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ACCEPTABILITY OF HORSE RADISH (Moringa oleifera) LEAVES AS

FLAVORING IN MAKING ICE CREAM

A Research Proposal Presented to the faculty of the


College of Education-Laboratory School
TARLAC AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
Malacampa, Camiling,Tarlac

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


In Research-I

By

JAYCEL INES DELA CRUZ


GEMALYN SAGUN
STEPHANNIE MOLINA
CLIFFORD DOMINGO
BABY LINDSAY ALEJO
Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

Ice cream is one of the most popular product here in the Philippines. It may serve

as dessert after heavy meal or can be eaten before meal as an appetizer. Filipinos’ are

fond of eating sweets, and ice cream is an example of sweet product. People love to

eat ice cream especially when it is summer, they love it because of its taste. Since

Filipinos’ are family bonded, they prefer to eat together because it is more enjoyable

than eating alone. People likes ice cream not only because it is affordable but it is also

easy to find. Ice cream can be found anywhere and there are so many vendors of it, in

the market street. Ice cream is popular here because all Filipinos’ are eating this not

unless they’re not capable of eating it or they are allergic to it. Ice cream is a complex

colloidal system, which consists of air bubbles, ice crystals and fat globules. There are

many formulation and [processing factors that influence the quality of ice cream.

Stabilizer is such a factor, the function of stabilizer is to improve air incorporation,

give body and texture, control meltdown of the ice cream (Keeney 1982)

Ice cream is made to eat. It may serves as appetizer or a dessert. They can be also

packaged in cone, plastic cups, jar, and different sizes of container.

An ice-cream-like food was first eaten in China in 618-97AD. King Tang of

Shang, had 94 ice men who helped to make a dish of buffalo milk, flour and camphor.

A kind of ice-cream was invented in China about 200 BC when a milk and rice

mixture was frozen by packing it into snow.


Roman emperors are supposed to have sent slaves to mountain tops to bring back

fresh snow which was then flavoured and served as an early form of ice-cream.

The King of England, Charles I, is supposed to have offered his chef £500 a year

to keep his ice-cream recipe a secret from the rest of England.

The explorer, Marco Polo (1254-1324), is believed to have seen ice-creams being

made during his trip to China and introduced them to Italy.

Ice Cream sundaes were invented when it became illegal to sell ice-cream sodas

on a Sunday in the American town of Evanston during the late 19th century. To get

round the problem some traders replaced the soda with syrup and called the dessert an

"Ice Cream Sunday." They replaced the final "y" with an "e" to avoid upsetting

religious leaders.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study will be conducted to determine the Ice cream with Horse Radish

(Moringa oleifera) leaves as its flavoring agent in terms of organoleptic qualities.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions;

1. How may the Ice cream with Moringa oleifera leaves flavoring describe in terms

of;

1.1 Color;

1.2 Smell;
1.3 Taste;

1.4 Texture; and

1.5 General Acceptability

2. Is there a significant variation among treatments in terms of;

2.1 Color;

2.2 Smell;

2.3 Taste;

2.4 Texture; and

2.5 General Acceptability

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study will be conducted with the following:

1. The ice cream with Moringa oleifera leaves flavoring describe in terms of;

1.1 Color;

1.2 Smell;

1.3 Taste;

1.4 Texture; and

1.5 General Acceptability


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

We are now facing an economic crisis, so people are wiser in spending their

money. However, some people can’t afford to by a branded ice cream to meet their

cravings and to make them satisfied. Not all the time ice cream is good in health, but

there is a way to save our health, through this Moringa oleifera leaves ice cream. This

will be use Moringa oleifera leaves as additive in making ice cream in very simple

and affordable way.

HYPOTHESIS

This study test the following hypothesis.

1. There is no significant relationship between the Color and the Acceptability of

Moringa oleifera leaves as flavoring in making ice cream.

2. There is no significant relationship between the Smell and the Acceptability of

Moringa oleifera leaves as flavoring in making ice cream.

3. There is no significant relationship in the Taste and the Acceptability of

Moringa oleifera leaves as flavoring in making ice cream.

4. There is no significant relationship between the Texture and the Acceptability

of Moringa oleifera leaves as flavoring in making ice cream.

5. There is no significant relationship between the General Acceptability and the

Acceptability of Moringa oleifera leaves as flavoring in making ice cream


SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS

This study “Acceptability of Horse Radish (Moringa oleifera) Leaves as

Flavoring in Making Ice cream” is limited to use Moringa oleifera as the primary

component of the preserve, wherein the researchers will determine the Acceptability

of each sample of 25%, 50% and 75% concentrations acceptable in terms of color,

smell, taste, texture and general acceptability.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Cream - thick part of the milk that rises to the top.

Cone - a rotating right triangle.

Ice - a solid form of water.

Moringa oleifera (leaves)- it is plant that is very popular in the barrio.

Sugar - it came from the sugarcane.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The purpose of this study is to explore the demand placed on ice cream vendors

to produce state of the ice cream flavors aimed at pleasing the palette of the consumer.

Gathering information pertaining to the incarnation of ice cream, the development of

flavors, and the advancement of selling ice cream as a major fast food product is the

foundation of the study. In retrieving the reviewed literature for the researcher utilized

Google scholar, JSTOR - Scholarly Journal Archive, and ERIC - Education


Information Center. The review of the literature explores the emergence of ice cream

in modern day dining culture, the evolution of ice cream as a business, and the

marketing demand placed one ice cream vendors to stay current in meeting palette

preferences of its consumer’s market. The concentration of the literature is divided

into three key perspective. The first focuses on the invention of ice cream and the

development of ice cream flavors, second, involves an in-depth discussion pertaining

to the entrepreneur milestones of ice cream in the industry. Lastly, it focuses on the

recent thrust of vendors to make ice cream a common fast food option of today’s

costumer. The invention of ice cream and its many flavor is often considered to be a

major choice for American palette. According to Adams,(2013) many Americans elect

to eat ice cream before selecting apple pie or chocolate cake as a dessert of choice,

Adams noted how restaurant menu’s “are expanding to include lavish flavor, from

rocky road to cherry Garcia” in their dessert options (2013,p.18). The origin of ice

cream also reflect an expansive tendency in the delivery of this frozen treat. Jones

(2011) mark the introduction of ice cream in the time of an ancient Rome. According

to Jones, “Nero expected a dessert fit for a ruler, demanding that his soldiers trudge

the mountain tops for the ice so that it could be mixed with Rome’s sweet bouquet of

fruits”(2001, p.24). As per Wiggins,(2009) ice cream found its place in the food chain

when the emperors of China found ways to mix milk with ice “ in a frothy concoction

of flavor to delight the senses”(p.46). From Rome to China, and eventually to the

United States, ice cream has served to quench the palette of people from all walks of

life. As the awareness of this frozen delight grew among the masses so did the quest

to produce new flavor combinations more advanced than their predecessors.

According to Wiggins,(2009) the expansion of ice cream flavors occurred

simultaneously with the expansion of the industrialization of the previous century.


With the advancement of refrigeration came the advancement of food preservation.

Ice box technology opened the door for frozen food options that were not formerly

available for long term storage. As such, the consumer could purchase a greater

variety of food items; including ice cream. Jones, (2011) stated, “with the

incorporation of the ice cream churning machine and the modern freezer, people could

finally allow their ‘juices’ to flow, allowing the internal culinary inventors of the

home opportunities to produce ice cream inclusive of fruit, chocolate, sauces, and the

like” (p.83). Taking note from the home grown experiments, entrepreneurs took these

ideas to market, allowing for the ice cream vendor to be born (Jones, 2011). Vendors

such as Haagan Das, Ben and Jerry’s Blue Bell, placed ice cream front in the center in

the frozen food aisle, making access to ice cream easier for the consumer, and the

entrepreneur as well. Ice cream as a Business With the invention of the refrigeration,

came the means of cold food storage and easy accessibility of cold food supplies

(Adams, 2013). Consumers in search of quick food options and tasty treats looked to

businesses such as McDonald’s, A&W, and Burger King to quench their appetites

(Jones, 2011). Even the younger consumer had purchasing power via the ice cream

truck vendor in their local neighborhood (Wiggins, 2009). No longer was ice cream

isolated to be a homemade creation, requiring quick consumption. Ice cream had

evolved to be a contender in the food industry. Businesses dedicated to solely serving

up ice cream were born. “Baskin Robbins, and Tasty-Freeze chains popped up in

communities, large and small, across the American landscape” (Adams, 2003, p.24).

Ice cream had arrived. Consumers were accepting of this food medium as a common

fast food selection. Even health conscious individuals had their fast food chains of

preference, “TCBY and Scoops Soft Serve Yogurt” (Jones, 2011, p. 104). Ice Cream

Considered Fast Food According to Adams, (2013) consumers of fast food are
growing, “tired of the typical burger and fries option... instead opting for a delicacy

they can call their own” (p 21, p.23). To accommodate the personalization need food

of consumers, savvy fast food business owners have implemented marketing

strategies that require businesses to evolve their menus to include a larger variety of

options, inclusive of an array of substitutions. “From coffee to ice cream, people can

now order these items the way they want in a matter of seconds” (Jones, 2001, p. 76).

People can even concoct their own mixture of ingredients in establishments such as

Scoopz. According to Wiggins, (2009) consumers can go into an establishment, grab a

cup, and enter ice cream or yogurt nirvana. “People can add juts, chocolate, jelly

beans or whatever to their plain-Jane vanilla ice cream, turning it into a personal

sweet victory of momentary invention” (Wiggins, 2009, p. 59). In a culture of fast

internet, fast phones, and fast cars, the expectation of fast food is not any different.

Historically, ice cream was a concoction that required ample time, from churning to

solidifying (Jones, 2011). “Yet, with the advent of machines that expedite the

churning process, and machines to store the frozen delight, people can now request

ice cream on demand” (Adams, 2013, p.20). Ice cream has become a common

alternative in satisfying the American fast food palette. The Need for Further

Marketing Research Ice cream, and its sister product, yogurt, has been embraced by

the food consumer as a solid choice in satisfying sweet-tooth cravings. Ice cream has

also been elevated to be a main staple in the consumer’s diet. Yet, has the frozen treat

capped out in its ‘rise to preference’ (Jones, 2011, p,127) on the fast food menu?

Further research is needed to determine if additional marketing strategies are

necessary in keeping this frozen treat in the mainstream of fast food dining. Marketing

strategies, themselves, need to be explored to determine the next wave of ice cream
creations and delivery options needed to satisfy an ever-changing palette of the food

consumer.

REVIEW OF RELATED STUDY

Ice cream we call glaces a la creme in French. Base on the book written by

Shannon Jackson Arnold, that France, sundaes are called coupes after the wide-

mounthed.(Shannon Jackson Arnold 2004) write one book and the title is “Everybody

Loves ice cream”. Shannon fond that got so matter that influence people want to eat

ice cream.

Ice cream as we recognize it today has been existence for at least 300 years,

though its origin probably date much further back.(C. Clarke 2004). Ice cream is one

of the global market, because almost every country in the world eaten and made ice

cream. In the worldwide production of ice cream is around 14.4 billion liters in

2001, .(C. Clarke 2004) people in the world like to sales ice cream because of the

weather advertising. For example in France, 65% of sales are made between June and

September, the weather, one of the reason a substantial impact sales, especially at the

certain time. Such as on the weekends. .(C. Clarke 2004) ice cream famous in maybe

flavor, brand, and also packages. In book Ice cream By Robert T. Marshallet, all state

that compositional standards differ around the world, as does the understanding of

what constitutes ice cream.


METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presents the method and materials that were used in the research

study, the treatments and data gathering procedures, and statistical tool and analysis.

COLOR SMELL TASTE TEXTURE GEN.


ACCEPTABILITY

T0

T1 (25%)

T2 (50%)

T3 (100%)

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study will use the Randomized Complete Block Design. It will be conducted

to find out what treatment is the most acceptable in terms of color, smell, taste, texture

and general acceptability. The treatments used were as follows:

T0- control

T1- 25% powder solution Moringa oliefera leaves

T2- 50% powder solution of Moringa oliefera leaves

T3- 100% powder solution Moringa oliefera leaves

MATERIALS
The following materials we are about to used to the said Malunggay ice

cream;

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The main data gathering that will be going to used in the study is pre-tasting and

survey method which enable the chosen respondents to evaluate the treatments in

terms of color, smell, taste, texture, and general acceptability

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES

Twenty (20) individuals composed of students from Tarlac Agricultural

University - Laboratory School during the school year 2018-2019 were required to

evaluate the qualities if Ice cream mixed with Malunggay powder in different

solutions( 25%, 50% and 100%). Pre-tasting and survey method will be used by the

respondents to evaluate the product.

DATA ANALYSIS

The analysis of data in this study will be based on the rating obtain from the

group of 20 individuals from the Laboratory School. Evaluators will use pre-tasting

and survey method through a questionnaire in evaluating the product.