para. (2).

NOTE (1) To p r e v e n t a i r e n t e r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t f u e l s y s t e m when


d i s c o n n e c t i n g a f u e l s y s t e m j o i n t downstream of t h e L.P.
cock, c l o s e t h e L.P. cock b e f o r e t h e j o i n t i s d i s c o n n e c t e d .
I f t h i s i s notdone, bleed t h e f u e l system a s s p e c i f i e d i n
C h a p t e r 28 a f t e r r e c o n n e c t i n g t h e j o i n t .

(2) I f t h e L.P. f u e l f i l t e r e l e m e n t i n t h e F,C.U. i s removed it


must b e renewed. L.P. c o c k s must o n l y b e opened a f t e r
t a n k pumps have been s w i t c h e d on.

73-00
S e p t . 3/68 Page 201
ROLLS-ROYCE E ) ,ER0 ,,,,NE

Engine f u e l and c o n t r o l - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

CONTROL PISTON OVERSPEED CONTROL


BLEED VALVE BLEED VALVE

56411

H.P. f u e l pump b l e e d p o i n t s Assembly o f b l e e d v a l v e s


F i g . 201 F i g . 202

( 2 ) Bleed t h e e n g i n e f u e l system ( F i g . 2 0 1 and 202)

NOTE: ( L ) I f t h e system c o n t a i n s i n h i b i t i n g o i l , remove t h e L.P. f i l t e r ,


d r a i n t h e system and f i t a new f i l t e r element, r e f e r t o
Chap.73-20-1, Maintenance p r a c t i c e s .
MB
( 2 ) Bleed a t l e a s t 5,, g a l l o n s of f u e l from e a c h of t h e two b l e e d
Bmr
p o i n t s on t h e H.P. f u e l pump and t h e L.P. f u e l f i l t e r d r a i n
MDa
point.
CIS
S1
( a ) Refer t o Chap.28-00, page b l o c k 201 f o r a i r c r a f t f u e l system
o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s and s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s t o b e observed d u r i n g
t h i s procedure.

( b ) Detach t h e L.P. f i l t e r d r a i n valve lockplate, open.the d r a i n valve


and d r a i n o f f a t l e a s t 5 g a l l o n s of f u e l . Ensure an a i r - f r e e
f u e l flow i s o b t a i n e d t h e n c l o s e t h e v a l v e .

( c ) Remove t h e domed b l a n k i n g c a p n u t from t h e lower b l e e d p o i n t on t h e


H.P. pump ( F i g . 2 0 1 ) . F i t b l e e d t o o l A.K.890 and h o s e UT.121, and
d i r e c t t h e bleed hose i n t o a s u i t a b l e container

73-00 Nov. 73
Page 202
ROLLS-ROY C € AERO E N G I N E
MAINTENANCE

Engine f u e l and c o n t r o l - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s (cont. )

( d ) Turn t h e knurled head of t h e b l e e d tool plunger ( t o open t h e v a l v e )


and b l e e d o f f 5 g a l l o n s of f u e l u n t i l a continuous flow o f a i r - f r e e
f u e l i s obtained.

( e ) Turn t h e knurled head of t h e b l e e d t o o l plunger ( t o c l o s e t h e v a l v e )


and remove t h e t o o l ; c l e a n o f f any s u r p l u s f u e l from t h e b l e e d
point.

( f ) Check t h e bleed v a l v e f o r l e a k a g e ; a c c e p t a maximum l e a k r a t e of


20 C.C. per minute. I f t h e l e a k r a t e exceeds t h i s l i m i t , remove
t h e b l e e d v a l v e and examine i t f o r c l e a n l i n e s s ; i f c l e a n renew
t h e b l e e d valve union.

CAUTION: DO NOT INTERCHANGE ALUMINIUM AND BONDED SEALS. FIT ONLY


THOSE PARTS APPLICABLE TO THE MODIFICATION STANDARD.
( g ) F i t a new aluminium c r u s h washer (pre-Mod.1422) o r a bonded s e a l
on pumps t o Mod.1422 s t a n d a r d ; r e f i t and t i g h t e n t h e domed n u t
t o t h e torque loading s p e c i f i e d i n Chap.70-01.

CAUTION: THE TWO BLEED VALVES ARE NOT IDENTICAL, I F THEY HAVE
BEEN DISASSEMBLED FOR ANY REASON, ASSENBLE THE PARTS AS
SHOWN IN FIG.202.
( h ) Repeat ( c ) , ( d ) , ( e ) , ( f ) and ( g ) on t h e c o n t r o l p i s t o n b l e e d p o i n t
(Fig.201).

(j) Bleed t h e f u e l d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s w i t c h i n accordance w i t h t h e


a i r c r a f t manufacturers' i n s t r u c t i o n s i n Chap.28.

(k) Ensure t h a t t h e L.P. f u e l f i l t e r d r a i n v a l v e and a l l domed n u t s


a r e t i g h t and f r e e from l e a k s .

(m) Wire-lock t h e dome n u t s w i t h 22 S.W.G. s t a i n l e s s steel lockwire


(Chap.70-12), and r e f i t t h e f i l t e r d r a i n l o c k p l a t e .

( n ) A f t e r bleeding t h e f u e l system, s t a r t t h e e n g i n e s a s i n s t r u c t e d i n
Chap.71-00, and w i t h both e n g i n e s running a t i d l i n g speed e f f e c t
t h e following checks:

( i ) S e l e c t cross-feed cocks OPEN.

C i i ) S e l e c t No.1 s t a r b o a r d pump ON.

( i i i ) Ensure No.2 s t a r b o a r d and b o t h p o r t pumps OFF.

( i v ) S e t p o r t e n g i n e t o run a t a f u e l flow o f 700 l b . / h r .


(320 kg./hr. 1.

( v ) Switch No.1 s t a r b o a r d pump OFF.

Nov. 73 73-00
Pages 202A/202B
MAINTENANCE

Engine f u e l and c o n t r o l - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

( v i ) Check t h a t t h e momentary d e c r e a s e i n f u e l flow d o e s n o t


exceed 25 I b . / h r . ( 1 0 k g . / h r . ) .

( v i i ) S e l e c t N o e l p o r t pump ON.

( v i i i ) Ensure No.2 p o r t and b o t h s t a r b o a r d pumps OFF.

( i x ) R e s e t p o r t e n g i n e t o i d l i n g speed.

( X ) S e t s t a r b o a r d e n g i n e t o r u n a t a f u e l flow of 700 l b . / h r .
(320 kg./hr. 1.

( x i ) Switch No.1 p o r t pump OFF.

( x i i ) Check t h a t t h e momentary d e c r e a s e i n f u e l flow d o e s n o t exceed


25 l b . / h r . ( 1 0 Kg./hr.).

( x i i i ) S e l e c t p o r t and s t a r b o a r d pumps ON.

( x i v ) R e s e t s t a r b o a r d e n g i n e t o i d l i n g speed.

(xv) S e l e c t c r o s s - f e e d cocks CLOSED.

( x v i ) Stop engines a s required.


NOTE: I f t h e drop i n f u e l flow i n t h e s e checks e x c e e d s
25 l b . / h r . ( 1 0 kg./hr.), o r i f r.p,m. f 1 u c t u a t i o n . i ~
evident during t h e ground r u n , t h e f u e l system muse b e
b l e d a g a i n and t h e checks r e p e a t e d .

A. Check t h e i d l i n g f u e l flow.
NOTE: The recommended method of checking t h e i d l i n g f u e l f l o w i s t o check
t h e b u r n e r p r e s s u r e a t i d l i n g r.p.m. and compare w i t h t h e Data p l a t e
burner pressure l i m i t a t i o n s .

( 1 ) Disconnect t h e manifold f e e d p i p e t o No.2 combustion ~ h a m b e ra t t h e


f i r e p r o o f bulkhead and i n s e r t a T-piece i n . B.S.P. t h r e a d s )
between t h e bulkhead c o n n e c t i o n and t h e f l e x i b l e f e e d p i p e ( F i g . 2 0 3 ) .

( 2 ) Connect a Bourdon t y p e p r e s s u r e gauge, a c c u r a t e l y c a l i b r a t e d between


0 t o 100 p . s . i . , t o t h e T-piece ( t h e gauge must be p r o t e c t e d by a
s u i t a b l e pressure l i m i t i n g valve i f t h e engine i s subsequently t o b e
. a c c e l e r a t e d above i d l i n g c o n d i t i o n s ) ,
NOTE: A b u r n e r p r e s s u r e test-set, P a r t No.J.83229 i s a v a i l a b l e ; i n
p l a c e of t h e l i m i t i n g v a l v e a s h u t - o f f cock i s i n t e r p o s e d . If
t h e e n g i n e i s t o be r u n a t c o n d i t i o n s above i d l i n g r.p.m. t h e
cock must be s h u t .

Nov. 73 73-00
Page 203
MAINTENANCE

Engine fuel and control - Maintenance practices (cont.)

(3) Ensure that no air is trapped between the fuel manifold and the gauge
capillary. When checking the gauge reading, allow for the pressure
due to the head of the capillary filling between the T-piece and
gauge.

Corrections: Subtract 3 p.s.i. for 10 ft. head effect and pro-rata.


Subtract 1.5 p.s.i. from Data-plate burner pressure for
every 1,000 ft. of pressure altitude above sea level.

EJ
McF
MDa
ISs
S1
C&
S2
Fig. 203 S&
228

7 3-00 Nov. 78
Page 204
ROLLS-RQY CE AERQ E N G I N E

Engine f u e l and c o n t r o l - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s (cont.)

B. P r e s s u r e t e s t f l e x i b l e p i p e s

Before b e i n g f i t t e d t o a n . e n g i n e , new and replacement. f l e x i b l e p i p e s must


be p r e s s u r e t e s t e d u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e equipment and blanks.

T e s t f u e l p i p e s , Weatherhead o r S i l v o f l e x , o r P.T.F.E. f u e l p i p e s t o
Mod.1587 (S.B.~a73-59) s t a n d a r d ( R e s i s t o f l e x o r Aeroquip) a t t h e p r e s s u r e
shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :

Test pressure
Pipe
P.s.~.

'
Servo f u e l p r e s s u r e pipe, f u e l pump t o F.C.U.
Main f u e l manifold
pre-Mod. 1587
Fuel branch pipes

Main f u e l manifold p i p e s )
) Mod.1587
Fuel branch p i p e s 1
'AVICA' o r 'SUPER METALFLEX'

Drain pipe, bulkhead t o d r a i n valve

Pak
MDa
I&
S1
C&
S2
S&
22 8

J u l y 83 73-00
Pages 204A/204B
ROLLS-Rov cE DART
MAINTENANCE
mto
.
E n m E

4
Engine f u e l a n d c o n t r o l - Maintenance practices (cont.)

For p r e s s u r e e x c e e d i n g 75 p . s . i . t h e p i p e s a r e t o b e t e s t e d h y d r a u l i c a l l y
u s i n g k e r o s i n e o r s o l u b l e o i l i n w a t e r . For p r e s s u r e s of 75 p . s . i . o r
l e s s , c l e a n , d r y a i r is u s e d w i t h t h e p i p e immersed i n h o t w a t e r a t a
minimum t e m p e r a t u r e o f 60 d e g r e e s C. (140 d e g r e e s F . ) .

(1) Ensure t h a t t h e b o r e o f t h e p i p e i s c l e a n and u n o b s t r u c t e d b e f o r e


f i t t i n g i t t o t h e t e s t equipment.

( 2 ) F i t a b l a n k and a p r e s s u r e c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e p i p e and c o n n e c t i t t o
t h e t e s t equipment.

(3) R a i s e t h e p r e s s u r e g r a d u a l l y t o t h e t e s t f i g u r e b u t , on h i g h p r e s s u r e
p i p e s , an i n t e r m e d i a t e check i s . t o b e made a t 500 p . s . i . The p r e s s u r e
is t o b e m a i n t a i n e d f o r a minimum o f 2 minutes w h i l s t a check is made
f o r l e a k s , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e p i p e end f i t t i n g s .

( 4 ) A t t h e t e s t p r e s s u r e , which must be m a i n t a i n e d f o r a minimum o f 2


m i n u t e s , f l e x t h e p i p e s e v e r a l t i m e s by hand t h r o u g h a n a n g l e o f
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 d e g r e e s .

( 5 ) D i s c a r d any p i p e which l e a k s .

(6) R e l e a s e t h e p r e s s u r e and d i s c o n n e c t t h e p i p e from t h e t e s t equipment.

( 7 ) Degrease and d r y t h e p i p e .

Rtn
IS1 3. I n s p e c t i o n / C h e c k
CS2
S A. Inspect r i g i d pipes
228
(1) I n s p e c t a l l p i p e f i t t i n g s f o r c o r r o s i o n , s e c u r i t y and s i g n s o f l e a k a g e .

(2) Check a l l p i p e c l i p s , bonding l e a d s and bonding l u g s f o r s e c u r i t y .

( 3 ) Check a l l p i p e c o n n e c t i o n s f o r l e a k a g e .

a NOTE: Leakage c a n be caused by malalignment o r f a u l t y s e a l i n g r i n g s .


Do n o t a t t e m p t t o r e c t i f y rnalalignment un-til t h e p i p e
c o n n e c t i o n s , keep p l a t e s and c l i p s have been s l a c k e n e d .

73-00
Page 205
ROLLS-ROY CE AERO EWblHE

Engine f u e l and c o n t r o l - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

B. I n s p e c t t h e s e r v o f u e l p r e s s u r e p i p e from f u e l pump t o F.C.U.

CAUTION: I T I S ALSO NECESSARY TO INSPECT THE SERVO FUEL PRESSURE PIPE


ON ENGINES HELD AT MAINTENANCE BASES, AND I N STORES.

( 1 ) I n s p e c t t h e p i p e end f i t t i n g s f o r s e c u r i t y and s i g n s o f leakage.

( a ) If s e c u r i t y o f t h e p i p e end f i t t i n g s i s i n doubt, d i s c a r d t h e p i p e .

( b ) If t h e r e a r e any s i g n s o f l e a k a g e , d i s c a r d t h e p i p e .

( 2 ) I n s p e c t p i p e c o n d i t i o n a d j a c e n t t o l o c a t i o n c l i p s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
tags

( a ) If c l i p s o r t a g s have deeply p e n e t r a t e d below t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e ,


d i s c a r d t h e pipe.

( b ) If heavy c h a f i n g o r c u t s a r e e v i d e n t , d i s c a r d t h e p i p e .

( c ) If c l i p o r t a g o u t e r s u r f a c e i s f l u s h with p i p e o u t e r s u r f a c e ,
accept t h e pipe.

( 3 ) I n s p e c t t h e p i p e f o r l i n e a r c r a c k i n g of t h e r u b b e r s u r f a c e ( e i t h e r
axial o r circumferential)

( a ) If l i n e a r c r a c k s p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e p i p e , d i s c a r d t h e p i p e .

( b ) If s u r f a c e c r a z i n g o r c r a c k s a r e o f no measurable depth, a c c e p t
t h e pipe.

(4) I n s p e c t t h e pipe f o r b l i s t e r i n g o r burning ( i n d i c a t i v e of excessive


temperature )

(a) If b l i s t e r i n g o r burning is e v i d e n t , d i s c a r d t h e p i p e .

( 5 ) I n s p e c t t h e p i p e o u t e r cover f o r s o f t e n i n g o r s w e l l i n g ( i n d i c a t i v e of
o i l contamination)

( a ) If t h e p i p e o u t e r cover i s i n a s e m i - p l a s t i c condition i . e . ,
s t i c k y t o t h e touch, discard t h e pipe.

( 6 ) I n s p e c t t h e p i p e f o r c u t s and n i c k s

( a ) If t h e c o t t o n b r a i d i n g i s exposed o r i f damage h a s occurred on


t h e p i p e bend, d i s c a r d t h e p i p e .

(b) If depth o f damage does n o t expose t h e c o t t o n b r a i d i n g , a c c e p t


t h e pipe.

73-00
Feb. 93
Page 206
ROLLS-ROYCE DkNUI
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE
9
Engine f u e l and c o n t r o l - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

I C. I n s p e c t remaining f l e x i b l e p i p e s

(1) I n s p e c t a l l p i p e f i t t i n g s f o r c o r r o s i o n , s e c u r i t y and s i g n s o f
leakage .
( 2 ) Check t h a t t h e p i p e s a r e n o t c u t o r c h a f e d where t h e y p a s s through
c l i p s o r c l o s e t o any a d j a c e n t component.

( 3 ) Inspect t h e p i p e s f o r s i g n s of cracking o r kinking.

NOTE: Abnormal c o n d i t i o n s c a u s i n g a c c e l e r a t e d a g e i n g may r e s u l t i n


s u r f a c e c r a z i n g c o n s i s t i n g of numerous minute c r a c k s . These by
t h e m s e l v e s do n o t make a p i p e u n s e r v i c e a b l e , b u t a c a r e f u l
check s h o u l d be made a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s s o t h a t any
development o f t h e c r a c k can be d e t e c t e d and t h e p i p e r e p l a c e d .

( 4 ) Any p i p e removed from an e n g i n e i s t o b e c l e a n e d and i t s s e r v i c e a b i l i t y


a s s e s s e d from t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s p e c t i o n :

( a ) I n s p e c t t h e end f i t t i n g s f o r corrosion. I n s p e c t t h e union n u t s ,


t h r e a d s and l o c k w i r e h o l e s f o r damage. I n s p e c t t h e s e a t i n g f a c e s
o f t h e s p h e r i c a l o r b a n j o c o n n e c t i o n s f o r d i s t o r t i o n , damage and
any n i p p l e s p r e a d ; any s c o r i n g , damage o r e x c e s s i v e n i p p l e s p r e a d
which may c a u s e l e a k a g e , w i l l e n t a i l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p i p e .

( b ) P i p e s which have t a k e n up a permanent s e t t h r o u g h i n c o r r e c t


Rtn assembly a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e ; s p i r a l l i n g o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
IS1 markings i s a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s h a s o c c u r r e d .
CS2
S ( c ) P i p e s t h a t show d e t e r i o r a t i o n t h r o u g h b e i n g exposed t o e x c e s s i v e
228 h e a t c o n d i t i o n s i . e . b u r n i n g o r b l i s t e r i n g s h o u l d be d i s c a r d e d .
S u r f a c e c r a z i n g o r c r a c k s caused by h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i s
a c c e p t a b l e p r o v i d e d t h e c o t t o n b r a i d i n g i s n o t exposed.

( d ) S o f t e n i n g o r s w e l l i n g of t h e p i p e o u t e r c o v e r caused by o i l
contamination i s acceptable provided t h e o u t e r cover i s n o t i n a
semi-plastic condition i . e . s t i c k y t o t h e touch, o r t h e o u t e r
c o v e r i s n o t d e t a c h e d from t h e i n n e r m e t a l l i c b r a i d . The l a t t e r
would b e i n d i c a t e d by a b l i s t e r i n g e f f e c t .

( e ) D i s c a r d any p i p e i f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a g s and p i p e l o c a t i n g
c l i p s a r e bedde'd t o t h e e x t e n t where t h e y a r e below t h e s u r f a c e
a r e a o f t h e o u t e r cover.

73-00
Feb. 9 3 Page 207
ROLLS-RoycE DART
MAINTENANCE
r ~ n oENGINE

Engine f u e l and c o n t r o l - Maintenance practices (cont.)

( f ) P i p e s t h a t have been damaged by e i t h e r c u t s o r n i c k s a r e a c c e p t a b l e


provided t h e c o t t o n b r a i d i n g i s n o t exposed.

NOTE: When a s s e s s i n g t h e s e v e r i t y o f c u t s o r c r a c k s i n t h e o u t e r
c o v e r , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o c u t s o r
c r a c k s o c c u r r i n g on bends i n t h e i n s t a l l e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e
p i p e , a s damage o f t h i s n a t u r e i n an a r e a under bending
s t r e s s can cause f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e p i p e and
expose t h e w i r e b r a i d .

( g ) Check t h e p i p e f o r o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e bore. On some p i p e s a


v i s u a l examination can be made, b u t where a n g l e f i t t i n g s a r e used,
o r i f t h e p i p e i s t o o l o n g f o r v i s u a l examination o f t h e b o r e ,
k e r o s i n e must be pumped through t h e p i p e t o e n s u r e t h a t a f r e e
flow is maintained. The k e r o s i n e s h o u l d be a d e q u a t e l y f i l t e r e d
b e f o r e i t i s pumped through t h e p i p e .

( h ) When p r e s s u r e t e s t i n g o f f l e x i b l e p i p e s i s r e q u i r e d , r e f e r t o t h e
following table:

Test pressure
Pipe
p.s.i.

Servo f u e l p r e s s u r e p i p e , f u e l pump t o F.C.U.


Main f u e l manifold
1 Pre-Mod.1587 Rtn
Fuel branch p i p e s )
IS1
Main f u e l manifold p i p e s 1 Mod. 1587 CS2
Fuel branch p i p e s 1 S
' A V I C A t o r 'SUPER METALFLEX' 228
Drain p i p e , bulkhead t o d r a i n v a l v e

( 5 ) When s l a c k e n i n g o r t i g h t e n i n g union n u t s on Mod.1587 (S.B.Da73-59)


'Aeroquipt f u e l manifold p i p e s , s e c u r e t h e p i p e n i p p l e , u s i n g a
s p a n n e r on t h e n i p p l e hexagon, t o p r e v e n t it from t u r n i n g ; it i s
p o s s i b l e t o d i s t u r b t h e n i p p l e , which i s t h r e a d e d i n t o t h e s l e e v e ,
and c a u s e f u e l l e a k a g e .

I 73-00
Page 208 Feb. 93
ROLLS-ROYCE
MAINTENANCE

DISTRIBUTION - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General

I n 73-00 b r i e f d e t a i l s of t h e system a r e given, t o g e t h e r with t h e


i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g u n i t s . Fuller details
of t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g u n i t s a r e g i v e n below, and r e f e r e n c e should be made t o
73-00, f i g . l , which shows c l e a r l y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n flow.

2. F u e l h e a t e r

The f u e l h e a t e r , which uses h o t air from t h e compressor a s a h e a t i n g medium,


call be operated e i t h e r manually o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o maintain t h e f u e l temperature
above f r e e z i n g l e v e l a t t h e f i l t e r i n l e t , The h o t a i r melts any water content
of t h e f u e l which i s p r e c i p i t a t e d a s i c e c r y s t a l s when t h e engine i s o p e r a t i n g
under low temperature conditions. A p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l switch, a c t i n g
a c r o s s t h e f u e l f i l t e r , o p e r a t e s if i c e begins t o form i n t h e f i l t e r and
i l l u m i n a t e s a warning l i g h t i n t h e cockpit. I f t h e system i s operating
a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h e switch a l s o o p e r a t e s a h o t a i r valve. When t h e p r e s s u r e
drop a c r o s s t h e f i l t e r f a l l s t o normal, t h e l i g h t goes out,

3. F u e l f i l t e r

The f i l t e r contained i n t h e base of t h e f l o w c o n t r o l u n i t prevents t h e e n t r y


i n t o t h e f u e l system of p a r t i c l e s of dirt o r o t h e r f o r e i g n matter. The
f i l t e r element provides f i n e f i l t r a t i o n and i s corrugated t o provide t h e
f i l t r a t i o n a r e a necessary t o keep t h e p r e s s u r e drop a c r o s s t h e f i l t e r w i t h i n
a c c e p t a b l e limits a t t h e maximum f u e l flow.

4. F u e l pump

The f u e l pump i s d r i v e n from t h e r e d u c t i o n g e a r through t h e lower b e v e l g e a r


assembly, and d e l i v e r s a c o n t r o l l e d s u p p l y of f u e l a t high pressure t o t h e
burners. To s a t i s f y t h e wide range of f u e l flows n e c e s s a r y t o s u i t varying
speeds and a l t i t u d e s , t h e s t r o k e of t h e pump and hence i t s output i s v a r i e d
b y a camplate l i n k e d t o a p i s t o n i n t h e servo system. One s i d e of t h e p i s t o n
i s s u b j e c t t o H.P. f u e l , t h e o t h e r t o servo p r e s s u r e a s s i s t e d by a s p r i n g f o r c e .
Any i n c r e a s e i n servo p r e s s u r e w i l l move t h e p i s t o n t o i n c r e a s e t h e angle of t h e
camplate and hence t h e pump s t r o k e , and v i c e v e r s a , The servo p r e s s u r e i s
c o n t r o l l e d by s p i l l valves housed i n t h e pump and F.C.U. as d e s c r i b e d i n 73-20.
An overspeed governor i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e pump and i s described i n 73-10-2.

5, High p r e s s u r e cock

The h i g h p r e s s u r e cock, l o c a t e d downstream of t h e - t h r o t t l e valve i n t h e F.C.U.,


i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e system t o provide a means of stopping t h e engine. When
open, *the cock has no e f f e c t on t h e f u e l flow, but when closed i t c u t s off t h e

Mar. 8/ 60 13-10
ROLLS-ROYCE D R
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

Digtribution - Description and operation (cont. )

f u e l supply t o t h e burners and d i v e r t s i t t o t h e low pressure s i d e of t h e system.


F u e l remaining i n t h e burners and manifolds passes from t h e combustion chambers
t o an overboard d r a i n described i n 71-02-0.

Burners

The burners convert t h e f u e l i n t o a n atomized s p r a y and d i r e c t it i n t o t h e


combustion chambers, The f u e l i s i n j e c t e d through a s i n g l e o r i f i c e s i t u a t e d
a t t h e apex of a c o n i c a l s w i r l chamber i n t h e burner head. Two s l o t s d i r e c t
t h e f u e l t a n g e n t i a l l y i n t o t h e swirl chamber, where it acquires a w h i r l
v e l o c i t y which i n c r e a s e s progressively as t h e diameter of t h e s w l r l chamber
decreases, The high v e l o c i t y a t t a i n e d a t t h e o r i f i c e ensures t h a t when t h e
f u e l i s discharged, i t i s d i r e c t e d downstream as a c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n i c a l
spray,

73-10 Mar. 8/60


Page 2

L -A--- - -
R O L L S - R O Y CE AERO ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

FUEL MANIFOLD - DESCRIFTION AND OPERATION


1. General

The f u e l manifold, which i s mounted on t h e f r o n t of t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead


and e n c i r c l e s t h e r e a r of t h e compressor c a s i n g , d i s t r i b u t e s high p r e s s u r e
f u e l from t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t (F.C.U.) t o t h e seven burners i n t h e
combustion chambers.

The manifold c o n s i s t s b a s i c a l l y o f , a n F.C.U. connection a d a p t e r and a series


of f l e x i b l e rubber hoses joined by flanged unions which a r e b o l t e d t o t h e
f r o n t of t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead and connected t o t h e burners by branch p i p e s
on t h e r e a r of t h e bulkhead.

2. Description (Fig.1)

The manifold c o n s i s t s of a s h o r t angled i n l e t p i p e w i t h a swivel nut and a


s e r i e s of f l e x i b l e Vulcaprene coated S i l v o f l e x o r Weatherhead rubber hoses
and flanged T-piece connections with threaded unions.

The hoses a r e l o c a t e d by c o l l a r s brazed on t o t h e i n l e t pipe and connections


and secured t o them by swaged metal f e r r u l e s t o form an i n t e g r a l manifold,
t h e j o i n t s being p r o t e c t e d by f i r e p r o o f moulded n i t r i l e rubber s l e e v e s h e l d i n
p o s i t i o n by spring-rings. The hoses reduce i n diameter from t h e i n l e t
p i p e t o t h e end of t h e manifold and t e r m i n a t e a t a flanged elbow connection
w i t h a threaded union which i s connected by a branch pipe t o No.3 burner.

The nut on t h e manifold i n l e t pipe i s connected t o a threaded union on a


flanged t a b u l a r a d a p t e r mounted on t h e F.C.U. The adapter i s secured by
i t s f l a n g e t o t h e F.C.U. and l o c a t e d i n t h e bore of t h e o u t l e t connection
by an i n t e g r a l t r a n s f e r tube s e a l e d by a rubber r i n g .

The r e a r of t h e a d a p t e r extends through t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead and t e r m i n a t e s


a t an elbow w i t h , a n i n t e g r a l f l e x i b l e rubber branch p i p e which i s connected
t o No.4 burner. A c o l l a r on t h e r e a r of t h e adapter l o c a t e s i n a s p l i t
Tufnol bush mounted i n a support housing secured t o t h e f r o n t o f t h e f i r e p r o o f
bulkhead t o form a f i r e s e a l .

Continued on next page

73-10-1
Page 1
MAINTENANCE

Fuel - Description and operation (cont.)


FIREPROOF RUBBER SLEEVE _

I
No:7 BURNER
BRANCHPIPE
/
FIREPROOF
BULKHEAD

TYPICAL MANIFOLD
CONNECTION
ON BULKHEAD

Fig. l

' 73-10-1
Page 2
ROLLS-ROYCE AERO E N G I N E
MAINTENANCE

FUEL MANIFOLD - MAINTENANCE PRACTICES


1. Removal/Installation (Fig.201)

A. Remove f u e l manifold '

Close t h e L.P. f u e l cock and check t h a t t h e H.P. cock is c l o s e d .

Unlock t h e s w i v e l n u t and disconnect t h e m a ~ i f o l di n l e t pipe from t h e


F.C.U. a d a p t e r .

~emovet h e nut and s p r i n g washer s e c u r i n g t h e manifold support c l i p a t


t h e h o t a i r valve o u t l e t f l a n g e , and t h e b o l t s and s p r i n g washers
s e c u r i n g t h e t h r e e support c l i p s a t t h e t o p and s$ght-hand mounting f o o t
f l a n g e s and t h e c l i p bracket on t h e compressor i n t e r m e d i a t e c a s i n g
a d j a c e n t t o t h e o i l pressure t r a n s m i t t e r .

Remove t h e locking wire and disconnect t h e s i x burner f e e d pipes


from t h e connections on t h e r e a r of t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead and' f i t
blanks t o t h e connections and pipe ends.

Unlock and remove t h e two c a s t e l l a t e d n u t s , washers and b o l t s s e c u r i n g


each branch pipe connection t o t h e f r o n t of t h e bulkhead and remove
t h e manifold from t h e engine.

I f 'necessary, remove t h e F.C.U. a d a p t e r a s follows :

Remove t h e n u t s and s p r i n g washers s e c u r i n g t h e adapter f l a n g e t o t h e


F.C.U. and disconnect t h e bonding l e a d . I f Mod. 906 (Service
B u l l e t i n No.Da73-11, Re-run of P1 ram a i r pipe t o bottom of t h e
F.C.U.) is f i t t e d , remove t h e ram a i r pipe c l i p from t h e bracket on
t h e F. C . U . , t h e n remove t h e n u t s , s p r i n g washers, bonding lead and
bracket from t h e adapter r e t a i n i n g s t u d s .
Remove t h e c a s t e l l a t e d n u t , washer, s p a c e r and b o l t s e c u r i n g t h e F.C.U.
d r a i n pipe t o t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead, unlock and remove t h e banjo
connection b o l t and r o t a t e t h e pipe c l e a r of t h e F.C.U.
Unlock and disconnect t h e a d a p t e r branch pipe from No. 4 burner.
Remove t h e t h r e e n u t s , p l a i n and s p r i n g washers s e c u r i n g t h e F.C.U.
a d a p t e r f i r e s e a l support housing and s t i f f e n e r p l a t e t o t h e r e a r of
t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead, remove t h e D-head b o l t s and withdraw t h e p l a t e
from t h e branch pipe.
S l i d e t h e housing forward and t h e r e t a i n i n g s l e e v e rearward and c o l l e c t
t h e s p l i t Tufnol bush and s p l i t s e a l i n g p l a t e .
Withdraw t h e a d a p t e r t r a n s f e r tube from t h e bore of t h e connection i n
t h e F.C.U. and remove i t from t h e s t u d s , then withdraw No.4 burner
branch pipe through t h e bulkhead and remove t h e adapter.

' Mar. 12/68 73-10-1


Page 201
ROLLS-ROYCE DA EFT
MAINTENANCE
A E R O ENGINE

Fuel manifold - Maintenance practices (cont.)

l! -1 l
MANIFOLD CONNECTION
MANIFOLD CLIPPING POINT O N1 REAR OF
I COMPRESSOR INTERMEDIATE CASING
BURNER BRANCH PIPE

/ I
I
l
TYPICAL MANIFOLD CONNECTION
O N FIREPROOF BULKHEAD

F.C.U. MANIFOLD ADAPTER AND


MANIFOLD CLIPPING POINT O N SUPPORT HOUSING REMOVAL DETAILS
H O T AIR VALVE OUTLET FLANGE

G 2959

Fuel manifold - connection details (engines with Mod.906 and Mod. 1191)
Fig.201

73-10-1 Mar. 12/68


Page 202
ROLLS-ROYCE *ER0 ENGINE
MAINTENANCE
Fuel manif o l d - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s (cont. )

(g) Remove t h e s e a l support housing and bush r e t a i n i n g s l e e v e from t h e


a d a p t e r , d i s c a r d t h e s e a l i n g r i n g and f i t blanks t o t h e a d a p t e r and
F.C.U. connection.

B. Installation

-
NOTE: Before i n s t a l l a t i o n , inspect t h e F.C.U. adapter and f u e l manifold
and pressure t e s t them as described i n 73-00, 'Maintenance P r a c t i c e s ' .

(1) I f necessary, i n s t a l l t h e F.C.U. adapter a s follows :

F i t t h e a d a p t e r f i r e s e a l support housing and bush r e t a i n i n g s l e e v e t o


t h e adapter and assemble a new s e a l i n g r i n g on t h e t r a n s f e r tube.
I n s e r t t h e No.4 burner branch pipe through t h e a p e r t u r e i n t h e
f i r e p r o o f bulkhead, then l o c a t e t h e adapter t r a n s f e r tube i n t h e bore
of t h e F.C.U. connection, push t h e f l a n g e o n t o t h e s t u d s and on
Mod.906 engines, f i t t h e ram a i r pipe c l i p b r a c k e t ; f i t t h e bonding
lead terminal and s e c u r e t h e connection with t h e two s p r i n g
washers and n u t s .
Assemble t h e s p l i t Tufnol bushes and t h e s p l i t s e a l i n g p l a t e i n t h e
bush r e t a i n i n g s l e e v e on t h e a d a p t e r , s l i d e t h e support housing over
them and l o c a t e t h e assembly on t h e f r o n t of t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead
with t h e t h r e e D-head b o l t s .

F i t t h e s t i f f e n e r p l a t e t o t h e adapter branch pipe and l o c a t e it on


t h e r e a r of t h e bulkhead, then s e c u r e t h e f i r e s e a l support housing and
EJ s t i f f e n e r p l a t e t o t h e D-head b o l t s with t h e p l a i n and s p r i n g
Pak washers and n u t s .
MDa
IS1 Remove t h e blanks and connect t h e adapter branch pipe t o No.4
CS2 burner, t i g h t e n t h e swivel nut and lock it with 0.028 i n . (22 s.w.g.)
s t a i n l e s s s t e e l wire (70-12).

F i t new washers t o t h e F.C.U. d r a i n pipe banjo connection, s e c u r e it


t o t h e F.C.U. w i t h ' t h e b o l t , then t i g h t e n t h e b o l t t o t h e torque
load s p e c i f i e d i n 70-01, and lock it with 0.028 i n . w i r e ; locate
t h e pipe c l i p on t h e f r o n t of t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead w i t h t h e b o l t and
s p a c e r and s e c u r e it a t t h e r e a r with t h e washer, c a s t e l l a t e d nut and
s p l i t pin.

(2) I f necessary, f i t t h e support c l i p s t o t h e manifold (Fig.2011, t h e n


l o c a t e t h e manifold on t h e f r o n t of t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead, and r o u t e
it over t h e compressor intermediate casing, around t h e f r o n t of t h e
right-hand and upper mounting f e e t , and t o t h e r e a r of t h e h o t a i r
valve body.

73-10-1
Page .208
MAINTENANCE

Fuel manifold - Maintenance practices (cont.)

Connect t h e manifold i n l e t pipe t o t h e F.C.U. adapter, t i g h t e n t h e


swivel nut and lock it with 0.028 i n . wire.

Locate t h e manifold T-piece connections and t h e elbow connection i n t h e


appropriate a p e r t u r e s i n t h e bulkhead and s e c u r e each f l a n g e t o t h e
bulkhead with a p l a i n b o l t and a b o l t with a locking wire anchor p o i n t ,
two washers and c a s t e l l a t e d nuts (Fig.ZOl), then t i g h t e n t h e n u t s and
lock them with s p l i t p i n s .

Secure each f u e l manifold support c l i p with a s p r i n g washer and b o l t


t o t h e s t u d on each right-hand and upper mounting f o o t f l a n g e , t o t h e
bracket on t h e compressor intermediate casing adjacent t o t h e o i l
pressure t r a n s m i t t e r , and t o t h e s t u d on t h e head of t h e D-head b o l t
r e t a i n i n g t h e hot a i r valve o u t l e t flange with a s p r i n g washer and n u t .

Remove t h e blanks and connect t h e burner branch pipes t o t h e manifold


unions on t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead, t i g h t e n t h e swivel n u t s t o t h e torque
load s p e c i f i e d i n 70-01 and lock each one t o t h e extension on t h e end of
t h e adjacent connect ion r e t a i n i n g b o l t us i n g 0.028 i n . w i r e .

Before f i t t i n g a new o r replacement manifold t o t h e engine, i n s p e c t t h e


manifold, F.C.U. a d a p t e r and No.4 burner f e e d p i p e a s d e s c r i b e d i n 73-00
'Maintenance P r a c t i c e s t . The burner f e e d p i p e s must a l s o be i n s p e c t e d
b e f o r e f i t t i n g t~ t h e engine.
EJ
Pak
MD a
IS1
CS2
A t t h e periods s t i p u l a t e d i n t h e inspection schedule, i n s p e c t t h e f u e l
manif o l d as described i n 73-00 ' Maintenance P r a c t i c e s ' .

73-10-1
Apr. 86
Page 204
ROLLS-ROYCE D) l4F2 'T A m 0 ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

FUEL PUMP - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION


-U
C
m l. General
%
...
C
14
C
.m
The f u n c t i o n of t h e f u e l pump i s t o d e l i v e r t h e f u e l r e q u i r e d by t h e engine
-a
Q a t high pressure t o t h e t h r o t t l e valve i n t h e flow c o n t r o l u n i t (F. C.U. ),
U
.-,
E from which i t passes t o t h e burners. The pump i s f i t t e d on t h e left-hand
2 s i d e of t h e engine and i s driven by t h e lower b e v e l g e a r s a t approximately
one-f i f t h t h e engine speed.

The pump, i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g . l and 2, i s a n o s c i l l a t i n g multi-plunger u n i t of


variable stroke. It has a p o s i t i v e displacement a t maximum s t r o k e of about
1 0 g a l l o n s per hour per 100 r.p.m. of pump speed, with an output pressure which
may exceed 1,200 p.s.i. A l l t h e moving p a r t s a r e f u e l l u b r i c a t e d .

F u e l pump
Fig. l

The connections t o t h e pump a r e t h e i n l e t from t h e low pressure f u e l f i l t e r


i n t h e F.C.U., t h e o u t l e t t o t h e F.C.U., t h e servo pressure connection t o t h e
F.C.U. 'and t h e drain. The l a s t i s c a r r i e d rearwards t o j o i n t h e main engine l
d r a i n s , a s described i n 71-02-0. l

The main p a r t s of t h e pump a r e t h e r o t o r , t h e cam p l a t e , t h e servo mechanism l


and a s p i l l valve l i m i t i n g servo pressure,
4
Mar. 9/60 73-10-2
Page 1 l
ROLLS-ROYCE D W
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

F u e l pump - Description and o p e r a t i o n (cont. )


SERVO RESTRICTING
ORIFICE

GOVERNOR
ADJUSTMENT
1/
1953A
Sectioned f u e l pump
Fig. 2

The r o t o r , which c a r r i e s seven hollow plungers, i s driven by a s h a f t which


i s f i t t e d wZth a s e a l t o prevent o i l leaking from t h e bevel box d r i v e i n t o t h e
pump and f u e l leaking from t h e pump i n t o t h e o i l system. A d r a i n common t o
both s e a l s i s incorporated.

Operation

The pump operates on t h e swash p r i n c i p l e , t h e i n c l i n e d f a c e of t h e cam p l a t e


keeping i n contact with t h e plungers as t h e y a r e revolved with t h e r o t o r .
Movement of a servo p i s t o n a l t e r s t h e cam p l a t e angle and t h e r e f o r e t h e l e n g t h
of t h e plunger s t r o k e ; t h e e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y of t h e pump a t given r.p.m.
t h e r e f o r e depends on t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e servo p i s t o n ,

7 3-10-2 Mar. 9/ 60
Page 2
ROLLS-ROYCE
MAINTENANCE

F u e l pump - Description and operation (cont. )

The forces acting on t h e servo piston, which i s l i g h t l y spring loaded towards


t h e maximum stroke position, a r e the pump delivery pressure on one s i d e and
TJ
F:
t h e servo f u e l pressure, aided by t h e spring, on t h e other. Servo f u e l
~ pressure i s produced by f u e l a t pump delivery pressure entering a filt'er-
M
protected metering o r i f i c e i n t h e f u e l pump and discharging through a h a l f - b a l l
F:
.m
s p i l l valve i n the flow control u n i t ; the more the s p i l l valve closes, t h e
nearer w i l l t h e servo pressure approach t h e pump delivery pressure (see 73-00
Z
.C)

.-E and 73-20-1).


2
.
The f u e l pump s p i l l valve i s of similar p a t t e r n (fig. 2 ) Normally held i n t h e
closed p o s i t i o n by a spring, t h i s valve opens t o reduce servo pressure, t h e pump
stroke and hence t h e f u e l delivery should the engine overspeed through any
f a i l u r e of the normal propeller control Qrshou1.d t h e pump d e l i v e r y pressure
r i s e excessively. 'i
i.l
Overspeeding i s prevented by r a d i a l d r i l l i n g s i n the pump r o t o r which cause
a build-up i n t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f u e l pressure a t excessive r,p,m. The pressure
a c t s on t h e governor diaphragm t o open t h e s p i l l valve. The governor f u e l
pressure i s opposed by the i n l e t f u e l pressure and a tension spring which can
be adjusted%,by a screw. This i s locked by a capnut acting against a rubber
s e a l i n g washer t o prevent f u e l leakage, a s shown i n f i g . 2. Adjustment of t h e
governor s e t t i n g i s described i n 73-10-2 under 'Maintenance P r a c t i c e s ' .
I f f o r any reason the pump delivery pressure r i s e s t o t h e predetermined s a f e
working l i m i t f o r t h e f u e l pipes and manifolds, servo pressure w i l l i n c r e a s e
proportionately and f o r c e t h e s p i l l valve off i t s s e a t l i k e a normal r e l i e f
valve, so preventing any f u r t h e r r i s e . I n t h i s way, t h e delivery pressure i s
prevented from exceeding what i s termed t h e ' s t a l l ' pressure s e t t i n g . Provision
i s made f o r attaching a gauge t o measure the pump delivery presgure.

Air may be admitted i n t h e f u e l f e e d t o t h e pump by running a tank dry o r by


disconnecting a t any point i n the a i r c r a f t f u e l supply system. It will cause
e r r a c t i c running and t h e system must then be bled. Two spring-loaded b a l l
valves a r e provided on t h e f u e l pump f o r t h i s purpose: one i n the governor
chamber i t s e l f , bleeding from both s i d e s of t h e diaphragm when t h e valve i s
open, and t h e other on top of t h e r o t o r chamber.

Each bleed point i s blanked by a capnut; t h e type of valve i s shown i n fig.2.


Application of t h e s p e c i a l bleed tool, as described i n 73-00 under 'Maintenance
P r a c t i c e s , ' depresses the b a l l and permits a i r and f u e l t o discharge..

73-10-2
Page 3
ROLLS-ROYCE AERO E N G I N E
MAINTENANCE

FUEL PUMP - MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

1. S e r v i c i n g

A. F u e l s t a r v a t i o n

I n t e r r u p t i o n of t h e f u e l s u p p l y t o t h e p u m p f o r any reason, e.g. shortage


of f u e l o r i n a d v e r t e n t l y c l o s i n g t h e L . P . cock m a y r e s u l t i n e r r a t i c
r u n n i n g d u e t o a i r i n t h e s y s t e m , and s i n c e t h e p u m p i s f u e l l u b r i c a t e d , an
excessive p e r i o d of such d r y running can r e s u l t i n d a m a g e t o t h e pump.

D r y running w i l l o c c u r u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :

(1) E n g i n e w i n d m i l l i n g w i t h H.P. cock open and L.P. cock closed.

( 2 ) E n g i n e w i n d m i l l i n g a f t e r f a i l u r e of L.P. f u e l s u p p l y t o t h e p u m p , e.g.
f u e l tank e m p t y .

B. D r y running l i m i t a t i o n

(1) C h a n g e t h e p u m p ' i f d r y r u n n i n g has o c c u r r e d f o r m o r e than 1 hour.

( 2 ) I f d r y running has o c c u r r e d f o r less than 1 hour r e c t i f y t h e cause of


the f u e l s h o r t a g e and b l e e d the f u e l s y s t e m , C h a p . 7 3 - 0 0 M a i n t e n a n c e
Practices.
NOTE: D r y running w i l l n o t o c c u r i f b o t h t h e H.P. and L . P . cocks a r e
c l o s e d , p r o v i d e d t h a t there w a s no f a i l u r e of t h e L . P . f u e l
s u p p l y p r i o r t o c l o s u r e of t h e cocks.

CAUTION: I F A PUMP I S REJECTED THROUGH A MECHANICAL FAILURE, THE FUEL


CONTROL U N I T (F.C.U.) MUST ALSO BE REJECTED AND RETURNED WITH
THE PUMP FOR SUSPECTED METALLIC CONTAMINATION.

C. Fuel p u m p c a v i t a t i o n

CAUTION: I F THE PRESSURE O F FUEL A T THE ENGINE I N L E T IS SIGNIFICANTLY


REDUCED DURING FLIGHT A T HIGH ALTITUDE THERE IS A IXNGER THAT
CAVITATION WILL TAKE PLACE I N THE PUMP. CAVITATION I S CAUSED
BY PARTIAL VAPOUR1 ZATION O F THE FUEL AND I T S E F F E C T I S TO
GENERATE VIOLENT SHOCK WAVES AND VIBRATION I N THE ENGINE FUEL
SYSTEM. I N SEVERE CASES T H I S WILL BE INDICATED T O THE P I L O T BY
FLUCTUATIONS I N FUEL FLOW, TORQUE PRESSURE, J . P . T . AND POSSIBLY
R.P.M. LOW FUEL PRESSURE OR HIGH DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (FUEL
F I L T E R BLOCKED) WARNINGS MAY ALSO BE RECEIVED.

A p r . 80 73-10-2
Page 201
ROLLS-ROY CE Mm
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

F u e l pump - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

CAUTION: PROLONGED RUNNING UNDER THESE CONDITIONS WILL CAUSE MECHANICAL


( c o n t . ) DAMAGE TO THE PUMP AND METALLIC CONTAMINATION OF THE F.C.U. 'SHERE
IS ALSO A POSSIBILITY THAT THE FUEL TRANSFER PIPES AND ELBOW
CONNECTIONS WILL BE DAMAGED, WITH SUBSEQUENT RISK OF FUEL LUKAGE.
D. Suspected pump c a v i t a t i o n r e p o r t e d

I f suspected c a v i t a t i o n i n f l i g h t f o r more t h a n 5 minutes is r e p o r t e d ,


c a r r y o u t t h e following:

( l ) Change t h e f u e l pump.

( 2 ) Examine t h e t r a n s f e r p i p e s and rubber s e a l i n g r i n g s , between t h e F.C.U.


and t h e pump, and t h e F.C.U. t r a n s f e r p i p e connections. I f damage i s
observed o r s u s p e c t e d , change t h e t r a n s f e r p i p e s and/or F.C.U.
a s required. R e f e r t o '5. Leakage from f u e l t r a n s f e r p i p e s - F.C.U.
t o f u e l pump'.

A. Remove th'e f u e l pump

( l ) Close t h e L.P. cock and d r a i n t h e f u e l system through t h e L.P. f i l t e r


d r a i n valve.

( 2 ) Disconnect:

( a ) Slervo and d r a i n p i p e s from t h e pump.

( b ) L.P. f u e l p i p e ( t o d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s w i t c h ) from t h e i n l e t /
o u t l e t elbow.

( c ) Ram p r e s s u r e p i p e c l i p from t h e pump mounting.

( 3 ) Remove t h e two s p l i t ( c o t t e r ) pinned n u t s and the s s t s c r e v ? s e c u r i n g t h e


f u e l i n l e t / o u t l e t elbow connection t o t h e pump.

( 4 ) Remove t h e bonding l e a d a t t h e elbow connection.

( 5 ) P u l l . t h e elbow and t r a n s f e r p i p e s towards t h e f r o n t of t h e engine t o


r e l e a s e t h e assembly from t h e F.C.U., t h e n withdraw t h e p i p e s from t h e
connection, u s i n g t h e s e r r a t e d spanners GU.17477 and GU.17476 t o break
the seals.

( 6 ) Remove t h e e i g h t s e c u r i n g n u t s and washers, do n o t d i s t u r b t h e s p l i t


( c o t t e r ) pinned n u t s and remove t h e pump from t h e engine.

Apr. 80
ROLLS-ROYCE L
B
WW U
MAINTENANCE
A E R O ENGINE

Fuel pump - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

B. I n s t a l l t h e f u e l pump

( 1 ) Renew t h e e i g h t rubber s e a l i n g r i n g s on t h e two t r a n s f e r p i p e s and t h e


two r i n g s between t h e f u e l i n l e t / o u t l e t elbow connection and t h e pump.

( 2 ) F i t a new pump ( t o a i r i n t a k e c a s i n g ) j o i n t washer.

( 3 ) F i t t h e pump t o t h e engine and t u r n t h e engine t o engage t h e pump d r i v e


s h a f t , i f required.

(4) F i t t h e p l a i n washers, s p r i n g washers and pump s e c u r i n g l o c k n u t s .

(5) Fit:

( a ) T r a n s f e r p i p e s t o t h e i n l e t / o u t l e t elbow.

(b) L.P. f u e l p i p e ( t o d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s w i t c h ) t o t h e i n l e t / o u t l e t
elbow.

( c ) Servo and d r a i n p i p e s t o t h e pump.

( d ) Ram p r e s s u r e p i p e c l i p t o t h e pump mounting.

(6) I n s e r t t h e t r a n s f e r p i p e s i n t o t h e F.C.U. connection.

SM
McF
MDa
. I&
S1
C&
S2
S&
228

Fuel pump connection and bleed p o i n t s


Fig. 201

Apr. 80 73-10-2
Page 203
ROLLS-ROY CE ,ER0 ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

Fuel. pump - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t ' d )

( 7 ) F i t t h e bonding l e a d a t t h e el.bow c o n n e c t i o n and s e c u r e t h e elbow


t o t h e pump w i t h t h e s e t s c r e w , b o l . t s , washers and c a s t e l l . a t e d
n u t s ; l.ock t h e c a s t e l l a t e d n u t s w i t h s p l i t p i n s .

(8) Bleed t h e f u e l system a s i n s t r u c t e d i n Chap.73-00.

(9) S e t t h e f u e l pump g o v e r n o r a s i n s t r u c t e d i n '3. A d j u s t m e n t / T e s t l .

A. S e t t h e f u e l pump g o v e r n o r .

NOTE: Because o f t h e maximum e n g i n e s p e e d l i m i t a t i o n , it i s n o t


p e r m i s s i b l e t o o v e r s p e e d t h e e n g i n e t o t h e r.p.m. a t which t h e
g o v e r n o r normally contro1.s. I t is n e c e s s a r y t h e r e f o r e , t o
check and s e t t h e g o v e r n o r with t h e e n g i n e r u n n i n g a t a lower
e n g i n e s p e e d which c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p r e d e t e r m i n e d amount o f
a d j u s t m e n t from t h e a c t u a l f i n a l governor s e t t i n g .

Method l. - DELETED

Method 2

( 1 ) F i t t h e s e t t i n g j i g AK.969A o r GU.21377 t o t h e e n g i n e by clamping t h e


g r a d u a t e d p l a t e t o t h e c e n t r e b o s s o f t h e f u e l pump g o v e r n o r chamber
w i t h t h e clamp j u s t c l e a r o f t h e a d j u s t i n g s c r e w c a p n u t . F i t the
p o i n t e r and s o c k e t t o t h e a d j u s t i n g s c r e w s o t h a t t h e p o i n t e r c o i n c i d e s
w i t h t h e 225 d e g r e e mark on t h e p l a t e ; r e f e r t o Fig.202.

( 2 ) Remove t h e l o c k i n g w i r e and s l a c k e n t h e c a p n u t on t h e g o v e r n o r
a d j u s t i n g s c r e w , r o t a t e t h e a d j u s t i n g screw and p o i n t e r i n a n a n t i -
c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e 0 d e g r e e mark and r e t i g h t e n t h e c a p n u t t o
t h e t o r q u e l o a d s p e c i f i e d i n Chap. 70-01.

( 3 ) T r i p the automatic f e a t h e r i n g c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s t o p r e v e n t t h e
p r o p e l l e r a u t o - f e a t h e r i n g under t h e r e s u l t i n g low t o r q u e c o n d i t i o n s .

(4) Run t h e e n g i n e t o 1 2 , 0 0 0 r.p.m. t r i m t o 0 p e r c e n t , open t h e t h r o t t l e


s l o w l y t o f u l l y open and check t h a t t h e speed i s governed t o 1 4 , 2 0 0
r.p.m. p l u s 0 minus l100 r.p.m.

73-1.0-2
Feb. 87
Page 204
R O L L S - R O Y CE AERO E N G I N E
MAINTENANCE

Fuel. pump - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t ' d )

Fuel pump governor s e t t i n g j i g


F i g . 202

CAUTION: DUE TO INTERACTION OF THE F.C.U. AND THE P.C.U. CARE MUST
BE EXERCISED, WHEN CLOSING THE THROTTLE, TO AVOID EXCESSIVE
J.P.T.
(5) I f t h e governor s e t t i n g is i n c o r r e c t , c l o s e t h e t h r o t t l e and s t o p t h e
engine. Slacken t h e capnut and move t h e a d j u s t i n g screw clockwise
t o i n c r e a s e t h e governed speed o r a n t i - c l o c k w i s e t o d e c r e a s e . Moving
t h e a d j u s t i n g screw through 9 0 d e g r e e s a l t e r s t h e governed speed by
approximately 800 r.p.m. R e t i g h t e n t h e capnut t o t h e t o r q u e l o a d i n g
s p e c i f i e d i n Chap.70-01, t h e n r e p e a t ( 4 ) above.

(6) When t h e governor i s set t o c o n t r o l a t 14,200 r.p.m. p l u s 0 minus 100


r.p.m., c l o s e t h e t h r o t t l e and s t o p t h e engine. Reposition t h e
p o i n t e r s o t h a t i t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e 0 d e g r e e mark.

( 7 ) Slacken t h e capnut and c a r e f u l l y move t h e p o i n t e r i n a clockwise


d i r e c t i o n t o t h e 225 degree mark. This adjustment w i l l set t h e
governor t o c o n t r o l a t t h e a c t u a l governed speed. No a t t e m p t must
be made t o check t h i s s e t t i n g . F i n a l l y , t i g h t e n t h e capnut and
w i r e l o c k w i t h 0.028 i n . s t a i n l e s s steel w i r e . Ensure t h a t t h e
p o i n t e r s e t t i n g i s not d i s p l a c e d , then-remove t h e s e t t i n g j i g .

73-1 0-2
Feb. 87 Pages 2 0 5 / 2 0 6
J
,
R O L L S - R O Y CE DART
MAINTENANCE
A E R O ENGINE
&

/
F u e l pump - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . ) - ."'
,

I . . Reset t h e automatic f e a t h e r i n g c i r c u i t b r e a k e r and r e s t o r e t h e


(8)
I e l e c t r i c a l supply t o t h e automatic f e a t h e r i n g c i r c u i t .

(9) Carry o u t t h e engine s e r v i c e a b i l i t y run. R e f e r t o Chap.71-00.

G
.rt 4. Inspection/check
a
C,
.
rl
A . Check t h e f u e l pump d e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e
L
%

A check of t h e f u e l pump d e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e may be n e c e s s a r y i n t h e c o u r s e


of d e f e c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a s d e s c r i b e d i n Chap.71-00 under 'Trouble
U
shooting'.
G
.?I

a ( 1 ) Remove t h e domed n u t from t h e p r e s s u r e t a p p i n g on t h e f u e l pump a s


a,
W shown i n Fig.201.
G
4
Ll
c+ ( 2 ) F i t a p r e s s u r e gauge c a l i b r a t e d t o 300 p . s . i . t o t h e p r e s s u r e tapping.

( 3 ) C a r r y o u t a motoring c y c l e a s d e s c r i b e d i n Chap.71-00, 'Adjustment/test'


and n o t e t h e p r e s s u r e .

( 4 ) Disconnect t h e p r e s s u r e gauge from t h e p r e s s u r e t a p p i n g , renew t h e


bonded s e a l i n g washer, f i t t h e domed n u t and w i r e l o c k w i t h 0.028 i n .
wire.

Alr ( 5 ) V i s u a l l y examine the.pump and p i p e connections f o r s e c u r i t y and s i g n s


MD a of l e a k a g e .
I&
l SI
C&
S2
1 sa d
22s

73- 10-2
Page 207
RQLLS-ROYCE DAQU
MAINTENANCE
MRO ENGINE

F u e l pump - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

5. Leakage from f u e l t r a n s f e r p i p e s - F.C.U. t o f u e l pump


NOTE: I f a l e a k o c c u r s i n t h e r e g i o n of t h e f u e l t r a n s f e r p i p e s between t h e
F.C.U. and t h e f u e l pump, remove t h e t r a n s f e r p i p e s ( r e f e r t o f u e l
pump removal) and make t h e f o l l o w i n g dimensional checks. ' P i p e s worn
beyond l i m i t s must be r e j e c t e d .

A . Check t h a t t h e d i a m e t e r s a t t h e base o f t h e s e a l i n g r i n g grooves and o f


t h e s e a l l a n d s , a r e n o t l e s s t h a n t h e f o l l o w i n g dimensions.

S e a l i n g r i n g groove Seal land


L.P. transfer pipe 0.810 i n . 0.984 i n .
( Pre-Mod.1164 0.558 i n . 0.734 i n .
H.P. transfer pipe (
( Mod.1164 0.527 i n . 0.740 i n .

Mod.1164 i n t r o d u c e s a new H.P. f u e l t r a n s f e r p i p e s t r e n g t h e n e d by


increasing the cross-sectional thickness. The d i a m e t e r of t h e c e n t r e
l a n d a t each end of t h e p i p e i s i n c r e a s e d and new c l o s e r l i m i t r u b b e r
r i n g s a r e f i t t e d i n vee shaped s e a l i n g grooves.

B. I n s p e c t t h e f u e l pump and F.C.U. t r a n s f e r p i p e l o c a t i n g b o r e s f o r f r e t t a g e .


F r e t t a g e is p e r m i s s i b l e provided t h e maximum d e p t h does n o t exceed
0.003 i n , . a n d does n o t extend around t h e circumference f o r more t h a n P 8 0
degrees.
SM
C . Renew t h e s e a l i n g r i n g s on t h e t r a n s f e r p i p e s whenever t h e p i p e s have been Ncl
disturbed.
MDa
I&
S1
6. P r e s e r v a t i o n
C&
S2
F i l l t h e u n s e r v i c e a b l e pump w i t h t h e i n h i b i t i n g f l u i d s p e c i f i e d i n Chap. 70-12.
Ensure t h a t t h e pump i s completely f u l l by t u r n i n g t h e pump d r i v i n g s h a f t and
then blank o f f a l l t h e openings.

73-10-2 Dec. 82
Page 208
R O L L S - R O Y CE AERO ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

FUEL BURNERS - DESCRIPTION AM> OPERATION

General

Each of the seven combustion chambers is fitted with a fuel burner which
is mounted in the expansion chamber and injects fuel from the manifold into
the flame tube in a finely atomized conical spray.

Each burner consists of a spray head which locates in the swirl in the nose
of the flame tube inner flare, and a feed arm which has a squared section on
the mounting flange that locates in a square aperture in the expansion chamber
wall to prevent twisting when the securing nut is tightened.

Description

The fuel burner comprises a feed arm and a burner head consisting of a
body integral with the feed arm which houses a spring-loaded thread-type
filter, a swirl plug a.nd a swirl chamber, and a cylindrical nut and shroud
assembly which is screwed onto the body and locked by a spring-ring that
engages castellations in the body and nut. The nut incorporates a shroud
which directs a radial flow of air across the burner face to minimize carbon
formation on the burner nozzle.

Air washed burner


Fig.l

Mar.l2/6 8 73-10-3
Page 1
Fuel burners - Description and Operation (cont.)

To compensate f o r v a r i a t i o n i n a i r flow t o i n d i v i d u a l combustion chambers,


,engines t o Mod.1226 (Service B u l l e t i n No.Da73-30) i n c o r p o r a t e a i r washed
burners with biased flow; each burner (Fig.1) i s c a l i b r a t e d t o g i v e t h e
required f u e l flow t o s u i t s p e c i f i c combustion chamber c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and
i d e n t i f i e d by numbers and l e t t e r s .

Biased flow burners t o Mod.1536(SeB.PJo.Da73-56) standard i n c o r p o r a t e a


fuel-wash annulated chamber through which a percentage of t h e main f u e l
flow i s bled t o flow over t h e e x t e r i o r of t h e c o n i c a l s w i r l chamber and
prevent t h e excessive accumulation of carbon: t h e annulated chamber
communicates with t h e main f u e l flow path v i a d r i l l i n g s i n t h e two s w i r l
s l o t s located i n t h e r e a r f l a n g e of t h e s w i r l chamber.

Air and f u e l washed biased flow burners a r e i d e n t i f i e d with t h e i r associated


expansion chambers by f l a t s on t h e threaded i n l e t s t e m and by letters and
numbers of t h e burner flange.

3. Operation

Fuel i s i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e combustion chamber through a s i n g l e f i x e d


o r i f i c e located a t t h e apex of t h e c o n i c a l swirl chamber i n t h e burner head.
Two s l o t s d i r e c t t h e f u e l t a n g e n t i a l l y i n t o t h e s w i r l chamber, where i t
a c q u i r e s a s w i r l v e l o c i t y which i n c r e a s e s progressively a s t h e diameter of
t h e s w i r l chamber decreases; t h e high v e l o c i t y ateained a t t h e o r i f i c e
ensures t h a t t h e f u e l discharge i s d i r e c t e d downstream a s a f i n e l y
atomized c o n i c a l spray.

Big. 2 DELETED.

May 30/70
ROLLS-ROY CE h 3W U
MAINTENANCE
AERO E M m E

FUEL BURNERS - MAINTENANCE PRACTICES


1. S e r v i c i n g
A. General
( 1 ) During s e r v i c e , accumulation of carbon may be removed from burner
nozzles t o r e c t i f y s t a r t i n g o r handling d e f e c t s during t r o u b l e
shooting,Chap.71 -'POWER PLANT - TROUBLE SHOOTING'. This w i l l e n s u r e
maximum l i f e of t h e h o t end components and t r o u b l e f r e e s t a r t i n g .
B. A i r washed burners
( 1 ) On engines which a r e r e g u l a r l y s t a r t e d by using the a i r c r a f t b a t t e r i e s ,
c l e a n t h e burners a t 50 hour i n t e r v a l s .
( 2 ) On engines which have a tendency t o accumulate a heavy carbon d e p o s i t
on the burners, c l e a n t h e burners a t 250 hour i n t e r v a l s .
( 3 ) On engines which have a normal r a t e of carbon accumulation, c l e a n
t h e burners a t 600 hour i n t e r v a l s .
NOTE: A i r washed burners a r e cleaned by u s i n g t h e burner c l e a n i n g t o o l
GU.18606 with brush p i e c e GU.18606 ( D e t a i l 41, o r t h e s c r a p i n g
head GU. 19610.

( 4 ) Carry o u t t h e following checks before using t h e burner c l e a n i n g t o o l ,


brush piece o r scraping head.
( a ) I f t h e brush piece i s t o be used, ensure t h a t t h e b r i s t l e s a r e i n
good c o n d i t i o n and t h a t t h e head i s s e c u r e l y positioned on t h e
JK tool.
McF
MDa (b) I f t h e scraping head i s t o be used, e n s u r e t h a t the rubber s l e e v e
I & and t h e blade a r e n o t cracked, chipped o r d i s t o r t e d .
S1 ( c ) Ensure t h a t t h e s c r a p i n g edge of the blade i s set p a r a l l e l t o t h e
C & a x i s of t h e s p i n d l e p a r t of the t o o l :and t h a t t h e head is s e c u r e l y
S2 positioned on the t o o l .
S &
228 (5) Using a vice, nut and r u l e ( r e f e r Fig.201), ensure t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e
between the t o p of t h e b r i s t l e s and t h e a x i s of t h e s p i n d l e i s a
maximum of 2.300 i n . If t h e s c r a p i n g head i s t o be used, ensure t h a t
t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e edge of the blade and t h e a x i s of t h e s p i n d l e
i s a m a x i m u m .of 2.200 i n .
NOTE: I t i s permissible t o reduce t h e l e n g t h of t h e threaded p o r t i o n
of the burner c l e a n i n g t o o l from 0.600 i n . t o 0.500 i n . , t o
f a c i l i t a t e adjustment of t h e s c r a p i n g head.

I ( 6 ) Adjust t h e burner c l e a n i n g t o o l by p l a c i n g t h e z e r o mark on t h e r u l e i n


l i n e w i t h t h e top of t h e b r i s t l e s o r t h e s c r a p i n g edge of t h e blade,
then t u r n t h e s p i n d l e through 180 degrees. Divide t h e r e s u l t i n g
reading by two. Ensure t h a t , with t h e s p i n d l e of t h e t o o l set a t t h e
' f u l l y o u t ' p o s i t i o n ( r e f e r t o Fig.201), t h e d i s t a n c e between f a c e 'A'
of t h e head and f a c e 'B' of t h e t o o l l o c a t i n g member i s 3.406 i n .

73-10-3
Nov. 80 Page 201
ROLLS-ROYCE AERO ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

Fuel burners - Maintenance practices(cont.)


(7) If the head is not secure on the tool, or if it is necessary to
reset the head or fit a replacement head to the tool, thoroughly
clean the threads of the head and the tool. After applying sealing
compound ILoctite A' to the threads, set the head on the tool as
previously described.
C. Cleaning the fuel burners(air washed)
CAUTION: DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CLEAN THE BURNERS ON A HOT ENGINE WITH THE
BRUSH HEAD OR THE BRISTLES WILL BURN AND DISTORT.
(1) Remove the plug from the tool access boss(Mod.855,SB No.Da72-39) or
remove the suspension pin from the most accessible outer suspension
pin boss (pre-Mod.855).
(2) Carefully insert the head of the tool through the boss of the outer
casing and the orifice of the flame tube so that the bristles are
not splayed by the threads of the boss or the rim of the orifice,
then screw the locating member of the tool fully into the boss.
(3) Carefully insert the head of the tool through the boss of the outer
casing and the orifice of the flame tube so that the rubber sleeve.
does not contact the threaded boss or the rim of the orifice, then
screw the locating member of the tool fully into the boss.
NOTE: When No.3 burner nozzle is to be cleaned, it is advisable to
set the spindle of the tool at the fully out position in the
locating member before inserting the head of the tool into the
flame tube chamber. This method of insertion prevents the
possibility of a foul occurring between the tool and the
tip of the high energy igniter.
(4) Slowly rotate the tool in the locating member by means of the
knurled handle until the head is in contact with the burner nozzle,
then rapidly move the head several times across the nozzle.
Reposition the head on the nozzle by turning the tool one complete
turn inwards then repeat the cleaning action. Repeat the inward
movement of the tool progressively and the cleaning action until the
whole area of the nozzle has been cleaned.
(5) Unscrew the locating member and withdraw the wiping tool from the
combustion chamber then repeat the process on the remaining burners.
R NOTE: The effectiveness of the wiping operation can be established
R by viewing each fuel nozzle with a suitable borescope.
( 6 ) Lubricate the threads of the plugs, (Mod.855) or pins, (pre-Mod.855)
with anti-seize compound, Chap.70-12,1SERVICINGAND STORAGE
MATERIALS' then fit a plug or pin and new tabwashers, to the
threaded boss on each outer casing. Tighten the plugs or pins to the
torque load specified in Chap.70-0lI1TORQUETIGHTENING TECHNIQUE1.
Wirelock each plug with 0.028in.stainless steel locking wire, Chap.
70-12, re-lock the pins with new tabwashers.

73-10-3 M-Da7-AVl748SER2,M-Da6-AVi.748SER
1 Mar.99
Page 202
ROLLS-ROYCE E
MAINTENANCE
l A E R O ENGlHE

Fuel burners - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

I
Divide this
reading by
t WO
-
FAC
0.375 in. DIAMETER
WITH 20 T.P.I. WHITWOR

Burner w i p i n g t o o l
F i g . 201
Blr
MDa
IS1 D . F u e l washed b u r n e r s
CS2
( 1 ) Clean f u e l washed b u r n e r s between 400 - 600 h o u r s o r a s r e q u i r e d ,
commensurate w i t h s e r v i c e e x p e r i e n c e .

E . C l e a n i n g t h e f u e l b u r n e r s ( f u e l washed)

CAUTION: FUEL WASHED BURNERS MUST NOT BE BRUSH CLEANED BECAUSE OF THE
RISK OF CARBON PARTICLES ENTERING AND BLOCKING THE FUEL FLOW
ANNULUS. I F EXCESSIVE CARBON FORMATION AROUND THE BURNER
NOZZLE I S SUSPECTED, THE BURNERS SHOULD BE CLEANED, OR REPLACED
BY A SERVICEABLE SET.

(1) The c l e a n i n g p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s o f s p r a y i n g t h e b u r n e r s n o z z l e s w i t h
L I X 400 o r Turco 5884.

Feb. 9 1 73-10-3
Pages 202A/202B
ROLLS-ROYCE ,ER0 ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

Fuel burners - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

WARNINGS: 1. WHEN USING SOLUTIONS O F L I X 400 OR TURCO 5884 OPERATORS MUST


AVOID SMOKING AND WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WITH GOGGLES.
2. I F E I T H E R SOLUTION COMES I N T O CONTACT WITH THE S K I N , WASH
THE AFFECTED AREA IMMEDIATELY WITH S N P AND WATER, THEN
A P P L Y MEDICINAL PARAFFIN OR A LANOLIN BASED CREAM
3 . STORE THE SOLUTIONS AWAY FROM ANY HEAT SOURCE AM> I N WELL
VENTILATED CONDITIONS .
I CAUTIONS: 1. DELETED

2. AFTER SPRAYING THE BURNERS ENSURE THAT ALL TRACES O F THE


CLEANING SOLUTION ARE CLEANED O F F IMMEDIAT&LY AND THAT NONE
COMES I N CONTACT WITH RUBBER COMPONENTS A S THESE SOLUTIONS
WILL DAMAGE THEM.
( 2 ) Unlock and remove t h e blanking plug from t h e burner c l e a n i n g a c c e s s
boss i n each combustion chamber a i r c a s i n g , t h e plug i s l o c a t e d i n t h e
same r a d i a l p l a n e a s t h e flame tube suspension p i n s .

( 3 ) F i l l t h e f l u i d c o n t a i n e r of t h e burner s p r a y t o o l G U . 1 6 2 6 4 w i t h t h e
s o l v e n t , t h e n i n s e r t t h e curved nozzle of t h e s p r a y t o o l i n t o t h e hole
and push home a g a i n s t t h e f l u i d c o n t a i n e r h o l d i n g p l a t e .

( 4 ) D i r e c t t h e n o z z l e forward by means of t h e h o l d e r p l a t e t h e n d i s c h a r g e
t h e f l u i d w i t h s e v e r a l s t r o k e s of t h e pump w h i l e t w i s t i n g t h e nozzle
from s i d e t o s i d e t o cover t h e f u e l burner f a c e and t h e f r o n t of t h e
- flame tube.

(5) Remove t h e s p r a y t o o l nozzle from t h e combustion chamber, f i t and lock


t h e burner c l e a n i n g a c c e s s plug and r e p e a t t h e process on t h e
remaining burners.

( 6 ) Leave t h e engine t o s t a n d f o r a t l e a s t 2 hours, but p r e f e r a b l y 12


hours, t o allow t h e s o l v e n t t o s o f t e n t h e carbon d e p o s i t s .
ROLLS-ROYCE ,ER0 ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

Fuel burners - ~aintenancepractices (cont.)

2. Removal/Installation

A. Remove the fuel burners

Remove the combustion chamber (72-40) then mark the flange to


facilitate alignment during assembly and remove the expansion chamber
from the air casing; before removing the expansion chamber on No.3 or
7 combustion chamber, remove the igniter plug.

CAUTION: DO NOT USE SELF-SHRINKING PROTECTIVE CAPS WHICH ARE STORED IN


FLUID PRIOR TO USE BECAUSE OF THE RISK OF CONTAMINATION OF
BURNER SURFACES.
Bend back the locking tab, unscrew the burner securing nut, remove the
tabwasher and bevelled washer and remove the burner from the expansion
chamber; Fit a protective cap to the burner nozzle and blank off
the fuel connection.

Removing a fuel burner


Fig. 202

73-10-3 Nov. 15/72


Page 204
ROLLS-ROYCE A E R O ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

Fuel burners - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s (cont.)

B. I n s t a l l t h e f u e l burners

NOTE: (1) Before i n s t a l l i n g a Mod.1226 o r Mod.1536 burner, check t h a t t h e


i d e n t i f i c a t i o n markings on t h e burner f l a n g e and t h e expansion
chamber burner mounting f l a n g e correspond (Table 201 and Fig.203).

( 2 ) On engines w i t h Mod.1226 o r Mod.1536 i t i s important t h a t a


b u r n e r of t h e c o r r e c t flow b i a s number i s f i t t e d t o t h e
a s s o c i a t e d expansion chamber, b u t a b u r n e r of any b i a s number may
b e f i t t e d t o allow an a i r c r a f t t o b e flown back t o b a s e provided
t h a t i t i s replaced a t base t o give t h e c o r r e c t bias. Fuel o r
a i r washer b u r n e r s must b e f i t t e d a s a set and must n o t b e
mixed.

I ENGINES SUBJECT TO MODIFICATION 1226 OR 1536 I


Expansion chamber Burner f l a n g e Identification f l a t s
identifi'cations identifications on burner s t e m

AI? 23 AF None
B, E5 and G7 57 BEG
l
l
C and D CD

Example: A burner which h a s 3 f l a t s on t h e t h r e a d of t h e f u e l i n l e t


s t e m and t h e letters C.D. stamped on t h e f l a n g e may b e f i t t e d
t o l e t t e r C o r D expansion chamber.

Burner and expansion chamber i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s


Table 201
NOTE: Mod.1226 r e f e r s t o non-fuel washed b u r n e r s with b i a s e d flow.
Mod.1536 r e f e r s t o f u e l washed b u r n e r s w i t h b i a s e d flow.

( l ) Ensure t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l e t t e r s on t h e burner f l a n g e and


expansion chamber f l a n g e c o i n c i d e , t h e n i n s e r t t h e b u r n e r i n t o t h e
expansion chamber with t h e head towards t h e r e a r and l o c a t e t h e s q u a r e
s e c t i o n on t h e burner s t e m i n t h e s q u a r e a p e r t u r e i n t h e expansion
chamber.

( 2 ) F i t t h e p l a i n washer, b e v e l l e d f a c e uppermost, tabwasher and s e c u r i n g


n u t , and t i g h t e n t h e n u t l o o s e l y ; t o a l l o w alignment of t h e b u r n e r
i n t h e combustion chamber t h e s e c u r i n g n u t must not be t i g h t e n e d u n t i l
t h e expansion chamber i s secured t o t h e a i r c a s i n g .

(3) Apply a t h i n c o a t i n g of t h e j o i n t i n g compound s p e c i f i e d i n (70-12) t o


t h e j o i n t f a c e s of t h e expansion chamber and a i r c a s i n g i n accordance
w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n 70-26.

Nov. 15/72
ROLLS-ROY CE l 9I 3 , E R 0 ENGINE

Fuel burners - Maintenance practices (cont.)

IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

F u e l burner and expansion chamber i d e n t i f i c a t i o n


Fig. 203

( 4 ) Locate t h e expansion chamber i n t h e a i r c a s i n g , ensuring t h a t t h e


alignment marks c o i n c i d e , and e n t e r t h e b u r n e r head i n t o t h e flame
t u b e s w i r l vane o r i f i c e .

( 5 ) Secure t h e expansion chamber t o t h e c a s i n g w i t h 'D'-head b o l t s , ' D 1 -


shape washers, s p r i n g washers and n u t s ; t h e 'D1-head b o l t s a r e
assembled w i t h t h e i r h e a d s t o t h e r e a r , t h e f l a t on t h e head o f each
b o l t a b u t t i n g t h e b o l t - t r a p on t h e a i r c a s i n g .

73-10-3 Nov. 15/72


Page 206
ROLLS-ROYCE DART
MAINTENANCE
AERO EW,M

Fuel burners - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s (cont.)

( 6 ) Tighten t h e b u r n e r s e c u r i n g n u t t o t h e t o r q u e load s p e c i f i e d i n 70-01


and check t h a t t h e r e i s a minimum c l e a r a n c e of 0.080 i n . between t h e
burner f e e d arm and t h e nose of t h e flame t u b e , then bend up t h e
locking t a b .

( 7 ) R e f i t t h e combustion chamber(s) a s d e s c r i b e d i n 72-40.

S t a r t t h e engine and c a r r y o u t t h e recommended s e r v i c e a b i l i t y ground check


a s d e s c r i b e d i n 71-00 'Power pant - A d j u s t m e n t / ~ e s t ' (p.b.501). After
s t o p p i n g t h e e n g i n e examine t h e combustion chambers f o r l e a k s , g a s blows
and d i s c o l o u r a t i o n of t h e a i r c a s i n g s , and check t h e f u e l manifold
c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e b u r n e r s f o r s e c u r i t y , l e a k s , c h a f i n g and kinking.

Nov. 15/72 I 73- 10-3


Pages 207/208
ROLLS-ROYCE DA R
MAINTENANCE
*ER0 ENGINE

CONTROL - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General

A s explained i n 73-00, t h e c o n t r o l s e c t i o n of t h e engine f u e l system contains


both manual and automatic controls. The manual c o n t r o l provides a means of
r e g u l a t i n g t h e engine power output by c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f u e l supply. In flight,
however, t h e mass a i r flow and hence t h e f u e l requirement w i l l a l t e r a s t h e
a i r i n t a k e pressure changes with v a r i a t i o n s i n a l t i t u d e o r forward speed.
An automatic c o n t r o l a d j u s t s t h e f u e l flow t o meet t h e s e requirements, thus
obviating t h e need f o r constant manual adjustment. A manually operated
c o n t r o l f o r trimming t h e f u e l flow t o compensate f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n a i r i n t a k e
temperature and f o r providing a c o n t r o l l e d f u e l flow f o r engine s t a r t i n g a r e
a l s o incorporated i n t h e system.

During the s t a r t i n g cycle and i n f l i g h t , t h e q u a n t i t y of f u e l supplied i s


r e g u l a t e d by c o n t r o l s housed i n t h e flow c o n t r o l u n i t (F. C.U. ) .
flow i s r e g u l a t e d by varying t h e f u e l pump s t r o k e and hence t h e output of
The f u e l
l
l
t h e pump through t h e servo system. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between pump output a t
maximum s t r o k e and engine demand a t various engine r,p.m. i s shown i n f i g . 1 .
l

IDLING TAKE-OFF
ENGINE R.P.M.
85 10

F u e l pump output and engine demand


Fig. l
2, Servo system

The servo system, shown i n purple i n 73-00, f i g . & uses f u e l under pressure
as a working medium. The f u n c t i o n of t h e servo system i s twofold and ensures
that:

A t a constant a i r i n t a k e pressure, t h e same p r e s s u r e drop i s maintained


a c r o s s t h e t h r o t t l e valve whatever t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e t h r o t t l e plunger
i n t h e valve o r i f i c e .

Mar. 15/60 73-20


Page 1
ROLLS-ROYCE DA W
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

Control - Description and Operation (cont. )

A t a given t h r o t t l e s e t t i n g , t h e pressure drop across t h e t h r o t t l e valve,


and therefore t h e f u e l flow, i s varied i n accordance with a i r intake pressure.
U
3.
The f u e l pump plungers, r o t a t e d by t h e r o t o r against the i n c l i n e d camplate, 2
d e l i v e r f u e l a t high pressure t o t h e t h r o t t l e valve, where i t i s controlled a
-.
3
and passed through the back pressure valve and high pressure cock t o the f u e l
manifold and burners. ?!
as_
3
P?
-
a
Servo pressure i s produced by feeding the pump delivery pressure through a
r e s t r i c t o r and allowing the r e s t r i c t e d flow t o r e t u r n t o t h e f u e l pump i n l e t
s i d e through two controlled bleeds, one i n the F.C.U. and one i n the f u e l
pump i t s e l f .

The flow through each bleed o r i f i c e , and hence the servo pressure, i s controlled
by a s p i l l valve. The valve i n t h e F,C,U. exercises normal control, while t h e
one i n t h e f u e l pump a c t s a s a s a f e t y valve against excessive f u e l delivery
pressure or overspeeding of the engine.

Under steady running conditions, t h e servo f u e l pressure, aided by a spring, on


one side, opposes the f u e l pump delivery pressure on the other, t o s t a b i l i z e
t h e servo piston a t a given position. An increased bleed from the servo s i d e
reduces servo pressure, so causing t h e pump t o reduce s t r o k e t o maintain the
predetermined pressure difference across t h e t h r o t t l e valve, A reduced bleed
from the servo s i d e closes t h e s p i l l valve and t h i s r e s u l t s i n an increased
pump stroke and delivery t o maintain t h e pressure difference a s before.

Any a l t e r a t i o n t o t h e air i n t a k e pressure, however, through a change i n t h e


forward speed or t h e a l t i t u d e , w i l l a f f e c t t h e s p i l l valve. A capsule assembly
maintains equilibrium a t a d i f f e r e n t t h r o t t l e pressure drop, i , e . t h e r e w i l l be
a change of f u e l flow without a change of t h r o t t l e plunger s e t t i n g .
The compensatian f o r changes i n a i r i n t a k e pressure i s such t h a t t h e f u e l flow
cannot ,be increased beyond the predetermined maximum permissible f o r s t a t i c
I.S.A. sea-level conditions.

3 , Overspeed control

The second servs s p i l l valve, positioned i n t h e f u e l pump, serves t o reduce


servo pressure and pump delivery t o prevent:

Excessive overspeeding of t h e engine should there be any f a i l u r e of t h e


normal propeller control.

F u e l pressure i n t h e pump and d e l i v e r y pipes from exceeding a s a f e limit,


i . e . t h e ' s t a l l ' pressure.

Overspeeding i s prevented by governor f u e l pressure, produced by c e n t r i f u g a l


actioq, overcomtng a spring t o open t h e s p i l l valve and reduce the pump stroke
and deli-very, while an excessive pump delivery pressure causes a correspondingly
high servo pressure,-which f o r c e s t h e s p i l l valve off i t s seat.

73-20
Page 2
ROLLS-RBYCE DA B
MAINTENANCE
,ER0 ENGINE

Control - Description and Operation (cont. )

4. Flow control u n i t

The F.C.U. controls the f u e l flow through t h e following sub-assemblies:

A. The back pressure valve, which i s f i t t e d immediately downstream of the t h r o t t l e


valve and provides s u f f i c i e n t pump delivery and servo pressure 'for controlling
purposes a t a low f u e l flow.

B, The t h r o t t l e valve, which forms variable r e s t r i c t i o n s t o t h e f u e l flow t o the


burners.

C. The control pistons, which maintains t h e pressure difference across t h e t h r o t t l e


valve a s a constant a t any given a i r intake pressure.

D. The capsule assembly, which automatically compensates t h e f u e l flow f o r


v a r i a t i o n i n air i n t a k e pressure,

5. Fuel flow contGol - f l i p h t range


A, Fixed a i r i n t a k e pressure

In t h e f l i g h t range, each t h r o t t l e l e v e r s e t t i n g s e l e c t s an engine r.p,m, and


a predetermined f u e l flow, matched t o produce the required output without
exceeding t h e temperature l i m i t a t i o n s of the turbine assembly, The predetermined
f u e l flow i s achieved by the connection of the t h r o t t l e l e v e r with t h e t h r o t t l e
valve i n t h e F.C.U., through a controlling linkage described i n 76-10-1.

A t a f i x e d a i r i n t a k e pressure, t h e a c t u a l f u e l flow obtained w i l l be determined


by the a r e a a t t h e t h r o t t l e valve o r i f i c e and t h e pressure difference across it.
The area of t h e o r i f i c e i s s e t by the t h r o t t l e lever, and t h e pressure difference
across t h e valve i s automatically maintained a t a corresponding value by the
control piston assembly, thus ensuring t h a t the predetermined f u e l flow w i l l
not vary. This is achieved by applying t h e f u e l pressure upstream of the
t h r o t t l e valve t o one s i d e of the control piston (73-00 f i g . 1 ) and f u e l pressure
downstream of t h e t h r o t t l e valve t o the other side. Any v a r i a t i o n i n t h e
pressure difference across t h e t h r o t t l e valve causes t h e pisCon t o move and
vary t h e s p i l l valve opening. The subsequent change i n servo pressure v a r i e s
the pump s t r o k e and r e s t o r e s the pressure difference t o the s e t value.

B. Varying i n t a k e pressures

The f u e l flow i s automatically corrected f o r changes i n mass air flow by t h e


capsule assembly. This assembly i s s e n s i t i v e t o air i n t a k e pressure and i s
arranged t o influence t h e l e v e r controlling t h e s p i l l v a l v e i n t h e F.C.U.
It w i l l be seen from 72-00, fig.1, t h a t a f a l l i n t h e a i r i n t a k e pressure w i l l
reduce the pressure i n t h e a i r intake capsule and allow the evacuated capsule t o
e x e r t an increased f o r c e on t h e lever. This reduces t h e e f f e c t i v e spring
loading on the c o n t r o l piston, which w i l l move t o open the s p i l l valve and so
reduce pump stroke. The reduced f u e l flow through t h e t h r o t t l e valve produces
a smaller pressure difference and when t h e difference has been reduced by an
amount proportional t o t h e increased capsule load, t h e system s t a b i l i z e s a t t h e

73-20
Page 3
ROLLS-ROYCE B A 1P\I 'U' AERO ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

Control -~ ec rsi p t i o n . and Operation (cont. )

new pressure difference. The linkage of' t h e l e v e r carrying t h e . s p i l 1 valve


i s such t h a t it has no e f f e c t should the a i r intake pressure r i s e above 1,S.A.
s t a t i c sea-level, e.g. through ram e f f e c t a t low a l t i t u d e . The f u e l flow
c a n n ~ ttherefore r i s e above the maximum f o r take-of f conditions.
I

6. Variation i n a i r i n t a k e t e m ~ e r a t u r e .

When the a i r i n t a k e temperature exceeds I.S.A., t h e flow c o n t r o l u n i t does not


automatically correct the f u e l flow t o compensate f o r the change i n air mass
flow. The correction, known a s f u e l trimming, i s applied by a manual control
( t h e f u e l trimmer switch) i n t h e a i r c r a f t cockpit, The switch i s connected,
through an e l e c t r i c actuator, t o t h e t h r o t t l e valve lever. T h i s system
permits adjustment of t h e t h r o t t l e s e t t i n g without movement of the cockpit
t h r o t t l e l e v e r and i s so arranged t h a t any s e t trimmer p o s i t i o n w i l l apply a
constant percentage correction t o the f u e l flow a t a l l t h r o t t l e s e t t i n g s .

When the engine s t a r t s , t h e r.p.m, and f u e l pump delivery flow increase; the
c o n t r o l piston i s s e n s i t i v e t o t h i s change through t h e pressures upstream and
downstream of t h e t h r o t t l e valve. The back pressure valve remains closed,
ensuring s u f f i c i e n t pressure on the spring s i d e of the c o n t r o l piston t o keep
t h e F.C.U. s p i l l valve closed, thus retaining t h e f u e l pump a t maximum stroke
t o give s u f f i c i e n t f u e l flow f o r acceleration.

A s the engine accelerates f u r t h e r t o i d l i n g r,p.m., t h e f u e l flow increases,


causing t h e pressure difference across the t h r o t t l e valve t o increase towards
t h e s t a b i l i z e d value, and t h e back pressure valve opens. The increase i n the
t h r o t t l e upstream pressure moves the control piston a g a i n s t t h e spring,
progressively opening t h e s p i l l valve and causing a reduction i n pump servo
pressure. The pump stroke i s reduced t o maintain a s t a b i l i z e d pressure
difference across the t h r o t t l e valve a t t h e s e l e c t e d f u e l flow.

8. Engine shut-down

With t h e engine a t i d l i n g , the H.P. cock i s closed, cutting off the f u e l from
t h e t h r o t t l e valve t o t h e burners, so t h a t combustion ceases and the r.p.m.
fall.

During deceleration from i d l i n g t o shut-down, the f u e l pump output flow i s


divested back t o t h e low pressure s i d e through t h e c e n t r a l d r i l l i n g i n t h e
H,P. cock, preventing f u e l pressure build-up ahd pump s t a l l . Fuel from t h e
burner manifolds flows, v i a a cutaway i n t h e H.P. cock, i n t o the f u e l drains
system.

7 3-20 Mar, 15/60


Page 4
ROLLS-RO.YCE A W 'ij'
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

FLOW CONTROL UNIT - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

General

The flow c o n t r o l u n i t , i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g . 1 and 2 , , i s mounted on t h e lower


left-hand s i d e of t h e compressor intermediate .casing. Its f u n c t i o n i s t o
c o n t r o l t h e d e l i v e r y from t h e f u e l pump t o s u i t t h e a i r f l o w a t any given
engine r.p.m. and a i r i n t a k e pressure.

The u n i t , made up of t h r e e main c a s t i n g s , houses t h e t h r o t t l e valve, t h e servo


c o n t r o l mechanism, t h e high pressure shut-off cock and t h e low pressure f u e l
filter. The two main halves of t h e u n i t have a face-to-face j o i n t , t h e
f u e l t r a n s f e r passages being sealed by rubber r i n g s ; t h e f i l t e r bowl has a
rubber sealed j o i n t .

H.. C F K LEVER

Flow c o n t r o l u n i t
Fig. 1

73-20-1
Page 1
ROLLS-ROYCE D kh W
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

Flow c o n t r o l u n i t - Description and Operation (cont.)


The connections t o t h e flow c o n t r o l u n i t a r e t h e a i r c r a f t low pressure f u e l
supply i n l e t a t t h e f u e l f i l t e r ; t h e f u e l feed and r e t u r n pipes which,together
w i t h t h e servo pipe, l e a d t o t h e f u e l pump; and t h e pipe c a r r y i n g a sample
of a i r i n t a k e pressure t o t h e u n i t . Also provided i s a f u e l d r a i n connection
which j o i n s t h e d r a i n from t h e f u e l pump and t h e water/methanol u n i t a t t h e ?.
engine bulkhead before t h e discharge rearward through t h e d r a i n valve and
thence overboard ( s e e 71-02-0 1.
:
a ,
-.
fi

2. T h r o t t l e valve F
a_
Y
S.*
The t h r o t t l e valve c o n s i s t s of a hollow plunger, of uniform diameter but
p r o f i l e d by graduated s l o t s , working i n a f i x e d o r i f i c e . The plunger i s
operated through a rack and p i n i o n by a t h r o t t l e valve l e v e r which, t o g e t h e r
with t h e r.p.m. s e l e c t o r l e v e r on t h e p r o p e l l e r c o n t r o l l e r u n i t , i s connected
t o t h e p i l o t ' s power ( t h r o t t l e ) l e v e r i n t h e cockpit. The arrangement of
t h e engine c o n t r o l s i s described i n 76-10-0.

To minimize t h e f o r c e required t o operate t h e t h r o t t l e , t h e f u e l pressures 'at


each end of t h e plunger a r e balanced. The pluhger i s 'also spring loaded t o
t a k e up any backlash between t h e rack and the, pinion; t h i s a s s i s t s a c c u r a t e ..
c o n t r o l of t h e f u e l flow and t h e matching of it t o t h e a i r flow a s determined
by t h e engine r.p.m. selected.

Some f u d i s permitted t o by-pass t h e t h r o t t l e valve. This by-pass i s


a d j u s t a b l e f o r use on t h e r i g t e s t only t o enable t h e t h r o t t l e valve t o be
calibrated.

The t h r o t t l e p i n i o n s h a f t , t h e t h r o t t l e plunger s l e e v e and t h e t h r o t t l e


o r i f i c e a r e a l l sealed i n t o t h e casing w i t h close-tolerance rubber s e a l s .

3 . High a r e s s u r e cock

In F3
The H.P. cock a l s o comprises a rack and pinion operated hollow plunger. 0
t h e closed p o s i t i o n , t h e plunger c u t s o f f t h e f u e l supply t o t h e burners l+
and d i v e r t s it back t o t h e pump i n l e t , s o avoiding excessive pressure i n t h e
f u e l pump d e l i v e r y l i n e . A t t h e same time, two a x i a l s l o t s i n t h e plunger
permit f u e l a l r e a d y i n t h e f u e l manifold and burner feed l i n e s t o d r a i n o r be CD
d
blown out t o atmosphere on run-down by t h e combustion chamber a i r pressure. . n
A
The H,P. c ~ c ki s arranged t o permit f u r t h e r movement beyond t h e shut p o s i t i o n C,
Cl r
t o enable it t o be interconnected with t h e p r o p e l l e r manual f e a t h e r i n g control, m
a s described i n 76-10-0. 2
3
A s w i t h t h e t h r o t t l e , t h e H.P. cock p i n i o n s h a f t , plunger s l e e v e and o r i f i c e
a r e a l l s e a l e d i n t o t h e casing w i t h close-tolerance rubber s e a l s .

4. Servo c o n t r o l mechanism

The mechanism which c o n t r o l s f u e l pump output through t h e c o n t r o l of servo


p r e s s u r e (see 73-00) i s contained i n t h e flow c o n t r o l u n i t . A s shown i n f i g . 2,
it c o n s i s t s of a h a l f - b a l l s p i l l valve c a r r i e d on a spring-hinged l e v e r which
i s a c t e d upon by a c o n t r o l p i s t o n assembly tending t o c l o s e t h e valve, and a
s p r i n g and a twin capsule assembly tending t o open it. a-
73-20-1
Page 2
ROLLS-ROYCE BA W
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

Flow control u n i t - Description and Operation (cont.)

AIR INTAKE
PRESSURE CONNECTION

Sectioned flow control . u n i t


Fig. 2

73-20-1
Page 3
Flow control u n i t - Description and Operation (cont. )

5. Back Dressure valve

A back pressure valve i s a l s o f i t t e d immediately a f t e r t h e t h r o t t l e valve t o


provide s u f f i c i e n t pump delivery and servo pressure f o r controlling purposes
a t low f u e l flows.

6. Control ist ton

The piston i n t h e control p i s t o n assembly i s subject t o the pressure difference


e x i s t i n g across the t h r o t t l e valve, sample pressures from upstream and down-
stream of t h e t h r o t t l e being l e d through attenuators t o t h e opposite s i d e s of
t h e piston. Equilibrium is maintained by a spring on one s i d e of t h e piston,
t h i s spring being adjusted during t h e r i g t e s t only.

Should t h e pressure difference across the t h r o t t l e f a l l below t h e required


value, t h e control p i s t o n w i l l move t o close the s p i l l valve, so increasing
t h e servo pressure and t h e pump stroke. Equally, i f t h e pressure difference
across t h e t h r o t t l e and t h e control piston becomes too great, t h e control piston
w i l l move t o permit a n increased"opening of t h e s p i l l valve t o reduce t h e servo
pressure and the pump stroke.

The controlling movement of t h i s valve i s very small, and i t s o r i f i c e is


protec&d by a f i n e wire-wound f i l t e r t.o prevent possible i n t e r f e r e n c e by any

'7. C a ~ s u l eassemblv

The function of t h e twin capsule assembly i s t o c o r r e c t t h e f u e l flow f o r


changes i n a l t i t u d e o r a i r c r a f t speed, The assembly i s immersed i n low
pressure f u e l and c o n s i s t s of one evacuated capsule and another, of equal
e f f e c t i v e area, subject i n t e r n a l l y t o a i r intake pressure.

The capsule assembly i s arranged t o progressively increase t h e loading tending


t o open t h e servo s p i l l valve with an increase i n a l t i t u d e . This causes the
u n i t t o s t a b i l i z e a t a progressively lower pressure drop across t h e t h r o t t l e
valve and hence a lower r a t e of f u e l flow.

The linkage with t h e l e v e r carrying the s p i l l valve i s designed so t h a t it has


no e f f e c t should t h e a i r intake pressure r i s e above I.S.A. s t a t i c sea-level,
e.g. through ram e f f e c t a t low a l t i t u d e . The f u e l flow t h e r e f o r e cannot r i s e
above t h e maximum f o r take-off conditions.

8. Fuel f i l t e r

A l l t h e f u e l entering t h e engine passes through a low pressure f e l t f i l t e r


(fig.3) contained i n t h e flow control u n i t .

The f i l t e r element ensures f i n e f i l t r a t i o n and i s corrugated t o provide t h e


f i l t r a t i o n area necessary t o keep t h e pressure drop across t h e f i l t e r within

73-20-1 Mar .16/60


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ROLLS-RBYCE DA W
MAINTENANCE
, E R 0 ENGINE

Flow control u n i t - Description and Operation (cont.)

acceptable limits a t t h e maximum f u e l flow. The element, which i s secured


i n t o t h e casing by a c e n t r a l bolt, a spring and a f i l t e r retaining plate, s e a t s
squarely a t the top of the f i l t e r bowl t o avoid any leakage of u n f i l t e r e d f u e l .
'0
E:
m
M
A d r a i n valve incorporated i n t h e head of t h e c e n t r a l bolt enables samples of
6 f u e l f o r examination t o be drawn off, without disturbing the f i l t e r or allowing
C
.m
d i r t t o e n t e r t h e fuel.
a
To protect t h e engine against t h e e f f e c t s of water i n the f u e l freezing and
clogging t h e f i l t e r , provision i s made f o r hot a i r t o be supplied from t h e
second-stage compressor through a hot a i r g a t e valve t o a heat exchanger which
surrounds t h e engine f u e l feed pipe j u s t upstream of t h e f i l t e r .

Low pressure f u e l f i l t e r
Fig. 3

73-20-1
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ROLLS-ROY CE AERO ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

FUEL CONTROL UNIT - MAINTENANCE PWCTICES


1. Servicing

A. Fuel f i l t e r

Loosen t h e nut and remove t h e l o c k p l a t e from t h e L.P. f u e l f i l t e r d r a i n


valve ( ~ i g . 2 0 2 ) .

Open t h e a i r c r a f t i L . P . f u e l v a l v e s and switch on t h e t a n k b o o s t e r pumps.

Unscrew t h e f i l t e r d r a i n v a l v e hexagon and d r a i n a sample of t h e f u e l


(1 p i n t approx.) i n t o a c l e a n g l a s s j a r , t h e n c l o s e t h e valve and switch
o f f t h e b o o s t e r pumps.

D i r e c t t h e beam of a t o r c h on t o t h e base of t h e j a r and examine t h e


f u e l sample v i s u a l l y a g a i n s t a b l a c k background f o r t h e presence of
s o l i d s , f r e e water o r water i n suspension; i f contamination is p r e s e n t
r e f e r t o 70-24 f o r c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n .

NOTE: (1) The presence of water i n suspension i n t h e f u e l sample w i l l


g e n e r a l l y be i n d i c a t e d by a cloudy appearance caused by
extremely f i n e d r o p l e t s of water which remain suspended' i n
t h e :fuel .
(2) A s t h e presence of water i n suspension may not always be
d e t e c t e d v i s u a l l y , t h e f u e l sample should be t e s t e d using
the water d e t e c t o r k i t a s d e s c r i b e d i n 70-24.

(3) The f u e l f i l t e r must be renewed i f it has been contaminated


by water o r d i r t and t h e source of t r o u b l e t r a c e d and
r e c t i f i e d b e f o r e f i t t i n g a new element.

R e f i t t h e l o c k p l a t e t o t h e d r a i n v a l v e hexagon and t i g h t e n t h e r e t a i n i n g
nut.

2. Removal/Installation

A. Remove f u e l f i l t e r ( F i g .%)l). -L*-~ &- _--


*-. ." -
-
NOTE: Whenever t h e f i H e r element i s remsved,or t h e fueL system is
d i s t u r b e d on t h e a i r c r a f t s i d e of t h e L.P. f u e l v a l v e and subsequent
bleeding warrants removal of t h e Lap. f u e l f i l t e r , a new f i l t e r
element must be f i t t e d .

Dec. 10/66
, .

ROLLS-RoY cE DART
MAINTENANCE
ENGINE
Fuel control u n i t - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s (cont.)

(1) Close t h e a i r c r a f t L.P. f u e l v a l v e s and c l e a n t h e e x t e r i o r of t h e f i l t e r


case on t h e F.C.U.

(2) P o s i t i o n a c o n t a i n e r of s u i t a b l e c a p a c i t y under t h e f u e l f i l t e r , t h e n
remove t h e l o c k p l a t e , unscrew'the d r a i n v a l v e hexagon and d r a i n t h e
f u e l system.

(3) unlock t h e f i l t e r bowl cover r e t a i n i n g b o l t , t h e n unscrew i t and remove


t h e f i l t e r assembly.

(4) Remove t h e f i l t e r element from t h e cover r e t a i n i n g bolt..

B. I n s t a l l fuel f i l t e r

(1) Clean t h e f i l t e r cover and r e t a i n i n g b o l t assembly and renew t h e


f i l t e r cover s e a l i n g r i n g ; o t h e r s e a l i n g r i n g s need only be renewed i f
$hey a r e damaged, a s f o l l o w s :

(a) To renew t h e d r a i n v a l v e s e a l i n g r i n g , unscrew t h e hexagon and remove


t h e v a l v e from t h e f i l t e r bowl cover, f i t a new s e a l i n g r i n g and
r e f i t t h e valve t o t h e cover.

RETAINING BOSS

SEALING RINGS

TRAL RETAINING BOLT

L.P. f u e l f i l t e r r e m o v a l / i n s t a l l a t i o n d e t a i l s
F i g . 201

73-20-1 Dec. 10/66


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ROLLS-ROYCE ,ER0 ENGINE
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Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

( b ) To renew t h e r e t a i n i n g b o l t and/or b o s s s e a l i n g r i n g s , remove t h e


c i r c l i p u s i n g expanding p l i e r s , remove t h e f i l t e r r e t a i n i n g b o s s
and s p r i n g , and withdraw t h e b o l t from t h e cover. F i t new
s e a l i n g r i n g s t o t h e b o l t and t h e r e t a i n i n g b o s s , t h e n l o c a t e t h e
cover on t h e b o l t , f i t t h e s p r i n g and boss and s e c u r e them w i t h
the circlip.

F i t a new f i l t e r element t o t h e c o v e r r e t a i n i n g b o l t and p o s i t i o n i t on


t h e r e t a i n i n g boss.

Assemble t h e f i l t e r i n t o t h e bowl on t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t , e n s u r i n g
t h a t t h e element s e a t s s q u a r e l y on t h e t o p of t h e c a s i n g i n s i d e t h e
f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t and t h a t t h e tongue on t h e cover engages w i t h t h e
s l o t i n the casing.,

Using an approved t o r q u e s p a n n e r , t i g h t e n t h e f i l t e r bowl c o v e r


r e t a i n i n g b o l t t o t h e l o a d s p e c i f i e d i n Chap.70-01, t h e n l o c k i t
u s i n g s t a i n l e s s s t e e l l o c k i n g w i r e (Chap.70-12).

T i g h t e n t h e f i l t e r d r a i n v a l v e hexagon, f i t t h e l o c k p l a t e and t i g h t e n
the retaining nut.

Open t h e a i r c r a f t L.P. f u e l v a l v e s , t h e n b l e e d t h e a i r c r a f t and e n g i n e


f u e l systems; r e f e r t o Chap.73-00, 'Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ' .

C. Remove f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t (Fig.202)
SM
Hsn

I&
S1
I CAUTION: ( 1 ) THE FUEL CONTROL UNIT MUST BE CHANGED I F THE H.P. FUEL PUMP
I S REJECTED FOR MECHANICAL FAILURE. DO NOT GROUND RUN THE
ENGINE PRIOR TO REMOVAL OF THE FUEL CONTROL UNIT.

( 2 ) DURING REMOVAL OF THE FUEL CONTROL UNIT, FIT BLANKS TO ALL


EXPOSED APERTURES AND PIPE ENDS, AND DISCARD ALL SEALING
RINGS.
( 1 ) P r i o r t o a f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t change i n s e r v i c e , ground r u n t h e e n g i n e
t o e s t a b l i s h a Datum j . p . t . v a l u e . R e f e r t o Chap.71-00, S u b - s e c t i o n
4D 'REMOVAL/RE-INSTALLATION GROUND RUN -
DRY' and c a r r y o u t a c t i o n s
A , B , D ( j . p . t . o n l y ) , G. and H. of R U N 1 , Pre-removal run. If the
e n g i n e cannot b e run p r i o r t o t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t change, r e f e r
t o 3. Adjustment/Test.

( 2 ) Close t h e a i r c r a f t L.P. f u e l valves.

( 3 ) P o s i t i o n a c l e a n c o n t a i n e r of s u i t a b l e c a p a c i t y under t h e L.P. fuel


f i l t e r , t h e n open t h e d r a i n v a l v e and d r a i n t h e f u e l system.

CAUTION: I F DRAINED FUEL I S CONTAMINATED, INVESTIGATE THE CAUSE AS


INSTRUCTED I N CHAP. 70-24.
( 4 ) Disconnect t h e t h r o t t l e and H.P. cock c o n t r o l r d d s from t h e i r
a s s o c i a t e d l e v e r s on t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t .

June 77 73-20-1
Page 203
Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

Remove t h e i n l e t / o u t l e t elbow from t h e H . P . f u e l pump and d i s c o n n e c t


t h e i n l e t and o u t l e t p i p e s from t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t ; refer to
Chap. 73-18-2.

Unlock and remove t h e hollow b o l t s e c u r i n g t h e banjo union and


d i s c o n n e c t t h e d r a i n p i p e from t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t .

Disconnect t h e c l i p s e c u r i n g t h e d r a i n p i p e t o t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead
and r o t a t e t h e p i p e c l e a r of t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t .

RAM PRESSURE PIPE

Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t
Fig. 282
73-20-1 J u n e 77
Page 204
ROLLS-RQYCE @'qRu
U'
MAINTENANCE
AERQ E N G I N E

Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - M a i n t e n a n c e practices (cont.)

( 8 ) U n l o c k and d i s c o n n e c t t h e s e r v o p i p e f r o m t h e connection on t h e f u e l
control unit.

CAUTION: THF: NUTS SECURING THE SERVO P I P E CONNECTION T O T H E FUEL


CONTROL U N I T MUST NOT BE LOOSENED OR REMOVED WHEN
DISCONNECTING THE SERVO PIPE, AS THE SERVO S P I L L VALVE W I L L
BE D I S P L A C E D WITH CONSEQUENT MALFUNCTIONING O F THE FUEL
CONTROL U N I T .
( 9 ) D i s c o n n e c t t h e r a m p r e s s u r e p i p e f r o m t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t as f o l l o w s :

SM
Hsn
MD a
I&
S1

l June 77 73-20-1
Pages 2 0 4 A / 2 0 4 B
, ROLLS-ROYCE mu
MAINTENANCE
AERO ENGINE

Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - Maintenance practices (cont.)

(a) On pre-Mod.906 e n g i n e s , unscrew t h e h o s e - c l i p s e c u r i n g t h e p i p e t o


t h e connection on t h e upper f a c e o f t h e F.C.U. and d i s c o n n e c t t h e ram
p r e s s u r e pipe.

(b) On Mod.906 e n g i n e s , d i s c o n n e c t t h e two c l i p s s e c u r i n g t h e ram p r e s s u r e


p i p e t o t h e H.P. f u e l pump and t h e F.C.U., loosen t h e hose c l i p and
d i s c o n n e c t t h e p i p e from t h e connection on t h e a i r i n t a k e c a s i n g , and
withdraw t h e pipe from t h e connection on t h e lower f a c e of t h e F.C.U.

(10) I f t h e a i r c r a f t f e a t u r e s a f u e l temperature i n d i c a t i n g system, d i s c o n n e c t


t h e e l e c t r i c a l c a b l e and remove t h e temperature b u l b (Mod.1413) from t h e
F.C.U. f i l t e r bowl.

(11) I f t h e a i r c r a f t h a s Avro Mod.1478 embodied, unlock and d i s c o n n e c t t h e


d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e switch f u e l p i p e from t h e union on t h e F.C.U.
(Mod.1353).

(12) Unlock t h e union n u t and disconnect t h e f u e l manifold from t h e f e e d


connection on t h e F.C.U.

(13) Unlock t h e union n u t and d i s c o n n e c t t h e b u r n e r manifold branch p i p e from .


No.4 combustion chamber.

(14) Remove t h e n u t s , s p r i n g and p l a i n washers and b o l t s from No.4 branch


pipe support housing on t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead, withdraw t h e housing and .
remove t h e s l e e v e , s p l i t s e a l i n g p l a t e and s p l i t Tufnol bushes, n o t i n g
t h e o r d e r of removal.

(15) Remove t h e n u t s , s p r i n g and p l a i n washers s e c u r i n g t h e f l a n g e of t h e


manifold f e e d connection t o t h e F.C.U. and, on Mod.906 e n g i n e s , remove
t h e p i p e c l i p b r a c k e t , t h e n remove t h e bonding l e a d , withdraw t h e
connection, and remove t h e manifold feed connection and f l e x i b l e branch
pipe forward through t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead, c o l l e c t i n g t h e s u p p o r t
housing and backing p l a t e . A

(16) Remove t h e L.P. f u e l i n l e t p i p e shroud from t h e r e a r o f t h e bulkhead,


unlock t h e pipe and d i s c o n n e c t i t from t h e union on t h e F.C.U.

(17) On pre-Mod.426 e n g i n e s , remove t h e bulkhead segment t o allow t h e F.C.U.


t o be withdrawn. Where Mod.426 has been embodied, however, remove t h e
i n l e t union from the' F.C.U.; t h e F.C.U. may t h e n be withdrawn without
having t o remove t h e bulkhead segment.

CAUTION: REMOVAL OF THE INLET CONNECT.ION UNION ON PRE-MOD.426 UNITS I S


NOT PERMITTED.
*
(18) Remove t h e t h r e e n u t s , s p r i n g and b e v e l l e d washers and withdraw t h e F.C.U.
from t h e engine. Where a Mod.1332 F.C.U. i s f i t t e d , remove t h e a n t i -
f r e t t a g e washer from t h e r e a r mounting s t u d and s e c u r e i t t o t h e F.C.U.
r e a r mounting l u g w i t h s u i t a b l e l o c k i n g w i r e .

Mar. 15/72 73-20-1 -


Page 205
ROLLS-ROYCE
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Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - Maintenance practices (cont.)

(19) F i t b l a n k s t o a l l c o n n e c t i o n s and a p e r t u r e s on t h e F;C.U., then f i l l t h e


u n i t w i t h t h e s t o r a g e o i l . s p e c i f i e d i n 78-12.

D. I n s t a l l f u e l control u n i t

CAUTION: TO AVOID CONTAMINATION OF THE FUEL SYSTEM DURING INSTALLATION OF


THE F.C.U., DO NOT REMOVE BLANKS UNTIL IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MAKING
CONNECTIONS. RENEW ALL SEALING RINGS 1N:ACCORDANCE WITH 70-11
AND LUBRICATE THEM WITH LIQUID PARAFFIN B.P.(70-12) BEFORE ASSENBLY.

D r a i n t h e i n h i b i t i n g f l u i d from t h e F.C.U.

On Mod.426 u n i t s , unscrew and remove t h e f u e l i n l e t u n i o n from t h e F.C.U.


t o f a c i l i t a t e i n s t a l l a t i o n ; t h e union m u s t n o t b e removed from pre-Mod.
426 u n i t s and t h e segment m u s t be removed from t h e f i r e p r o o f b u l k h e a d i f
a pre-Mod.426 u n i t i s t o be i n s t a l l e d .

Where a Mod.1332 F.C.U. i s t o be f i t t e d , l o c a t e t h e a n t i - f r e t t a g e washer


on t h e r e a r mounting s t u d ( i d e n t i f i e d by t h e f i g u r e s f . 0 1 8 f e n g r a v e d on
t h e F.C.U. r e a r mounting l u g ) , t h e n mount t h e u n i t on t h e s t u d s on t h e
e n g i n e and s e c u r e i t w i t h t h r e e b e v e l l e d w a s h e r s , s p r i n g w a s h e r s and
plain nuts.

On Mod.426 u n i t s e n s u r e t h a t a bonded rubber/aluminium w a s h e r i s f i t t e d


t o t h e u n i o n , t h e n f i t t h e u n i o n and l o c k i t t o t h e head o f t h e f i l t e r
r e t a i n i n g b o l t w i t h 0 . 0 2 8 i n . s t a i n l e s s s t e e l l o c k i n g w i r e (70-12); on
pre-Mod.426 u n i t s , r e f i t t h e bulkhead segment.

Connect t h e L.P. f u e l p i p e t o t h e F.C.U. f u e l i n l e t u n i o n , t i g h t e n t h e


p i p e s l e e v e n u t and l o c k i t w i t h 0.028 i n . s t a i n l e s s s t e e l l o c k i n g w i r e .

I n s e r t t h e No.4 f l e x i b l e b r a n c h p i p e t h r o u g h t h e f r o n t o f t h e f i r e p r o b f
bulkhead and a s s e m b l e t h e b r a n c h p i p e s u p p o r t h o u s i n g and b a c k i n g p l a t e
on t o t h e p i p e and m a n i f o l d f e e d c o n n e c t i o n .

I n s e r t t h e m a n i f o l d f e e d c o n n e c t i o n s p i g o t i n t o t h e F.C.U. and a s s e m b l e
t h e f l a n g e on t h e s t u d s , t h e n f i t t h e bonding l e a d a n d , on Mod.906 e n g i n e s ,
t h e p i p e c l i p b r a c k e t , t h e n s e c u r e t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e F.C.U. w i t h t h e '
p l a i n and s p r i n g w a s h e r s and n u t s .

Assemble t h e b r a n c h p i p e s u p p o r t h o u s i n g , e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e s p l i t T u f n o l
bushes a r e c o r r e c t l y p o s i t i o n e d , a n d , l o o s e l y s e c u r e t h e housing t o t h e
f i r e p r o o f bulkhead w i t h t h e b o l t s , s p r i n g and p l a i n w a s h e r s and n u t s ;
do n o t t i g h t e n t h e n u t s f u l l y a t t h i s s t a g e .

Connect t h e f l e x i b l e b r a n c h p i p e t o t h e b u r n e r c o n n e c t i o n can,No.cB
combustion chamber, t i g h t e n t h e u n i o n n u t t a k i n g c a r e n o t t o deform t h e
p i p e and l o c k i t w i t h 0 . 0 2 8 i n . s t a i n l e s s s t e e l w i r e .

Tighten t h e n u t s s e c u r i n g t h e branch pipe support housing t o t h e bulkhead,


then connect t h e f u e l manifold pipe t o t h e feed c o n n e c t i o n , t i g h t e n t h e
s l e e v e n u t and l o c k i t w i t h s k a i n l e s s s t e e l w i r e .

Mar. 15/72
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Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

( 1 1 ) Connect t h e i n l e t and o u t l e t p i p e s t o t h e F.C.U. and s e c u r e t h e i n l e t /


o u t l e t elbow t o t h e H.P.. f u e l pump a s d e s c r i b e d i n 73-10-2.

( 1 2 ) F i t new washers, s e c u r e t h e d r a i n p i p e banjo oonnection t o t h e F.C.U.


w i t h t h e hollow b o l t and t i g h t e n i t t o t h e t o r q u e l o a d s p e c i f i e d i n
70-01, t h e n l o c k t h e b o l t w i t h s t a i n l e s s steel wire.

(13) Secure t h e d r a i n p i p e c l i p t o t h e f i r e p r o o f bulkhead w i t h t h e b o l t ,


p l a i n and s p r i n g washers and n u t .

(14) I f t h e a i r c r a f t f e a t u r e s a f u e l temperature i n d i c a t i n g system, i n s t a l l


t h e t e m p e r a t u r e b u l b (Mod.1413) i n t h e F.C.U. f i l t e r bowl and r e c o n n e c t
t h e e l e c t r i c a l cable.

' (15) I f t h e a i r c r a f t h a s Avro Mod.1478 embodied, connect t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l


p r e s s u r e s w i t c h downstream f u e l p i p e t o t h e a d a p t e r on t h e F.C.U.
(Mod.13531, t i g h t e n t h e union n u t and l o c k i t w i t h s t a i n l e s s s t e e l
wire.

(16) Connect t h e ram p r e s s u r e p i p e t o t h e F.C.U. a s follows:

( a ) On pre-Mod.906 e n g i n e s , connect t h e ram p r e s s u r e p i p e t o t h e


c o n n e c t i o n on t h e upper f a c e of t h e F.C.U. and t i g h t e n t h e hose
clip.

( b ) On Mod.906 e n g i n e s , f i t a new s e a l i n g r i n g t o t h e ram p r e s s u r e p i p e


and i n s e r t t h e p i p e i n t o i t s housing i n t h e lower f a c e of t h e
F.C.U., c o n n e c t t h e o t h e r end t o t h e a d a p t e r on t h e f r o n t of t h e
a i r i n t a k e c a s i n g and t i g h t e n t h e h o s e c l i p s , s e c u r e t h e p i p e
c l i p s t o t h e F.C.U. and t h e H.P. f u e l pump and connect t h e
bonding l e a d t o t h e pump i n l e t / o u t l e t elbow r e t a i n i n g b o l t .

(17) Connect t h e s e r v o p r e s s u r e p i p e t o t h e t h r e a d e d a d a p t e r on t h e F.C.U.,


t i g h t e n t h e union n u t and l o c k i t w i t h s t a i n l e s s steel w i r e .

( 1 8 ) On a i r c r a f t f e a t u r i n g a f u e l temperature i n d i c a t i n g system, r e f i t t h e
t e m p e r a t u r e b u l b t o t h e L.P. f i l t e r bowl and r e c o n n e c t t h e e l e c t r i c a l
. c a b l e a s i n s t r u c t e d i n Chap.73-31-2.
CAUTION: DO NOT OVERT1GHTEN THE ELECTRICAL CABLE CONNECTOR OR DAMAGE
MAY BE CAUSED TO THE TEMPERATURE BULB, CONE\TECTOR LOCATING K E Y
AM)/OR THE BULB TERMINAL PINS.
(19) Connect t h e t h r o t t l e and H.P. cock c o n t r o l r o d s t o t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d
l e v e r s and check t h e c o n t r o l s f o r c o r r e c t o p e r a t i o n and r i g g i n g i n
accordance w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n Chapter 76.
CAUTION: THE THROTTLE VALVE LEVER MINIMUM STOP ON THE F. C. U. I S
ADJUSTED AND SET ON THE CALIBRATING RIG AND MUST NOT BE
DISTURBED I N SERVICE.
(20) Bleed t h e f u e l system a s d e s c r i b e d i n 73-00, 'Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ' .

73-20-1
J u l y 79
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R O L L S - R O Y CE AERO E N G I N E
MAINTENANCE

Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s (cont.)

Ad justment/Test
A. Ground run t h e engine and r e s e t t h e c o n t r o l interconnection t o achieve t h e
datum j.p.t. e s t a b l i s h e d i n 2.C.(1). Refer t o Chap.71-00, Sub-section 4D
-
' REMOVAL/RE-INSTALLATION GROUND RUN: DRY' and c a r r y o u t a c t i o n s A; B; D
( j . p . t . only), G and H of RUN 2, R e - i n s t a l l t i o n run. For torque pressure
acceptance l i m i t s , r e f e r t o Chap.71-00, Sub-section 4C 'IN-SERVICE GROUND
RUN - DRY'.
B. I f i t was not p o s s i b l e t o ground run t h e engine before t h e F.C.U. change,
e s t a b l i s h a datum j.p.t. a s follows:
( l ) Obtain t h e datum j.p.t. from t h e most r e c e n t power check, then, c a r r y
out ground run a s given i n A. and interconnect t h e c o n t r o l s t o obtain
t h e datum j . p . t . o r t h e Data-Plate Max. Dry Take-off j.p.t. plus
10 degrees C., (on engines with less than 500 f l y i n g hours s i n c e l a s t
1 t e s t bed d e c l a r a t i o n , t o Data-Plate Maximum D r y Take-off j . p . t . )
whichever i s higher.
(2) I f a datum j .p. t. cannot be obtained, c a r r y out ground run a s given
i n A. and interconnect t h e c o n t r o l s t o o b t a i n Data-Plate Max. Dry
Take-off j . p . t . p l u s 10 degrees C. (on engines w i t h less than 506 f l y i n g
1 hours s i n c e l a s t Lest bed d e c l a r a t i o n , t o Data-Plate Maximum Dry
Take-off 3 . p . t . ) . Do not exceed the Operating L i m i t a t i o n Dry Take-off
j.p. t.
4. Inspection/Check
A. Inspect t h e f u e l c o n t r o l u n i t
(1) Examine t h e F.C.U. g e n e r a l l y f o r s i g n s of f u e l l e a k s , and check pipe
connections f o r s e c u r i t y and c o r r e c t w i r e locking.
(2) Check t h e t h r o t t l e and H.P. cock c o n t r o l rods f o r s e c u r i t y of attachment
t o t h e l e v e r s o n ' t h e F.C.U. and examine t h e l e v e r s f o r s i g n s df
cracking; cracks i n t h e F.C.U. c o n t r o l l e v e r s may be caused by
secondary v i b r a t i o n owing t o an i n t e r n a l d e f e c t i n t h e engine, which
must be removed f o r examination.
( 3 ) Check t h e f u e l f i l t e r f o r contamination (1. Servicing).
(4) Check t h e F.C.U. f o r s e c u r i t y of attachment t o t h e mounting s t u d s .
(5) On pre-Mod.906 engines, check t h e F.C.U. ram p r e s s u r e pipe a s described
i n 71-00, 'Inspection/Check'. On Mod.906 engines, check t h a t t h e
' r a t t l e ' p i n i n t h e ram p r e s s u r e pipe d r a i n hole i s f r e e t o r o t a t e and
t h a t t h e h o l e i s not worn t o such an e x t e n t t h a t t h e head of t h e
r a t t l e p i n could pass through i t . Where Mod.1188 has been embodied,
however, t h e p i n passes through a s p r i n g - s t e e l s l e e v e surrounding t h e
pipe and d r a i n hole, t h u s minimizing f r e t t i n g of t h e d r a i n hole.
(6) Function test t h e c o n t r o l s a s described i n Chapter 76, 'ENGINE CONTROLS
I N POWER PLANT - lMAINTENANCE PRACTICES' and check t h e F.C.U. c o n t r o l
l e v e r s f o r f u l l and f r e e movement, then run t h e engine a s described
i n Chapter 71, P ' OWER PLANT' and check t h e F.C.U. f o r c o r r e c t operation
and adjustment.

7 3-20- 1 Jan, 79
Page 208
R O L L S - R O Y CE I
MAINTENANCE
' AERO ENGINE

Fuel c o n t r o l u n i t - Maintenance p r a c t i c e s ( c o n t . )

B. A c t i o n followirig L.P. f u e l f i l t e r i c i n g warning

(1) I f a warning o c c u r s and t r o u b l e - s h o o t i n g confirms f i l t e r i c i n g , proceed


a s follows :

(a) Check t h e f u e l system f o r w a t e r contamination and r e c t i f y (70-24).

(b) Change t h e L.P. f i l t e r element.

(c) Bleed t h e f u e l system and d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s w i t c h (73-00.).

(d) Run t h e e n g i n e as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 71 and check t h e f u e l flow and


L.P. f i l t e r i c i n g warning i n d i c a t i n g systems (Chapter 2 8 ) .

-
NOTE: I f f u e l temperature i s below 0 deg.C. water may s t i l l be
p r e s e n t i n t h e f u e l i n t h e form of i c e a f t e r d k a i n i n g any
accumulation o f w a t e r .

(2) I f t h e warning i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be due t o f i l t e r i c i n g , check t h e


d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s w i t c h (Chapter 2 8 ) . I f t h e switch is serviceable
check t h e L.P. f u e l f i l t e r f o r blockage caused by s o l i d s , and r e c t i f y a s
follows :

(a) T r a c e t h e s o u r c e of contamination and r e c t i f y (70-24) .


(b) I f f i t t e d , c l e a n t h e flowmeter f i l t e r .
SM .
Hsn (c) Change t h e L.P. f i l t e r element.
MD a
I&
(d) Bleed t h e f u e l system and d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s w i t c h (73-00).
S1
(e) Run t h e engine a s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 71 and check t h e f u e l flow and
L.P. f i l t e r i c i n g warning i n d i c a t i n g systems (Chapter 2 8 ) .

June 77 73-20-1
Page 209
ROLLS-RBYCE b!?d8T
MAINTENANCE
A E R O ENGINE

FUEL TEMPERATURE BULB - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION


General

The f u e l temperature bulb is screwed i n t o an adapter located i n a bore i n


t h e F.C.U. f i l t e r bowl and s e a l e d by a rubber r i n g located i n a groove on
t h e adapter. A s e a l i n g r i n g located i n a groove on t h e f a c e of t h e a d a p t e r
provides t h e s e a l f o r t h e temperature bulb.

Description

The temperature bulb operates on a 2 6 ~ o l d. t c . e l e c t r i c a l supply and is of


t h e r e s i s t a n c e thermometer element t y p e , c o n s i s t i n g of a h e l i c a l l y wound
platinum w i r e housed i n a c y l i n d r i c a l anodized aluminium case. The c a s e is
mounted i n an air-f i l l e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l tube closed a t one end by a
s t a i n l e s s steel d i s c argon arcwelded t o it and a t t h e o t h e r end by a metal/
g l a s s s e a l i n c o r p o r a t i n g a 2-pin e l e c t r i c a l plug which is connected t o t h e
e lement .
Operation

The e l e c t r i c a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e platinum w i r e element v a r i e s with changes


of temperature, and thus v a r i e s t h e voltage supply t o t h e i n d i c a t i n g
c i r c u i t (73-31-0).

Fuel temperature b u l b
Fig. l

Aug. 30/68 73-3 1-2


Page 1
ROLLS-ROY CE AERO ENGINE
MAINTENANCE

FUEL TEMPERATURE BULB - MAINTENANCE PRACTICES


1. 'Removal/Installation (Fig. 201)

A. Remove temperature bulb

(1) Ensure t h a t t h e L.P. f u e l cock i s c l o s e d , then d r a i n t h e f u e l system


through t h e F.C.U. f i l t e r d r a i n valve a s d e s c r i b e d i n 73-20-1.

(2) Ensure t h a t t h e e l e c t r i c a l supply is switched o f f and a l l ground power


s u p p l i e s disconnected, then remove t h e c i r c u i t f u s e o r t r i p t h e c i r c u i t -
breaker (Wiripg Diagram Manual) t o i s o l a t e t h e e l e c t r i c a l supply t o
the, temperature bulb.

(3) Unlock and d i s c o n n e c t t h e e l e c t r i c a l c,onnector from t h e temperature bulb.

(4) Sever t h e locking w i r e , unscrew t h e b u l b and remove it from t h e a d a p t e r


on t h e F.C.U. f i l t e r bowl, and f i t a blank immediately.

F u e l temperature bulb i n s t a l l a t i o n
Fig. 201

Aug. 30/68 73-31-2


Page 201
R O L L S - R O Y CE AERO E N G I N E
MAINTENANCE

F u e l temperature bulb - Maintenance practices (cont.)

B. Pre-ins t a l l a t i o n check

(.l) Ensure t h a t t h e bulb has n o t exceeded i t s s t o r a g e s h e l f l i f e .

(2) Examine t h e bulb connector g l a s s s e a l and p i n s f o r damage and freedom


from moisture .
(3) I f n e c e s s a r y , c a r r y o u t t h e i n s u l a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e and c o n t i n u i t y tests
described i n ' 2 . Adjustment/Testl, para.B.

C. I n s t a l l temperature bulb

Ensure t h a t t h e e l e c t r i c a l s a f e t y precautions taken b e f o r e removing t h e


bulb have n o t been c a n c e l l e d and check t h a t t h e L. P. f u e l cock is closed.

Remove t h e blank from t h e bulb a d a p t e r on t h e F.C.U. f i l t e r bowl and


d i s c a r d t h e s e a l i n g r i n g , t h e n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e groove i n t h e a d a p t e r
is c l e a n and undamaged, f i t a new s e a l i n g r i n g t o t h e groove i n
accordance with t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n 70-11.

Screw t h e thermometer bulb i n t o t h e bore of t h e a d a p t e r u n t i l t h e


s e a l i n g r i n g is compressed, then lock t h e bulb t o t h e a d a p t e r w i t h
0.028 i n . (22 S .W. g. ) s t a i n l e s s s t e e l wire (70-12).

Connect t h e e l e c t r i c a l plug t o t h e temperature b u l b and lock it w i t h


0.028 i n . wire.

R e f i t the c i r c u i t f u s e , o r r e s e t the circuit-breaker, and switch on t h e


power supply.

Open t h e L.P. f u e l cock, bleed t h e f u e l system a s d e s c r i b e d i n 73-00 and


t h e a i r c r a f t maintenance manual, and check t h e temperature bulb f o r l e a k s .

A. Function t e s t t h e f u e l temperature i n d i c a t i n g c i r c u i t a s i n s t r u c t e d i n
Chap. 73-31-0:

B. Test temperature b u l b c o n t i n u i t y and i n s u l a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e .


(1) Connect an approved ohmmeter t o t h e bulb connector p i n s and check t h e
c o n t i n u i t y of t h e element; t h e r e s i s t a n c e a t 20 deg.C. should be
approximately 140 ohms.

CAUTION: THE CURRENT FROM THE OHMNIETER MUST NOT EXCEED 20 MILLIAMPERES
(20 mA).

(2) Connect a 250 - v o l t d . c . i n s u l a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e t e s t e r t o one of t h e


bulb connector p i n s and t o t h e s t a i n l e s s s t e e l s h e a t h and check t h e
i n s u l a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e ; t h e r e s i s t a n c e m u s t n o t be l e s s than 20 Megohms
, .
73-31-2 July 15/72
Page 202
ROLLS-ROYCE AERO ENGINE
MAINTENANCE
F u e l temperature bulb - Maintenance practices (cont. )

3. Inspection/Check

A. Examine the bulb f o r signs of f u e l leakage .and check the connector f o r


security of attachment and correct wire locking.

B. Function test the temperature bulb as described i n ' 2 . Adjustment/TestV,


para. A.

73-31-2
Aug. 30/68
Page 203