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Журнал для тех,

No. 2 кто преподает


и изучает английский язык
eng.1september.ru Учебно-методический журнал Английский язык

“The purpose of art is


washing the dust of daily
life off our souls.”
―Pablo Picasso

The World of Art


февраль
1september.ru
2015
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Подписка на сайте www.1september.ru или по каталогу “Почта России”. Индексы: 79002 (бумажная версия), 12630 (CD-версия)
INSIDE
NEWS IN BRIEF выходит
Has the Imagination Disappeared 1 раз в месяц Издание основано в 1992 г.

from Lego?................................................. 3 Главный редактор: Алёна Громушкина


METHODS OF TEACHING Консультанты: Stephen Lapeyrouse, Erin Bouma
The Very First Time: Before, During Научный редактор: Г.Гумовская
Корректура: М.Гардер
and After Your First-Ever Lesson .................5
Набор, верстка: Г.Струкова
World Culture Study .................................. 6
ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ДОМ “ПЕРВОЕ СЕНТЯБРЯ”
Describing Pictures .................................... 9 Главный редактор
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT А.Соловейчик (генеральный директор)
Коммерческая деятельность
Arts and Crafts..........................................12 К.Шмарковский (финансовый директор)
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE Развитие, IT и координация проектов
С.Островский (исполнительный директор)
Глаголы ....................................................14 Реклама, конференции и техническое обеспечение
Art Vocabulary ..........................................17 П.Кузнецов
Производство
Art Idioms ................................................17 С.Савельев
Art Conversation Questions........................18 Административно-хозяйственное обеспечение
А.Ушков
Keep Trying! ............................................ 26 Педагогический университет
В.Арсланьян (ректор)
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
Brain-Ring ................................................19 ЖУРНАЛЫ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКОГО ДОМА:
Английский язык – А.Громушкина,
LESSON PLANS Библиотека в школе – О.Громова,
Seeing Is Believing .................................... 22 Биология – Н.Иванова,
География – и.о. А.Митрофанов,
Фрида Кало: “Да здравствует жизнь” .... 24 Дошкольное образование – Д.Тюттерин,
TOPICAL JOURNEY Здоровье детей – Н.Сёмина,
Информатика – С.Островский,
The World of Art ..................................... 27 Искусство – О.Волкова,
История – А.Савельев,
TEXTS FOR READING Классное руководство
This Picture Is a Legal Document ............. 39 и воспитание школьников – М.Битянова,
Литература – С.Волков,
To Love and to Cherish ............................. 39 Математика – Л.Рослова,
Museum of Andrey Rublyov ..................... 48 Начальная школа – М.Соловейчик,
Немецкий язык – М.Бузоева,
A Visit to Donskoi Monastery................... 49 ОБЖ – А.Митрофанов,
Castles in Britain ...................................... 50 Русский язык – Л.Гончар,
Спорт в школе – О.Леонтьева,
St. Petersburg Cathedrals.......................... 52 Технология – А.Митрофанов,
The Bronze Horseman ...............................57 Управление школой – Е.Рачевский,
Физика – Н.Козлова,
PREPARING FOR EXAMS Французский язык – Г.Чесновицкая,
Химия – О.Блохина,
Fine Arts ................................................. 43 Школа для родителей – Л.Печатникова,
TESTS Школьный психолог – М.Чибисова
Five-Minute Tests .................................... 43
Подписные индексы
FOR YOUNG LEARNERS По каталогу Почта России:
Задания и упражнения ............................ 45 бумажная версия 79002; CD-версия 12630

YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION Учредитель: ООО «Издательский дом “Первое сентября”»


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I Want to Tell You... ................................. 59 Отпечатано в ОАО “Первая Образцовая типография”
Филиал “Чеховский Печатный Двор”
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GOOD NEWS Сайт: www.chpd.ru. E-mail: sales@chpk.ru
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Music Battles with Time Headed Цена свободная Заказ № Тираж 17000 экз.
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The Mystery of the Eastern Stars .............. 62 Телефон: (499) 249-0640 Тел./факс: (499) 249-3138
E-mail: eng@1september.ru
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Издательская подписка: (499) 249-4758
Unless otherwise indicated images in this issue are from shutterstock.com E-mail: podpiska@1september.ru
NEWS IN BRIEF English

Arts HAS THE IMAGINATION 3


February 2015
DISAPPEARED FROM LEGO?
in EL Classroom
The arts have a profound ability to enrich the lives they
touch and can be an invaluable tool for teachers at all levels
to enhance instruction for English Language Learners. By
integrating the arts and artmaking into English language
teaching and learning, students will develop and deepen
their understanding of their own and others’ human experi-
ence. In combination with reading, writing, speaking and
listening, the arts can open doors for high levels of analysis
and also challenge students to explore themselves and
their surroundings, and thus find avenues for sophisticated
comprehension and communication. The arts convey what it
means to be human, challenge the intellect and provide rich
experiences in analysis, exploration, reflection, observation,
imagination, experimentation, and communication.
It is critical for educators to understand the ways in which
students’ cultural and linguistic backgrounds profoundly Lego was simple once, the critics complain. Using just a
influence their experiences in the classroom. The visual few blocks, usually square or rectangular, you could make
arts enhance language development by offering non-verbal anything. Lack of imagination was the only restraint on cre-
methods for communication and understanding and by ativity.
providing a platform for students to create mental images. But these days around 3,000 different pieces exist
Integrating the arts into language arts and the content across the company’s range. These include a wizard’s hat,
areas for EL learners can give students the opportunity to a vampire’s cape, a croissant, even a pterodactyl’s wing.
engage in new and varied approaches while gaining positive Instruction leaflets added to sets take users through a step-
emotional responses to learning, understanding others and by-step building process.
communicating their own ideas. Nobel Prize-winning chemist Sir Harry Kroto argues that
Through the arts, young people have opportunities to British-designed Meccano, which involves putting nuts and
develop their voices; enhance multicultural awareness; bolts together, is of greater educational value because it
take pride in heritage; and recognize their role in, respond mimics real-life engineering. “There is no comparison,” he
to, and participate in the world at large. says. “Children should start with Lego, which is basically a
By placing art within the context of the lives of EL learners toy, and its basic units are bricks. We do not build cars and
and enabling them to express their ideas visually as well as
other machines out of bricks.” He adds that children should
by speaking and writing, teachers can:
“graduate” to Meccano.
• Build on prior knowledge.
Millions of Lego-lovers disagree with Kroto’s analysis.
• Scaffold instruction.
But occasionally single items of Lego cause resentment
• Create a bridge between written and spoken language.
• Make learning relevant and meaningful.
– such as a windscreen/roof block made for the cab of a
• Help students develop self-esteem. pick-up truck released in 2003. The orange piece, which
• Foster creativity. appeared in just one set, was just one example of Lego
• Develop an appreciation of the past. becoming over-simplified, while the truck was “an abomina-
• Highlight similarities and differences. tion”, Big Sal’s Brick Blog says.
• Foster higher order thinking skills. Traditionalists favour conventional blocks, like the stan-
• Promote high levels of analysis, reasoning, and questioning. dard “2x4” rectangle, issued with almost 2,000 sets, accord-
• Support creative thinking. ing to the Bricklink cataloguing site. The Brick 2014 show,
• Model problem solving. taking place at east London’s ExCel centre from Thursday
• Emphasize interpreting and communication of ideas. until Sunday, demonstrates the extreme creations possible
• Enhance students’ ways of observing, responding to, and using simple pieces. A model of St. Pancras Station and a
representing the world. giant mosaic built by exhibition visitors are among them.
Lego spokesman Roar Rude Trangbaek says it “isn’t
true” that the toy has become less creative. “Children still
Облачные технологии от Издательского get bricks and they can combine them,” he adds. “The
дома “Первое сентября” bricks will probably end up in big boxes in homes and that
acts like a pool of creativity.”
Уважаемые подписчики бумажной версии журнала!
The brick count on the larger sets has risen in recent
Дополнительные материалы к номеру и электронная
SPECIAL OFFER!

years. Top of Bricklink’s list is the model of the Taj Mahal,


версия журнала находятся в вашем Личном кабинете на
released in 2008, with 5,922 parts. This took over from
сайте www.1september.ru
Для доступа к материалам воспользуйтесь, пожалуйста,
a limited-edition Star Wars/M&Ms mosaic, sold in 2005,
кодом доступа, вложенным в январский номер журнала which had 5,462. The Star Wars Millennium Falcon of 2007
(№1/2015). required the assembly of 5,174 pieces.
Срок действия кода с 1 января по 30 июня 2015 года. The idea of Lego selling kits with a specific purpose is
Для активации кода: not new. Since 1964 Lego has sold model sets with instruc-
• Зайдите на сайт www.1september.ru tion booklets, while continuing to offer boxes and tubs of
• Откройте Личный кабинет (зарегистрируйте, если у вас basic bricks.
его еще нет) The blogger Chris Swan argues that instructions marked
• Введите код доступа и выберите свое издание the start of a decline. “Lego taught me the art of creative
destruction – the need to break something in order to
Справки: podpiska@1september.ru или через службу под- make something better,” he writes. “Single-outcome
держки на портале "Первого сентября"
English NEWS IN BRIEF

4
February 2015
sets encourage preservation rather than destruc-
tion, and sadly that makes them less useful, less
educational (and, in my opinion, less fun).”
Galidor and Jack Stone sets, involving more be-
spoke components than usual, were expensive to
manufacture. Another problem was that, particular-
Lego’s business model, offering both mixed ly in the case of Galidor, it didn’t look or feel much
bricks and sets with specific instructions, persisted like Lego anymore.
for decades, with new lines added gradually. The By 2003 the company had suffered financially.
company developed age-specific sets such as Du- Around this time it decided that any developments
plo for toddlers and Technic for older users. Com- now had to be in keeping with its established ethos
mercial spin-offs involving Star Wars and the Harry of creativity through construction. It dropped Gali-
Potter films did well. These still relied on the basic dor and Jack Stone but continued and developed
idea of assembling bricks. licensed link-ups with Star Wars, Harry Potter and
Marvel Comics, among others. These contained
HOW LEGO WAS BUILT many basic bricks.
• Danish company which originally made wooden “It’s nonsense to say that Lego sets are now
toys, founded in 1916 made up of specialised pieces,” says David
• It adopted its name, a shortened version of the Gauntlett, professor of media, art and design at the
Danish phrase "leg godt", meaning "play well", University of Westminster. “It is commercial mad-
in 1934 – later it was realised the word conve- ness to make specific parts that can’t be used for
niently also meant "I put together" in Latin other things. As a business Lego has no desire to
• The company patented a locking system for be doing that at all. I know people like to say that
plastic bricks in 1958 and expanded its opera- it’s not what it was, but it’s false nostalgia. I find it
tion overseas really irritating.
“It was sort of true about 12 years ago, when
But in the early 2000s Lego moved away from the company almost went bankrupt and the prod-
its core audience in an attempt to appeal to chil- ucts were less popular. Since then the company
dren more interested in computer games and has had a major turnaround based on embracing
action figures. It devised lines based on its own the core of the Lego concept and not doing stupid
characters – action adventurer Jack Stone, sold things like that.”
from 2001, and Galidor, featuring the adventures Lego’s operating profit in the first half of this
of teenager-turned-galactic warrior Nick Bluetooth, year, helped by the huge success of The Lego
released in 2002. Movie, was 3.63bn Danish Krone (£386m). It now
Neither involved much building. The Jack Stone vies with Mattel to be the biggest toy company in
Super Glider only had seven pieces. Of the four the world.
types of part making up the Galidor TDN Module, “What we do today is all about building,” says
three were unique to the set. Trangbaek. Lego no longer offers “instant gratifica-
“It was based on a market research study that tion” sets, he adds. “We actually know what chil-
I’ve never managed to find, saying that most kids dren around the world want.”
don’t like construction,” says David Robertson, There will not be a return to the instruction-less
author of Brick by Brick, which explains the firm’s days of the late 1950s. But Lego Fusion, launched
success in recent years. “So Lego made a con- earlier this year, allows users to photograph their
struction kit that didn’t have any construction at own productions via an app and upload them to a
all. These sets were made up of about a dozen virtual space, where they remain once the toy itself
pieces. is broken up.
“It was a financial disaster. The company came This means they are preserved digitally and
to see in retrospect that, if you don’t like construc- can be combined online to create towns, holiday
tion, you won’t buy any Lego toys. Conversely, if resorts, car races or castles. Lego says children
you buy Lego, you won’t be happy with a toy that’s will move between computers and playing with ac-
got no real construction involved in it.” tual bricks to prevent “zombie gaze”, or an excess
The cost of creating a new Lego brick, mainly of screen-watching.
setting up moulds and production processes, is The company adds that, unlike its earlier at-
usually about $50,000 (£32,000), says Robertson. tempt to capitalise on the burgeoning computer
games market, this will enhance the use of bricks,
encouraging children’s imaginative role-playing
games and freestyle building.
Lego leaves it to other companies to make the
computer games and the films. “It’s important that
we focus on the physical bricks,” says Trangbaek.

MORE FROM THE MAGAZINE


Lego’s range – Research Institute – contained
three new female figures: a palaeontologist, an as-
tronomer and a chemist. But why does the toymak-
er’s portrayal of women provoke such controversy,
asks Tom de Castella.
A container filled with millions of Lego pieces
fell into the sea off Cornwall in 1997. But instead of
remaining at the bottom of the ocean, they are still
washing up on Cornish beaches today - offering
an insight into the mysterious world of oceans and
tides, says Mario Cacciottolo.

By Justin Parkinson, BBC News Magazine


METHODS OF TEACHING English

THE VERY FIRST TIME: 5


February 2015

Before, During and After Your First-Ever


Lesson
Every year, new young teachers come to
schools around the globe, and we experienced
professionals can share our wisdom with them.
“Don’t you know it ALL?” yet another twenty-two-
year-old, newly-minted BA asked me naively. Of
course I do, or I can convincingly pretend I do. ☺
Here are some simple steps to be taken be-
fore, during and after your very first lesson. Or
maybe during your very first year of teaching.
• Scared? Try to identify your fear. For instance,
when I started my first job as an interpreter
at age 16, I was so scared people would not
hear me, it never even occurred to me to
worry about my English! I read about voice
training, and then performed some daily ex- • Depending how successful the beginning is,
ercises, singing, breathing, articulating. They you may spend a few seconds on telling them
still serve me well. If you are worried you will that this is your first lesson of English, too. Al-
not be able to answer all the possible ques- ternately, when your students grumble that this
tions, remember: nobody knows “it all”. Nor is is their sixth lesson and they are soooo tired,
anybody able to remember all the names and act out a little scene. For example, say, “Oh my
stick them to every face correctly; give your- God, this is my sixth lesson too, and it’s also
self a little time. I usually tell my students that my sixth lesson of English!” Such a remark is
though I am good with faces, it takes me a always completely unexpected. Children laugh
little while to remember all the names, and so at it, and any tension dissolves at once.
I check the roster daily. • When dealing with children, ALWAYS be
• Read the class manual or ask the class su- ready for the unexpected. My very first les-
pervisor about your class. Are there any prob- son at school ended in quite a spectacular
lem children? The more you learn about your fashion. I asked if there were any questions,
classes, the better prepared you will be. one girl raised her hand, got up and promptly
• Read your lesson plan carefully. Do not worry fainted. As a mother, I knew what to do in any
if you did not manage to fulfill all the tasks. emergency. If you are very young and do not
Keep your Teacher’s Book at hand. have much experience, familiarise yourself
• Before every term starts, visit your class- with the correct procedures.
room, walk around, check which places you • Discipline. Never, ever try to over-shout any
like, be sure you know where all the supplies noise. Children are noisy by nature. If they are
are. Come to the room a few minutes before very quiet, something is wrong. If they cannot
the bell. This simple trick allows you to have seem to quiet down, start your lesson with the
a small psychological advantage: you are not old trusted staples, like an audio recording, a
the one who has to face the new group – your funny video clip, or distribute some cards with
pupils are. When they rush in, you can just simple tasks.
smile and wave, and keep being busy at your
table or board. AFTER THE LESSON
• Write down your name on the board, and tell • Analyze, but do not overdo it. You survived!
your pupils this is the way to address you once • Decide if you had any problems, think what
the lesson begins. Like, “Miss Supercalifragil- you would like to do differently, check how
isticexpialidocious”. Suggest that they copy it much you managed to do, what remains to be
into their notebooks. done.
• If you wish to give some homework, be sure to • Talk to your own favourite teacher, visit their
have it written down on the board in advance. lesson if possible, and just watch how they
cope.
DURING THE LESSON • If all went well, it does not mean that the next
• Greet your students in English, even if they lesson will be a success too.
are beginners. This will immediately create • If everything went wrong and you feel like run-
a special atmosphere, and establish cer- ning away screaming, or burst into tears, or
tain rules. Introduce yourself, pointing at the bash your head against the wall, remember:
board where your name is written, and then this is normal. You are not alone. Ask your
either call out students’ names in turn, or walk parents.
around, pointing at them and asking, “And you By Nina M. Koptyug, Ph.D.,
are?” Novosibirsk
English METHODS OF TEACHING

6
February 2015 WORLD CULTURE STUDY
Интерактивный курс МХК для учащихся 8–9-х классов
Учебная дисциплина “Мировая художественная культура” вошла • замена слова соответствующим эквивалентом русского языка;
в качестве обязательной в базисный учебный план сравнительно • перевод – толкование;
недавно, однако её актуальность и востребованность растет с каж- • дефиниция – описание значения на английском языке;
дым днем. Целью данного курса в школе является использование • графическое изображение (напр. архитектурный термин “stee-
силы воздействия различных видов искусства на формирование ple”: башенка, увенчанная шпилем, пирамидой или куполом).
личности старшеклассника, его нравственных убеждений, состав- Примерами послетекстовых лексических упражнений,
ляющих основу мировоззрения и жизненной позиции. нацеленных на дальнейшее овладение и закрепление профес-
В ГОУ средней общеобразовательной школе с углублённым сионально-тематического словарного запаса, являются задания:
изучением английского языка № 1359 ЮВОУО Департамента об- • сгруппируйте слова по заданному признаку;
разования города Москвы курс Мировой художественной культу- • найдите в тексте антонимы-синонимы к заданным словам;
ры преподаётся с использованием особых методов и форм обу- • назовите слова, которые могут быть использованы для опи-
чения, так как он интегрирован не только с такими предметами, сания данного предмета, явления, стиля, эпохи;
как история, обществознание, география, литература; видами • определите значения незнакомых слов, пользуясь законами
искусства (живопись, архитектура, скульптура, музыка, театр), словообразования;
но и с английским языком. • придумайте примеры, употребляя необходимую лексику;
Учителя английского языка, приступившие к преподаванию • переведите с русского языка на английский и наоборот;
интегративного курса МХК, столкнулись с проблемой отсутствия • назовите слова, которые могут сочетаться с данными суще-
структурированного пособия для общеобразовательных школ, ствительными;
охватывающего весь период развития цивилизации и содержа- • расширьте предложения, употребив лексические единицы;
щего систему упражнений, направленных на усвоение лексико- • заполните пропуски в предложениях соответствующими фор-
грамматического материала, развитие навыков устной речи, а мами слов;
также аргументированного высказывания. • преобразуйте слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексиче-
Учитывая данные проблемы, педагогический коллектив школы ски соответствовали содержанию текста.
включился в экспериментальную деятельность с целью создания Речевые упражнения, представленные в УМК, способствуют
учебно-методического комплекса по мировой художественной формированию речевых компетенций в условиях, приближен-
культуре на английском языке для учащихся 8–9-х классов. Со- ных к естественному общению, и дают возможность реализовать
гласно гипотезе эксперимента, внедрение разрабатываемого учеб- такие интенции как обоснование, аргументация, доказательство,
ного комплекса направлено на формирование новых подходов и выражение собственного мнения, описание, сопоставление,
решение всего комплекса проблем гуманитарно-эстетического анализ:
образования и воспитания, и должно повысить мотивацию к из- • составьте ситуацию или рассказ по ключевым словам, по плану;
учению английского языка, расширить социокультурную компе- • опишите картину или серии картин с элементами анализа;
тенцию, что позитивно повлияет на качество знаний, расширение • объясните на английском языке символику картины;
кругозора учащихся, их социализацию. • аргументируйте собственное мнение;
В основу создаваемого учебно-методического комплекса за- • распределите лексический ряд в соответствии с предложен-
ложен принцип коммуникативно-деятельного обучения, поэтому ными картинами;
в центре внимания – материал, направленный на формирование • ответьте на проблемные вопросы;
и совершенствование иноязычной коммуникативной компетен- • расположите предложения в хронологическом порядке и ис-
ции, необходимой и достаточной для межкультурного общения пользуйте их в своём дальнейшем рассказе;
школьников, развитию у них способностей использовать язык как • соотнесите даты с событиями, описанными в разделе.
инструмент общения и обобщения в контексте диалога культур. Для определения успешности совместной деятельности учи-
Разрабатываемый УМК позволит приобщить учащихся к вос- теля и ученика УМК предлагает тестовые задания на опреде-
приятию, познанию и усвоению духовно-нравственного и эстетиче- ление:
ского опыта человечества, расширить лингвокультурологический • своеобразия требуемой эпохи;
аспект языкового образования, повысить мотивацию изучения ан- • значения различных видов искусства (архитектуры, скульпту-
глийского языка и расширить социокультурную компетенцию, что ры, живописи) данной эпохи;
должно позитивно отразиться на качестве знаний учащихся. • степени владения терминологией по разделам.
Отличительной чертой учебно-методического комплекса по Принимая во внимание углубленность изучения английского
мировой художественной культуре на английском языке для языка в нашей школе, все типы предлагаемых упражнений также
8–9-х классов школ с углубленным изучением английского язы- нацелены на подготовку учащихся к успешной сдаче Единого го-
ка является доступность материала и его аутентичность, так как сударственного экзамена, который проводится в рамках модер-
в качестве источников были использованы книги по искусство- низации российского образования. Цель заданий – контроль по-
ведению современных британских и американских авторов: А нимания изученного материала и владения им, а также развитие
Dictionary of Architecture. J.S. Curl. Oxford University Press; The навыков выполнения заданий, используемых в формате ЕГЭ:
Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. M. Kennedy. Oxford University • тесты на основе множественного выбора (один возможный из
Press; The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre. P. Hartnoll, четырех предложенных);
P. Found. Oxford University Press; A History of Painting, Sculpture, • установление соответствия;
Architecture. Volumes I, II. F. Hart. New York; A Brief History of Tudor • восстановление пропущенных слов или словосочетаний в
Age. J. Ridley. London. тексте;
Приступая к работе, учителя английского языка школы озна- • лексико-грамматическая трансформация.
комились с методической литературой по проблеме разработки
авторских курсов, проанализировали действующие программы Коллектив участников эксперимента: Брусникина И.Е., Кока-
и учебные пособия по мировой художественной культуре для нова О.Б., Кошелева Н.А., Кутьина О.Г., Мятова М.И., Резнико-
средних общеобразовательных школ, определили формат пред- ва Л.И. предлагает Вашему вниманию ряд разработанных глав:
полагаемого учебно-методического комплекса и необходимые “Введение в предмет”, “Месопотамия”, “Древний Египет”, “Древ-
типы развивающих упражнений. Таким образом, семантизация няя Греция”.
новых лексических единиц проводится одним из предложен- Г.В. Новикова,
ных способов (в зависимости от степени сложности понимания директор ГОУ СОШ с углублённым изучением
его значения): английского языка № 1359, г. Москва
METHODS OF TEACHING English
Warming Up:
Exercise 1. Answer the questions.
1. Why do people pay much attention to art?
2. What influence does art have on people’s way of life?
3. What are the three main parts of the successful development
7February 2015
of art?
4. How do you think religion is connected with art?
5. What great names of artists can you give? What are these society – being placed in the art market. Knowing the client’s
people famous for? cultural identity, expectations and historical context is often key
to understanding many of the world’s masterpieces, from the
Exercise 2. Match the names of great artists and spheres of Middle Ages to the eighteenth century. Patrons frequently im-
their activity: posed specific conditions on the artist, from the use of certain
1. Leonardo da Vinci a. introduced 3-dimentional materials to the inclusion of particular details and figures. In
painting many cases when the works were destined for public display,
2. Norman Foster b. produced jewellery with the identity of the patron or the “hallmark” of the sponsor had
precious stones to be made evident through symbolic references, according to
3. Michelangelo Buonarroti c. was the father of Russian a code of colours, positions, and emblems that must have been
national music school readily understood at the time, but that we can only partially
4. Caravaggio d. invented oil paints reconstruct today.
5. Albrecht Dürer e. implemented hi-tech ideas
in architecture Sense, Subject, and the Meaning
6. Hieronimus Bosch f. was the most inventive The relationship between the artist, the public, the market,
painter, engineer, scientist and the critics brings us back to the concept of communication.
7. Peter Carl Fabergé g. was a famous sculptor, A work of art, like a work of poetry or prose, or like any com-
painter and architect plex message, can be read in many different ways. There is no
8. Antonio Lucio Vivaldi h. was the father of still life, “single” correct interpretation, but layer upon layer of interwo-
revealed the power of light ven meanings, when combined, enhance one another. The art
9. Michael Glinka i. is known for light and historian’s task is to reconstruct, analyze, and study the mate-
memorable music rial and the historical, social, biographical, and cultural circum-
10. Masaccio j. was one of the strangest and stances that led to the creation of the work.
the most mysterious of all artists As a visual means of communication, art appeals to the
senses as well as the intellect. This is one of the main dif-
ferences between visual art and poetry: in literary works the
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 material aspect is irrelevant, and the value of a text remains
the same in a deluxe edition or a paperback. On the contrary,
in visual art, the “meaning” is communicated through what is
INTRODUCTION visually perceived.
Many “messages” come from the visual arts that precede
and then run parallel to the discovery and the development of Task I. Find the given word combinations in the text and
writing; and while the written word communicated with a very translate them into Russian: visual arts; to be potentially acces-
selected audience consisting of those who had the privilege of sible to somebody; a religious significance; prehistoric; geomet-
knowing its “secret”, the visual arts (music, dance) were poten- ric motifs; a universal desire; to surround oneself with; means
tially accessible to everyone. Perhaps there is no way of know- of communication; to imply something; harmonious; comple-
ing whether or not what we call “art” was born out of practical mentary; identity; frequently; for public display; a hallmark of
necessity. The images of animals on the walls of prehistoric the sponsor; to be evident; symbolic references; a code of col-
caves may have had a religious significance, or maybe they ours; partially reconstructed; correct interpretation; a layer of
served to teach young men to hunt. interwoven meanings; to appeal to senses and intellect; visually
However, during the same period, the urge to decorate a bowl perceived.
with geometric motifs did not satisfy any immediate or direct
need beyond the universal desire to surround oneself with the Task II. Give answers to the following questions:
“beautiful” and the “personal” that exists in all cultures, eras 1. How is the work of art born?
and latitudes. 2. Are works of art always easily understood?
3. What are the essential parts of the artistic world?
The Artist, the Client and the Public 4. What should be taken into consideration to understand the
Every means of communication has its own codes and in- world of art?
struments, but all messages imply the presence of at least two 5. What do symbols, colours and positions show (signify)?
people: the “sender” and the “receiver”, or in this case, the artist 6. What circumstances are necessary to understand art?
and the public.
The artist is trained and works within the same intellectual Task III. Translate the following sentences:
environment as the public he or she has to deal with. Hence a 1. ...the urge to decorate a bowl with geometric motifs did not
work of art is born of the relationship between creativity, in- satisfy any immediate or direct need beyond the universal
dividual talent, and collective taste. This coming together may desire to surround oneself with the “beautiful” and the “per-
be both harmonious and complementary or may be filled with sonal” that exists in all cultures, eras and latitudes.
misunderstanding. 2. Knowing the client’s cultural identity, expectations and his-
However, to understand the visual arts better it is necessary torical context is often key to understanding many of the
to include a third element in the dialogue between the artist and world’s masterpieces.
English METHODS OF TEACHING Task VII. Complete the text using words from the box.

8
February 2015
interpretation, senses, visual, material, reconstruct, spiritual,
communication, meanings, edition, different, circumstances

The relationship between the artist, the public, the market,


and the critics brings us back to the concept of (1)__________.
3. ...the identity of the patron or the “hallmark” of the sponsor
A work of art can be read in many (2)__________ ways. There
had to be made evident through symbolic references...
is no single correct (3)__________, but layer upon layer of
4. ...but layer upon layer of interwoven meanings, when com-
interwoven (4)__________ combined. The task of a historian
bined, enhance one another.
is to (5)___________, analyse and study the material and the
5. ...in literary works the material aspect is irrelevant, and the
historic, social, bibliographical and cultural (6)__________ that
value of a text remains the same in a deluxe edition or a pa-
led to the creation of the work.
perback.
As a visual means of communication, art appeals to the
Task IV. Agree or disagree:
(7)__________ as well as the intellect. In literature the
1. Messages of visual art are accessible to any audience.
(8)__________ aspect is irrelevant because the value of the text
2. Visual messages can’t have one meaning.
remains the same in a deluxe (9)__________ or a paperback.
3. All people have the same desire for the beauty.
On the contrary, in (10)__________ art, the “meaning” is com-
4. Creativity and individual talent mean nothing without mar-
municated through what is visually perceived.
ket.
5. The real meaning of pictures can’t be restored today.
Task VIII. Read the text with the dictionary:
6. The picture can’t be born only due to someone’s imagina-
When we speak about the history of art, it is mainly the his-
tion.
tory of painting. However, painting has not always been the
7. Visual art appeals both to senses and intellect.
main visual art. Quite the contrary, in various historical periods,
culture and taste were strongly reflected in other media. In ad-
Task V. Complete the text:
dition, the classification of the arts has been an open debate for
Many “messages” come from visual arts that (1)__________
centuries.
the development of writing. While the written word was the
Thus in the Renaissance epoch there was a sharp distinction
(2)__________ of the selected audience, the visual arts were
between “high art” (drawing, painting, sculpture and architec-
potentially (3)__________ and understood by everyone. It is
ture) and the “minor art” (ceramics, textile, jewellery). A paint-
rather difficult to say now whether art was born as a result of
er, sculptor and architect enjoyed a higher social status than a
(4)__________ beliefs or had some (5)__________ meaning.
ceramist, cabinetmaker, goldsmith, tapestry weaver and engrav-
By all means, the demand to (6)__________ yourself with the
er – they remained at the level of artisans, though their art de-
beauty has passed through the (7)__________, has undergone
manded a complete mastery of materials, tools and equipment.
changes and found itself in a (8)__________ of styles and
At the height of Renaissance Michelangelo was considered a
forms.
universal artist, the ideal point of reference and the leading au-
thority on painting and sculpture. According to Michelangelo,
1. a. begin; b. precede; c. start; d. complete
an artist should aim for the most elevated subject: the human
2. a. priority; b. business; c. privilege; d. education
subject either in isolation or set within a story.
3. a. accessible; b. taken; c. received; d. easy
Religious scenes and mythological subjects were considered
4. a. natural; b. folk; c. mysterious; d. religious
elevated, but general public and collectors preferred illustra-
5. a. practical; b. necessary; c. educational; d. religious
tions of episodes of everyday life, landscapes and still lifes.
6. a. encircle; b. surround; c. round; d. around
7. a. destinations; b. age; c. epochs; d. generation
Task IX. Find the English equivalents to the following words
8. a. variety; b. various; c. different; d. many
and word combinations:
в других средствах; различные периоды; сильное различие;
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ювелирное дело; ювелир; ткач гобеленов; гравер; Возрож-
дение; главный автопортрет; возвышенный предмет; ми-
фологический сюжет; социальный статус; ремесленники;
Task VI. Complete the text: совершенство исполнения; считаться кем-либо; пейзаж; на-
Every means of (1)_____________(communicate) has its тюрморт
own codes and instruments, but all messages imply the pres-
ence of a (2)_____________ (“send”) and a “receiver”. When Task X. Write five different questions to the text.
we speak about art, it is an “artist” and “public”.
A work of art is born of the (3) _____________ (relate) Task XI. Topics for discussions:
between (4)_____________ (create), individual talent and 1. Do you know who Michelangelo was?
(5)_____________ (collect) taste. 2. Do you know why this artist was called universal?
These criteria coming together may be either 3. What period of history did Renaissance occupy?
(6)____________ (harmony) and complementary or cause a
strong (7)____________ (understand). И.Е. Брусникина, О.Б. Коканова, Н.А. Кошелева,
Knowing the market, as a third element, in the dialogue be- О.Г. Кутьина, М.И. Мятова, Л.И. Резникова,
tween an artist and society, we may learn more about client’s ГОУ СОШ с углублённым изучением английского языка
(8)______________ (culture) identity, (9)______________(ex- № 1359, г. Москва
pect) and historic context. According to a code of colours, posi-
tions and emblems we are supposed to (10) ______________
(construct) the by-gone times. See keys and more materials on CD.
METHODS OF TEACHING English

DESCRIBING 9
February 2015

PICTURES
Современный урок Такие высказывания у младших школьников – резуль-
иностранного языка не тат длительной последовательной работы учителя по
возможен без использо- обучению умению описывать картинку, комбинируя при
вания такого вида работы, как работа в парах с картинка- этом различные структуры, домысливая какие-то факты,
ми. Данный вид упражнений применяется как с младши- высказывая свое мнение о том, что изображено на кар-
ми школьниками, так и со старшеклассниками, готовящи- тинке.
мися к сдаче ЕГЭ. Описанные выше приемы и организационные фор-
Приведем пример работы с картинками с младшими мы работы позволяют учителю вовлечь в иноязычное
школьниками. общение всех учащихся, научить их следить за ходом
У каждого ученика на парте своя картинка (мальчик, урока и быть внимательными к тому, что говорит учи-
девочка, школьники, взрослые люди, школьный двор, тель и учащиеся, правильно оценивать свои достиже-
дом, дети в школе, дети катаются на коньках и др.). ния и успехи одноклассников. Одновременная управ-
Ученики, сидящие за одной партой, должны рассказать ляемая парная работа помогает учителю иностранного
друг другу о том, что делает мальчик или девочка (дети, языка уже в 5-м классе постепенно сокращать упраж-
взрослые и т.д.), указать возраст персонажей, род заня- нения чисто имитационного характера и увеличивать
тий и дать другую возможную информацию по рисункам. количество упражнений, требующих от учащихся са-
Сначала учащиеся только описывают то, что изображено мостоятельного отбора языкового материала для вы-
на картинке. Такой вид работы помогает учащимся совер- ражения своих мыслей.
шенствовать навыки использования структур в Present В конце урока иностранного языка необходимо под-
Continuous и Present Indefinite. При этом учитель уделяет вести итоги проделанной работы по описанию карти-
большое внимание обучению детей умению логически нок. Учитель старается показать учащимся, чему они
продолжить какую-то мысль или утверждение. Это не- научились, что уже умеют делать, а также обязательно
пременный компонент в развитии умения строить само- отметить интересные мысли и оригинально составлен-
стоятельное высказывание. Например, для закрепления ные высказывания учащихся по картинкам и фотогра-
структур в Present Indefinite используется упражнение на фиям.
дифференциацию этой структурной группы и структур На более старшей ступени обучения иностранному
в Present Continuous (опять же с использованием разных языку лексика по описанию картинок усложняется. Для
картинок). этого старшеклассников, готовящихся к ЕГЭ, необходи-
Затем учитель предлагает составить монологические мо обучать специальным словам и выражениям для по-
высказывания по картинкам каждому ученику пары. Такое добного вида заданий и упражнений.
задание развивает у учащихся фантазию, воображение, В данной статье мы постараемся включить наиболее
логическое мышление. При этом осуществляется взаимо- часто используемые слова и выражения для описания
контроль и взаимообучение. В конце урока опрашиваются картинок и фотографий, а также примеры их использо-
несколько пар учащихся, класс оценивает, чье сообщение вания.
было самым интересным. Ученики с более низким уров-
нем обученности говорят примерно следующее: Discussing Pictures: What to describe
Р1: I see a man. Не is an engineer. Не goes to his work in the When talking or writing about pictures, the following
morning. He likes his work. points are often discussed:
P2: Children are in the school yard. They play ball. They subject, theme, brushwork
play ball after the lessons. Children like to play games in form, shape light and shade
the school yard. composition technique
colour style
Учащиеся с высоким уровнем обученности строят line (work)
более содержательные высказывания. These aspects will now be considered in turn.
Р3: I can see a girl in the picture. She is not a little girl. I
think she is 13 or 14. She is a schoolgirl. Her name is Subject, Theme
Kate. Her hair is fair. Her eyes are blue. She has a book subject
in her hand. I think she is doing her homework. This means what is depicted.
P4: I think the boy likes hockey. He has a hockey stick Degas looked round for new subjects and found them in
in his hands. He has a sport suit and a small hat on. I the opera-house.
think the boy is 12. He is a pupil. He has many friends. It is used in such combinations as:
He is thinking about hockey. Hockey is an interesting historical subjects mythological subjects
game. Biblical subjects classical subjects
English METHODS OF TEACHING
As a countable noun it denotes a particular colour.

10 February 2015
a. Green was a colour that Turner particularly disliked.
b. The bright colours of the peasants’ costumes stand out
against the dark background.
c. The painter uses cool colours – bluish-greens, blues and
violets – for the shadows, and warm colours, that is, those
Theme is not a synonym of subject, although their use where yellows predominate, for the fully-lit areas.
overlaps in some cases. In connection with a painting, theme The following adjectives are often applied to colours:
may be used in such sentences as: light – dark luminous
The theme of the painting is the futility of war. bright – pale strong
vivid harsh – soft, pastel
Form, Shape brilliant subdued, delicate
Form may be used uncountably in a general sense, to intense warm – cool
mean the manner in which the subject is depicted. In art, Primary colours are red, blue and yellow, from which all
however, it is more often used specifically in contrast to other colours can be obtained by mixing.
colour(ing). Colouring is used to denote the way in which an artist
a. His still-lifes show a strong sense of form, but the colour- uses colour.
ing lacks subtlety. The delicate colouring of this picture is typical of his later
b. The Impressionists tended to attribute greater importance works.
to colour than to form. Note that later, not late, is used in contrast to early in
In such sentences form means the shapes created by the such cases. This applies also to the other arts, for example,
artist, and may include the way in which they are arranged, music, literature.
although the latter idea is often expressed separately by the Colourist occurs in such sentences as:
word composition. Turner is a superb colourist.
Note the difference between this use of form in art with It is generally modified, as in the above sentence, by good,
its use in literature, where form is contrasted with subject, fine, superb, poor, or some other word.
theme.
As a countable noun, form is sometimes used as a syno- Shade, Tint, Tinge, Tone, Hue
nym of shape, mainly by artists, art critics, etc. These words are often used when discussing an artist’s
a. The form of the vase is very unusual. use of colour, and the distinctions between them are not al-
b. The picture is an arrangement of (geometrical) forms: ways easy to grasp.
circles, squares, rectangles. Shade as a countable noun refers to degree or intensity of
In this sense, however, shape is more common, at least colour (оттенок).
with the general public. The picture is painted entirely in varying shades of blue,
ranging from the very pale blue, almost white, of the sky, to
Composition the dark blue, almost black, of the ship.
Composition means how the various elements of the pic- Tint may be a synonym of shade. For example, the Shorter
ture are arranged (композиция). Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) gives the phrase autumn
The composition of the picture is very striking. tints of brown and gold. However, it is used especially with
When talking about the composition of a picture, we need reference to pale and delicate shades, and this use is given
the following expressions: separately in the SOED as a technical term of painting:
in the foreground/background, a grade of colour; spec. a mixture of a colour with white
off centre. The following sentence illustrates a more specialised use:
The tree is deliberately off centre. Renoir excelled at flesh tints.
in the centre foreground/background Tint is also used as a verb, meaning “to give a tint to, to
on/to the right/left (of the picture) colour, especially with a pale and delicate shade”.
in the left foreground/background A tinge is a slight shade of colour, especially one modify-
at the top/bottom ing the basic colour.
in the right foreground/background The sky is grey with a tinge of pink.
in the top/bottom left/right-hand corner background Tinge is also a verb.
in the centre/middle (of the picture) The sky is tinged with pink.
Composition may also be used countably to mean a pic- Tone may also be used in the sense of shade. For example,
ture, considered from the point of view of its composition. Hornby gives the phrase a picture in warm tones, explaining
It is a large composition of the estuary of the Thames. it as “in shades suggesting warmth”.
However, it also has a slightly different sense, defined in
Colour, Colouring, Colourist the SOED as follows:
Colour is used uncountably in such sentences as: “The prevailing effect of the combination of light and
a. He has a wonderful sense of colour. shade and of the general scheme of colouring, in a painting,
b. He uses colour very effectively. building, etc.”
c. The Impressionists produced canvases where lightness This sense can be illustrated as follows:
and intensity of colour expressed perfectly the luminosity Turner and the Romantic painters were sometimes called
and brilliance of nature bathed in sunlight. the white painters by followers of the classical tradition be-
METHODS OF TEACHING English
cause of the light tones of their pictures. These contrasted
strongly with the traditional dark tones of the classical
school.
Hue is used occasionally to mean a colour or shade of col-
our, mainly in poetic language, although sometimes simply
11February 2015

for stylistic variety in formal situations.


These two words are often used together to denote the d. Death is portrayed as an old woman.
lighter and darker parts of a picture, that is, those parts which e. The famous writer is portrayed sitting at his desk.
are represented as illuminated, and those represented as lack- Represent also occurs in some such cases, but is com-
ing illumination. paratively rare.
a. The light and shade in the folds of the woman’s dress is
skillfully rendered. Render, Catch, Capture
b. There are some beautiful effects of light and shade. Render is used in the sense of “reproduce by artistic
Light and shade effects. means” generally with an adverbial modifier.
Note that shade, not shadow, is used here. The usage of a. The painter has rendered the child’s expression of wonder
these two words coincides in some cases, but the general ten- very well.
dency is as follows: b. Degas effectively renders the atmosphere of the ballet.
Shade is most often used uncountably to denote an area of c. The Impressionists wanted to render as truthfully as pos-
relative darkness, whereas shadow is most often used count- sible the effects of sunlight.
ably to denote a dark shape thrown on the ground, floor, a Catch and capture occur in a similar sense, usually with-
wall, etc. by, for example, a person, a tree, a building. out an adverbial modifier.
Shade is also used as a verb, meaning to darken with par- a. I have caught the effect I wanted – the half-parted lips,
allel pencil lines, etc. (parts of a drawing, etc.) to give the and the bright look in the eyes. (Oscar Wilde)
appearance of light and shade (SOED). b. The painter has succeeded in capturing the inner life of
The folds of the dress are shaded (in pencil). his sitter.
This process, or the result of it, is called shading. These verbs could replace render in examples (a) – (c)
This drawing is remarkable for the skilful use of shading. above, although in that case it is likely that the adverbial
modifier would be omitted.
Line (work) sense
Apart from its ordinary, countable use, as in to draw a This word is used in the expression a sense of with two
line, line is also used uncountably in the generalised sense meanings:
of “lines, use of lines, drawing”, although with reference to a. a feeling for;
painting as well as graphics. The artist has a good/fine/wonderful sense of colour/ line/
a. He has a good sense of line. form/composition.
b. This picture is remarkable for its purity of line. a. an impression of:
Linework is also used. a. The artist has created a sense of space/movement.
The linework is brilliant. b. There is a sense of grandeur in this picture.
Impression may also be used here.
Brushwork
This means how the paint is applied (живописная Effect, Effective
манера, манера письма). Effect is widely used in the sense of impression created
The brushwork of the Impressionists differed from that of in such sentences as:
their predecessors in that they did not blend the colours to- The effect of a windswept sea with boats rising and falling
gether imperceptibly, but left the brushstrokes clearly visible is dramatically rendered in “Shipping at the Mouth of the
all over their canvases. Thames” (by Turner).
Style and technique present no particular problems of us- There are some beautiful colour effects in this picture.
age for Russian speakers. effects of light and shade.
Effective, meaning “producing the desired effect, or mak-
Some General Words ing a striking impression”, also occurs frequently.
The following words are widely used when discussing a. His use of colour is very effective.
pictures. b. He makes effective use of shading.

Depict, Portray, Represent Формируя навык использования учащимися пере-


Depict and portray are widely used in the sense of “rep- численных выше слов и выражений в речи, учитель
resent, show in the form of a picture”. They are more or less сначала отрабатывает их в упражнениях, требующих
interchangeable, and may often alternate for stylistic variety. употребления каждого отдельного слова и словосочета-
Here are some examples of usage: ния, и лишь потом учит детей комбинировать их в вы-
a. The drawing depicts a sleeping child. сказывании.
b. Scenes from the Greek myths are depicted in the frescoes.
c. The series of etchings “Disasters of War” (by Goya) por- Людмила Николаевна Щербатых,
trays the heroism and sufferings of the people during the Елецкий государственный университет
Napoleonic invasion of Spain. им. И.А. Бунина
12
English PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Field Notes
ARTS AND CRAFTS
February 2015

Not long ago, during one of my workshops for teachers, face and if you were skilful enough to notice that, you had
while discussing the ways we can give feedback to our learn- a chance to self-correct and get a higher grade for your per-
ers, one of the participants asked me: ‘What if I don’t want formance.
to be polite, tolerant and friendly with my students? If I want The face reading habit of our students reveals to us sev-
them to see my emotions, the strength of my emotions, my eral issues to think about. The first one – don’t we mix giv-
energy, how strongly I want them to speak correctly?’ ing feedback and assessment? Aren’t we over-assessing with
Even though the hard and quick answer is lying on the our students? Because face reading in fact can be a success
surface claiming that ‘a teacher must fulfil their duties’, the strategy helping students to anticipate the problem and fix it
underpinning processes which make the realization of this on the spot.
suggestion less painful and traumatic for a teacher’s psyche The second question is do we indeed give feedback to our
rarely get under discussions. learners on their performance or do we just list their mis-
Teacher’s emotions are a mighty, if not almighty, tool. takes, without mentioning the strong points of their perform-
They give us energy and drive, indicate our reactions to cer- ance? It seems to me that in a situation when a teacher is
tain situations, signal where to move in unexpected teaching the bad-news-messenger, learners start looking for the good
events. If handled with care and awareness, our emotions can news about their learning, for approval and praise (so much
do us and our learners a lot of good. On the contrary, una- needed for sustaining motivation) in other resources, like
wareness of our emotions, the impact exposure of our true non-verbal behaviour.
feelings may have on our learners, might have disastrous ef- In the light of the abovementioned there emerge two main
fect on both our learners and ourselves. questions: how to use our emotions during students’ per-
Thus, in this issue’s field notes I am going to consider the formance and while giving feedback.
role of teacher’s emotions in the learning process and the
ways we can befriend with even those sides of our personali- KEEPING BUSY
ties that seem dark and frightening, not only for our learners Communicative language teaching claims that a lot of
but for ourselves as well. learning happens through learners attending to the feedback
from the teacher when a fluency activity is over. This im-
FACE READING plies two things. Firstly, no feedback from the teacher’s part
Learners seem to be always interested in their teacher’s when the learner is actually speaking (if only it is not a study
personality and feelings. This may be explained not only by exercise when learners, for example, practise pronunciation;
natural curiosity and eagerness to know more about the per- this relates only to fluency activities when the learners are
son they are communicating with, but also by a need to get engaged in purposeful communication). In other words, no
oriented in the educational environment, to choose the right comments and no information about the language perform-
way of behaviour and responses, which could ensure their ance. Secondly, providing feedback is giving information
security. that can serve as basis for improvement (not the feeling of
As most teachers tend to control what they are saying to shame, not self-humiliation, not over-excitement, but im-
the students – every teacher’s utterance, as a rule, is a re- provement).
sult of a teacher’s choice – our learners start, consciously or But what shall I do while my students are speaking? – one
unconsciously, observing us. You may get rather surprised would reasonably ask. Well, there are quite a lot of things
when you learn that practically each of your students has to occupy yourself with while your learner is trying to get
his own collection of observations and conclusions, at times across a message. I can name at least five:
close to superstitions, about your behaviour. For example, if 1. Keep an eye contact. People like it when they see the
you are wearing a black sweater there is a high probability of eyes of the person they are talking to.
a test. Or if you entered the classroom whistling a song, there 2. React to WHAT your students are saying, not to HOW
will be a lot of jokes. Or if you fiddle with your pen while they are saying it. This will allow you to expose your emo-
listening to a learner, the grade is unlikely to be high. tional response to the content. Ask yourself how you feel/
All these are examples of body language leakages – in- what you think about what your learner says. Is it interest-
formation about your state of mind that your face and body ing? Surprising? Sad? New for you? Imagine that you are
reveal without letting you know. If you look back at your talking to a person in your first language. That must help.
own learning experience, you might remember a moment or 3. Note STRONG points in your student’s performance.
two when you were answering a question looking intensely This will be handy when you will be giving feedback. Your
at your teacher’s face, because you knew for sure that the learners need to know what went well. This will increase
moment you made a mistake the facial expression would their confidence and help concentrate on the areas for im-
change: something like a sour shadow may quickly cross the provement. They will know that once they have managed to
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT English

13
February 2015

anger comes when we keep unnoticed the feeling of irrita-


tion that proceeds any anger attack. Teachers tend to put up
with the working overload and constant stress, which may
gradually shape a rather gloomy outlook with the feeling of
annoyance as a background tune. Still, I do believe that if
you suddenly feel angry with your students this is the magic
moment when something can be changed.
First of all, anger is an indicator that you really do not like
what is going on. Ask yourself what exactly you do not like.
I fully realize that it might be a tricky task at the beginning,
especially if you feel that you don’t like students or teaching
master a certain language aspect, they will be able to cope or school in general. Still, try to name the components of the
with the next task. On the other hand, without knowing object you do not like.
about their achievements (and without acknowledge from The second step is formulating what you want the situa-
the teacher’s part) they may sink in doubts and hesitation. tion to be. Do you want your students to stop making mis-
4. Note IMPORTANT mistakes. It is impossible to note all takes in the Present Perfect? Or do you want them to use
the mistakes, that is why it is usually recommended to pick more synonyms in their essays? Or do you want them to
out only the mistakes that prevent understanding or repeated hand in assignments on time?
mistakes. Be careful to differentiate between mistakes and The next move is to understand what you are ready to do
errors. Mistakes are failures to utilise a known system cor- to get the situation changed. As a rule this is connected with
rectly and they can be corrected. An error is a noticeable de- some kind of risk taking, doing something unusual such as
viation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflect- not following the syllabus and allowing 3 extra lessons for
ing the interlanguage competence of the learner. Errors need grammar/vocabulary practice; or introduction of disciplinary
teaching or re-teaching. rules that are not common in your teaching environment.
5. Think of the further learning steps that will help your This is why you also need to find out what resources you
learner correct the mistakes: a) what might be the cause of can employ. Maybe it is a good idea to talk with the head of
the mistake (over-generalization, misapplication of rules, the language department of your school and to inform her/
transfer from L1, over-enthusiasm or anxiety) b) how can him about the changes you want to make in the programme
you help them notice this mistake; c) how can you guide to enhance learning; or to talk to the administration that you
your learner to self-correction; d) how can you help your need a right not to accept late submissions.
learner eliminate this mistake in the future (give an extra It is very important to utilise the energy you get from your
task, for example). anger and direct it onto changes. Otherwise, it may take a
This list of activities an English teacher is expected to get form of either direct aggression on the students (with possi-
involved in during a lesson covers a great number of mental ble consequences of spoilt relationships or feeling of shame),
and cognitive processes, and seems to make every part of us or on yourself (possibly resulting in depression and profes-
do some purposeful work. But to cut the long story short, sional burnout).
what we have to do is to react (emotionally) to the message,
think about the language (and do a lot of analysis) and pro- ARTS AND CRAFTS OF BEING A TEACHER
vide constructive feedback pointing out the strong points of In our country most teacher training programmes follow
our learners and suggesting further steps for their language a scientific model (pouring the knowledge from a lecturer
development. to the audience) or a craft model (showing how the things
should be done). However, none of these models takes into
SLIGHTLY MAD account the teacher’s personality and the need to employ not
No matter how efficient we are in our lessons, there are only cognitive but also affective aspect of teaching.
unavoidable situations when we may spontaneously feel Looking at the successful teachers who seem to have good
very angry with our students. The causes of our anger may rapport with their students makes especially novice teachers
be different, from misbehaviour to awful test results. We think that teaching is a kind of art. But I do believe that if we
cope differently with the fury. Some of us let the emotional emply reflective approach which takes into account our emo-
steam off in the lesson, some prefer to supress it. The most tional responses, the art of teaching will become a highly
unpleasant thing about feeling furious in the lesson is that refined craft.
as any strong emotion anger shatters our emotional balance
and makes it difficult to take reasonable decisions. As a rule, By Elizaveta Bogdanova
English FOCUS ON LANGUAGE

14 February 2015 ГЛАГОЛЫ (PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS)

PRESENT SIMPLE В 3 лице ед. ч. к глаголу добавляется окончание -s


Настоящее неопределенное (простое) время (The (come – comes) или -es, если он оканчивается на -ss, -ch,
Present Simple Tense) употребляется: -sh, -x (teach – teaches).
1. Для выражения действий, происходящих часто, по-
стоянно: Чтение окончаний:
She always goes to school on foot. [s] [z] [iz]
Маркеры времени: often (часто), always (всегда), после глухих после звонких после шипящих,
usually=generally (обычно), seldom=rarely (редко), согласных и свистящих
sometimes (иногда), never (никогда), as a rule (как пра- гласных
вило), every day, month (каждый день, месяц и т.д.), ev- looks goes watches
ery other day, week, month (через день, неделю, месяц), walks hears wishes
once a week (один раз в неделю), from time to time (вре- makes seems dresses
мя от времени), on Fridays (по пятницам).
2. Для выражения общеизвестных истин (то, что знает Особенности правописания глаголов в 3-м лице един-
каждый): ственного числа:
The sun sets in the west. 1. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на -у с предшествую-
3. Для выражения действий и состояний в момент щей согласной, -у меняется на -i и добавляется окон-
речи с так называемыми глаголами состояния, а имен- чание -es: to try – he (she, it) tries, to study – he (she, it)
но: studies. HO: to play – he (she, it) plays
а. глаголы восприятия: to see, to hear, to feel, to smell, 2. К глаголам, оканчивающимся на -о, прибавляется
to taste, to look, to watch, to observe, to notice. -es: to go – he (she, it) goes, to do – he (she, it) does.
He hears a strange noise. – Он слышит странный
шум. Глагол to be имеет следующие формы в Present
б. глаголы умственной деятельности: to understand, Simple:
to think, to believe, to remember, to know, to forget, to Утвердительная Отрицательная Вопросительная
mean, to suppose, to recognise, etc. форма форма форма
I believe in Father Frost. – Я верю в Деда Мороза. I am… I am not Am I …?
в. глаголы обладания: to possess, to belong, to own, to He He is not he…?
have. She is… She (isn’t) … Is she…?
It It it…?
This pen belongs to me. – Эта ручка принадлежит
We We are not we…?
мне.
You are… You (aren’t)… Are you…?
г. глаголы эмоционального состояния: to like, to They They they…?
hate, to love, to wish, to want, to prefer, to care, to fear,
etc. Глагол to be используется для описания:
Jimmy loves his mother. – Джимми любит маму. 1. Информации о лицах и предметах:
4. Для выражения действий в будущем, которые He is a doctor. – Он врач.
происходят по расписанию, с глаголами to arrive, to My parents are from England. – Мои родители родом
leave: из Англии.
The train arrives at 5 p.m. – Поезд прибудет в 5 часов 2. Умственного, душевного и физического состояния:
вечера. Mike is ill. – Майк болен.
3. Стоимости, времени и даты, расстояния, размера и
Образование Present Simple т.д.
It is 5 dollars. – Это стоит пять долларов.
Утверди- Отрицательная Вопросительная Глагол to be используется в безличных предложениях.
тельная форма форма В таких предложениях подлежащим является местоиме-
форма ние it, частью составного сказуемого – be в 3 лице един-
work do not
ственного числа.
I have I (don’t) Do I
It is cold. – Холодно.
go
He works He does not w o r k he work? It is late. – Поздно.
She has She (doesn’t) have Does she have? Так же строятся предложения, начинающиеся со слов
It goes It go it go? Трудно…, Невозможно…, Важно… и т.д.
It is difficult to decide what to do. – Трудно решить, что
делать.
We work We do not we
You have You (don’t) Do you It is impossible to fulfill this work. – Невозможно
They go They they выполнить эту работу
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE English

15February 2015

PRESENT CONTINUOUS 3. В односложных глаголах, оканчивающихся на -ie


Настоящее длительное время (The Present Continuous (to tie, to die, to lie), -ie меняется -y: tie – tying, die – dying,
Tense) употребляется: lie – lying.
1. Для выражения действия или состояния, длящегося
в момент речи или в настоящий период времени: Различие между
– What are you doing? – I’m studying now. Present Continuous и Present Simple
2. В настоящий период времени: Present Continuous Present Simple
Could you give me this book to read? Sorry, my sister is выражает длительное дей- выражает действие, совер-
reading it. ствие, происходящее в момент шающееся постоянно.
– также со словами today, this season: речи или в период, к которому They go to school every day.
Jack isn’t playing football this season. этот момент относится.
3. Для выражения отдельных, намеченных на ближай- Look! They are going to school.
шее будущее действий (в особенности с глаголами to используется в значении буду- о расписании транспорта,
щего и выражает действия, за- сеансах, программах и т.д.
come, to leave, to stay и др.):
планированные в будущем. The football match starts at 7
We are leaving for New York on Friday. I’m playing football on Monday o’clock.
4. Для описания меняющихся ситуаций и состояний: afternoon.
The population of China is rising very fast.
5. Для обозначения постоянно повторяющегося дей- EXERCISES
ствия, которое раздражает говорящего или кажется ему
неразумным (обычно с always, constantly): I. Fill in the blanks with the Simple Present or the Present
He is always grumbling. She is constantly shouting. Continuous form of the verb.
Форма Present Continuous часто употребляется со сло- 1. Wild animals __________ in forests. (to live)
вами now (сейчас), for the time being (в настоящее вре- 2. I __________ for California next week. (to leave)
мя), for the present (в настоящее время). 3. Sita cannot come out to play now, as she __________
her mother in the kitchen. (to help)
Образование Present Continuous 4. We __________ Bangalore every summer. (to visit)
Утвердитель- Отрицательная форма Вопросительная 5. An honest person always __________ the truth. (to tell)
ная форма форма 6. He __________ his lunch. Please wait. (to have)
I am I am not Am I 7. There are some birds that __________ every year. (to
working migrate)
He He is not he 8. The rain __________ from the clouds. (to fall)
She is She (isn’t) working Is she working?
9. A person who __________ provisions is known as a gro-
It working It it
cer. (to sell)
10. We __________ with our eyes, __________ with our
We We are not we ears and __________ with our nose. (to see, to hear, to
You are You (aren’t) Are you
smell)
They working They they
II. Complete the following sentences using an appropriate
Утвердительная форма: образуется от форм вспомо-
tense form.
гательного глагола to be (am, are, is) и основного глагола
1. My father __________ at a bank.
с суффиксом -ing.
a) works
To be + Ving
b) is working
I am reading now. He is sleeping now.
c) Either could be used here
Отрицательная форма: после вспомогательного глаго-
2. My brothers __________ incredibly well.
ла to be (am, are, is) ставится отрицательная частица not.
a) sing
I am not reading now.
b) sings
Вопросительная форма: вспомогательный глагол to
c) are singing
be (am, are, is) ставится перед подлежащим.
3. I always __________ a bath before I go to bed.
Are you reading now?
a) take
Is he sleeping now?
b) am taking
Особенности правописания:
c) Either could be used here
1. Конечная согласная удваивается в односложных и
4. Marina __________ English well.
двусложных глаголах с предшествующей краткой глас-
a) speaks
ной: sit – sitting, swim – swimming.
b) is speaking
2. Немое -е не пишется перед -ing: write – writing, take
c) Either could be used here
– taking.
English METHODS OF TEACHING

16February 2015

5. She __________ in the garden. 8. He __________ pizza at the moment. (is making / are
a) works making / am making)
b) is working 9. Mother __________ a sweater. (is knitting / am knitting
c) Either could be used here / are knitting)
6. ‘What are you doing there?’ ‘I __________ a letter.’ 10. Susan and her friend __________ over for lunch. (are
a) write coming / is coming / am coming)
b) am writing
c) Either could be used here V. Translate the sentences.
7. The children __________ a song. 1. Майк каждый день общается с одноклассниками.
a) sing Сейчас он разговаривает с Полли.
b) are singing ____________________________________________
c) Either could be used here 2. В этом городе часто идут дожди. Но сейчас светит
8. Rohan __________ his car. солнце.
a) repair ____________________________________________
b) repairs 3. Диана моет голову через день.
c) is repairing ____________________________________________
9. The postman __________ the letters. 4. Я думаю, что он хороший человек.
a) bring ____________________________________________
b) brings 5. У него есть кот.
c) Either could be used here ____________________________________________
10. I __________ the answer. 6. Я вижу бабочку. А ты видишь?
a) know ____________________________________________
b) am knowing 7. Каждое утро солнце светит мне в окошко.
c) Either could be used here ____________________________________________
8. – Ты спешишь? – Да, я иду быстро, потому что мне
III. Fill in the blanks with appropriate simple present tense холодно. Я хочу попасть домой как можно быстрее.
form of the verb given in the brackets. ____________________________________________
1. The plane __________ at 6.30. (arrive) ____________________________________________
2. I will phone you when he __________ back. (come) 9. – Где твой отец? – Он в ванной. Он бреется.
3. Unless we __________ now we can’t be there on time. ____________________________________________
(start) 10. Ты веришь в призраков?
4. The sun __________ in the east. (rise) ____________________________________________
5. The next term __________ on Monday. (begin)
6. She __________ an engineer. (be) VI. Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct them
7. They __________ our relatives. (be) where necessary.
8. When does the train __________? (depart) 1. Are you believing in God?
9. Let’s wait till he __________ his work. (finish) ____________________________________________
10. Please ring me up as soon as he __________. (arrive) 2. I’m feeling hungry. Is there anything to eat?
____________________________________________
IV. Fill in the blanks with appropriate continuous forms of 3. This sauce is great. It’s tasting really good.
the verb. Choose your answers from the options given in ____________________________________________
the brackets. 4. I’m thinking this is your key. Am I right?
1. Jane __________ in the garden. (is working / are work- ____________________________________________
ing / am working) 5. Nicky is thinking of giving up her job.
2. I __________ Oliver Twist at the moment. (am reading / ____________________________________________
is reading / are reading)
3. He __________ TV. (is watching / are watching / am А.К. Точилина, Л.Л. Кажемская. Тренажер по английско-
watching) му языку. – 6-е изд. – Минск: ТетраСистемс, 2009. – 272
4. Who __________ the violin? (is playing / are playing / с.
am playing) Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use.
5. Don’t make noise. The baby __________. (is sleeping /
am sleeping / are sleeping) Sources: http://www.englishgrammar.org
6. I __________ in the park now. (am waiting / are waiting
/ is waiting) By Katerina Merkulova
7. Jane and Susie __________ in the kitchen. (is cooking /
are cooking / am cooking) See more in additional materials.
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE English

17February 2015

ART IDIOMS
ART VOCABULARY
state-of-the art using the most recent tech-
The Fine Arts nology
State-of-the-art computer graphics show
The fine arts are what most people mean when they just say “art”. These how your kitchen could be transformed. Our
include artistic disciplines such as painting and sculpture. Typically, company’s computer setup is strictly state of
they are objects created to be “beautiful”. the art. This state-of-the-art radio is capable
of filling the wholeroom with sound.
Arts and Crafts
work of art
A craft is a similar, related concept and we do use the term arts and 1. Lit. a piece of art.
crafts. In arts and crafts, objects are created by hand. A good example She purchased a lovely work of art for her
would be tapestry. living room.
2. Fig. a good result of one’s efforts.
The Visual Arts Your report was a real work of art. Very well
These are the ones we look at and include paintings, drawings and done. Your plan was a work of art! It doesn’t
have any flaws!
photographs. Does cinema count? For some people, yes. Televi-
sion? have something down to a fine art (Brit-
The Plastic Arts ish, American & Australian) also have
something off to a fine art (British & Aus-
These are the ones we can touch. A sculpture and a piece of pottery tralian) to be able to do something very well
are examples. or quickly, usually because you have been
doing it for a long time
Performance Art He’s got sandwich making down to a fine
art.
This is when you see someone performing and what they do/produce is
a piece of art. Theatre can be called a form of performance art, perhaps to a fine art in a way that is based on highly
a better example is juggling. We normally use this term for art that is developed skill
“different”. There is also a relatively new phenomenon of the street This restaurant elevates the sandwich to a
artist. fine art.

Pictures Art is long and life is short. Prov. Works of


art last much longer than human lives.
There are many types of pictures. If it is picture of somebody, it is gen- Life is too short to learn everything you need
erally a portrait. if it is a picture of a place, it is generally a landscape. to know about a particular discipline.
While a picture of an object by itself is a still life.
A picture is worth a thousand words.
Three genres of picture possibly worth knowing are a watercolour
Sometimes a picture is better at explaining
which is painted onto paper, an oil painting which is normally painted something than words.
onto canvas (a tent like material) and a sketch which is normally a I tried telling him about the problem but it
preparatory drawing. was easier just to show him, a picture is
worth a thousand words
Philosophies of Art
Art has changed greatly over the ages. You certainly don’t need to be Idioms we might use when discussing
the arts:
able to talk about the differences between Renaissance art, Mannerism,
• To blow someone away – to overwhelm
the Baroque, the Pre-Raphaelites, Impressionism and Cubism – if you a person; to excite a person very much
did, you would probably scare your IELTS examiner. It might help to • Work of art – a good result of one’s ef-
have this much knowledge though: forts; a piece of artwork
• On the edge of one’s seat – to be very
figurative/representational art: this is where the painting/object looks
interested in something, usually some-
like something from life thing that is both extremely exciting and
abstract art: this is where you see squares, circles and other shapes and nerve-wracking.
• Mixed feelings – When you have mixed
you cannot (immediately) tell what the painting is about
feelings about something, you react to it
contemporary art: this is the art of now. It’s dangerous to use the word with conflicting emotions; you are happy
“modern” because “modernism” in art actually happened quite a and unhappy at the same time.
long time ago (the 1930s was probably its heyday).
Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina
English FOCUS ON LANGUAGE

18 February 2015

ART
CONVERSATION QUESTIONS
• What is art?
• Why is art important?
• What would life be like without art?
• Why do you enjoy art?
• What kind of art do you like – paintings,
sculpture, ceramics, etc.?
• How great is your interest in art?
• What art form do you like best?
• Do you like modern art?
• What do you think of installation art?
• Do you have a favourite artist? Where do you see art?
• Who is your favourite painter?
• What famous painters do you know? You normally find art in an art gallery. You walk around and admire the
• Who are some famous artists in your coun- exhibits in an exhibition, while discussing whether the curator has got
try? the lighting right and whether that picture should really be hung next to
• Do you have a favourite painting? Why do that one.
you like it?
• Do you own any books about art? How of- Sometimes you might also find art in museums, but that is much less
ten do you look at them? common. For example, the British Museum has artefacts from Britain’s
• Do you like to visit art museums? past, while the National Gallery is a collection of art.
• Have you ever been to any famous art mu-
seums? Would you buy it?
• What art museums have you visited?
• What is the best art gallery you have been to? Art tends to be expensive. A masterpiece by Van Gogh could be said to
• Do you visit museums when you go to an- be priceless – that’s so expensive that no one has the money to afford it.
other city? A lot of art forms part of a nation’s heritage and the government protects
• When was the last time you went to an art it from sale abroad.
museum?
• Were you interested in art when you were People and Art
young?
• Do you enjoy your art class at school? Not everyone likes art. People who like to spend a lot of time admiring
• Do you think all children should study art at art are often termed culture vultures (a fairly idiomatic term), while the
school? idiom for people who dislike art is philistines.
• Do you think children should learn the his-
tory of art? There is of course art and art. People who appreciate the more elitist
• Do you like to paint? forms of art may be said to have highbrow tastes, while those who prefer
• Are you a good painter? the less intellectual art forms may have lowbrow tastes.
• Can you draw pictures well?
• Do you have any artistic talents? What makes art special?
• Do you think of cartoons and comics as art? Some people think that it is important for a work of art to be original
• Do you consider photography an art form?
or creative. Others would say that what matters is how it appeals to our
• Do you enjoy taking photographs?
• What things do you like to photograph?
imagination.
• Do you think graffiti is art? One or Two Idioms
• What is your favourite art web site?
• Does art change the way you think or feel? Perspective shows the depth of a picture – how many dimensions you
• Do you think art can affect people’s emo- see. If you have/keep a sense of perspective, then you see a problem/
tions? issue for what it is – often meaning that it is not as serious as it seems.
• Do you think anyone can be an artist or do
you need a special talent? If you describe someone as being no oil painting, be careful. This means
• Do you think today’s artists are as good as that they are ugly.
those from hundreds of years ago?
• Do you think a painting can really be worth
a million dollars?
• How would the world be different without Source: www.dcielts.com
artists? Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina
Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

BRAIN-RING
19February 2015

Конкурс для 5-го класса


Подготовка: КОНКУРСНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ
1) команды по 6 человек от каждого класса;
2) 1 музыкальный номер от каждого класса для музы- 1. True/False
кальных пауз; Each team has one red and one green card on the table. The
3) плакаты в поддержку своих команд от каждого клас- teacher reads some statements. If the statement is true the
са; team raises the green card. If the statement is false the team
4) призы: raises the red card.
• статуэтки Ника, золотая – 1 место, серебряные – 2 и
3 места; POINTS:
• сладкие подарки всем учащимся; correct answer – 1 point
• подарки членам команд. wrong answer – 0 points
Продолжительность – 60 минут.
Оборудование: столы; стулья; бумага; ручки; доски; STATEMENTS:
мел; карточки (зелёные и красные по 1 каждого цвета 1) You must have a dog to take photos. FALSE
на команду); проектор; компьютер; экран; микрофоны; 2) Some people’s hobby is horse riding. TRUE
магниты. 3) Some people can play different musical instruments.
Персонал: TRUE
1) ведущий; 4) Autumn is the coldest season of the year. FALSE
2) управляющий за компьютером (видеовопросы, музы- 5) You are older than your fathers. FALSE
кальное оформление); 6) You mustn’t be late for school. TRUE
3) жюри (проверяет правильность выполнения заданий, 7) When you make a trip you stay at home and watch TV.
ведёт подсчёт заработанных командами баллов, озву- FALSE
чивает промежуточные результаты, 2 человека); 8) You study many subjects at school. TRUE
4) учитель, работающий со зрителями; 9) Hyde Park is in London. TRUE
5) фотокорреспондент. 10) We celebrate Easter in winter. FALSE

КОНКУРСНАЯ ПРОГРАММА 2. Grammar Round (Irregular Verbs) (доски, мел)


The teacher reads Russian poems.
1. True/False The contestants guess the last word (verb).
2. Grammar Round (Irregular Verbs) One of the team members writes down the three forms of the
3. Lexical Round (Words on one topic) verb on the blackboard.
4. Lexical Round (англо-русские шарады)
Music break POINTS:
5. Funny Riddles correct answer – 2 points (1 for a correct verb + 1 for three
6. The Odd Word correct forms)
7. Video-Questions wrong answer – 0 points
8. Anagrams
Music break EXAMPLE:
RESULTS “Читай” – мне мама говорит.
AWARDS Книг много, надо их to …
to read – read – read

1) Привыкаю я к труду
“Делать”, “делай” значит …
To do – did – done

2) Режу сельдерей, шпинат


“Резать” по-английски …
To cut – cut – cut

3) Как будешь плавать, поглядим,


“Купаться”, “плавать” будет …
to swim – swam – swum
English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

20February 2015 fox


wolf
bear
snake
lion
zebra
pony penguin mink
4) “Нарисую” вам ведро, weasel duck
Очень я люблю to …
to draw – drew – drawn POINTS:
correct answer – 1 point
5) Сяду я. Нога болит. wrong answer – 0 points
Сидеть, садиться значит …
to sit – sat – sat 4. Lexical Round (англо-русские шарады) (screen)
The pupils will hear some riddles about English and Russian
6) Едем в парк мы завтра снова! words that sound similar in these two languages. The task is
А сегодня в школу … to name these words.
to go – went – gone
POINTS:
7) “Привет!” – приятель говорит. correct answer without a hint– 2 points
С друзьями я люблю to … correct answer with a hint – 1 point
to meet – met – met wrong answer – 0 points

8) С голоду живот болит, EXAMPLE:


Нужно срочно мне to … Скажешь по-английски, я – одежды часть.
to eat – ate – eaten Скажешь то ж по-русски, то напьешься всласть.
S __ __ __ С __ __
9) Песню спой про неба синь, SOCK СОК
“Петь” по-английски будет …
to sing – sang – sung 1) Скажешь по-русски, я – вырванный кусочек.
А по-английски если, бужу вас днем и ночью.
10) Ох, к подушке я прилип! K __ __ __ C __ __ __ __
Очень я хочу to … КЛОК CLOCK
to sleep – slept – slept
2) Скажешь по-английски, он – покоритель волн.
3. Lexical Round (Words on one topic) А по-русски скажешь, тебя уколет он.
Each team gives a word on the topic “Animals and Birds” in S __ __ __ Ш __ __
turns. The team that has fewer points starts. SHIP ШИП

Teacher: Try to remember as many words as you can on 3) Скажешь по-английски, я – очень интересная.
the topic “Animals and Birds”. You mustn’t repeat Произнесёшь по-русски, я – дерево чудесное.
the words. You will get 1 point for every correct B __ __ __ Б __ __
answer. BOOK БУК
4) Скажешь по-английски, тебя он повезет.
Изученные слова по теме: А по-русски если, певец им запоет.
cat dog raccoon B __ __ Б __ __
ferret ostrich alligator BUS БАС
shark giraffe humming bird
whale horse elephant 5) Скажешь по-английски, подарок в ней лежит.
pig cow hen А по-русски если, тут же гонг звучит.
rabbit turkey sheep B __ __ Б __ __ __
crocodile parrot monkey BOX БОКС
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

6) Скажешь по-английски, будильник он живой,


А по-русски если, то повар он морской.
21February 2015

C __ __ __ K __ __
COCK КОК

7) Скажешь по-английски, покупки в нем писали.


А по-русски если, его с дерева сорвали.
L __ __ __ Л __ __ __
LIST ЛИСТ

5. Funny Riddles 7. Video-Questions


Guess the riddles: Now you will see pictures of different things, places and
1) It can tell you all the day, people. Your task is to name these pictures:
Time to sleep and time to play. (a clock) 1) What is it? (Big Ben)
2) Where does the Queen of England live? (Buckingham
2) It is red and sweet, Palace)
And it’s good to eat. (an apple) 3) What is he doing? (Taking photos)
4) What is the name of Robin Hood’s band? (Merry Men)
3) This is the season 5) What are they doing? (Picking up garbage)
When days are cool, 6) What holiday do the Americans celebrate on the 4th of
When we eat apples July? (Independence Day)
And go to school. (autumn) 7) What place is it? (Disneyland)

4) I don’t know the ABC, POINTS:


But I can write as you can see. (a pen) correct answer – 1 point
wrong answer – 0 points
5) We have friends,
They cannot play and cannot see, 8. Anagrams (дополнительный раунд: если достаточно
But they tell stories to you and me. (books) времени, можно провести его вместе со зрителями, все
заработанные болельщиками очки засчитываются их
POINTS: командам)
correct answer – 1 point You can see the set of letters. Arrange them in order to get
wrong answer – 0 points the word.
BIKE HORSE DANCE FRIEND
6. The Odd Word FLOWER SCHOOL FAMILY
Find the odd word in each group.
EXAMPLE: foot, man, table, child, mouse POINTS:
correct answer – 1 point
1) Halloween, Christmas, Brighton, New Year, Easter wrong answer – 0 points
2) time, science, twice, with, wise
3) trick, interesting, dangerous, fat, smart Литература
4) sing, play, be, think, come Агеева И.Д. Английский язык для детей. Сборник зани-
5) five, twenty, third, sixty-one, hundred мательных заданий. СПб.: Союз, 2001
6) brown, yellow, blue, white, bright
By Irina Kostina, Gymnasium No. 625, Moscow
POINTS: Photos taken by the author
correct answer – 1 point
wrong answer – 0 points See presentation in additional materials.
English LESSON PLANS

22February 2015 SEEING IS BELIEVING


Урок в 7-м классе
Цели: tion, and emotion speaks a language that all may under-
Коммуникативная компетенция – совершенствование stand”. As we know people are very sensitive to col-
коммуникативной компетенции в ролевой игре “Экскур- ours.
сия в картинную галерею”; развитие умений вести по- 2. “I’m blue” (listening)
лилог с соблюдением норм речевого этикета, аргументи- 3. Учебный разговор в режиме: Т-Сl на базе песни.
ровать свою точку зрения; отработка навыка публичных Управляемый вывод.
выступлений. Восприятие на слух песен, докладов, чте- What feeling does this song arouse in you? What emo-
ние афоризмов и текстов учебника (осуществление тема- tions is blue permeated with?
тического контроля всех видов речевой деятельности). Итог: It’s permeated with sadness.
Языковая компетенция – развитие навыков опериро- 4. Проверка домашнего задания.
вания языковыми единицами в коммуникативных целях What can you say about other colours?
(интерпретация картины). Микромонологи учащихся.
Социокультурная компетенция – увеличение объема Итог: In other words, our emotions are different.
знаний о мировом искусстве, использование межпред-
метных связей – для высказывания собственного сужде- III. Речевая зарядка
ния (в рамках диалога культур). 1. T: Well, we understand emotions in different ways. What
Учебно-познавательная компетенция – развитие об- factors does it depend on? We see what we expect to see.
щих и специальных учебных умений (анализировать Do you agree or disagree with this maxim? Give your
художественное полотно) с целью удовлетворения эсте- reasons to the fact.
тических вкусов и когнитивных интересов. 2. Аргументированное доказательство разных точек
Развитие и воспитание – развитие общего и искусство- зрения (микромонологи).
ведческого кругозора; приобщение детей к творческой Итог: We see what we understand. It depends on our
лаборатории художника, воспитание интереса к слуша- culture, outlook, knowledge of life. In other words, see-
нию, чтению; воспитание трудолюбия, самостоятельно- ing is believing.
сти, активности; развитие эстетических и гуманитарных
интересов; осуществление эстетического и нравствен- IV. Основная часть урока
ного воспитания, педагогики сотрудничества; развитие 1. T: Now let’s speak about your favourite picture. Let’s re-
побуждения к учению, памяти, воображения, мышления, member. What are the main points of description? (план-
умения самостоятельно мыслить, делать выводы. опора)
Оснащение урока: плакаты (афоризмы об искусстве), 2. Описание картины с опорой на конспект, личные
опорный конспект, план на доске, материалы описаний карточки учащихся, план.
(индивидуальные карточки), аудиокассета, рефераты 3. Активизация лексики по теме “Описание картины”
учащихся, поощрительные призы. (проблемная беседа учителя с классом).
T: Look at the picture of Bruegel. What is the painter’s
ХОД УРОКА name? When was he born? What is the name of the pic-
ture? What is the trend? What is the genre? Where is the
I. Подготовка учащихся к речевой деятельности на scene laid? What is the theme? What is the plot? The
языке composition? Colours and technique? The main charac-
Приветствие. Выяснение готовности к уроку. Предъяв- ters? What are they doing?
ление опорного конспекта. Учебные задачи урока. Про- 4. Работа в парах и группах
верка домашнего задания. What’s your opinion about the picture? (Like, dislike)
Teacher: Good day everybody! We are going to have a talk Итог: Tastes differ, emotions differ. Our emotions are
about “Painting” from the point of view that “Seeing is different because our life experiences are different.
believing”. I’d like you to describe your pictures with 5. I’d like you to analyse your favourite pictures.
the using new vocabulary (I mean “Cinematogphy”, Монологи учащихся с анализом их любимых картин и
“Books”, “Mass Media”, “Music”) and grammar mate- обсуждением.
rial (tenses, Impersonals, relative clauses, passive voice) Итог: Who is the best? Why? Give your reasons.
with the help of this plan and cue cards, according to the
problem situation. V. Заключительная часть урока
T: Now I see you are real connoisseurs of painting.
II. Фонетическая зарядка. Проверка домашнего за- In other words, we should prove our point of view
дания professionally, emotionally, vividly, true-to-life. Am
1. T: It’s time for a song now. I’d like you to prove this I right?
maxim by S.Maugham: “Art is a manifestation of emo- I like the way you’ve worked today.
LESSON PLANS English

23
February 2015

P. Bruegel. The Tower of Babel

I’d like to assess your answers with the help of colours to reproduce a transient to broaden (sbd.’s) spiritual
associations. mood outlook
(Раздача цветных конфет: Желтые, красные – “5”,
зеленые, синие – “4”, коричневые – “3”). to tackle the problem to attract people’s attention
to be permeated with to be an educator of masses
Description of a Picture to give food for thought to wake in people their
Genre: portrait painting, city-scape, historical painting, noble feelings
mythological, religious subjects, genre рainting. This is a
landscape, seascape of a famous Russian painter. to be in harmony with
It’s an oil, watercolour, study, a picture, canvas.
Trends: realistic, romanticism, classicism, impressionism. to embody, to stress, to emphasise
it’s embodied in the character of
Contents & Composition to touch upon many sides of human relations
The plot (subject matter) of the picture is, the scene is laid
in, the artist depicts a city street… Reaction of the Spectators
To be remarkable for the wisdom of composition… to arouse a feeling of
In the background, foreground, in the right/left-hand corner, to stir to a very core
to employ an original, unusual, trivial composition, to stand to leave a lasting impression with
out, to bring sth. out. to produce an unforgettable impression
to be highly praised, valued, appreciated
Colours & Technique to catch sbd.s eye
The picture is painted in bright, light, dark colours (sub-
tle, reserved, warm, cold, contrasting), shades, tones, to Conclusion
be painted in browns, numerous shades of blue, the wealth to rank among the masterpieces of world painting
of colours, the variety of colour, the colours are reserved to make a great contribution
and few, the play of lights and shadow, to be suffused by to shape sbd.’s taste
light. the wisdom of the composition, the precision of lines, the
Single-coloured, many-coloured, scheme, the technique is depth of its inner characterization, the wealth of colours, it’s
splendid, his method is rough, raw. remarkable for.
The colours are laid thickly, to prevail, to dominate silver, to depict, to reflect
blues, deep yellow. It’s dark in tone, genuine, real, true art
To have exuberance of light colours. outstanding, prominent, distinguished
to arouse national pride, feeling of motherland, love of our
The Idea of the Picture: motherland
to be characteristic of…
to convey the idea to condemn it’s embodied in the character of
to render the atmosphere to denounce social order
Ирина Михайловна Печенкина,
to portray sth. vividly to gain a better knowledge
МБОУ лицей 6, г. Воронеж
English LESSON PLANS

24 ФРИДА КАЛО:
February 2015

“ДА ЗДРАВСТВУЕТ ЖИЗНЬ”


Урок в 11-м классе
Цель урока: Совершенствование монологической речи. II. Основная часть урока
Тип урока: комбинированный. T: I’d like the participants with number 4 to hand out sheets
Задачи урока: of paper with the tasks to every person in their groups.
Практическая: активизация лексики по теме; What structure do you think we are going to use? Take
Образовательная: дать учащимся возможность исполь- your tasks and look at them attentively. Well, you’ve
зовать язык в проблемных ситуациях; got several seconds to think it over. Put the “+” sign if
Воспитательная: учить быть внимательными, слушать you agree or a “–” sign if you don’t agree in the column
других; “before”. Let’s start! You are given 3 minutes.
Развивающие: расширение кругозора учащихся; раз-
витие языковой догадки; развитие навыков мышления, Before Statements After
умения сравнивать, критически мыслить, делать выво-
ды; социокультурное развитие. What I find impressive about sur-
realistic paintings is the use of
Оснащение урока: классная доска, интерактивная до-
juxtaposed (непосредственный,
ска, видиозапись, раздаточный материал.
находящийся по соседству) im-
На доске: портрет мексиканской художницы Фриды Кало. ages.
Эпиграф: “It is impossible to separate the life and work of
this extraordinary person. Her paintings are her biography.” Biography of the artist is stuffed
Andre Breton with tragic accidents and it doesn’t
Лексика: to contract a polio, to disguise, trademark, to cripple, attract me.
to part a company, to have affairs, to be devastated, to divorce, A painter usually documents his or
infidelity, to miscarry, convalescence, juxtaposed images. her life through his or her painting.
На интерактивной доске: последняя картина мексикан-
The painting excites every person
ской художницы Ф.Кало “Да здравствует жизнь” (“Live
because it contains fabulous plots.
the Life”).
What I find difficult about realism
ХОД УРОКА is that you have no idea what the
painter is trying to represent.
I. Начало урока Nonetheless, Frida felt strong
1. Приветствие enough to move and to start taking
Teacher: Good afternoon to every participant of my class! care of herself.
I’m very glad to see you again!
Frida admitted that she was so often
Now let’s begin our lesson. Would you like to greet alone.
your face partners? Now your shoulder partners, our
guests and me. “Live the Life” is the same as a
Take your seats. Well, I hope you all will take an active happy end.
part in our lesson today!
T: OK, time is out. Please stop working and watch a video
2. Речевая зарядка about the life of Frida.
T: Look at the screen. Read the sentence and try to guess the
topic of our lesson, what we are going to speak about. Учащиеся смотрят фильм 2 раза, после чего получают
You should discuss it in your groups. You have 15 sec- задания пересмотреть бланки с утверждениями и
onds. поставить знаки “+” или “–” в колонке “after”, на что
Don’t forget to show that you’ve finished discussion. отводится 1 минута.
What is the topic of our lesson? T: Now share your opinions with your face partners us-
Pupils: ….! ing Think, Write, Round Robin. Now share with your
T: You are quite right. What do these word combinations shoulder partners only the statements which are the most
mean? important from your point of view. Use Rally Robin.
P1, P2, P3: … Now first think a little bit, then take your sheets of pa-
Учащиеся объясняют значения слов и словосочетаний per with the statements and share your opinion in your
на английском языке. group using Single Round Robin. While listening to
Учитель сообщает тему и цели урока. your partners you should add the features which you
LESSON PLANS English

25
February 2015

COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRUCTURES


Round Robin
Student in teams take turn talking
Think, Write, Round Robin
Involves students taking turns in a team sharing infor-
mation in written form.
Students think, then write before the Round Robin.
Rally Robin
1. Teacher poses a question or a problem.
2. In teams, students take turns responding orally to the
question.
Single Round Robin
haven’t written. Be ready to share your group opinion. is a competition “in which each contestant meets all other
Now, I’d like you to stop working and get ready to relax. contestants in turn”
T: Mix. Pair up. Using Timed Pair Share answer the Timed Pair Share
questions. You have 20 seconds. 1. Teacher announces topic and time limit
The first question is, how do you find Frida’s paint- 2. Teacher gives “Think Time”
ings? First think a little. A person who is taller begins. 3. Partner A shares; Partner B listens
Well, the time is up. Second partners, your turn. Don’t 4. Partner B praises
forget to thank each other for answers. 5. Partners switch roles
P1: It’s a difficult question because Frida’s paintings are
coded and what I dislike about abstract art is that you
have no idea what the painter is trying to represent. T: Now take your seats and answer my last question,
T: Is it so? please. What does the last painting of Frida symbolise?
P2: Yes, she is right. And what do the words “Live the Life” mean?
T: Mix. Pair up. The second question. A person who has P7: Maybe they symbolise the victory of life over death.
longer hair begins. I’m not sure if she was happy or not, but she suffered
Frida commented that she painted her own reality. Can two accidents in her life: one is Diego, another one is
we say that her paintings are a success? the trolley, nonetheless Frida felt herself strong enough
P3: To my mind, her paintings are connected with the his- to move and to start taking care of herself.
tory and describe the pre-columbian period of Ameri-
can civilisation. III. Завершающая часть урока
T: What do you think? T: Now we know what Frida wanted to represent in her
P4: Yes, she is right. last picture, don’t we?
T: Mix. Pair up. The third question. What do you find im- You will think over this question in detail at home. What
pressive about surrealistic paintings? A person who’s do you think your hometask will be? You are to share your
name is shorter begins. opinion about her life and her works in a written form.
P5: What I find impressive about surrealistic paintings is Exit tickets: Take two stickers. On the first write down
the use of juxtaposed images. everything what you would like to tell your classmates
T: Do you agree? who are absent today about our today’s topic. On the
P6: Yes, she is right. second write a question or a problem you would like to
discuss the next time.
So I’d like to finish our lesson with the words “Live the
Life”!

Литература:
Education First. Программный офис реализации проекта “Совер-
шенствование качества преподавания в РТ”.
Мухаметшина Л.Ф. Английский язык, 10-11 кл. М.: Просвеще-
ние, 2010
Наговицына О.В. Поурочные разработки по английскому языку к
учебному комплекту В.П. Кузовлева, Н.М. Лапа, Э.Ш. Перегудо-
вой и др. English: 10-11. М.: ВАКО, 2006
Рабочая тетрадь к учебнику “Английский язык” для 10–11 кл. об-
щеобразовательных учреждений. М., Просвещение, 2010

Эльза Ринатовна Яппарова,


МБОУ гимназия №1,
г.Агрыз, Татарстан
English FOCUS ON LANGUAGE

26 February 2015

KEEP TRYING!
Сегодня мы рассмотрим примеры упо- What kept you? Why are you so late? – Keep quiet! – Не шумите!
требления глагола keep. Заметим сразу, Что тебя задержало? Почему ты так опо- Keep silent! – Помолчите!
что основные значения русского глагола здал? This coat will keep you warm. – Это паль-
“держать” разделили между собой англий- He kept us waiting for two hours. – Он то согреет вас.
ские глаголы hold и keep. Каждый из них заставил нас ждать (продержал нас) два Если вместо прилагательного стоит -ing
очень многозначен и не может быть пере- часа. форма другого глагола, keep показывает
веден (или объяснен), что называется, Следующее интересное значение – продолженность действия:
“одной строкой”. “соблюдать”: Keep working! – Продолжайте работать!
Тем не менее, между ними есть важное to keep the law (the rules) – соблюдать за- Keep trying! – Не прекращайте попыток!
различие: hold обычно относится к пря- кон (правила) Keep moving! – Проходите! Не задержи-
мому, физическому держанию чего-либо to keep the treaty – соблюдать договор вайтесь!
(держать в руке, держать за руку), а keep to keep the peace – сохранять (соблю- Keep holding. = Keep waiting. – Не клади-
– к переносному (держать слово, владеть дать) мир те трубку. (Ждите ответа).
чем-то). К сожалению, дополнительные a peacekeeping mission – миссия по под- He keeps thinking about her. – Он все
значения этих слов, как всегда, сильно держанию мира время думает о ней.
усложняют такую простую картину. to keep Christmas – соблюдать Рождество She keeps changing her plans. – Она то и
Не забывайте, что русское слово “дер- to keep a fast – соблюдать пост дело меняет свои планы.
жать” тоже весьма многолико. Если вы to keep an appointment – сохранять в В заключение несколько употребитель-
откроете русский толковый словарь, вы силе уговоренность о деловой встрече ных выражений и идиом:
найдете там множество его значений. I have an appointment with Dr. James, but Let’s keep in touch. – Давайте не терять
Труднее и важнее всего для нас те слу- I’m afraid I can’t keep it. – Я записан на связь (быть в контакте).
чаи, когда русские и английские значения прием к доктору Джеймсу, но боюсь, что я Can you keep an eye on my bag? – Вы
не совпадают. не смогу прийти. можете присмотреть за моей сумкой?
Сначала приведем ряд примеров, где Отдельное значение keep – “вести”: Keep left! – Держитесь левой стороны!
keep переводится “держать, хранить”: to keep notes – вести записи Keep off the grass! – По траве не ходить!
He keeps his car in the garage. – Он дер- to keep a diary – вести дневник Keep it in mind. – Не забывайте об этом.
жит свою машину в гараже. to keep the books – вести делопроизвод- Keep yourself busy. – Найди себе какое-
Where do you keep your money? – Где вы ство то занятие (не болтайся без дела).
держите свои деньги? bookkeeper – счетовод, бухгалтер Keep your mouth shut! – Держи язык за
Please keep this seat for me for ten Еще одно значение – “содержать (хо- зубами! Помалкивай!
minutes. – Пожалуйста, подержите это зяйство, животных)”: You may keep your remarks to yourself. –
место для меня в течение десяти минут. to keep a house – вести домашнее хозяй- Вы можете оставить свои замечания при
She always keeps her word. – Она всегда ство себе.
держит (свое) слово. housekeeper – домашняя хозяйка; эко- И, наконец, еще одна необычная идио-
to keep a promise – сдержать обещание номка ма:
to keep a secret – хранить секрет Good housekeeping. – Домоводство (на- to keep up with the Joneses – не отста-
You have to keep this letter in a safe. – звание одного из самых массовых амери- вать от Джонсов (чтобы все было “как у
Вам надо держать это письмо в сейфе. канских журналов). людей”):
There is nothing to keep me in Boston. – to keep a dog – держать собаку Mary, you keep buying a lot of unneeded
В Бостоне меня ничего не держит. Следующий переход значения – “со- things. Stop trying to keep up with the
The bad weather kept us indoors all day. держать материально”: Joneses and start thinking for yourself.
– Плохая погода держала нас дома весь He keeps his sister’s children. – Он со- – Мэри, ты по-прежнему покупаешь массу
день. держит детей своей сестры. ненужных вещей. Перестань равняться
I’m kept here by business. – Меня здесь At his age a person should be able to keep на соседей и начни думать сама за себя.
держат дела. himself. – В его возрасте человек должен
Важный оттенок этого значения – “дер- быть в состоянии прокормить себя. Виталий Левенталь
жать при себе; не отдавать; не возвращать”: She can no longer afford to keep a car and
I don’t need this book – you can keep it. a driver. – Она больше не может позволить Из книги “Занимательный англий-
– Мне не нужна эта книга; вы можете оста- себе содержать машину и шофера. ский”
вить ее себе. to keep a mistress – содержать любовни- Продолжение следует.
He can make money but cannot keep it. – цу
Он умеет зарабатывать деньги, но не уме- a kept woman – содержанка
ет их сохранять. Далее важный оборот:
I asked my son to buy some milk and told to keep from doing something – удержать-
him to keep the change. – Я попросил ся от чего-то; препятствовать чему-то
сына купить молока и сказал, чтобы сдачу I couldn’t keep from smiling. – Я не мог
он оставил себе. удержаться от улыбки.
Другое важное и близкое значение – This noise keeps me from sleeping. – Этот Адрес в Москве для
“задерживать (во времени)”: шум не дает мне спать. получения других по-
I know you are busy – I don’t want to keep В сочетании с прилагательными глагол собий В.Левенталя –
you. – Я знаю, что вы заняты; я не хочу keep означает “сохранять данное каче- на сайте: www.English-
вас задерживать. ство (состояние)”: MadeSimple.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

27
The World of Art February 2015

Art is long, life is short. “



Hippocrates Fine art is that in which
the hand, the head, and the
A man paints with his brains and not with his
hands. heart of man go together.
Michelangelo John Ruskin
Art is a lie that tells the truth.
Pablo Picasso

Art is not a mirror to reflect the world,


but a hammer with which
to shape it.
Vladimir Mayakovski

Fine art is knowledge made visible.


Gustave Courbet

Art does not reproduce what is visible;


it makes things visible.
Paul Klee

Every artist dips his brush in his own soul, and


paints his own nature into his pictures.
Henry Ward Beecher

Painting is just another way of keeping a diary.


Pablo Picasso

Art is the only way to run away without leaving


home.
Twyla Tharp

Art teaches nothing, except the significance of


life.
Henry Miller

Art washes away from the soul the dust TOPICAL JOURNEY
of everyday life.
Pablo Picasso Art History Timeline ....................... 28
Stories of Artists Who Changed
Every child is an artist. The problem is how
to remain an artist once we grow up. the Trend of Art............................... 30
Pablo Picasso Five Very English Painters ............... 34

Painting is silent poetry. Using Modern Art


Plutarch to Teach Language and Culture ........ 38
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

28
February 2015
Art History T
The history of art is immense, the earliest cave paintings pre-date writing by almost
27,000 years! This table briefly outlines the artists, traits, works, and events that make
27,0
major art periods and how art evolved to present day:
up m
15

Art Periods/ CharacteristicsChief Artists and Historical Events


Movements Major Works 16
Stone Age Cave painting, Lascaux Cave Ice Age ends (10,000 B.C.–
30,000 B.C.– fertility goddesses, Painting, Woman 8,000 B.C.); New Stone Age
megalithic struc- of Willendorf, and first permanent settlements 17
2500 B.C. tures Stonehenge (8000 B.C.–2500 B.C.)
Mesopotamian Warrior art and Standard of Ur, Sumerians invent writing (3400
3500 B.C.– narration in stone Gate of Ishtar, Stele B.C.); Hammurabi writes his
17
relief of Hammurabi’s law code (1780 B.C.); Abraham
539 B.C. Code founds monotheism
Egyptian Art with an afterlife Imhotep, Step Narmer unites Upper/Lower
3100 B.C.– focus: pyramids Pyramid, Great Egypt (3100 B.C.); Rameses II
and tomb painting Pyramids, Bust of battles the Hittites (1274 B.C.);
30 B.C. Nefertiti Cleopatra dies (30 B.C.)
18
Greek and Greek idealism: Parthenon, Myron, Athens defeats Persia at Mara-
1 Hellenistic balance, perfect Phidias, Polyklei- thon (490 B.C.); Peloponnesian
proportions; tos, Praxiteles Wars (431 B.C.–404 B.C.); Al-
850 B.C.– architectural exander the Great’s conquests
18
31 B.C. orders(Doric, Ionic, (336 B.C.–323 B.C.)
Corinthian)
Roman Roman realism: Augustus of Pri- Julius Caesar assassinated (44
practical and down maporta, Colos-
500 B.C.– to earth; the arch seum, Trajan’s Col- B.C.); Augustus proclaimed 18
Emperor (27 B.C.); Diocle-
A.D. 476 umn, Pantheon tian splits Empire (A.D. 292);
Rome falls (A.D. 476)
Indian, Chinese, Serene, meditative Gu Kaizhi, Li Birth of Buddha (563 B.C.);
19
and Japanese art, and Arts of the Cheng, Guo Xi, Silk Road opens (1st century
2 653 B.C.– Floating World Hokusai, Hiroshige B.C.); Buddhism spreads to
China (1st–2nd centuries A.D.)
A.D. 1900 and Japan (5th century A.D.)
Byzantine and Heavenly Byz- Hagia Sophia, Justinian partly restores West-
Islamic antine mosaics; Andrei Rublev, ern Roman Empire (A.D. 19
A.D. 476– Islamic architecture Mosque of Córdo- 533–A.D. 562); Iconoclasm
and amazing maze- ba, the Alhambra Controversy (A.D. 726–A.D.
A.D.1453 like design 843); Birth of Islam (A.D. 610)
and Muslim Conquests (A.D.
632–A.D. 732) 19
Middle Ages Celtic art, Carol- St. Sernin, Durham Viking Raids (793–1066);
ingian Renaissance, Cathedral, Notre Battle of Hastings (1066); Cru-
500–1400 Romanesque, Dame, Chartres, sades I–IV (1095–1204); Black
Gothic Cimabue, Duccio, Death (1347–1351); Hundred 19
Giotto Years’ War (1337–1453)
Early and High Rebirth of classical Ghiberti’s Doors, Gutenberg invents movable
Renaissance culture Brunelleschi, type (1447); Turks conquer 19
3
Donatello, Bot- Constantinople (1453); Colum-
4 1400– ticelli, Leonardo, bus lands in New World (1492);
1550 Michelangelo, Martin Luther starts Reforma-
Raphael tion (1517)
19
Venetian and The Renaissance Bellini, Giorgione, Council of Trent and Counter-
Northern Ren- spreads north-ward Titian, Dürer, Reformation (1545–1563);
aissance to France, the Low Bruegel, Bosch, Copernicus proves the Earth
1430– Countries, Poland, Jan van Eyck, revolves around the Sun (1543)
Germany, and Eng- Rogier van der
1550 land Weyden

Sources: www.dummies.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

29
y Timeline 5
February 2015

Mannerism Art that breaks the Tintoretto, El Magellan circumnavigates the 6


rules; artifice over Greco, Pontormo, globe (1520–1522)
1527–1580 nature Bronzino, Cellini
Baroque Splendor and flour- Rubens, Rem- Thirty Years’ War between
ish for God; art as brandt, Caravaggio, Catholics and Protestants
1600–1750 a weapon in the Palace of Versailles (1618–1648)
religious wars
Neoclassical Art that recaptures David, Ingres, Enlightenment (18th century);
Greco-Roman Greuze, Canova Industrial Revolution (1760–
1750–1850 grace and grandeur 1850)
Romanticism The triumph of Caspar Friedrich, American Revolution
imagination and Gericault, Delac- (1775–1783); French Revolu-
1780–1850 individuality roix, Turner, Ben- tion (1789–1799); Napoleon
jamin West crowned emperor of France
7
(1803)
Realism Celebrating work- Corot, Courbet, European democratic revolu-
ing class and Daumier, Millet tions of 1848
1848–1900 peasants;en plein
air rustic painting
Impressionism Capturing fleeting Monet, Manet, Franco-Prussian War (1870–
effects of natural Renoir, Pissarro, 1871); Unification of Germany
1865–1885 light Cassatt, Morisot, (1871)
Degas
Post-Impres- A soft revolt Van Gogh, Gau- Belle Époque (late-19th-centu-
sionism against Impression- guin, Cézanne, ry Golden Age); Japan defeats
1885–1910 ism Seurat Russia (1905)
Fauvism and Harsh colors and Matisse, Kirchner, Boxer Rebellion in China
Expressionism flat surfaces (Fau- Kandinsky, Marc (1900); World War (1914–
vism); emotion 1918)
8
1900–1935 distorting form 9
Cubism, Futur- Pre– and Post– Picasso, Braque, Russian Revolution (1917);
ism, Suprema- World War I art Leger, Boccioni, American women franchised
tivism, Con- experiments: new Severini, Malevich (1920)
structivism, De forms to express
Stijl modern life
1905–1920
Dada and Sur- Ridiculous art; Duchamp, Dalí, Disillusionment after World
realism painting dreamsand Ernst, Magritte, de War I; The Great Depression
exploring the un- Chirico, Kahlo (1929–1938); World War II
conscious (1939–1945) and Nazi horrors;
1917–1950 atomic bombs dropped on Ja-
pan (1945)
Abstract Ex- Post–World War Gorky, Pollock, de Cold War and Vietnam War
pressionism II: pure abstrac- Kooning, Rothko, (U.S. enters 1965); U.S.S.R.
1940s–1950s tion and expres- Warhol, Lichten- suppresses Hungarian revolt
and Pop Art sion without form; stein (1956) Czechoslovakian revolt
popular art absorbs (1968)
1960s consumerism
Postmodernism Art without a Gerhard Richter, Nuclear freeze movement; Cold 10
and Decon- center and rework- Cindy Sherman, War fizzles; Communism col- 11
structivism ing and mixing past Anselm Kiefer, lapses in Eastern Europe and
styles Frank Gehry, Zaha U.S.S.R. (1989–1991)
1970– Hadid

CONTEST!
Can you recognize the artists and the names of the art works?
Whoever emails to eng@1september.ru before the end of February the most
correct answers will receive a half-year subscription free.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

30 February 2015
Stories o
Who Changed t
HOW DID ART BEGIN?
A Greek legend tells us this story
about the beginning of sculpture:
There was a young couple engaged
to be married. But there was a war
going on and the young man had to
join the army. The evening before
he left, the two were sitting at a table
where a little oil lamp shed its light.
As they sat quietly, the girl noticed
how clearly her lover’s shadow was
cast on the wall. She quickly made
an outline of it and, after he left, she
filled in the outline with clay and moulded it to his likeness.
That is how the poetic mind of the Greeks imagined the beginning of art.
But we know that pictures existed for many thousands of years before Greek
civilization. The ancient cavemen had drawn animals on the walls of their
THE STORY OF A COMPETITION caves. It is believed that once when a caveman was very hungry he imagined
OF TWO GREEK PAINTERS that the bumps in the walls of his caves were shaped like the animals he used
Many thousands of years passed be-
for food. These he outlined with colored earth. That was, probably, the very
tween the cavemen and even the most
primitive beginnings of Greek art. These beginning of art.
early works were not real likenesses. But
later, as another story tells us, the Greeks THIS LION WAS DRAWN FROM LIFE IN THE MIDDLE
succeeded in making likenesses look won- AGES
derfully real. When, in the thirteenth century, the
The story goes that two of their great French architect Villard de Honnecourt
painters, Parrhasius and Zeuxis, each drew a picture of this lion in his note-book,
made a picture to compete with the other’s. he wrote that it was drawn from life. But
Zeuxis painted a still-life showing a basket
to us the lion does not look natural at all.
of fruit. It was Spring and the window was
open. Some birds flew in and started to pick This is because in the Middle Ages artists
at the painted fruit. Zeuxis, feeling sure he stylized everything they drew according to
had won the contest, said to Parrhasius: specific rules. Drawings were all made to
“You see how real my painting looks? Now look flat.
let me see what you have done.”
He went to the easel and tried to draw NEW THINGS ARE OFTEN
the curtain aside. But that was when he LAUGHED AT
lost out. The curtain was merely painted! But it was another hundred years until
Zeuxis had deceived only dumb birds, but
Renaissance art became popular. The first
Parrhasius had fooled even the keen eye
of a painter. aim of Renaissance artists was to make
Greek artists did indeed create life-like their figures look realistic. They didn’t
figures. But their first aim was to create har- mind making them ugly if that made
monious rhythms and spirited beauty. them look natural. That is why the mod-
ern young sculptor Donatello lost out in a
competition with an older artist.
The subject of the competition was the
figure of Christ on the cross. Donatello
made Christ look like any real man, not caring for the ancient pattern of ideal-
ized beauty. But the Florentine people were not yet ready to accept this new
approach. To ridicule Donatello they said “he crucified a peasant.” But as time
went on they learned to accept real-looking figures and to admire Donatello’s
art.
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

of Artists 31February 2015

d the Trend of Art


HOW THE RULES OF PERSPECTIVE WERE SHOWN
TO THE FLORENTINES
One sunny morning of the year 1419 the great Florentine architect Filippo
Brunelleschi went out into the market-place in Florence with a cunning gadget
in his hands. It was a deep frame with a glass in it instead of a picture. But any-
one who looked through the framed glass at the market-place could see only a
part of it, as if it were a picture.
Brunelleschi then drew on the glass what could be seen through the framed
glass. In his drawing all the parallel lines came together at one point – at eye-
level. Consequently, the farther a subject was from the eye, the smaller it ap-
peared in the drawing. This is the law of perspective, and it was readily ac- A STORY OF GIOTTO
cepted by the Florentine artists. AND THE POPE
The great Florentine artist Giotto was
The great Florentine Masaccio was the first to use this law in his paintings. well versed in the style of Medieval art, as
this story shows.
Pope Benedict IX planned to have old
St. Peter’s Cathedral decorated and he
wanted it done by a distinguished artist. At
that time Giotto was the world’s most fa-
mous painter. But to make sure, the Pope
sent a courier to Giotto for a sample of his
art. Giotto simply drew a circle on a piece
of paper and handed it to the Pope’s envoy.
The messenger, expecting some brilliant
picture, was disappointed.
But Giotto said, “The Pop will be well
able to judge.” And he was right. The Pope
saw that Giotto’s circle was as perfect as if
he had drawn it with a compass. It showed
HERE NEW RULES AND OLD TRADITIONS WORK TO- the perfect mastery of the artist’s hand in
GETHER making a clean-cut shape. In Italy they still
say “round as the O of Giotto.”
Some artists, even those who immediately accepted the realism of perspec-
Although Giotto knew how to paint in the
tive, refused to be realistic to the extent of making their figures look ugly. old tradition, he was the first artist to break
Giovanni da Fiesole was one of these. His love of heavenly beauty was with the style of imitating lifeless flat patterns
so great that he came to be known as the Angelic Brother; Fra Angelico. Fra as painters then used to do. Giotto was the
Angelico spent most of his life in a Florentine monastery whose walls are still first artist since the ancients to give his paint-
decorated with his paintings. ed figures well-rounded shapes, making us
This Annunciation shows how Fra An- feel that they could be touched on all sides.
gelico combined the new with the old. He All his figures stand or move in space.
designed a white porch next to a garden ac- According to Italian art history, the Ren-
aissance started with Giotto.
cording to the realistic rules of perspective.
But the young Virgin with her arms crossed
on her breast is idealistically lovely in her
humble simplicity. The Angel bringing the
heavenly message also looks gentle and
sweet in the old tradition.

THE REBIRTH OF ANCIENT ART


Early Renaissance artists also studied and imitated ancient art.
Donatello had already studied sculpture of the ancients. Later Botticelli
modeled his Venus from an ancient Venus. He did not yet know how to make
the parts of the body hang together. It took one of the greatest geniuses of all
time, Leonardo da Vinci, to bring to art the important study of anatomy.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

32February 2015

GENIUS OF THE FLORENTINE RENAISSANCE:


LEONARDO DA VINCI
Leonardo da Vinci was also a Florentine artist, but he worked for a long
time in Milan. When he asked the Prince of Milan for a job, he wrote that he
could do the work of an engineer. He could build tricky bridges and weapons
of war. He was as good an architect as any. As a sculptor he could make any-
thing a sculptor could, including monuments of riders on horseback. He also
would be a match for any painter. Leonardo proved that he could live up to all
his promises. Everything he made was both true to life and at the same time
radiant with exquisite beauty.
THE MOST GIGANTIC FIGURE IN
ART: MICHELANGELO HOW TO PAINT IDEALLY BEAUTIFUL PICTURES:
Younger than Leonardo, older than Rap-
hael, Michelangelo outlived both by about
RAPHAEL
forty years. People have never stopped At the time of the Renaissance artists often discusses the problem of mak-
marveling at Michelangelo’s greatness. But ing their pictures beautiful. Some thought they could do it by picking beautiful
he had to work hard too. When he painted models. Others meant to select the beautiful part of many models and to com-
the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, he had bine them. But Raphael said, “I paint the idea I have in my mind.” That was
to do the work lying on his back on a high what gave his paintings the beauty of an ideal.
scaffold – and it took him years to finish it.
His first great sponsor, Pope Julius II, THE GREATEST CHURCH IN THE WORLD
often quarreled with him. The Pope would
Michelangelo’s last great achievement was the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Ca-
give him one thing to do and then, before he
had time to finish, order him to do another.
thedral.
Once, feeling too burdened, Michelangelo This was late in the Renaissance. Now artists who had humbly studied and
ran away from Rome. It was several months copied the great masterpieces of the ancients aspired to outdo them. That is
before he sought the Pope’s pardon. A why, in rebuilding St. Peter’s, Michelangelo gave it the size and proportions
Bishop tried to excuse Michelangelo by tell- of the Colosseum and added a cupola to match the magnificent vaulting of the
ing the Pope that artists are quite ignorant Pantheon.
about everything except their art. But the We can still see Michelangelo’s architectural masterpiece in Rome – but
Pope reprimanded the Bishop sternly: It is only from the rear. The long nave, later added to the front, hides part of the
you who are ignorant to reproach him.
cupola; but from a distance it can be seen rising like a majestic mountain as
Rome melts into the surrounding hills.
ART MIRRORS THE THOUGHT OF ITS TIME TOPICAL JOURNEY English
When Michelangelo built St. Peter’s, the times were full of turmoil. Prot-
estants had separated from the Catholic Church. Art, like a mirror, reflected
the unrest and excitement of the times. Now artists wanted to make their
works thrilling and impressive, not just natural and beautiful. Artists expressed
strange ideas about what a figure should look like. Those who were interested
33
February 2015

in things of the spirit made figures look like flames, writhing, hardly touch-
ing the ground and tapering toward the top. Remember Greco’s St. Martin?
Or Michelangelo’s Victory? Other artists, more interested in the body, made
figures in interesting motion. They were not interested in expressing ideas. A
good example for that approach is Giovanni da Bologna’s Mercury.
For surprising effects, painters often showed unusual views from odd an-
gles.
This period, following the high Renaissance, is known as the Manneristic
period because of these mannerisms of the painters.

A SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY ABOUT THE MAGIC OF


LIGHT
We have seen before how much the scientific discovery of the rules of per-
spective influenced the trend of art.
The great English scientist, Sir Isaac Newton, had made a discovery about
light that had a tremendous effect on future painting. Looking, one day, at a
prism, he noticed that a ray of sunlight, going through it, dissolved into a rain-
bow. But it was not until a century ago that painters began to study Newton’s
discovery about light and to use it in applying color to their canvases. Since PICTURES THAT FOUGHT
then, up to our own day, the use of light and color has been the chief concern FOR ARTISTIC IDEAS
After Mannerism artists again took a more
of most painters.
natural view in the period we call Baroque.
Caravaggio was one of the most ardent
DIFFERENT WAYS OF STUDYING NATURE revolutionaries against Mannerism. But his
One morning the painter Corot went up to a hill near Rome in the company teacher was a Mannerist painter. To ridicule
of three other French painters. They had all come to study art in the Eternal him and his teaching, Caravaggio painted a
City. That day they all wanted to paint the same view of Rome from the same giant looking down at one of the teacher’s
spot at the same time. The weather was fine and the four young men started to paintings and putting out his tongue at it.
paint. When they had all finished their work they compared their pictures to see Caravaggio in turn was ridiculed in a
which was best. But it was hard to tell because each picture looked entirely dif- painting which showed him as a hairy wild
creature sitting before his easel, an ape at
ferent from all the others. One showed the majesty of Rome, another the sunny
his knee. This picture meant that an artist
light that enveloped the Eternal City. The third artist had painted the colorful should not ape nature, but, being a human,
gayety of the southern view. Corot himself had concentrated on the clean-cut should express noble and fine ideas.
shapes of the square houses and the cupola of St. Peter’s rising above them. There was one thing that both Manner-
Pictures are as different as the people who paint them. But there is also ist and Baroque artists had in common: love
another basic difference, depending on the artist’s way of looking at nature, as of motion. Motion gave excitement to Man-
the following story will show. neristic art and sweep and grandeur to Ba-
One day two French painters, Daumier and Daubigny, decided to paint some roque art. Remember the Aurora by Reni?
ducks. They made a date to go to the country together. The day was sunny and Or Bernini’s David and his Louis XIV? Or
Ruben’ Nepture? These fanciful works of
the two painters, reaching the little lake where the ducks were swimming, sat
art gave churches and palaces a dazzling
down on the grassy shore. richness everywhere – except in little demo-
Daubigny took out his sketch-book and pencil and started drawing the cratic Holland. There people liked to look at
ducks. Daumier didn’t budge; he just sat and looked. His friend finally asked, the world as it was. There they valued an
“Aren’t you going to do any work at all?” But Daumier replied, “I make my artist for his love of simple quiet things and
sketches in my mind!” And, as a result, the ducks Daumier drew at home were his human understanding.
much more truly ducks and more alive than those Daubigny had copied from Except in Holland, rich decorative art was
life. It is the great mind that creates great at. popular from the time of the French King
Louis XIV on. It remained so until a new
democratic trend brought about a period of
THE ARTIST’S ROAD TO IMMORTALITY
revolutions and simpler art everywhere.
An ancient legend tells us this tale about the great Chinese landscape painter
Wu Taotse.
He spent his life painting the beloved rivers and trees and mountains of his
country as they appeared to his artistic imagination. One day, when he was a
very old man, he finished a painting of a magnificent mountain reaching the
sky. As he put on the last brush stroke, an opening appeared in the painted
mountain. The painter entered into it and was never seen again on earth. It
is thus through his work that an artist enters into the eternal realm of the im-
mortals.
From The Story of Art and Music
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

34 February 2015 Five Very Eng


Sequential art is an art form that uses WILLIAM HOGARTH (1697–1764) was a painter, printmaker, pictorial
images deployed in sequence for graphic satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited with pio-
storytelling or to convey information. The neering western sequential art.
best-known example of sequential art is His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pic-
comics, especially comic books and comic tures called “modern moral subjects”. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive
strips, which are a printed arrangement that satirical political illustrations in this style are often referred to as “Hoga-
of art and speech balloons. The term is rthian”.
rarely applied to other media, such as film, The Englishness of Hogarth has been one of his most startling character-
animation or storyboards. Scott McCloud istics. He went abroad only once – to France, and a fellow artist says that
notes that the movie roll, before it is being ‘wherever he went, he was sure to be dissatisfied with all he saw.’ He persist-
projected, arguably could be seen as a very ently dissuaded young artists from travelling to Italy because it would ‘seduce
slow comic. the student from nature’. What did Hogarth call nature? He is most famous
for his series of paintings and engravings such as the Marriage à la mode (A
fashionable marriage), The Rake’s Progress, The Harlot’s Progress and many
others – The Four Stages of Cruelty, Beer Street and Gin Lane, The Election
Entertainment, and so on.
He began, though, as a painter of what is called conversation-pieces, small
groups of people joined together in conversation or some other action, because
that was the type of painting the English were especially fond of. Besides,
among his early paintings there were those that presented a kind of pictori-
al newspaper report. However Hogarth saw that he could not make enough
money out of conversation-pieces without employing assistants and thereby
reducing the quality of his work. So he decided to try history painting but as
he did not succeed sufficiently in ‘this grand business’, he turned his thoughts
to something absolutely new, which was painting and engraving modern moral
subjects. Thus he found ‘a field unbroken up in any country or any age’. Such
subjects, Hogarth wrote, would both ‘entertain and improve the mind’. Such
an idea might suggest boredom and moral pictures could really be boring but
for the painter’s superb craft and breathtaking imagination.
The decision of Hogarth to turn away from the Grand Manner and the sub-
jects connected with it is rather significant in relation to his Englishness. Eng-
land has indeed never been happy with the Grand Manner, the large monu-
mental, rhetorical painting of religious and mythological subjects which plays
William Hogarth. Self-Portrait with Pug so predominant a part in the art of the Baroque which flourished in the seven-
Dog. 1745 teenth and early eighteenth centuries in Italy or France or southern Germany.
England is a Protestant country, and there was no demand for much painting in
churches. The character of the English was against it too; such qualities as un-
derstatement and reticence, common sense or reason. Hogarth agreed with Dr.
Johnson, who once said: “I had rather see the portrait of a dog I know than all
the allegories you show me.” As if it were an answer to Johnson’s wish, Hoga-
rth painted a self-portrait with his intelligent-looking dog in the foreground.
Fuseli, the brilliant Swiss painter, said there is ‘little hope of Poetical paint-
ing finding encouragement in England. The People are not prepared for it.
Portrait with them is everything. Their taste and feelings all go to realities.’
Hogarth started his unique series of ‘modern moral subjects’ ‘to improve
the mind’. Such a decision being very personal for Hogarth, it was also what
the Age of Enlightenment had led to in any country. Hogarth was a brilliant
painter, and the technique in which he tells his stories is of rich fluidity, un-
hesitating and exuberant. Yet to Hogarth the story mattered more than the art.
The purpose of painting was not painting, but the telling of stories with all the
incidents which any observant eye can discover any day.
One single painting can be discussed here. Strolling Players in a Barn was
published as an engraving in 1738. The scene seems at first complete chaos.
The barn is crowded with people and the most peculiar things. Cupid, fully
dressed up, is taking down a pair of stockings hanging up on a cloud. Juno
is rehearsing her part, while the goddess of night is mending her stocking. A
Sir Joshua Reynolds. Self Portrait With
The Bust Of Michaelangelo
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

nglish Painters 35 February 2015

woman impersonating Jupiter’s eagle is feeding a baby with gruel; the sauce-
pan stands on a royal crown. And in the middle stands Chaste Diana also re-
hearsing. She has only a chemise on and allows you to see her very attractively
rounded bosom and her plump thighs. Hogarth takes a mischievous pleasure in
revealing hidden secret realities.
In his most famous series the Marriage à la Mode he is a satirist with a
vengeance. In No.I the marriage contract between the son of the earl and the
daughter of the city merchant is signed. The two fathers are busy, one with
his family tree, the other with financial documents. The young people do not W.Hogarth. The Marriage Settlement
care for one another. The Viscount is looking away from his fiancée and taking
snuff, the girl is engrossed in a conversation with the young and ardent lawyer
Councellor Silvertongue. In the foreground a dog and a bitch are tied together
by an iron chain and don’t seem to enjoy it.
Scene 2 is the morning after a party at the house of the young party. The
Viscount has come back from gaming and whoring: you see him sit in a chair,
exhausted and also depressed by his losses. A cap and ribbon hang out of his
pocket, taken in the night from his female companion. Her Ladyship is also in a
chair, stretching herself idly. Playing-cards and musical instruments lie on the
floor. The old steward is leaving with his ledger and a packet of unpaid bills in W.Hogarth. The Tête à Tête
his hand, looking desperately worried.
And so the story goes on. Each of the six pieces shows the young couple
and their family and acquaintances at their worst: engaging in affairs, drinking,
gambling, and numerous other vices. Quite expectantly, the characters of this
drama end in disaster.
This series is regarded by many as his finest project. The pictures are ex-
hibited in the National Gallery, London. All six of them were at one time on
display in Moscow.
It had been Hogarth’s intention to follow the Marriage à-la-mode series W.Hogarth. The Inspection
with a companion series called The Happy Marriage, however, this series was
never completed and only exists as a series of unfinished sketches. Hogarth’s
loss of interest was probably because a conventional and happy marriage gave
little opportunity for barbed and ironic treatment of events.
Hogarth wanted, as a contemporary said, ‘to charm the mind and through
the eye correct the heart’.
SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS (1723–1792) a founder and first president of
the Royal Academy of Arts, had different views. According to him, no students
could develop their skills without knowledge of classical antiquity. The great
masters, who had stood the test of ages, had to be studied and copied. The W.Hogarth. The Toilette
portrait painter was inferior to the history painter. Genre and landscape and
still-life ranked even lower. History painting and the Grand Manner, he told
the students, was what they ought to aim at. Ironically, Reynolds was a portrait
painter exclusively, and extremely successful one.
But to feel to the full the contrast between Reynolds and Hogarth there is no
better way than to look at their self-portraits. Hogarth has a round face, with
sensuous lips, and in his picture looks you straight in the face. He is accompa-
nied by a pug-dog licking his lip and looking very much like his master. The
dog sits in front of the painted oval frame in which the portrait appears – that is
the Baroque trick of a picture within a picture. Reynolds scorns such tricks. His W.Hogarth. The Bagnio
official self-portrait shows him in an elegant pose with his glove in his hand,
the body fitting nicely into the noble triangle outline which Raphael and Titian
had favoured, and behind him on the right appears a bust of Michelangelo.
Reynolds promoted the “Grand Manner”, or the “Grand Style” in painting
which depended on idealisation of the imperfect. He recommended to enlarge
the subject ‘to a general idea’ by changing, for example, ‘the dress from a tem-
porary fashion to one more permanent’. That is why the actress Sarah Siddons
is presented as the Tragic Muse and her setting and attitude have unmistak-
W.Hogarth. The Lady’s Death
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

36February 2015

able allusions to Michelangelo’s Prophets. Looking at Gainsborough’s por-


trait we are thrilled by Mrs. Siddons the actress as she must have been in life.
It is known that Gainsborough interrupted his work exclaiming impatiently:
“Damn, madam, there is no end to your nose!” while Reynolds signed his
name on the hem of her dress, “for,” he told her, “I have resolved to go down
to posterity on the hem of your garment.”
Despite Reynolds’ preaching, his artistry and sensitivity to nature were in no
way inferior to Hogarth’s or Gainsborough’s. His portrait of Nelly O’Brien can
be a wonderful example of the English portrait at its best: it conceals more than
it reveals, and when it speaks, it speaks in a low voice, just like the characters
of Jane Austin.
THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH (1727–1788) was Reynolds’ rival. He was
also very popular and painted portraits of the king and queen, but George III
named Joshua Reynolds as royal painter and knighted him, not Gainsborough.
He painted quickly, and his pictures are characterised by a light palette and
easy strokes. He seems to have been a charming personality, ‘sincere and hon-
est and his heart was always alive to every feeling of honour and generosity.’
His favourite models were women and children, but as Reynolds hankered
after the historical and ideal subject, Gainsborough hankered after landscape.
In an intimate letter to a friend he wrote: “I am sick of Portraits and wish very
much to take my viol-da-gamba* and walk off to some sweet village where I
can paint landscapes and enjoy… life in quietness and ease. But these fine la-
dies and their tea-drinkings, dancings, husband-huntings etc. etc. etc. will fob
Sir Joshua Reynolds. Mrs. Siddons as the me out of the last ten years…”.
Tragic Muse Note: *viol-da-gamba. All members of the viol family are played upright
between the legs like a modern cello, hence the Italian name viola da gamba
(lit. viol of the leg). This distinguishes the viol from the modern violin family,
the viola da braccio (lit. viol of the arm).
In his last years, Gainsborough painted relatively simple landscapes and
is credited as the originator of the 18th century British landscape school. He
definitely preferred landscapes to portraits.
It was Gainsborough who mostly influenced JOHN CONSTABLE (1776–
1837), a Romantic landscape painter. He is known principally for his land-
scape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home – now known
as “Constable Country” – which he invested with an intensity of affection. “I
should paint my own places best,” he wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821,
“painting is but another word for feeling.
Constable, like Hogarth, Blake and Gainsborough never visited Italy, nor did he
visit Paris. In an address to students of the Royal Academy he warned them ‘not to
be in too great haste to seek instruction in the school of France, Germany, or Italy’.
He said: ‘I was born to paint … my own dear England.’ For Constable his England
was his countryside, and more specifically the Suffolk countryside, where he grew
up. But as the eighteenth century minds felt superior over nature and believed that
nature was to be composed, that is improved, Constable drove out any possible
T.Gainsborough. Lady in Blue artificiality. Once a friend reminded him that the grass on canvas was supposed to
have the colour of an old violin, according to the classical rules, while Constable
insistently tried to make it look as close to the real colour as possible. Then Consta-
ble put a violin on the grass and asked his friend to compare the colours.
Constable as well as Turner turned to the study of atmosphere and devel-
oped an open and sketchy technique to interpret an ever-changing nature. His
aim could ‘be best attained by a constant study of the same object under every
change of the seasons, and of the times of the day’. The sky was for Constable
‘the keynote’ of all classes of landscape. And clouds were Constable’s delight
and obsession. He knew what he was doing, and there is no false modesty in
what he wrote about his achievement: never before had such an interpretation
of nature as his been ‘perfected on the Canvas of any painter in the world’.

J.Constable. The Hay Wain


TOPICAL JOURNEY English

37
February 2015

Blake himself, when he saw drawings by Constable, said: ‘Why, this is not
drawing but inspiration.’
Constable answered: ‘I meant it for drawing.’ He taught his students: ‘Paint-
ing is a science, and should be pursued as an enquiry into the laws of nature.’
This rational approach speaks of the eternal quality of Englishness. Consta-
ble in landscape, Reynolds, Gainsborough, and all other painters of portraits,
and Hogarth, the painter of contemporary comedies of manners are equally
intent on close observation of what is around us.
While Constable’s searching naturalism was devoted to air JOSEPH
TURNER’S (1775–1981) antinaturalism sometimes carried him away into
fantasmagorias of nothing but air. A contemporary spoke contemptuously of
Turner’s visions as ‘tinted steam’. Constable knew the merits and dangers of
Turner’s art well. He called one of Turner’s pictures ‘the most complete work
of genius’ he ever saw’ and praised his light as ‘exquisite’ and once in a letter
Constable called him ‘stark mad’.
In his command of the vast and nebulous Turner belongs to Milton and also
to Blake, though in his command of atmospheric situations his is the world of
Constable.
Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded
as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history W.Turner. Selfportrait
painting – the idea that might have horrified Reynolds. He is commonly known
as “the painter of light” and his work is regarded as a Romantic preface to Im-
pressionism. Some of his works are cited as examples of abstract art prior to its
recognition in the early twentieth century.
Despite their Englishness, Constable and Turner, along with Frans Hals,
Diego Velázquez, and Peter Paul Rubens, prepared the way for Impressionism,
the greatest achievement in the history of arts.
The State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia, has a rich collection
of 16th to 19th century English painting.
The 18th century, when the national school of painting flourished, is rep-
resented by artists who brought fame to England far beyond its shores. Three
works by the first president of the Royal Academy of Arts, Sir Joshua Rey-
nolds, represent a most unusual side of his art, the painting of canvases on his-
torical subjects: The Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpents, commissioned
by the Russian Empress Catherine II and symbolising young Russia’s growing
strength, The Continence of Scipio and Cupid Untying the Zone of Venus both
intended for Count Potemkin. Works by Reynolds’ contemporaries also found W.Turner.
their way to Russia: Venus Comforting Cupid, Stung by a Bee, and Portrait of The Morning after the Deluge
George, Prince of Wales, and Prince Frederick, Duke of York (1778) by the
historical painter to King George III, Benjamin West, who headed the Royal
Academy after Reynolds’s death. Portrait of a Lady in Blue by Thomas Gains-
borough is the only work by the master in the Hermitage collection, but is
widely regarded as a brilliant example of the style of this portraitist, who lived
in permanent rivalry with Reynolds. These two leading artists of the day natu-
rally influenced the younger generation, such as George Romney, even while
the latter preserved his own individual style, as can be seen in his Portrait of
Mrs. Harriet Greer (1781).
A teacher’s view. Painting, like music, is rarely compatible with words, but the
moral series made by the great Hogarth would come as a rewarding topic good
enough for discussing arts and English history at the same time. Each picture of
his so-called Progresses presents a fascinating story with exciting details.
By the way, the listening task that was offered to contestants as part of the
English Olympiad for students in their 9-11 years can be recognized as a happy
choice made in the best traditions of Russian school. It was a part of an audio
guide in a museum of modern arts and talked about three pictures by Pablo
Picasso and George Braque, quite challenging and stimulating.
G.Romney.
Compiled by Olga Sventsitskaya
Portrait of Mrs. Harriet Greer
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

38 February 2015 USING MODERN ART TO TEACH


LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Introduction to find the most descriptive words they can. The word lists are
This unit on looking at modern art can be used with intermedi- written on chart paper. Each group then chooses what they con-
ate to advanced adolescent and adult ESL learners. Many con- sider to be their two most original words and explains them to the
sider contemporary art simplistic, perplexing,and just plain weird, class. The word lists are posted around the room for the duration
which makes it a perfect topic for generating discussion and lan- of the unit for easy reference.
guage learning in the ESL classroom. As learners become en-
gaged in the topic they will be developing their language abilities. Day Two: Creating a Classroom Art Gallery (1½ hours)
The unit employs an integrated,four-skills approach embedded in Materials
a cultural theme, and teachers can pick and choose activities ac- • Modern art prints.
cording to student needs and available time. Advance Preparation
Unit Objectives • Put up art prints in the classroom before the students arrive.
Language and Skills The Lesson
• Vocabulary (New words can be recycled throughout the unit) • Ask students to imagine that they are going to open their own
• Speaking and conversation practice class art gallery. However, there is only enough money in the
• Writing budget to purchase a limitednumber of paintings (one per
• Reading group of four students).
• Listening • Students are then asked to choose one of the prints on the
Culture wall. It worksbest if they select one they actually like. One of
• Students will learn about some famous Western artists and the great things aboutusing modern art in the ESL classroom
their works. is that it is open to personal interpretation.Learners pretend
• As students learn about the ideas behind the art they learn that they are the artist who created the work, and are invitedto
something about Western thought and culture. fabricate any information they wish about their painting (e.g.,
• This unit can also be used in an intercultural approach to lan- why theypainted it, what the message of the painting is sup-
guage learning. Students are likely to become more aware of posed to be, etc.). Theyhave total freedom to think of some-
their own culture when they come face-to-face with aspects of thing wacky or entirely serious. Studentswith a good sense of
other cultures. Understanding one's self as a cultural being is humor will have a lot of fun with this. Others will becompletely
the first step towards attaining intercultural competence (See engrossed in what an artist might actually have been trying
Byram, 1997). tosay through his/her work.
• Divide the class into groups of four. Each "artist" must tryto
Day One: Setting the Stage (1½ hours) convince the other members of the group of virtues of his/her
Materials painting,giving reasons why it should be the one from their
• Modern artprints (at least one per student) group chosen for the classgallery. The teacher might want to
• Student dictionaries model the activity for the whole classfirst. After each group
• Chart paper member has had a chance to present his/her argument,the
• Markers group must reach a consensus on which painting to put into
Advance Preparation the gallery.
• Before class, put up the modern art prints all around the class- • There may be students who are unsure of what to do at first, so
room. In large letters on the blackboard write, What’s this? it is agood idea for the teacher to walk around and check that
The Lesson everyone is on track,providing help when needed. The teacher
• As students arrive they soon notice the art on the walls and will also helps students with languageand vocabulary when need-
be intrigued. It is best to say as little as possible at this point. ed.
• To begin the class, ask everyone to get up and have a more • Once all groups have reached a consensus, one member
careful look at all of the prints. presents the group'sfinal choice to the entire class, giving
• Then have students sit down and write down their thoughts reasons why it was selected. As eachwork is presented it is
about the art they have just seen. Once they have done this, posted at the front of the room.
go around the class and ask each student to make a brief
statement about their impressions of the art prints. You can be By Diane Watt, University of Ottawa
certain that everyone will have an opinion! (E.g., I could paint See more at: http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Watt-ModernArt.html
that! A child could do that. What is it? What doesit mean? It’s
so simple. That’s not art!).
Class Discussion Centered Around Student Responses
Some ideas for discussion include:
• The price of these works and why they are so expensive.
• Is it art? Why or why not? What is art? What's the point?
• Is it worthwhile?
• How do these paintings compare to art in the students' own
cultures?
• Which ones do students like? Dislike? Which are the strang-
est?
Vocabulary Activity
Divide the class into groups of three or four. Each group col-
lectively generates a list of 10 words to describe the paintings in
general, consulting a dictionary when needed. Challenge learners
TEXTS FOR READING English

This Picture is a Legal Document 39


February 2015

When we look at this portrait of The Arnolfini Couple, we eel a warm radiance coming from it. This is partly
because of the warm harmony of the complementary colors, red and green. But there is more to the radiance of
this picture than mere colors. It has a solemn feeling that reminds us of church.
Let’s see what is really there. Certainly no Church. We see a simple bedroom with a bed in it, a chair, a little
table before the window, a chandelier hanging from the ceiling, a mirror on the wall. At the foot of the bed stands
a couple with a little dog between them. Their shoes are lying on the floor. His are next to him, hers in the back
of the room.
The only solemn thing we can see in the picture is the raised right hand of the man. It is the ancient gesture of
taking an oath, and we use it even today. We can almost hear the words “Raise you right hand and…”
The man’s face shows earnest thought. His other hand holds the woman’s hand and we feel that he wants to
hold it forever. Her little face is as serious as his. It bends down as if agreeing with him.
The mirror between these two people looks like an official seal to this solemn joining of hands. The rosary
hanging next to it reminds us of the string attached to an official seal.
The writing, with its curlicues around the mirror, looks like the fancy signature on a legal document. What
does it say? It reads “Jan van Eyck (the painter) was here.” And if we look closely into the mirror that shows the
backs of the couple, we see the painter himself entering the room with another man. They are here as witnesses
to the marriage ceremony of Giovanni Arnolfini and hid bride, Jeanne de Cenami. The portrait of this couple is
a picture of their marriage vow.
Looking a little higher at the chandelier, we see that there is just one candle burning in it. Why a candle at all, we wonder, when there is bright
daylight all over the room? It is the marriage candle, and age-old custom for the wedding ceremony.
The little dog between the bride and groom represents faithfulness. The shoes lying on the floor remind us of what the Bible says: “Take off your
shoes, for the ground on which you stand is hallowed ground.”
It is because of all this that we feel solemn when we look at the portrait of The Arnolfini Couple.
Everything in this picture is painted true to nature. The different materials – the white-wash on the wall, the wooden floor, the metal chandelier,
the heavy weave of drapery, the velvet in Mr. Arnolfini’s cloak, the linen in the bride’s headgear, the difference between the furs on his garment and
on hers – all are painted as they look to the eye and feel to the touch.
The sunlight streaming through the open window bathes the entire scene in a kind of magic. It is the magic of Jan van Eyck, one of the greatest
painters who ever lived.

To Love and to Cherish


A clear blue sky smiles through the window, but the two young people standing before it are in an earnest mood.
The young man has put his arm around the girl’s shoulder. In his gesture and in the expression of his face we can
read the promise of the marriage ceremony: “To have and to hold, to love and to cherish.” His face also asks a ques-
tion, and we can read the answer in the girl’s expression. It says “I do.” And her dreamy eyes tell us that it will be
“for better or for worse until death us do part.”
He holds out his hand to her and she puts her hand into his, to seal their promises to each other.
He is firm and forceful in his gay red clothes. She is soft and feminine in her garments of gentler white and
yellow. Her veil is like a bridal veil. But it is not white; it is a soft mossy green. Picasso made it green because he
wanted it to symbolize life, and green is the color of life in nature. It is the color of fields and forests when they come
to life under a spring or summer sky of tender blue. It is this kind of blue sky that frames the girl in the green veil.
The green of her veil and the red of the young man’s garment form a color harmony in this painting by the great
Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. You may remember that there was this same harmony of red and green in the marriage
picture of the Arnolfini couple by Jan van Eyck painted five hundred years earlier.
Though the two pictures tell a similar story of a promise of love, they are amazingly different. In van Eyck’s
picture we see every detail as precisely as we would in a photograph. Picasso does not show us details, not even
the shape of the room or the materials in the garments. The young couple’s hands and arms are drawn with outlines
alone, and only a few lines and mere touches of color form the faces.
But the gestures of the coarsely drawn arms and hands are full of gentle expression. In the lightly painted features we can sense the young man’s
question and the young woman’s answer. We feel close to these young people.
In Picasso’s painting there are no details to be examined for meaning as there are in Jan van Eyck’s picture. We must understand Picasso’s
painting with our hearts.
No sunlight streams through this windows as it does in the Arnolfini’s room. Yet Picasso put a tender light around his young couple. The purple-
pink drapery is suggested rather than portrayed. But the lovely soft color completes the picture with a gay sweet note.
The young couple’s Grecian profiles remind us of ancient Greek art. So do the simple outlines of their figures and their marble-smooth colorless
faces.
Picasso used that style as a sort of quotation, as we do when we reach for the words of a poet to express something important. Picasso’s artistic
“quotations” plus his mastery of simple lines made it possible for him to tell us important things.
His genius was already recognized when he was in his teens. His endless study and experimentation made him the greatest master of our time.

From The Story of Art and Music


Д Е П А Р Т А М Е Н Т О Б Р А З О В А Н И Я г. М О С К В Ы
И З Д АТ Е Л Ь С К И Й Д О М « П Е Р В О Е С Е Н Т Я Б Р Я »
М МОСКОВСКИЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

М
2015
М О С К О В С К И Й
П Е Д А ГО Г И Ч Е С К И Й

МАРАФОН
УЧЕБНЫХ ПРЕДМЕТОВ 23 МАРТА – 17 АПРЕЛЯ

РАСПИСАНИЕ ДНЕЙ
ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКОГО МАРАФОНА
23 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȐ * 3 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȚȐȒȐ
24 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǶȚȒȘȣȚȐȍ ǴȈȘȈȜȖȕȈ 4 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȜȐȏȐȒȐ
ǬȍȕȤ ȒȓȈșșȕȖȋȖ ȘțȒȖȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȧ
5 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȔȈȚȍȔȈȚȐȒȐ
25 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǬȍȕȤ ȠȒȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȗșȐȝȖȓȖȋȈ
ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ǶǩǮ 7 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȐșȚȖȘȐȐ Ȑ ȖȉȡȍșȚȊȖȏȕȈȕȐȧ

26 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǬȍȕȤ ȏȌȖȘȖȊȤȧ ȌȍȚȍȑ, ȒȖȘȘȍȒȞȐȖȕȕȖȑ 8 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ǴǽDz, ȔțȏȣȒȐ Ȑ ǰǯǶ
ȗȍȌȈȋȖȋȐȒȐ, ȓȖȋȖȗȍȌȈ, 9 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ ȠȒȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȐȕȒȓȦȏȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑ ȌȍȚșȒȖȋȖ ȉȐȉȓȐȖȚȍȒȈȘȧ
Ȑ ȓȍȟȍȉȕȖȑ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȒțȓȤȚțȘȣ
10 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȓȐȚȍȘȈȚțȘȣ
27 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȕȈȟȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȠȒȖȓȣ 11 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȘțșșȒȖȋȖ ȧȏȣȒȈ
(ȌȍȕȤ ȗȍȘȊȣȑ)
28 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȕȈȟȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȠȒȖȓȣ 12 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȈȕȋȓȐȑșȒȖȋȖ ȧȏȣȒȈ
(ȌȍȕȤ ȊȚȖȘȖȑ)
14 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȜȘȈȕȞțȏșȒȖȋȖ ȧȏȣȒȈ
29 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǬȍȕȤ ȌȖȠȒȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ
15 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ ȠȒȖȓȤȕȖȑ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȞȐȐ
31 ȔȈȘȚȈ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȋȍȖȋȘȈȜȐȐ
16 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȒțȓȤȚțȘȣ
1 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȝȐȔȐȐ
17 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȕȍȔȍȞȒȖȋȖ ȧȏȣȒȈ
2 ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ǬȍȕȤ țȟȐȚȍȓȧ ȉȐȖȓȖȋȐȐ ǯȈȒȘȣȚȐȍ

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̨̪ ̭̖̥̏ ̪̬̖̥̖̯̥̔̌ ̡̨̨̹̣̦̜̽ ̨̪̬̬̥̥̼̐̌. ˑ̡̨̣̖̯̬̦̦̼̖ ̸̡̛̛̱̖̦̍ ̱̱̯̍̔
̨̭̯̱̪̦̼̔ ̣̔́ ̶̨̛̛̪̬̌̍̌ ̨̪̖̥̔̌̐̐̌, ̨̨̬̯̖̣̦̼̖̍̌̏̌̽̚ ̶̨̛̛̛̬̦̐̌̌̚
̵̡̨̨̯̬̼ ̸̱̭̯̱̯̌̏̀ ̏ ̨̡̪̬̖̯̖ «ˌ̡̨̣̌ ̶̴̨̨̨̛̬̏̐ ̡̖̏̌»

˃̵̸̨̨̡̛̛̖̦̣̖̭̖̐
̨̨̨̛̭̖̦̦̭̯̍:
3 ˀ̨̯̖̯̌̍̌ ̦̌ ̵̪̣̦̹̖̯̌̌
iOS, Android, Windows
3 ʺ̨̨̨̦̭̣̜̦̼̜̐
(̡̯̖̭̯̼, ̨̛̭̣̬̏̌,
̛̛̥̱̣̯̥̖̜̦̼̖̽̔
̨̡̻̖̯̼̍ ̛ ̬̔.)
3 «ʸ̡̛̖̜̐» (30 ̡̭̖̱̦̔
̣̔́ ̸̡̛̛̭̦̌̏̌́
̛ථ̨̡̛̱̭̯̦̌̏)
ʽ̨̨̛̭̖̦̦̭̯̍ ̡̨̦̯̖̦̯̌:
3 ˀ̦̼̖̌̚ ̴̨̬̥̼
̛̪̬̖̭̯̣̖̦̔̌̏́
̨̛̭̖̬̙̦̔̌́
̴̨̪̬̬̌̌̐̌̏
3 ʥ̨̣̹̽̌́ ̍̌̌̚
̵̡̛̛̦̯̖̬̯̦̼̌̏
̨̡̨̻̖̯̍̏ ̛ ̨̛̭̖̬̭̏̏,
̏ ̨̯̥ ̸̛̭̣̖
̣̔́ථ̡̨̛̛̦̯̖̬̯̦̜̌̏
̨̡̛̭̔
3 ʰ̦̭̯̬̱̥̖̦̯̼
̛ථ̛̭̖̬̭̼̏
̣̔́ ̨̱̭̯̔̍̏̌
̨̬̯̼̌̍ ̸̡̨̛̱̖̦̏
̭ථ̸̨̛̛̬̦̖̦̦̼̥̐̌
̨̨̨̛̥̙̦̭̯̥̏́̚
̨̨̬̔̏̽́̚

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English РЕКЛАМА

42
ʽʥˀʤʯʽʦʤ˃ʫʸːʻˏʫ
ʿˀʽʧˀʤʺʺˏ 2015
ʦ̸̨̡̭̖̪̬̬̥̥̼̣̯̭̖̐̌̏̀̌̀̏̍́͗ ʽ̴̨̨̛̛̬̥̣̖̦̖̪̏̚ NEW
ʦʤˌʰʺ̛̛̪̬̣̹̖̦̥̐̌́͘
භʽ̴̵̵̵̨̨̨̨̡̨̛̛̬̥̣̖̦̖̭̖̦̖̥̼̱̥̖̦̯̏̍̔̔̏ ʫ̛̛̛̛̭̣̥̱̙̖̼̭̣̣̪̬̣̹̖̦̖̏̌̏̌̐̌
භʦ̸̴̨̨̨̨̛̛̭̯̬̖̪̬̼̬̪̬̯̱͕̭̖̯̬̦̭̖̬̼̏̔̏̌̾̏̌ ̨̡̨̨̡̛̛̯̬̖̱̖̯̭̯̣̯̬̼̯̼͕̥̼̍́̽̽̏̚
̨̨̪̪̬̬̥̥̖̐̌ ̸̨̨̨̨̯̼̪̥̐̏̽͗
භʿ̨̛̛̬̙̦̖̭̖̥̖̏̌̏̽;&ĂŵŝůLJͿ̶̛̛̛̛̛̣̬̖̖̦̔̚ භʿ̨̨̡̨̡̡̛̛̖̬̖̱̥̖̦̯̦̦̣̜̭̜̼̏̔̔̏̌̌̐́̚
;ZĞƐŝĚĞŶĐĞͿ̵̨̛̛̭̯̬̖̬̼̥̪̯̦̖̥̌̏̌̚ භʿ̸̨̨̨̡̡̨̡̨̨̨̨̨̛̯̪̖̯̱̥̖̦̯̪̪̭̣̭̯̔̐̏̌̌̌̔̏̔̌̌̏̽̏
භʽ̸̡̨̡̛̛̱̖̦̖̦̣̜̭̥̱̼̱̍̌̐́̚ʹϮϬ̨̡̨̱̬̦̖̖̣̏̏̔̀ භʯ̨̡̨̨̡̛̪̣̦̖̦̖̣̖̯̬̦̦̜̦̖̯̼̌̾̌
භʽ̡̡̨̨̛̛̹̬̦̱̭̱̬̭̦̦̱̪̬̬̥̥̱̍̀̾̀̐̌ භʻ̸̸̶̨̡̨̨̛̛̛̦̖̦̖̥̖̯̬̖̭̜̪̬̖̱̬̼̌̌̍̔̚ ˁ̨̨̛̛̯̥̭̯̱̭̣̱̽̐
භˁ̴̸̸̡̡̨̨̨̡̨̛̛̛̛̛̖̬̯̯̼̹̣̦̦̱̖̼̌̍̌̍̚ භʿ̸̵̨̨̨̨̨̛̣̱̖̦̖̯̼̪̭̪̬̯̐̏̌̏ ʹϭϬϬhZ̸̖̣ͬ͘
භʺ̶̵̡̨̡̛̛̖̦̭̱̭̯̬̱̔̀̌̏
ʧ̨̨̬̔̌͗
ʧ̬̱̪̪̌ϱнϭ͕ϭϬнϮ͕ϭϱнϯ͕ϮϬнϰ͕Ϯϱнϱ h<͗ʤ̴̨̹̬͕̔ʥ̯͕̌ʥ̨̛̬̭̯̣͕̽ʦ̨̛̦̬͕̔̚ʦ̸̛̦̖̭̯̖̬͕ʶ̛̖̦̯̖̬̖̬͕̍ʧ̸̛̛̬̦͕̏ʧ̴̨̛̣̬͕̔̔
;̡̨̨̛̛̬̱̯̖̣̏̔ʹ̨̖̭̪̣̯̦̍̌Ϳ ʸ̨̨̦̦͕̔ʧ̨̣͕̌̐̚ʰ̨̭̯̬̦͕̍ʱ̨̡̬͕ʽ̴̡̨̭̬͕̔ʧ̛̭̯̦̭͕̌̐ʶ̛̖̥̬̙͕̍̔ʶ̸̨̣̖̭̯̖̬͕ʸ̸̖̜̖̭̯̖̬͕
ʦ̸̨̡̨̨̛̬̭̯̱̭̯̦̯̌̌̏̚ϵ̣̖̯;̨̡̨̛̭̥̯̬̖̦̹̣̼̍̏̌́̏͘ ʿ̨̬̯̭̥̱̯͕ˀ̥̭̖̜̯͕̌̐ˁ̴̨̯̬̯̬̌̔Ͳʤ̨̪̦Ͳˑ̨̜̦͕̏ˁ̴̴̨̯̬͕̌̔ˑ̛̦̱̬͕̔̍̐ˑ̡̛̖̯̖̬̬̔̚͘
̨̨̛̦̯̖̬̖̭̱̺̖̥̬̖̀̐̔Ϳ͘ʿ̵̵̨̨̛̛̯̣̼̖̙̺̔̔̔́̏̌̀̏̚ h^͗ʥ̨̨̭̯̦͕ʻ̽̀Ͳʱ̨̡̬͕ʸ̨̭Ͳʤ̦̙̖̣̖̭͕̔ /ƌĞůĂŶĚ͗ʪ̛̱̣̦͕̍ʶ̨̡̬͕ʸ̡̛̛̥̖̬͕ʧ̨̣̖̜̏
̪̖̬̼̜̬̏̌̚͘ʯ̡̨̛̪̬̬̥̥̼̦̦̌̌̐̌̌̀̽̚ʹ̱̭̯̭̣̖̱̖̯̌̏̐̔ ʺ̛̜̥͕̌̌ˁ̦̌Ͳʪ̨̛̖͕̐ˁ̦̌Ͳˇ̶̡̨̛̬̦̭͕̌ʧ̛̛̜̬̌̏̌̔͘ DĂůƚĂ͗ʦ̣̖̯̯͕̌̌ʥ̛̱̙͕̔̍̍̌
̖̣̯̔̌̽̌̚ϱʹϲ̶̨̛̣̖̖̥̖̭̖̪̖̬̖̍́̏̏̔͘ ĂŶĂĚĂ͗˃̨̨̨̬̦̯͕ʦ̡̦̱̖̬͕̌̏ʦ̡̨̛̛̯̬͕́ʶ̛̣̬̌̐̌ ˁ̖̦̯Ͳʪ̛̙̱̣̦̭͕̌ˁ̖̦̯Ͳʿ̨̣
ʿ̨̛̬̬̦̦̖̜̪̣̯̖̌̌ʹ̡̡̡̛̛̛̥̭̥̣̦̼̖̭̌̌̽̔͊ ˁ̵̨̡̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̨̡̨̛̛̛̪̭̬̪̭̯̦̦̪̣̦̖̯̭̦̣̖̯̭͕̭̖̪̬̦̭̯̹̣̐̔̏́̔́́̍̏́́̏̔̍̌
̴̶̨̛̛̛̭̥̭̖̙̦̬̥̌̌́̏̌́̌́ʹ̭̖̦̭̜̯̖̏̐̔̌̌̌ǁǁǁ͘ƚƌŝŶŝƚLJͲƚƌĂǀĞů͘ƌƵ
ʿ̸̨̨̛̬̬̥̥̼̖̱̖̦̐̌̍̍́̚
ϭͿʸ̨̨̦̦̔;ˑ̛̦̱̬̔̍̐Ϳʹʥ̶̛̣ʹϯ̸̨̛̦ͬϰ̦̔́ʹϰϵϬhZ ϯͿʸ̨̨̦̦̔ϯ̸̨̛̦нϯ̸̨̛̦ˑ̛̦̱̬̔̍̐ʹϭϬϵϬhZ
ʦ̸̡̨̣̖̦̀͗ ̸̭̯̬̖̏̌Ͳ̨̨̪̬̼͕̏̔ ̨̛̛̪̬̙̦̖̏̌ ̏ ̶̖̦̯̬̖ ʸ̨̨̦̦̔̌ ̛̛̣ ʦ̸̸̡̨̛̣̖̦̭̯̬̖̀͗̏Ͳ̶̨̨̨̛̛̪̬̼͕̪̬̙̦̖̖̦̯̬̖̏̔̏̌̏ʸ̨̨̛̦̦̔̌
ˑ̛̦̱̬̔̍̐̌ ̏ ̨̯̖̣̖ ϯΎ͕ ̛̛̪̯̦̖̌ ʹ ̡̯̬͕̌̏̌̚ ϭ ̨̨̬̦̍̌́̚ ̡̡̛̭̱̬̭̾́ ̨̪ ˑ̨̛̦̱̬̯̖̣̖̔̍̐̌̏ϯΎ̛̛͕̪̯̦̖̌ʹ̨̨̨̛̪̣̱̪̦̭̦͕̪̌ϭ̨̨̨̬̦̜̍̚
ʸ̨̨̦̦̱̔͘ˀ̸̨̨̡̨̛̛̛̛̛̖̜̭̼̖̦̪̬̼̯̯̼̯̪̬̯̭̯͕̯̼̏̔̽̍́̍́̔̍̌̀́̌̍ ̡̡̛̛̭̱̬̭̾ ̛ ̨̪ ϭ ̦̌ ̨̪̣̦̼̜ ̖̦̔̽ ̭ ̨̼̖̥̏̔̚ ̛̚ ̨̨̬̐̔̌ ̏
̸̡̨̛̛̛̛̥̭̥̣̦̱̖̣̯̬̖̥̪̬̖̼̦̌̌̽̏̽̏́̍̏̌́͘ʽ̸̸̨̨̛̛̛̪̣̭̖̯̬̦̌̏̌́̏̐ ʸ̨̨̛̦̦̖̔ˑ̛̦̱̬̖̔̍̐͘
̨̛̛̪̬̙̦͕̏̌́ʦ̸̸̶̵̨̨̨̼̪̣̱̖̯̖̖̯̼̬̖̪̣̦̖̦̦̼̦̌̔́͘ʻ̨̨̖̬̣̔̐̌́̌̽Ͳ ϰͿʸ̨̨̦̦̔ϯ̸̨̛̦нʪ̛̱̣̦̍ϯ̸̨̛̦ʹϭϬϵϬhZ
̸̡̡̨̛̛̛̯̖̬̦̯̣̭̭̖̭̥̪̬̬̥̥̥̌̏̌̌̐̌̌͘ʰ̵̨̨̨̡̨̨̛̖̣̦̪̯̣̬̯̔̌̽̔̔̔́Ͳ ʦ̸̡̨̣̖̦̀͗ ̸̛̭̯̬̖̏Ͳ̨̨̪̬̼͕̏̔ ̨̛̛̪̬̙̦̖̏̌ ̏ ̶̖̦̯̬̖ ʸ̨̨̦̦̔̌
̵̵̡̡̨̡̡̛̛̹̣̦̼̦̱̣̽̌͘ʺ̸̨̨̨̨̨̛̙̦̯̖̺̘̦̱̦̔̍̌̏̽̔̽;нϭϮϬhZͿ͘ ̛ʪ̨̛̱̣̦̯̖̣̖̍̌̏ϯΎ̛̛͕̪̯̦̖̌ʹ̨̨̨̛̪̣̱̪̦̭̦͕̪̌ϭ̨̨̨̬̦̜̍̚
ϮͿʸ̨̨̦̦̔;ˑ̛̦̱̬̔̍̐Ϳʶ̸̡̛̛̣̭̭̖̭̜̌ʹϲ̸̨̦̖̜ͬϳ̦̖̜̔ʹϴϵϬhZ ̡̡̛̛̭̱̬̭̾ ̛ ̨̪ ϭ ̦̌ ̨̪̣̦̼̜ ̖̦̔̽ ̭ ̨̼̖̥̏̔̚ ̛̚ ̨̨̬̐̔̌ ̏
ʦ̸̡̨̣̖̦̀͗ ̸̭̯̬̖̏̌Ͳ̨̨̪̬̼͕̏̔ ̨̛̛̪̬̙̦̖̏̌ ̏ ̶̖̦̯̬̖ ʸ̨̨̦̦̔̌ ̛̛̣ ʸ̨̨̛̦̦̖̔ʪ̛̱̣̦̖̍͘
ˑ̨̛̦̱̬̯̖̣̖̔̍̐̌̏ϯΎ̛̛͕̪̯̦̖̌ʹ̨̨̛̪̣̱̪̦̭̦͕̌ϭ̨̨̡̡̨̛̬̦̭̱̬̭̪̍̌́̾́̚ ϱͿʺ̬̖̜̯̌̐ʹ̸̨̛̦̖̖̣̖̱̖̦̔́̍̍́̚;ϳ̸̨̦̖̜ͬϴ̦̖̜̔ͿʹϳϵϬhZ
ʸ̨̨̛̦̦̱̔ϭ̨̨̨̨̪̣̦̦̖̦̪̼̬̱̔̏̌́̏̍͗ʽ̴̡̨̭̬͕̔ʶ̛̖̥̬̙͕̍̔ʥ̨̬̜̯̦͕̌ ʦ̸̡̨̣̖̦̀͗ʿ̸̨̡̡̨̡̨̨̨̨̛̛̛̬̙̦̖̣̭̭̖̭̥̱̬̬̯̦̥̬̖̦̏̌̏̌̐̔̌
ʦ̨̛̛̦̬̬͖̔̔̚͘ʦˑ̛̦̱̬̖̔̍̐ϭ̨̨̬̦̍̌́̚нϭ̨̨̨̪̣̦̦̖̦̦̼̬̔̏̌́̌̏̍ ̖̬̖̱̍̐ʸ̌Ͳʺ̵̵̵̡̨̛̛̛̛̦̹̦̣̜̭̭̖̥̭̯̬̖̬̼̥̪̯̦̖̥̌̌̏̌̐̽́̌̏̌̚
ʹʧ̨̨̨̣͕̖̬̌̐̚̚ʸ̵̨Ͳʸ̨̨̥̦̔н̡̛̬̱͕̚ʯ̨̡̥̌ˁ̛̛̯̬̣̦̐ʶ̛̭̯̣̬̌̔͘ н̡̡̛̛̭̱̬̭̾̏ʶ̛̖̦̯̖̬̖̬͕̍ʸ̨̨̦̦͕̔ʸ̛̭͕̔ʪ̛̱̬̬̏̔͘
ʪ̸̨̨̨̨̛̛̪̣̦̯̖̣̦̪̣̖̯̭̽̌̏̌́͗ϭͿʤ̛̛̣̖̯̏̌̍͗ʸ̨̨̦̦̔ʹϰϬϬhZ͕ˑ̛̦̱̬̔̍̐ʹϱϬϬhZ͖ϮͿˁ̵̨̡̨̯̬̯̦̖̼̖͖̌̏̌̏̔̌̚ϯͿʦ̛̌̚͘
ʺ̨̨̛̛̛̦̥̣̦̼̜̬̥̖̬̬̱̪̪̼̪̯̥̪̬̬̥̥̥̌̽̌̐̾̐̌̌̚ϭϬнϮ͘ʿ̨̨̨̛̬̦̭̯̦̭̜̯̖̔̍̌̌ǁǁǁ͘ƚƌŝŶŝƚLJͲƚƌĂǀĞů͘ƌƵ͕̬̖̣̌̔ͨ̚ʿ̸̨̨̛̬̬̥̥̼̖̱̖̦̐̌̍̍́ͩ̚͘
ˁ̸̨̨̨̨̛̛̯̥̭̯̪̬̬̥̥̭̱̖̦̖̥̽̐̌̍
ʧ̬̱̪̪̌ ʽ̨̪̣̯̌̌̔Ϭϭ͘ϭϮ͘ϮϬϭϰ ʽ̨̪̣̯̌̌̔Ϭϭ͘ϬϮ͘ϮϬϭϱ ʽ̨̪̣̯̌̌̔Ϭϭ͘Ϭϰ͘ϮϬϭϱ ʽ̨̪̣̯̌̌̔Ϭϭ͘Ϭϲ͘ϮϬϭϱ
ϱнϭ͕ϭϬнϮ͕ ˁ̡̡̛̔̌ϯϬϬh^ͬhZ ˁ̡̡̛̔̌ϮϬϬh^ͬhZ ˁ̡̡̛̔̌ϭϬϬh^ͬhZ ʿ̨̨̨̛̣̦̭̯̥̭̯̌́̽͘
ϭϱнϯ͕ϮϬнϰ͕ ̨̨̨̨̨̛̛̯̪̣̦̜̭̯̥̭̯ ̨̨̨̨̨̛̛̯̪̣̦̜̭̯̥̭̯ ̨̨̨̨̨̛̛̯̪̣̦̜̭̯̥̭̯ ˁ̡̨̡̛̦̖̯̔͘ʿ̛̣̯̯̌̽
Ϯϱнϱ͕ϯϬнϲ Ϯ̛ϯ̦̖̖̣̔̽ Ϯ̛ϯ̦̖̖̣̔̽ Ϯ̛ϯ̦̖̖̣̔̽ ̸̨̣̱̹̖̭̖̦̽̀͊
;̡̨̨̛̛̬̱̯̖̣̏̔
̨̖̭̪̣̯̦̍̌Ϳ &ĂŵŝůLJ ZĞƐŝĚĞŶĐĞ &ĂŵŝůLJ ZĞƐŝĚĞŶĐĞ &ĂŵŝůLJ ZĞƐŝĚĞŶĐĞ &ĂŵŝůLJ ZĞƐŝĚĞŶĐĞ
ʦ̡̨̛̛̛̖̣̬̯̦͕̍̌́ʰ̛̬̣̦͕̌̔́˃̶̛̱̬͕́ʺ̣̯͕̌̽̌ʶ̛̪̬;ˉ̖̦̼̏hZͿ
ϭ̦̖̔͘ ϭϬϱϬ ϭϮϱϬ ϭϭϬϬ ϭϯϬϬ ϭϭϱϬ ϭϯϱϬ ϭϮϬϬ ϭϰϬϬ
Ϯ̦̖̔͘ ϭϵϵϬ ϮϯϵϬ ϮϬϵϬ ϮϰϵϬ ϮϭϵϬ ϮϱϵϬ ϮϮϵϬ ϮϲϵϬ
ϯ̦̖̔͘ ϮϵϵϬ ϯϱϵϬ ϯϬϵϬ ϯϲϵϬ ϯϭϵϬ ϯϳϵϬ ϯϮϵϬ ϯϴϵϬ
ʶ̨̨̨̨̨̣̥̱̬̱̪̪̬̬̥̥̖̀̍̐̔̐̌̏ʦ̡̨̛̛̛̛̖̣̬̯̦̍̌ ϯ̦̔́ͬϮ̸̨̛̦̏ʸ̨̨̛̛̦̦̖̣̔ˑ̛̦̱̬̖̔̍̐ʹϯϱϬhZ;ʦ̸̸̡̨̣̖̦̭̯̬̖̀͗̏̌Ͳ̨̨̨̛̛̪̬̼͕̪̬̙̦̖͕̏̔̏̌
̨̨̨̨̛̛̛̥̙̦̯̪̬̙̦̖̔̍̌̏̽̏̌̏ʸ̨̨̛̛̦̦̖̣̔ ̛̛̪̯̦̖̌Ϳʶ̸̸̸̨̨̨̨̨̛̛̣̖̭̯̦̖̜̥̙̖̯̼̯̱̖̣̖̦̏̍̽̏͘ʽ̸̨̨̨̨̛̛̛̬̖̦̯̬̦̭̯̥̭̯̏̌́̽ϭϮϬhZ̸̨̦ͬ̽͘
ˑ̨̛̦̱̬̖̯̖̣̖̔̍̐̏ϯΎ̡̨̭̯̬̥̌̏̌͗̚ ʿ̨̨̨̨̡̡̨̨̨̛̛̛̛̙̖̣̦̥̙̖̯̼̯̣̖̦̭̱̬̭̦̦̖̭̣̱̙̦̖̌̀̍̽̔̍̌̏̾̍̏̌͘
ʪ̸̨̨̨̨̛̛̪̣̦̯̖̣̦̪̣̖̯̭̽̌̏̌́͗
ʦ̛̌̚ʹϭϱϬhZ;̸̴̡̡̨̡̨̨̨̨̨̡̨̛̛̛̛̣̦̭̱̣̭̜̭̬͕̬̥̣̖̦̖̼̪̖̬̖̱̥̖̦̯̏̀̌́̽̍̏̏̔̔̏̚Ϳ͖ˁ̵̨̡̨̯̬̯̦̖̼̖̌̏̌̏̔̌̚ʹϭϬϬhZ͖
ʤ̛̛̣̖̯̏̌̍;̨̨̨̨̨̛̥̙̦̭̪̣̯̭̭̯̖̦̦̼̖̽̏̌̽̍̏̚Ϳ͗ʸ̨̨̦̦̔ʹϰϬϬhZ͕ˑ̛̦̱̬͕̔̍̐ʪ̛̱̣̦͕̍ʺ̣̯͕̌̽̌ʶ̛̪̬ʹϱϬϬhZ͘
ˁˌʤ͕ʶ̦͕̌̌̔̌ʤ̛̭̯̬̣͕̏̌́ʻ͘ʯ̛̖̣̦͕̌̔́ˁ̛̦̪̱̬͕̐̌˓ʤˀ;ˉ̖̦̼̏h^Ϳ
ϭ̦̖̔͘ ϭϲϵϬ ϭϲϵϬ ϭϳϵϬ ϭϳϵϬ ϭϴϵϬ ϭϴϵϬ ϭϵϵϬ ϭϵϵϬ
Ϯ̦̖̔͘ ϯϭϵϬ ϯϮϵϬ ϯϮϵϬ ϯϯϵϬ ϯϯϵϬ ϯϰϵϬ ϯϰϵϬ ϯϱϵϬ
ϯ̦̖̔͘ ϰϲϵϬ ϰϴϵϬ ϰϳϵϬ ϰϵϵϬ ϰϴϵϬ ϱϬϵϬ ϰϵϵϬ ϱϭϵϬ
ʪ̸̨̨̨̨̛̛̪̣̦̯̖̣̦̪̣̖̯̭̽̌̏̌́͗
ʦ̛̌̚ʹϮϱϬh^;̸̴̡̨̨̡̨̡̨̨̨̡̨̛̛̛̛̣̬̥̣̖̦̖̼͕̦̭̱̣̭̜̭̬̪̖̬̖̱̥̖̦̯̏̀̌́̏̽̍̏̔̔̏̚Ϳ͖ˁ̵̨̡̨̯̬̯̦̖̼̖̌̏̌̏̔̌̚;̨̯̖̣̦̍́̌̽̌́̚ͿʹϭϮϬh^͖
ʤ̛̛̣̖̯̏̌̍;̨̨̨̨̨̛̥̙̦̭̪̣̯̭̭̯̖̦̦̼̖̽̏̌̽̍̏̚Ϳ͗ʻ̽̀ʱ̨̡̬ʹϭϬϬϬh^͕ʺ̛̜̥̌̌ʹϭϯϬϬh^͕ʸ̨̭ʤ̦̙̖̣̖̭ʹϭϲϬϬh^͕ʧ̨̨̦̣̱̣̱;ʧ̛̜̌̏̌ͿʹϮϭϬϬh^͕
˃̨̨̨̬̦̯ʹϭϬϬϬh^͕ʦ̡̦̱̖̬̌̏ʹϭϱϬϬh^͕ˁ̛̦̪̱̬̐̌ʹϭϬϬϬh^͕ʤ̛̭̯̬̣̏̌́ʹϭϴϬϬh^͕ʻ͘ʯ̛̖̣̦̌̔́ʹϮϭϬϬh^͕˓ʤˀʹϭϱϬϬh^͘
ʦ̛̛̦̥̦̖̌͊ʽ̵̨̨̡̨̛̪̣̯̭̱̺̖̭̯̣̖̯̭̬̱̣̪̱̬̭̱̪̬̙̌̌̏́́̏̍́̔̌ˁ̡̖̬̦̍̍̌̌ˀˇ̨̦̖̦̪̣̯̼̌̔̽̌͘

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ϭϭϵϬϭϳ͕̐͘ʺ̨̡̭͕̏̌ʧ̨̡̨̡̨̡̛̛̣̭̜̪̖̬̖̱̣͕̏ϭϯ̴̨̛͕̭ϱ ʦ̛̛̦̥̦̖̌͊ˁ̴̶̨̨̛̛̛̥̪̣̦̭̖̙̦̬̥̌̌́̌́̏̌́̌́
̯̖̣͗͘ϳ;ϰϵϱͿϵϮϭͲϬϳͲϰϮ̴̡͕̭̌͗ϳ;ϰϵϱͿϵϮϭͲϬϳͲϰϲ ̶̨̪̖̦̥̭̖̦̭̜̯̖̌̏̐̔̌̌̌ǁǁǁ͘ƚƌŝŶŝƚLJͲƚƌĂǀĞů͘ƌƵ
ƐŵŝƌŶŽǀΛƚƌŝŶŝƚLJͲƚƌĂǀĞů͘ƌƵ
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PREPARING FOR EXAMS TESTS English

FINE ARTS 43
February 2015

1. Listen to the text and fill in the missing information.


I graduated university several years ago and I’ve got a degree in Econom-
ics. Before that I studied graphics and worked in an advertising agency for a
short time. I realised very quickly that trying to persuade people to buy things
they did not really need was not my cup of tea. My university degree allowed Five-Minute Tests
me to get a job working for various charities so I have worked for Oxfam
and War on Want, which both campaign against hunger in the world and try 1 I
to help poor countries stand on their own two feet. My ideal job would be
Complete the text with words derived from
to work for an organisation like Greenpeace as a press officer or something.
the words in bold.
After all these years, I have never lost interest in drawing and painting and
I have recently taken a hobby: I attend art classes at the local college every
ANCIENT ART
Monday and Friday. They teach us to use watercolours and I have already
A number of (1)_______________ (HIS-
painted a couple of landscapes and still lifes. There are various people on the
TORY) paintings still survive on the walls of
course, mostly middle aged like me. I think we’re there because we’re all a
caves in Spain and southern France. They show
bit bored with our lives and our jobs and want to do something other than
with amazing (2)________________ (AC-
going to the pub or sitting in front of the TV like a vegetable.
CURATE) a wide variety of animals which
the cave dwellers (3)________________
1. The speaker graduated from university ___________ years ago.
(HUNT), such as bison and deer, and are
2. Before that he had studied ___________.
quite remarkable for their life and power. It
3. He has worked for _________ and ___________.
is very (4)______________ (LIKE) that pic-
4. He has never lost interest in _________ and __________.
tures were connected with hunting.
5. He attends art classes every ___________ and _________.
More than 5000 years ago, the (5)_______
6. He has already painted a couple of _________ and _________.
(EGYPT) began painting on the walls of
their tombs everything that went on in their
2. A) Read the text and complete the gaps with derivatives of the words in
daily lives. They believed that the figures of
brackets.
people and everyday objects would enter the
THE OLDEST STYLE OF ART
afterlife with the (6)_______________ (DIE)
The cave paintigs on the wall of caves in Spain and (1)_________ (south)
person.
France are the (2)_________ (early) form of art we have. They show a wide
(3)_________ (vary) of animals, such as bears, horses and deer. The pictures Key: 1. prehistoric; 2. accuracy; 3. hunted;
were painted in bright colours, which were made of (4)__________ (vary) 4. likely; 5. Egyptians; 6. dead
minerals mixed with animal fat, egg whites, plant juice and even blood. They
were almost (5)_________ (certain) connected with hunting. In one famous
example, in a cave in Lascaux in France, a man is shown among animals and
2 Е
there are several dark dots in the painting. The meaning of the painting is not
Match different types and styles of painting
certain, but it shows that the cave (6)_______ (dwell) had superb (7)_______
and their names.
(artist) skills.
1. a portrait
B) Read the text and think of the word which best fits each space.
2. a self portrait
ART WHICH FIRST SHOWED SCENES
3. a landscape
FROM EVERYDAY LIFE
4. an abstract painting
More than 5000 years (1)_______, the Egyptians began painting the world
5. a still life
(2)_______ them on the walls of (3)_______ Pharaohs’ tombs. The Egyp-
tians believed there (4)_______ life after death, so they painted pictures of
A. a painting or drawing of an arrangement of
mythological (5)_______ and of daily life. People and animals were shown
objects, typically including fruit and flow-
involved in daily activities, (6)_______ as hunting, farming and eating.
ers and objects contrasting with these in
texture
C) Fill in: around, which, amazing, any, have, are, lively, all, its, painted.
B. a painting of a person
There are two odd words which you do not need to use.
C. a painting that is not realistic
ART WHICH MAKES PEOPLE SEEM MORE BEAUTIFUL
D. a painting of the artist by himself
THAN THEY REALLY ARE
E. a painting of part of the countryside
The most artistic people of (1)________ age were, perhaps, the Greek
(2)_________ 500 BC. There aim in sculpture was the initiation of life,
but life in (3)_______ perfect or ideal form. We have many examples of 1 2 3 4 5
Greek sculpture, (4)______ is characterised by the beauty of its forms and
(5)________ knowledge of human anatomy. Most of the sculptures por- Key: 1. B; 2. D; 3. E; 4. C; 5. A.
tray gods and goddesses from mythology.
English TESTS PREPARING FOR EXAMS

44February 2015
Most Greek wall paintings (6)_____ not survived, but we have a few ex-
amples by the Minoans of Crete in the ancient royal palaces of Knossos and
Santorini. These pictures are very realistic and (7)_____. The most common
subjects (8)____ sports, celebrations, dolphins and beautiful young people.

D) Put the verbs in the bracket in the correct tense.


Five-Minute Tests THE RENAISSANCE
The Renaissance usually (1)___ (define) as the rebirth of painting and lit-
3 Е erature inspired by classical models, especially those of ancient Greece. The
Renaissance (2)____ (last) from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century and
Fill in: still life, abstract, portrait, landscape. its centre was Italy. The great artists of that period, who (3)___ (include)
1. He painted nothing but (1)__________ Michelangelo, Leonardo and Botticelli, were able to paint nature and people
including fish and vegetables and objects with great accuracy. More than any other style, the works of the Italian Re-
contrasting with these in texture, such as naissance can (4)___ (see) in museum collections throughout the world.
bowls and glassware.
2. Francisco Goya’s brilliant, richly coloured E) Complete the text with a, an, the where necessary.
___________ of royalty and other sitters IMPRESSIONISM
were remarkably frank. (1)_____ name comes from (2)_____ picture by Monet, ‘Impression,
3. – Oh, look, what a wonderful ________! Sunrise’ (1872). (3)______ painting shows Monet’s interest in (4)______
– No wonder it attracted your attention. It’s analysing tone and colour and, above all, (5)______ way light reflects on
Shishkin’s “Pine-trees in the Sunlight”. (6)_____ surface of (7)_____ objects. As (8)_____ result, (9)_____ objects
4. Some painters tried to change the style do not always have (10)______ clear outline. (11)______ first Impressionist
of painting from naturalistic to more exhibition was held in 1874 when (12)_____ Monet, Renoir, Cezanne, Degas
_________ and show an object from a va- and (13)_______others announced that (14)_____ aim of (15)_____ move-
riety of different angles. ment was to achieve (16)_____ greater naturalism in (17)_____ painting.
Key: 1. still lifes; 2. portaits; 3. landscape; 4. ab- Most Impressionist pictures are of (18)____ landscapes and the Impression-
stract ists liked to use (19)____ bright colours, even when portraying (20)_____
shadows; this often gives their work (21)____ joyful, optimist feel.
4 I
F) Rewrite the following text and put in all the necessary capital letters, all
Make these quotations about Art complete. the necessary commas (,) and full stops (.)
Use words from the box. There are two MODERNISM
words which you don’t need to use. following the impressionist movement artists such as picasso and braque
only why room memory constitutes soul tried to change the style of painting from naturalistic to more abstract in-
copier keeping rather imitation poem stead of trying to make a realistic copy of an object they wanted to show
it from a variety of different angles in there paintings several views of an
1. A picture is a ________ without words. object or person are combined which often results in such things as eyes and
(Horace) noses appearing in unusual places or at strange angles some people conclude
2. All art is but ______ of nature. (Seneca) from these paintings that artists could not draw on the contrary picasso and
3. A mere _______ of nature can never pro- braque were perfectly capable of painting naturalistic paintings but this was
duce anything great. (J.Reynolds) not their aim in art
4. Painting is just another way of ________
a diary. (P.Picasso) 3. For questions 1-14, read the text below and think of the word which best
5. Art is the _______way to run away with- fits each space. Use only one word in each space.
out leaving home. (T.Tharp) PABLO PICASSO
6. Painting is poetry that is seen _____ than Many people realised (1)______ Pablo Picasso was a genius but he
felt, and poetry is painting that is felt disappointed those (2)_______ wanted (3)_____ to become a traditional
rather than seen. (L. da Vinci) painter. He (4)_____ always breaking the rules of artistic traditions and
7. What art offers is space – a certain breath- shocked public (5)_____ his strange and powerful pictures. He is probably
ing _____ for the spirit. (J.Updike) best known (6)_____ his ‘Cubist’ pictures, which used (7)______ simple
8. The world today doesn’t make sense, so geometric shapes. His paintings of people were often made (8)_____ of tri-
_______ should I paint pictures that do? angles and squares with (9)_____ features in the wrong place. His work
(P.Picasso) changed (10)_____ ideas about art, and to millions of people modern
9. I want to reach that condensation of (11)____ means the work of Picasso. Guernica, which he painted in 1937,
sensations that __________ a picture. records the bombing of (12)_____ little Spanish Basque town (13)______
(H.Matisse) the Spanish Civil War, and is undisputedly (14)_____ of the masterpieces
Key: 1. poem; 2. imitation; 3. copier; 4. keeping; of modern painting.
5. only; 6. rather; 7. room; 8. why; 9. constitutes.
By Youdif Boyarskaya, School No. 814, Moscow
By Youdif Boyarskaya,
School No. 814, Moscow See keys in additional materials.
FOR YOUNG READERS English

Задания и Упражнения 45
February 2015

Задания и иллюстрации из пособия Е.А. Барашковой «Грамматика английского языка. Сборник упраж-
нений. 2 класс. К учебнику И.Н. Верещагиной и др. “Английский язык. 2 класс”».

ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ДЛЯ РОДИТЕЛЕЙ


В настоящем сборнике есть рамочки с пометкой
“Информация для родителей”. В них вы найдёте
небольшие справки и подсказки, которые помогут
Вам в занятиях с детьми. Некоторые упражнения
представлены в виде игр. Эти игры очень эффек-
тивны, так как они направлены на отработку грам-
матики. Благодаря многократному повторению ре-
чевые образцы хорошо запоминаются.

Игра “КУБИКИ”
В сборнике есть вкладка с материалом для изго-
товления кубиков. В упражнениях указано, какой
кубик следует взять и какую модель нужно отрабо-
тать. Игроки по очереди бросают кубик и употре-
бляют “выпавшее” слово в отрабатываемой моде-
ли. Есть задания, где требуются два кубика. Можно
заранее договориться играть до тех пор, пока не
“выпадет” определённое словосочетание.
Дети играют увлеченно, даже не предполагая,
что на самом деле они выполняют грамматиче-
ское упражнение. Дело родителей – следить, чтобы
предложения были произнесены правильно.
Вот как можно использовать кубики для отработ-
ки употребления Present Simple.
English РЕКЛАМА

46
РЕКЛАМА English

47
English TEXTS FOR READING

48 Museum of Andrey Rublyov


February 2015

Introduction church – церковь


Данная тема изучается с группой английского языка после Trinity – Троица
проведения выездной экскурсии в Центральный музей monk – монах
древнерусской культуры и искусства имени Андрея Ру- Virgin Mary – Дева Мария
блёва. (Адрес музея: Андронниковская площадь, д. 10). icon – икона
В залах музея студенты знакомятся с техникой написания Jesus Christ – Иисус Христос
икон, с сюжетами, изображёнными на иконах. Ниже при- icon-painter – иконописец
ведённые задания способствуют формированию навыков Gospel – евангелие
чтения и говорения. icon-painting – иконопись
Christmas – Рождество
Exercise 1. Answer the questions: Old Russian art – древнерусское искусство
1. What can you see in the museum of Andrey Rublyov? Easter – Пасха
2. Where is the museum of Andrey Rublyov?
3. What other places can tourists in Moscow visit? Exercise 3. Read the text and answer the questions:
4. What Moscow museums and monasteries do you know? Andrey Rublyov (circa 1370–1430) was a famous monk
and icon-painter. He was one of the pupils of Sergey Radon-
Exercise 2. Study these words and expressions: ezhskiy. Andrey Rublyov painted icons and he lived in St.
monastery – монастырь Andronicus monastery (the Spaso-Andronnikov Monastery)
the Bible – Библия which is in the east of Moscow. His most famous icon is Trin-
ity. Now it is in the State Tretyakov Gallery.
There is a monument to Andrey Rublyov near St. An-
dronicus monastery. The statue was executed by sculptor
Oleg Komov in 1985. In the museum, which is in the church
of Archangel Mikhail, you can see an exhibition of Old
Russian art. There are a lot of icons, for example: Virgin
Mary, Christ the Saviour, Christmas icon, Easter icon and
many others. The icons are of 14th–15th centuries. You can
also see old Bibles and coins there.
The tradition of icon-painting came to Russia from Byz-
antine, and the first icon painted by Luca, who wrote Gospel,
was Virgin Mary.
Every colour in the icon has its symbol. Red symbolises
blood, green means life, blue colour is the symbol of sky.
White colour means purity.

1. Who was Andrey Rublyov?


2. Where did he live?
3. What did he paint?
4. What icons can you see in the museum?
5. The museum is in the Church of Archangel Mikhail, isn’t
it?
6. Who executed the monument of Andrey Rublyov?
7. Who painted the first icon of Virgin Mary?
8. What are the symbols in the icons?

Exercise 4: Read the dialogue and play it in pairs:


– Excuse me, how can I get to Andrey Rublyov museum?
– You should go by subway till “Ploshchad Ilyicha” station,
and then go along Sergey Radonezhskiy street, turn right
at the traffic lights and cross the street. You’ll see a small
park and the monument to Andrey Rublyov there.
– Thanks a lot!

By Alexander Derbaremdiker,
Polytechnic College No. 8, Moscow
TEXTS FOR READING English

A Visit to Donskoi Monastery 49 February 2015

In the warm season of the year there is a good opportunity Ivan Shmelev was born in
to visit the famous Donskoi Monastery and its Necropolis. Moscow in 1873 in a mer-
Donskoi Monastery is situated in the southern part of chant family. His family was
Moscow not far from Shabolovskaya underground station. well known since 1812. They
Donskoi Monastery was founded in 1592 by Russian tzar built bridges and rafts across
Fyodor Ioannovich in honour of victory over Khan Kizi- the river.
Girei. It was called after the Donskoi Virgin of God icon. When he was a child, Ivan’s
The Donskoi Virgin of God icon was painted by Pheopha- family observed all Russian
nos the Greek, and during the Kulikov battle in 1380 the icon customs and traditions in Or-
was among Russian warriors. The legend says that after win- thodox Christianity.
ning the battle, the icon was given as a present by Cossacks Ivan Sergeevich got mar-
of the Don to Russian Prince Dmitrii Donskoi who brought ried to Olga Alexandrovna
it to Moscow. In 1591 the icon which was kept in the war Okhterloni, a general’s daugh-
camp church of Russian warriors made the enemies flee from ter, whose ancestors were
Ivan Shmelev
Moscow. As the story says, due to that miracle the monastery rich vikings. After the wed-
(1873 – 1950)
was founded. Other great miracles happened as well. ding they went on a trip to St.
While the church was burnt, the fire didn’t destroy the Valaam Monastery. Shmelev
altar and the icons were just a little touched with smoke. wrote a story called Old Valaam about it.
The Monastery was closed in the early 1920s. The Rus- In 1922 he emigrated to Berlin, and then to Paris. He lived
sian Patriarch Tikhon lived there in prison until his death in with his niece Yulia Kutirina in Paris. She was married to a
1925. Frenchman and they had a son, Yves. Ivan Sergeevich called
Inside the Monastery you can see famous tanks that were him in the Russian manner Ivushka.
called in the honour of Dmitrii Donskoi. They were built One day Shmelev told Ivushka an interesting story about
with the help of the church donations. These tanks were used his memories of Russian Orthodox Christmas, and how he
in the Great Patriotic war. and his family celebrated that religious holiday. He told Yves
Many famous people were buried in Donskoi Necropo- about the wonderful white Russian snow and wolves, who,
lis. Among those who were reburied there from abroad are young Ivan thought, came to the cradle of Jesus Christ. He
Ivan Sergeevich Shmelev, a famous Russian writer, Anton thought the wolves visited baby Jesus because he mixed up
Ivanovich Denikin, a famous white officer, and Ivan Alex- the Russian words wolf and sage, which sounded similarly
androvich Ilyin, who was a Russian philosopher, and their (volki and volchvi).
wives. In 2008, Alexander Solzhenitsin, a famous Russian Then he told his grand-nephew other stories from his
writer was buried there. childhood. They were full of great events in Russian village
life. They had a lot of information about the most famous
Russian holidays (Christmas, Easter, Trinity, and others).
Thus the book called The Year of God was written.
Shmelev started writing it in 1927 and finished in 1948.
The most tragic story he wrote was called The Sun of the
Dead. His only son Sergey was a soldier in the White Army
in Crimea. Once he was taken as a prisoner by the Red Army
and then shot. Ivan Sergeevich and his wife didn’t know for
a long time about their Seryozha, and only a couple of years
later the truth was revealed.
Ivan Sergeevich Shmelev died in Paris in 1950. His re-
mains were reburied fifty years later, in 2000 in Donskoi
Necropolis.
Before his death Shmelev wrote in the letter to his friend,
Ivan Ilyin, Russian philosopher who lived in immigration in
Berlin, the following: “It would be a good idea to see each
other one day in Moscow”.
In 2006 Ivan Ilyin and his wife were reburied from the
German cemetery to Donskoi Necropolis.
Shmelev’s words came true.

By Alexander Derbaremdiker,
Polytechnic College No. 8, Moscow
English TEXTS FOR READING

50 CASTLES IN BRITAIN
February 2015

Castles have always played an important military, eco- Edinburgh Castle is in the heart of the Scottish capital.
nomic and social role in Great Britain and Ireland. The word It is a fortress which dominates the skyline of the city, from
“castle” comes from a Latin word meaning “fortress”. There its position atop the volcanic Castle Rock. It is visited by
are thousands of castles in the UK and millions of tourists over one million people every year. Tourists visit the Castle
visit them every year. Spectacularly situated, packed with not only because of the historical interest of this amazing
history and scattered throughout the land, Britain’s castles fortress but because it offers splendid panoramic views of
can interest anybody. Look at some of the most famous cas- the city. It was the seat of the Scottish kings, and the histori-
tles on the territory of the UK.
The Tower of London is one of the world’s major tour- Windsor Castle
ist attractions and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, attract-
ing over two million visitors a year from all over the world.
In the early 1080s, William the Conqueror began to build a
massive stone tower in the centre of his London fortress. As
a royal palace, fortress, prison, place of torture and execu-
tion, armoury, Royal Mint, royal zoo and jewel house, the
Tower of London has witnessed many great events in British
history. The Tower is perhaps most well known today for
keeping the greatest working collection of the Crown Jew-
els in the world. What’s more, with amazing architecture,
world-famous Beefeaters, the ravens, spectacular royal ar-
mour and plenty of exhibitions and activities, it provides an
unforgettable day out for everyone.
Situated on the outskirts of London, Windsor Castle is an
official residence of The Queen and the largest castle in the
world that is still lived in. William the Conqueror built the Warwick Castle
castle in 1080 and it has remained a royal palace and for-
tress for over 900 years. The castle includes the 15th-century
St. George’s Chapel, one of the most beautiful examples of
medieval church architecture in England. The chapel is the
official home of the Order of the Garter.
Warwick Castle is situated on a rocky cliff above the
River Avon. It is a magnificent 14th-century fortress and the
finest medieval castle in England which is surrounded by
gardens, lawns, and woodland where peacocks walk freely.
Centuries ago the castle was the home of the powerful Earls
of Warwick. Now it belongs to the company that also owns
Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum in London.

The Tower of London


Edinburgh Castle TEXTS FOR READING English

51
February 2015

cal apartments include the Great Hall, where an interesting VOCABULARY


collection of weapons and armour is kept now. Edinburgh to scatter рассыпать, разбрасывать
Castle is also the home of the One O’Clock Gun. It is fired heritage наследие
every day except Sunday at 1.00 pm for everyone to check witness свидетель
to provide обеспечивать, давать
their clocks and watches. Every August the Royal Edinburgh
the Order of Garter Орден Подвязки
Military Tattoo, an international festival of military bands, band оркестр
takes place at the walls of the Castle. mint монетный двор
Balmoral Castle is the private residence of The Queen in
Scotland. It is a favourite residence for The Queen and her 1. In which paragraph of the article is the following infor-
family during the summer holiday period in August and Sep- mation mentioned?
tember. 85,000 people visit Balmoral Castle each year. • the biggest inhabited castle in the world
Caernarfon Castle is possibly the most famous castle in • a former home of a nobleman
Wales. It was built in 1283 not only as a military fortress • a home of a great festival
• a very important event occured there
but also as a seat of the government and a royal palace. In
• the origin of a word
1969 the castle became known all over the world as the place • great treasure is kept there
where a magnificent ceremony of the coronation of Prince • the royal family like to spend their holiday there
Charles as Prince of Wales took place.
2. True or false? If the sentence is false, put it right.
1. The word “castle” comes from a Greek word meaning “pal-
Balmoral Castle
ace”.
2. Warwick Castle is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, attract-
ing over two million visitors a year from all over the world.
3. The ceremony of the coronation of Prince Charles as
Prince of Wales took place in the Tower of London.
4. Every August the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo takes
place at the walls of Balmoral Castle.
5. The Great Hall with an interesting collection of weapons
and armour is in Edinburgh Castle.
6. St. George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle is the official home
of the Crown Jewels.
7. Nobody lives in Windsor Castle anymore.
8. The One O’Clock Gun in Edinburgh Castle is fired every
day at 1.00 pm for everyone to check their clocks and
watches.

3. Answer the following questions:


Caernarfon Castle 1. How many castles are there in Great Britain?
2. What major event takes place at the walls of Edinburgh
Castle every August?
3. Why is Caernarfon Castle famous all over the world?
4. How many people visit Balmoral Castle every year?
5. Where are the Crown Jewels kept?
6. What is St. George’s Chapel famous for?
7. Which castle is a UNESCO World Heritage Site?

By Tatyana Makarova, Tamara Bobrova,


Gymnasium No. 1505, Moscow

Text adapted from texts on the following websites advertis-


ing British Castles: britishcastle.co.uk; castles-of-britain.com;
visitlondon.com; londontower.com; windsor.gov.uk; edin-
burghcastle.gov.uk
English TEXTS FOR READING

52February 2015 ST. PETERSBURG CATHEDRALS


ST. ISAAC’S CATHEDRAL The ground on the unfortified Neva bank began to shift, causing
St. Isaac’s Cathedral is an integral part of St. Petersburg and cracks in the building’s walls and vaults. The work of destruc-
one of the largest domed buildings in the world. The splendid tion was completed by a fire in May 1735. In 1761 a special
edifice standing close to the Neva embankment emphasises the decree of the Senate entrusted the design and construction of a
city skyline. St. Isaac’s Cathedral is a unique phenomenon of new St. Isaac’s church to Sawa Chevakinsky. But Catherine II,
Russian architecture. Built in the early 19th century, it is remark- who came to the throne in 1762, entrusted the task of planning
able for the perfect harmony of architecture, painting, sculpture, and building the new church to another architect, the famous
and mosaics. It is particularly notable for the splendour and va- Antonio Rinaldi. The edifice could have become one of Rinal-
riety of materials used for its construction and adornment. The di’s finest creations, but the work was carried on very slowly.
Cathedral suffered a severe damage during World War II. The Rinaldi had to leave St. Petersburg having not completed his
restoration took many years of hard work. St. Isaac’s Cathedral work. After the death of Catherine II in 1796, Paul I, dissatisfied
is nowadays one of the largest museums in Europe. with the slow rate of progress, charged the architect Vincenzo
St. Isaac’s Cathedral, one of the finest Cathedral churches Brenna to complete the work as soon as possible. The result was
built in Europe in the 19th century, is a unique phenomenon in a rather squat building with one dome instead of five cupolas,
Russian architecture. This majestic edifice is a dominant fea- which did not harmonise with the capital’s majestic image.
ture of two squares in the centre of St. Petersburg – St. Isaac’s In 1816, Alexander I decided to start the rebuilding of St
Square and Decembrists’ Square. The existing Cathedral is the Isaac’s Cathedral. A young architect, Auguste Ricard de Mont-
fourth church to be constructed in this area. All of them were ferrand, was put in charge of the work. In 1816, Montferrand
dedicated to St. Isaac of Dalmatia, a legendary Byzantine monk. came to Russia where he was to spend the greater part of his life,
Peter I founded St. Petersburg in 1703. Soon afterwards he de- becoming in due course one of the most prominent architects of
cided to erect a cathedral dedicated to St. Isaac of Dalmatia, his age. The four decades which it took to rebuild St. Isaac’s,
whose feast-day, May 30th, coincided with Peter’s birthday. In 1818 to 1858, spanned a whole epoch in the development of
1707 a small wooden church was built on the Admiralty Green. Russian architecture and building techniques. The beginning
In 1712 Peter I and Catherine had their public wedding there. of the construction work coincided with the flowering of Clas-
Unassuming as it was in design and decoration, the church did sicism in Russia, so St. Isaac’s Cathedral was designed in the
not conform to the architectural look of the capital. classical style.
On August 6, 1717, the foundations were laid for the sec- The Cathedral is surmounted with four turrets serving as
ond Church of St. Isaac on the bank of Neva where the eques- bell-towers, and an impressive dome with a complicated de-
trian statue of Peter the Great (“The Copper Horseman”) now sign. The statues and reliefs which adorn the building form a
stands. But the site selected for the church proved unsuitable. remarkably large body of sculpture. Work on the Cathedral’s
TEXTS FOR READING English

53February 2015

squat – short and thick or low and wide, especially in a way


which is not attractive
to coincide – to happen at the same time as something else,
especially by chance
to surmount – to be above or on top of something
turret – a small tower on a large building, especially a castle
interior decoration began in 1841. The Cathedral interior im- bell-tower – a tall narrow building either built on its own or
presses the viewer by its monumentality. The abundance of forming part of a castle, church etc.
paintings, mosaics and sculptures, coupled with semiprecious mural – a painting that is painted on a wall, either inside or
stones and gilt work, produces a rich variety of colour effects. outside a building
400 kilograms of gold and 1,000 tons of bronze were spent for dignitary – someone who has an important official position [=
the decoration of the Cathedral. 16,000 kilograms of malachite ‘VIP’]
and more than eleven square metres of lazurite were used for the to convert – to change something into a different form of thing,
facing of columns and architectural details of the high altar and or to change something so that it can be used for a different
two chapel altars. Decorative stones from various parts of the purpose or in a different way
Russian Empire were also extensively used in the Cathedral’s premises – the buildings and land that a shop, restaurant, com-
interior. St. Isaac’s Cathedral possesses a collection of murals pany etc. uses
and paintings in oils done in the mid-19th century that is the siege – a situation in which an army or the police surround a
only one of this kind in Russia. The Cathedral’s largest mural place and try to gain control of it or force someone to come
(over 800 square metres) is on the ceiling of the main dome. It out of it
is The Virgin in Majesty by Karl Briullov.
On May 30, 1858, the Cathedral was opened. The consecra- THE PETER AND PAUL FORTRESS
tion ceremony was attended by Alexander II and the Imperial The capture of the Swedish fortress of Nyenskans finally
family, by high-placed dignitaries of the church and the court. secured Russia’s access to the Baltic Sea. To consolidate her
St. Isaac’s became the principal cathedral of the capital of the domination of these lands Russia needed a new fortress and Pe-
Russian Empire and an important centre of the Russian Ortho- ter chose for that purpose a small island in the delta of the Neva
dox Church. After the 1917 October Revolution the Cathedral called Enisaari (“Hare Island”) in Finnish. The Peter and Paul
continued to operate (till 1928). In 1931, it was converted into Fortress was an important strategic military object, despite the
a museum by a decree of the Soviet government. The same fact that in the course of its entire history the enemy has never
year Nikolai Kamenshchikov, the well-known Soviet astrono- besieged it.
mer, staged the world’s largest experiment with the Foucault On 27 May 1703 guns fired on Hare Island in honour of the
pendulum in the museum; it demonstrated the rotation of Earth foundation of the new Russian citadel – Sankt-Pieter-Burgh –
on its axis, postulated by Copernicus. Today this experiment is the city of St. Peter. This day is taken to be the date of the foun-
demonstrated at the St. Petersburg Planetarium. During the War dation of St. Petersburg. The fortress gave its name to the city
of 1941–45 the Cathedral premises were used for storing trea- that grew under its walls. The choice of the site and the first
sures and archives brought here from several palace museums plans for the construction of the fortress were made with the
in the city’s environs. Sculptures, furniture, porcelain and mu- participation of Peter himself and the French Engineer – Gen-
seum documents of the greatest value were carefully preserved eral Joseph Lambert de Guerin who was in the Russian service.
by the museum’s staff throughout the long and hard months of Hare Island was small but very well located strategically. The
the siege of Leningrad. The Cathedral museum suffered heavy Neva widening in this place served as a natural obstacle on the
damage during the war, in particular as regards its decoration. enemy’s way to the fortress, while the guns installed on the is-
Large-scale restoration work done by many architects, artists land could control the mouth of the river dividing there into two
and sculptures in the postwar period returned its former splen- branches.
dour to the Cathedral. This majestic edifice still sums up the In the conditions of the war against Sweden the construction
achievements in building techniques, architecture and various work was carried with great haste. As early as the autumn of
branches of decorative art in Russia during the first half of the 1703 the fortress was basically completed and could be used
19th century. for its principal purpose – to defend the reconquered lands of
(Source: “St. Isaac’s Cathedral” by G. Butikov) the Neva area from the enemy’s possible attacks. The fortress
was most vulnerable from the north and therefore in 1705–08
VOCABULARY on the opposite shore of the narrow strait separating the island,
to dedicate – to state in an official ceremony that a building will later known as the Kronwerk Canal, a fortification was built in
be given someone’s name in order to show respect for them the form of crown, the Kronwerk – a system of moats and ram-
unassuming – showing no desire to be noticed or given special parts surviving to this day. The wooden fortress could not be
treatment [= ‘modest’] a permanent and reliable defensive structure. The erection of
to conform – to be similar to what people expect or think is permanent fortified structures lasted until 1740.
usual The Peter and Paul Fortress was in fact a miniature city.
equestrian – relating to horse-riding Therefore along with the fortified objects the construction of
vault – a roof or ceiling that consists of several arches that are civil buildings began there from the moment of its foundation.
joined together, especially in a church In the 1740s the Commandant’s House was constructed in the
English TEXTS FOR READING
in the Baroque traditions has a truly majestic appearance. The

54 February 2015
chancel is the soul of the church. The iconostasis of the St. Peter
and Paul Cathedral executed in Baroque forms is canonical and
unique at the same time. About fifty masters worked on the cre-
ation of this unique carved wooden iconostasis in Moscow for
five years, from 1722 to 1727. It was brought dismantled to St
very centre of the fortress. The post of the Commandant was in Petersburg and assembled within the cathedral in 1729.
high esteem. At the Commandant’s Cemetery, near the eastern Before the foundation of St. Petersburg the Russian Tsars
wall of the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral, there are nineteen buri- had been buried in the Archangel Cathedral in Moscow. With
als of the commandants of the fortress. the transfer of the capital to St. Petersburg the Russian rulers
The only building of industrial character on the territory of began to be interred in the city on the Neva. The St. Peter and
the Peter and Paul Fortress is the Mint. In the first decades of Paul Cathedral became the burial place of the Russian Emper-
the 18th century the minting of coins was done in Moscow and ors, from Peter the Great to Nicholas II. The first graves of the
in 1724 the coin production began in St. Petersburg, too. From members of the imperial family appeared in the St. Peter and
its establishment in the Peter and Paul Fortress to this day the St. Paul Cathedral as early as the period of its construction. There
Petersburg Mint is the largest enterprise of this kind in Russia. are several crypts near its western wall. There, during the life of
At the present time the Mint still continues to work on the terri- Peter the Great, were buried his disgraced son, Tsarevich Alexis,
tory of the fortress issuing coins, orders, medals and pendants. one of the earliest political prisoners of the fortress, his wife
The architectural complex of the fortress took shape in the Princess Charlotte-Christine-Sophie, Peter’s mother-in-law
course of many decades. The concentration on the territory of Tsarina Martha Matveyevna and the Tsar’s sister, Maria Alex-
Hare Island of the military garrison, cathedral, prison and mint eyevna. Besides the Emperors and Empresses, many members
allowed Peter the Great to name the fortress a “city”. of their families were also buried in the cathedral.
Every day at noon the gun fires a blank shot from the Peter From the moment of consecration of the St. Peter and Paul
and Paul Fortress. This old tradition goes back to the time of Cathedral ecclesiastical life was largely determined by its use
Peter the Great when the shots were used to warn the city dwell- as the imperial burial vault and gradually the funeral services
ers about various accidents and also to signal the beginning of commemorating the persons of the royal house became its
the working day or a break for dinner. In 1735 it was suggested main activity. The sacraments of baptism or marriage were
to have the shot fired at noon so that people could check their never performed in the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral. In May
clocks and watches. However, this shot became traditional only 1919 the Commandant of the fortress ordered that the cathedral
from 1865. The tradition was suspended owing to the transmis- be closed. From 1954 to the present day it belongs to the state
sion of the exact time by radio, but it has been revived in 1957. museum of the history of the city. In the early 1990s religious
The St. Peter and Paul Cathedral was constructed in the very services in the cathedral have been resumed. On 17 July 1998
centre of the Peter and Paul Fortress between 1712 and 1733 in the St. Catherine Chapel of the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral
to a design by Domenico Trezzini as the main cathedral of St. were interred the remains of the members of Emperor Nicholas
Petersburg, the new capital of Russia. The erection of the cathe- II’s family, their servants and doctor shot in Ekaterinburg on 17
dral began with the bell-tower. According to Peter’s concept, the July 1918. In the upper tier of the crypt are the burials of Emper-
spire on the tall bell-tower was to symbolise Russia’s firm pres- or Nicholas II, his consort Empress Alexandra Fiodorovna and
ence on the Neva banks. The interior of the cathedral executed their three daughters, Olga, Tatyana and Anastasia. The remains
TEXTS FOR READING English

55
February 2015

chancel – the part of a church where the priests and the choir
(= ‘singers’) sit
to dismantle – to take a machine or piece of equipment apart so
that it is in separate pieces
to inter – to bury a dead person
crypt – a room under a church, used in the past for burying
people
ecclesiastical – relating to the Christian church or its priests
vault – a room where people from the same family are buried,
of the two other children, the daughter Maria and the son Alexis often under the floor of a church
were not discovered. to commemorate – to do something to show that you remember
The Peter and Paul Fortress, like any other citadel, was used and respect someone important or an important event in the
for keeping prisoners. Convicts were also kept in the casemates past
of the bastions and curtain walls and in specially built prison sacrament – one of the important Christian ceremonies, such as
buildings. In the 18th century those involved or suspected in pal- marriage or communion
ace coups often became prisoners of The Peter and Paul Fortress. coup – a sudden and sometimes violent attempt by citizens or
Free thinking always provoked a discontent of the authorities the army to take control of the government [= coup d’ état]
and therefore men of letters were also among prisoners (includ- cell – a small room in a prison or police station where prisoners
ing the philosopher Ivan Pososhkov, the writer Alexander Rad- are kept
ishchev, the critic Dmitry Pisarev, the poet Mikhail Mikhailov). confinement – the act of putting someone in a room, prison etc.
There were also some cases of mass imprisonment. that they are not allowed to leave, or the state of being there
The building of the prison in the Trubetskoi Bastion has sur- breach – an action that breaks a law, rule, or agreement
vived and visitors to the fortress have an opportunity to see it. lock-up – a small prison where a criminal can be kept for a
The prison had 69 one-man cells. The original furnishings were short time
a wooden bed, a table and a stool. On the wall under the wall-
paper were several layers of paper coating to increase the sound THE SAVIOUR ON THE BLOOD
insulation. At the corners of the room stood a wash-basin and The Church of the Resurrection of Christ (the Saviour on the
a toilet. Kept in the prison were mainly those under investiga- Blood) is one of the few surviving memorial buildings of artistic
tion. They were allowed to use the prison’s library, to receive and historical significance dating to the late 19th and early 20th
parcels from their relatives and to correspond with them. The centuries. It is almost the only surviving monument dedicated to
regime of hard-labour prisoners was much more austere – no Alexander II in Russia.
meetings, letters, books or any other activities. However, the The Church of the Saviour on the Blood is situated in the cen-
most oppressive source of annoyance for all prisoners was the tre of St. Petersburg, not far from the banks of Neva. Its gilded
psychological impact of solitary confinement – dead silence, and coloured domes draw the attention of all eyes. The Church
isolation, closed space and at the same time the guard’s vigilant of the Resurrection of Christ is an outstanding example of late
supervision. For any breach of the regime, including knocking 19th-century Russian architecture, built on the site where Tsar
contacts with other inmates, the prisoner could be put into the Alexander II was fatally wounded by the People’s Will revolu-
lock-up that was twice smaller than the cell and was not heated. tionary Ignaty Grinevitsky on 1 March, 1881. This event gave
Sometimes a punishment was the dark lock-up. More than 1500 the Church its second, more commonly used name – the Church
people passed through the cells of the prison in the course of of the Saviour on the Blood.
its history. But there was not a single flight from this prison Alexander II inherited a country with a vast feudal bureaucra-
throughout its existence. In 1924 the prison was converted into cy. The Tsar, as head of a country in which everything depended
a museum. on his will, became the chief target for terrorists. Alexander II
(Source: “The Peter and Paul Fortress” by M. Logunova) was a real Russian patriot. He put an end to the bloody Eastern
War (1853–1856) and succeeded in making Russia more united
VOCABULARY and expanding its influence abroad. The course of events was
citadel – a strong fort built in the past as a place where people dramatically diverted by the People’s Will (“Narodnaya Volya”)
could go for safety if their city was attacked [= ‘fortress’] revolutionary group. It was a centralised and highly conspirato-
moat – a deep wide hole, usually filled with water, dug around rial illegal organisation. The party’s charter obliged its members
a castle as a defence to be ready to endure privations, prison and penal servitude.
rampart – a wide pile of earth or a stone wall built to protect a Members gave a commitment to lay down their lives for the
castle or city in the past party. People’s Will divided its activities between propaganda
mint – a place where coins are officially made and terror. Its members considered terror an effective means of
pendant – a jewel, stone etc. that hangs from a thin chain that disrupting authority and as a weapon of attack. Their main goal
you wear around your neck was to overthrow imperial autocracy and to hand over power to
garrison – a group of soldiers living in a town or fort and de- the Russian people in the form of a freely and publicly elected
fending it or the buildings where a garrison of soldiers live Constituent Assembly.
spire – a roof that rises steeply to a point on top of a tower, Eight assassination attempts were prepared upon the life of
especially on a church Alexander II. On 1 March, 1881 Alexander II was killed. As a
English TEXTS FOR READING

56 February 2015

result of an explosion he received very serious wounds and his


both legs were shattered below the knee. The executive commit-
tee of People’s Will put an end not only to the political career
and life of Emperor Alexander II, but also to the hopes of Rus-
sian people for the establishment of constitutional monarchy in
Russia. However, the “success” achieved by the People’s Will
at the cost of great sacrifice turned to its heavy defeat. On 29
March many of its members were sentenced to death.
Alexander III decided to erect a church at the site of the trag-
edy. The Emperor expressed the desire that the church be in the
style of Russian churches of the 16th and 17th centuries. Alex-
ander III said: “It is also desirable that the actual spot where Al-
exander II was mortally wounded be inside the church as a spe-
cial side-chapel.” The Tsar wanted not an ordinary church, but a
memorial complex. Alexander III rejected many projects, but at stage sets. On 20 July 1970, a decision was taken by Leningrad
last one of them was approved. The winning entry was the joint City Council to turn the Church of the Saviour on the Blood into
submission of the architect Alfred Parland and Archimandrite a branch of St. Isaac’s Cathedral State Museum. Restoration of
Ignaty (I.V. Malyshev), abbot of the Troitse-Sergieva Hermit- the church is now coming to an end.
age. The ceremonial laying of the foundation-stone took place (Source: “The Saviour on the Blood Memorial Museum”
in October 1883. Building work lasted for 24 years. The Church by G. Butikov)
of the Resurrection was consecrated on 19 August 1907.
The unusual design and decoration of the Church of the Res- VOCABULARY
urrection is a good reason to consider the building one of the dome – a round roof on a building
most interesting architectural and artistic monuments in St. Pe- privation – a lack or loss of the things that everyone needs,
tersburg. The church draws the eye with its abundance of deco- such as food, warmth, and shelter
rative elements – fancy window-casings, kokoshniks with mo- penal servitude – when someone is punished by being kept in
saic inserts, horizontal articulation, glazed tiles and varicoloured prison and made to do hard physical work
roof tiles. More than twenty types of minerals both from Russia commitment – a promise to do something or to behave in a
and abroad were used in the furnishing and decoration of the particular way
building. The facades of the church are adorned with more than propaganda – information which is false or which emphasises
400 square metres of mosaic. Of particular interest is the jewel- just one part of a situation, used by a government or political
ler’s enamel covering the building’s five domes. group to make people agree with them
All this seems to be redundant to a certain extent, making autocracy – a system of government in which one person or
emotional and symbolic perception of the structure more diffi- group has unlimited power
cult. Nevertheless, the Church of the Saviour on the Blood does to sentence – to give a punishment to someone who is guilty
not strike the eye as a building of chaotic architecture or style. of a crime
There is a single rhythm running through the church’s various to consecrate – to officially state in a special religious cere-
architectural elements. The Church of the Saviour on the Blood mony that a place or building is holy and can be used for
stands out from the classical ensemble of the centre of St. Pe- religious purposes
tersburg, introducing an element of animation into the strict el- mosaic – a pattern or picture made by fitting together small
egance and mathematically precise architectural forms of Clas- pieces of coloured stone, glass etc.
sicism. Of special importance in the interior of the Church of animation – liveliness and excitement
the Resurrection of Christ is the canopy built on the spot where classicism – a style of art, literature etc. that is simple, regular,
Alexander II was fatally wounded by the People’s Will terror- and does not show strong emotions
ists. baptism – a Christian religious ceremony in which someone
The Church was not intended for everyday use by the general is touched or covered with water to welcome them into the
public. It was employed for special services in memory of Alex- Christian faith, and sometimes to officially name them
ander II. Following the Revolution in 1917, access to the cathe- rite – a ceremony that is always performed in the same way,
dral was thrown open to all. Not intended for such heavy use, the usually for religious purposes
building’s furnishings suffered considerably. The unique mosaic sermon – a talk given as part of a Christian church service, usu-
floor inlaid with Italian marble was almost entirely destroyed. ally on a religious or moral subject
Baptism, funeral or marriage services were never held in the requiem – a Christian ceremony in which prayers are said for
Church of the Resurrection of Christ, there were none of the someone who has died
usual rites characteristic of Parish churches. Here, on the other
hand, a sermon and requiem were said every day. In the 1920s, By Svetlana Yunyova,
the Church of the Saviour on the Blood took over the role of Moscow Regional Pedagogical College, Serpukhov
cathedral church. On 30 October 1930 it was closed. After the
war the building was used by the Maly Opera Theatre to store See St. Petersburg Quiz in additional materials.
TEXTS FOR READING English

THE BRONZE HORSEMAN 57February 2015

Умение представить свою культуру на английском языке


Текст “Медный всадник” был отобран с учетом принципа социо- leads bags
культурной целесообразности. Тематика текста важна для пред- pre-revolutionary by order
ставления России в иноязычной среде и для общения учащихся a governing by birth
со своими зарубежными сверстниками. С тех пор как памятник sand into the shape
Петру I стал логотипом саммита “Большой восьмерки”, его узна- russian the enemies
ют во всем мире. Задания к тексту позволяют закрепить полу-
depicts to establish
ченные знания о работе Фальконе, овладеть необходимыми лек-
as a forward
сическими навыками.
equestrian the reformer
an inscription untouched
The Bronze Horseman, an impressive monument to the
princess Russia
founder of St. Petersburg, Peter the Great, stands on Senatskaia enemy hero
Ploschad’ (Square), facing the Neva River and surrounded by was built shelter
the Admiralty, St. Isaac’s Cathedral and the buildings of the
former Senate and Synod – the civil and religious governing Keys: equestrian statue, an inscription on the monument, a govern-
bodies of pre-revolutionary Russia. ing body, steps on a snake, Russian monarchs, princess by birth,
The monument was built by order of the Empress Catherine molded into the shape, represents the enemies, famous predeces-
the Great as a tribute to her famous predecessor on the Russian sor, sand bags, eager to establish, depicts the reformer, leads for-
ward, virtually untouched, pre-revolutionary Russia, enemy forces,
throne, Peter the Great. Being a German princess by birth, she
a Roman hero, as a tribute, was built by order, a line of continuity, a
was eager to establish a line of continuity with the earlier Rus- wooden shelter
sian monarchs. For that reason an inscription on the monument
reads in Latin and Russian: Petro Primo Catarina Secunda - To Activity II. Re-read the text and find English equivalents of
Peter the First from Catherine the Second. the following proper names: Блокада Ленинграда, Петр Ве-
This equestrian statue of Peter the Great, created by the fa- ликий, Исаакиевский собор, Санкт-Петербург, Сенатская
mous French sculptor Etienne Maurice Falconet, depicts the площадь, Вторая мировая война, Нева, императрица Ека-
most prominent reformer of Russia as a Roman hero. The ped- терина Великая, Адмиралтейство, Этьен Морис Фальконе,
estal is made of a single piece of red granite molded into the бывшее здание Сената и Синода, Медный всадник
shape of a cliff. From the top of this “cliff” Peter gallantly leads
Russia forward, while his horse steps on a snake, which repre- Keys: The Siege of Leningrad, Peter the Great, St. Isaac’s Cathe-
sents the enemies of Peter and his reforms. dral, St. Petersburg, Senatskaia Ploshchad’ (Square), the Second
According to a 19th century legend, enemy forces will never World War, the Neva River, the Empress Catherine the Great, the
Admiralty, Etienne Maurice Falconet, the former Senate and Synod,
take St. Petersburg while the “Bronze Horseman” stands in the
the Bronze Horseman
middle of the city. During the Second World War the statue was
not taken down, but was protected with sand bags and a wooden Activity III. Choose the correct definition (A-C) of the
shelter. In that way, the monument survived the 900-day Siege words (1-7):
of Leningrad virtually untouched. 1. impressive –
In 2006, the well-known mounted statue of Peter the Great A. made of marble; B. evoking admiration through size,
became a logo at the G8 summit in St. Petersburg. quality, or skill; C. mounted.
2. surrounded –
Activity I. Match two parts of the expressions to get the fol- A. having an area or border around; B. having much in com-
lowing words from the text: конная статуя, надпись на па- mon; C. having little space.
мятнике, руководящий орган, наступает на змею, русские 3. civil –
монархи, принцесса по рождению, высеченный в форме, A. international, worldwide; B. non-official; C. not military
символизирует врагов, знаменитый предшественник, меш- or religious;
ки с песком, страстно желающая установить, изобража- 4. prominent –
ет реформатора, ведет вперед, практически нетронутый, A. very well-known and important; B. unsuccessful; C. reso-
дореволюционная Россия, вражеские силы, римский герой, lute, full of determination.
как дань, был построен по приказу, преемственность, де- 5. single –
ревянное укрытие A. very big; B. consisting of one part; C. rare.
6. gallantly –
a Roman monarchs
A. showing no fear of dangerous or difficult things; B. feel-
eager predecessor
ing good; C. ready to win.
represents continuity
7. to survive –
steps forces
famous body A. to become unknown; B. to invent; C. to continue to live or
molded on a snake exist.
virtually on the monument
Keys: 1. B; 2. A; 3. C; 4. A; 5. B; 6. A; 7. C.
a line of tribute
a wooden statue
By Irina Ishkhneli, School No. 1768, Moscow
English YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION

58 TSARITSYNO
February 2015

Discovering Past and Future


There have been times when the creations of people’s The decision I made was to cross the whole park from
minds were ruined and then, much later, were revived for south to north, so I entered a gate on a snowy day and start-
their glorification. ed from the hilltop of the Orekhovo-side. If you come down
This can also refer to the dazzling State Museum-Reserve a number of hills on a mild winter day, you will surely see
Tsaritsyno, which is found in the southern side of Moscow. lots of people walking up and down the snow hills and rid-
One of the greatest Russian ensembles is the residence of ing down ice slides. You will also hear their screams, and I
Catherine the Great constructed between 1775 and 1796 by bet you will be eager to join them as soon as you can reach
the famous Russian architects Vasiliy Bazhenov and Matvey them! All of the space was filled with the long-awaited
Kazakov in the romantic “gothic style”. winter fairytale! I made a quick attempt to count all of the
Tsaritsyno is the largest historical monument on the federal snowmen, snowdogs, snowcats and snowbears made by the
level; it is located within the Moscow district. The area of the wool-clothed hands of teens. I was sincerely amazed! But I
complex of architectural structures with the park and the cascade continued on my way to the pretty hidden round temple…it
of ponds is over 700 hectares. These remind of the Streshnev could be seen from the very start of my journey, and looks
family boyars, the princely families Golitsin and Kantemirov, sophisticated every month of the year. Its name is “Ceres
Catherine the Great and her brilliant associates, and many of the Temple” – a summerhouse built by I. V. Egotov in 1805,
distinguished Russian statesmen of the 19th and 20th centuries. it belongs to the type of garden constructions wide spread
The order of Catherine the Great to create all of the project’s pe- in the second half of the 18th century, with a colonnade, a
culiarities was not completely finished due to her death in 1796. round plan and covered with a dome. It got its name from
It so happened that her dream, after starting to become a real- the Roman goddess of fertility, the statue of which deco-
ity, turned to ruins for more than 200 years, being consigned to rated the summerhouse. “Ceres Temple” plays the role of
oblivion. But that is a different story. the final architectural accent of the river panorama of the
Nowadays Tsaritsyno is revealed to the joy of citizens and landscape park. This point is much-loved, and not only by
the delight of tourists. With the great help of authorities giv- me, because it revives romantic impressions in the minds
en to bringing the territory to life, now it is possible to come of everyone.
and enjoy the curious and uncommon history of this master- Come to the flowing stream below the temple and you
piece. A decision was reached in 1984 to completely restore will see it never freezes. Its blue waters look gentle onto the
the Tsaritsyno architectural and park ensemble in order to background of the all-over whiteness, leading to the Arch on
found the State Museum of Arts and Crafts of the Peoples the Isle of the Lower Pond… Pass by to the observation point
of the USSR there. (Currently it is named The State His- made like a fine fortress with narrow stairs to come up, and
torical, Architectural, Art, and Landscape Museum-Reserve take a look at the northern side of the park! In winter, when
Tsaritsyno.) The majority of items have also undergone ma- there is no greenery, you will notice nests in the trees and the
jor restoration; they were given a fresh look in new polished station of winter-diving for those who dare to plunge in the
glass displays. Today you can go from decade to decade in water even if it is minus 10-20 degrees! The highest point of
the changing exhibition halls, to form your own view on the the hill will return you to the southern part of the fields and
past creations, affairs, and people in Russian culture, who you will find yourself in the most exciting part of the State
renovated the history of this place. Museum-Reserve! The cascades of buildings, thoroughly re-
Let me help you to see Tsaritsyno as I saw it during my stored, are a remarkable blend of Gothic and Roman style,
recent winter vacation. together with petals of the Renaissance! Get your feet ready
to cross the Large Bridge over the Ravine, which look like
it has its roots here and will stay forever. Climb to the top
and look under the bridge – you will see the traditional orna-
ments of the style everywhere. Advice: when coming on to
the bridge the first time, turn round and make a wish, looking
at the splendid roofs of the Grand Palace. Congratulations!
Now the jewel of the place can be seen in all its vivid beauty,
when the brand-new walls and tops strike your imagination.
The Ruin turned out to be a pearl, even after two centuries
had made its flash fade away.
Kazakov’s Grand Palace – this is a name of it. In fact, it
was already brought to life by the genius architector V. Ba-
zhenov and rejected by Catherine the Great. Then the tender
was gained by M. Kazakov, who disassembled the previous
project and implemented another one. We can see his work
YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION English

59
February 2015

today. All of the sketches of the past time have been evoked
to present the closest and natural conception of Kazakov’s
Classicism giant. Though it looks massive at first sight, at
second sight you want it to fly in the sky… The reason is in
the handsome airy spires and the stars-looking decorations
I Want to Tell You…
heading them. I want to tell you about the Tretyakov Gallery – and I
The Palace looks so attractive and hides so much and it beg you not to blame me for triviality or lack of imagina-
is not so easy to enter. First pass to the Bread House, the tion. The Tretyakov Gallery – what a topic, indeed! Who of
so-called cantina and staff-building of the times of Her Maj- us has not been there? Or who has not rummaged through
esty. Now the vast lodgings of the welcoming Bread House numerous catalogues’ pages? Shishkin’s “Morning in A
preserve the finest exhibitions of Contemporary Art of the Pine-Tree Forest”, Makovsky’s “Children Running Away
century. The selection turns out to be varied and surprising! I From Thunderstorm,” Kramskoy’s “The Unknown”, and
was astonished to see the latest works of my favorite master – many, many other masterpieces so familiar, so natural to
Viacheslav Zaitsev, of Russian tailor fame, on stage with the grow with, so warm… At the age of five I was charmed by
super-show in the course of his Russian Motifs’ Collection. Vasnetsov’s “Alyonushka”, I was gazing at her for about
Also, the warm halls of the Bread House keep the nostalgic half an hour, reluctant to go away – my parents were even
photography series dedicated to the times of the USSR. Take frightened! And I was just trying to find in her the traits
a look at each of them, feel the spirit the you were born in. of the fairy-tale Alyonushka, since at that time I treated
I was really charmed by the creativity of the women work- fairy tales like myths – in other words, I just believed in
ing in the exhibition halls! They are so friendly and delicate! them and took them for granted. Later I was stunned by
Ask them everything you are interested in, and you will not the proud aristocratic beauty of Kramskoy’s heroine (“The
leave without a rich and pleasant talk. By the way, leave your Unknown”). For many years I was convinced that it was the
own impressions in words on the sheets of the guest-book! portrait of Anna Karenina…
Want to spend a great evening in the atmosphere of mu- And this year I found something entirely new in the
sic? The sounds of classical music penetrate here every Tretyakov Gallery, something that I – for some inexcus-
weekend evening at 7 p.m…maybe after that you will ask able reason – have been deprived of all my life – lectures!
for a cup of the herbal tea in the café in the lower level of Fantastic lectures delivered in the Lecture Hall and in the
the House. The time will pass quickly and it will already Conference Hall! In autumn and winter I was able to at-
be dark outside. In winter time the joy here is sweetened tend two lecture cycles – “The World of the Russian Coun-
by the lights on the Roman arches… I can’t help roaming try House” (usad’ba, actually – something so genuinely,
here till my feet are exhausted. The time to leave this place so peculiarly Russian, that it is next to impossible to find
is about 9 p.m., when only your single coat is left in the an appropriate English equivalent) and “Biblical Motifs in
cloak-room and your face turns a bit red with this fact. It is World Painting”. The first series of lectures was delivered
time to get upstairs to cross the granite paths on the way to by Dr. Shishova; in the second Dr. Shishova and Dr. Aris-
the Church of Our Lady-Life Giving Spring (such a warm tova were co-starring. And this is not a slip of the pen – the
sounding name), with it’s front to the Palace. Turn back two ladies were really acting, dramatising! They sounded
once again and say “Thank you!” to everything here. Say so expressive and enthusiastic that many people in the big
this to the people who did their best to give new hope to this hall were crying from extreme, unbearable inner pain –
place and make you believe your own eyes. and heavenly delight. (Now I know exactly what ancient
Promise them and also promise me to return here again, Greeks meant by catharsis, the strong emotional cleansing
to return here anytime it’s in your power. Give yourself your of the soul.) The lectures were accompanied by music, sing-
own piece of deep calm at any season or at any time of the ing, slides with reproductions of paintings; the stage was
day. Tsaritsyno keeps so many secrets you are to discover beautifully lit, and light was constantly changing to em-
here on your own. Let it not be only the residence of the great phasise the story, to highlight certain points. The lecturers’
Empress, not the triumph of outstanding persons, their sleep- voices changed, too, conveying even minor nuances, even
less nights and passionate dreams about their oasis. Also re- the slightest alterations in meaning. Never before have I
member that this can be the land of your own dreams in this thought that lectures on art could be so subtle, refined and
big city, so different from the silent joy heard here. I haven’t – unforgettable. I want to express my heartiest gratitude to
told you about everything… Try to be a discoverer. You’ve the experts, Dr. Aristova and Dr. Shishova, who virtually
got this time here, in the State Museum-Reserve, or simply brought me back to life – and bestowed a new perception of
Tsaritsyno, only 30 minutes from the heart of Moscow. the world of painting upon the thirsty audience.

By Margarita Goriatcheva By Margarita Ivanova


English YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION

60 “To Have or Have Not”


February 2015

We can hardly find any other holiday when we can show our When you analyse this condition, you can understand that only
love and devotion to the people we appreciate, can send valen- because of it people can have a desire to live, only because of it
tines to them, can give them some lovely presents, such as choco- they need this holiday. A feeling of love is like a holiday when you
lates, toys or flowers. We can just be happy because there are so have a strong desire to love and to live even if your life is very chal-
many people in love around us. The 14th of February is the only lenging at the moment. All of us are very much alike in our spiritual
international day dedicated to lovers. Almost all over the world mil- values, and we urgently need one more occasion to share love with
lions of boys and girls, men and women, have their hearts filled each other. I can’t see any reason why Russian people should de-
with love on this special day. prive themselves of such a great holiday as St. Valentine’s Day.
There is an opinion that St. Valentine’s Day is a Catholic holiday February the 14th is really my favourite day. Each year I wait for
and that it is not a good idea for the Orthodox Christians to cel- it like for New Year, and I usually start my preparations long before.
ebrate it. Is it so or not? Every man decides for himself proceeding Till this year, St. Valentine’s Day was only a day of fun, when I con-
from his religious beliefs. As for me, I think that the biggest part of gratulated my friends and enjoyed the celebration. Now it is very
our society is positive about this day. As we have supporters and different. There is a young man in my school and all my friends are
opponents of the holiday, we should have a compromise: those trying to convince me that I am the apple of his eye. I don’t know
who are for it can celebrate St. Valentine’s Day; those who are not whether it is so or not, but I can say how great it is when he is look-
can easily ignore the day. These latter must respect the point of ing at me. My heart sinks and I feel a kind of warmth inside of my
view of all the others, but of course they can enjoy it too. After all, body. I feel flattered and amused as well. It would be really nice to
we can always find some adversaries of any festive day authorised get a valentine from him on the 14th of February. At least I am look-
by the Church. ing forward to getting one. This is my main wish at the moment,
Maybe there is one more reason why some people don’t under- except for always wanting everyone to be healthy and happy. Only
stand the origin of St. Valentine’s Day. I think that only a person now I started to realise what a big role love plays in my life. Love
who has once fallen in love knows how pleasant and touching it gives me an impulse to live a bright life, full of joy and happiness.
is to receive a card or any other sign of affection. This is a great I never feel upset, because those who are in love see the things
feeling, when you are in love or you find out that the man you are from a different side.
in love with loves you too. Your thoughts get confused, you can’t St. Valentine’s Day is dedicated to all these exciting things, so I
think calmly about him or her, you want to spend all your time am sure that we must celebrate it. It is a very touching holiday and
speaking with this man or just looking at him as he is the subject it can give us plenty of deep emotions. Only love can show us how
of your adoration. When your love comes for first time, you can beautiful the world we live in is and how we should value every
be easily put out of countenance, or not know what to do in some moment of our lives.
situations. But it is so natural, because even adults with their ex-
perience, can act like fools when they are in love. By Dasha Popova
РЕКЛАМА
GOOD NEWS English

Music Battles with Time 61


February 2015

Headed by London Sinfonietta


The IV World International Actual Music Festival In contrast with the London Sinfonietta in the Phil-
“Another Space”, with the support of The Ministry of harmonic Chamber Hall, from 21 p. m. till midnight,
Culture of the Russian Federation, the British Council the concert of The Gallery of Actual Music Ensem-
and UK Russia Bridge 2014, was held in Tchaikovsky ble played. It was a magnificent show, where the
Hall of the Moscow Conservatory between 17 and 21 latest chamber music, improvisation, visual-acoustic
November 2014. This time, in the framework of the UK performances and video art freely coexisted. A small
Russia Culture 2014, the event were en- ____________ audience of about 20 people was merged
lightened with brilliant British musicians. into the beautiful and unknown waters
On the 18th of November the world fa- “Musicians whose only names of actual music ocean – each new wave
make brand”
mous British Orchestra London Sinfoniet- presented talented musicians, balanced
Moscovsky Komsomolets
ta, considered to be one of the outstanding on the edge of different modern arts,
interpreters of contemporary music, con- “London Sinfonietta does not only and was completely unpredictable. The
ducted by Vladimir Jurowski, performed keep up to date, it catches on the composers and musicians are quite ma-
its festive program Time Games. Since its wing the direction of the wind that ture, and not worse than those wonder-
first concert on January 24, 1968, which means it can forecast the new turn ful from the London Sinfonietta, whom
included the world premiere of the canta- in the curve of the new art. The we listened to earlier that night. Many
ta “The Whale” by Sir John Tavener, the team does not avoid experiments musicians of the GAMEnsemble par-
orchestra has performed several hundred and such approach decides all in ticipated in Moscow Philharmonic’s
works of the XX-XXI centuries. Twice its popularity.” programs.
the orchestra received awards: the Royal Nezavisimaya Gazeta It seemed that musicians have made
____________
Philharmonic Society for Educational the impossible possible. By means of
Activities (2006) and Best Ensemble musical instruments they could interpret
(2010). Among the compasers for the orchestra were not only the sounds of surf, wind, footfall, shouts, but
such luminaries as Harrison Birtwistle, Janis Iannis also such abstract concepts as rotation and shining ap-
Xenakis, Luciano Berio, Magnus Lindberg, Thomas proach.
Edis, George Benjamin, Steve Reich, Give Fujikura,
Johnny Greenwood, Django Bates, Roberto Carnevale, Olga Kadomtseva
Kenneth Hesketh, Mark-Anthony Turnedge. The team
also works closely with young composers. See more in additional materials.
The London Sinfonietta is based in the pres-
tigious cultural complex Southbank Centre. The
orchestra was founded by the head of this cen-
tre Nicholas Noumenon and conductor David
Atherton.
Behold the feedback of the Russian audience
and mass media whose November welcome was
very warm.
The program of the present festival included
works by both mature and young composers,
and circled one subject – Time and its implica-
tions in the conscience of the contemporary art.
Hopefully, now after the IV World Contempo-
rary Music Festival, their names will also be-
come famous.
Here is the site of London Sinfonietta Official
Blog where you can learn about the orchestra’s
new performances if you missed this autumn’s
wonderful musical, highly spiritual event’s.
http://londonsinfonietta.wordpress.com/
English SCHOOL THEATRE

62 February 2015 The Mystery of the Eastern Stars


Внеклассное мероприятие для 6-х классов
Цели: развитие и поддержание интереса к изучению ино- 1) The rat swims away (2 times)
странного языка, развитие творческих способностей обу- Hi-ho the derrio
чающихся, обучение работе в команде. The rat swims away
Участники: ведущие (учитель английского языка, двое 2) The ox swims away (2 times)
помощников из 6-го класса), 3 команды по 7 человек из
Hi-ho the derrio
6-х классов, зрители.
Оформление: на доске висят надписи названий недели The ox swims away
английского языка “The mystery of the eastern stars” и на- 3) The tiger swims away (2 times)
звание 4-го дня предметной недели “The mystery of the Hi-ho the derrio
day”, календарь с изображением змеи и 2 портрета (лю- The tiger swims away
дей с восточной внешностью). 4) The rabbit swims away (2 times)
Hi-ho the derrio
Звучит восточная музыка. Входят ведущие (на головах The rabbit swims away
маски животных восточного гороскопа). 5) The dragon swims away (2 times)
Hi-ho the derrio
Ведущий 1: Ladies and gentlemen! The dragon swims away
Bедущий 2: Teachers and students! 6) The snake swims away (2 times)
Bедущий 3: Happy New Year! Hi-ho the derrio
Bедущий 2: Happy Eastern New Year! The snake swims away
Bедущий 1: Happy New Year all of you! 7) The horse swims away (2 times)
Bедущий 2: Today we are going to celebrate Chinese New Hi-ho the derrio
Year! The horse swims away
Bедущий 3: Do you know what Chinese New Year is? 8) The sheep swims away (2 times)
Hi-ho the derrio
Команды думают и отвечают, поднимая руки. The sheep swims away
9) The monkey swims away (2 times)
Bедущий 3: Let us introduce our teams now! Hi-ho the derrio
Team №1 – students from 6a. The monkey swims away
Bедущий 2: Team №2 – students from 6b. 10) The cockerel swims away (2 times)
Bедущий 3: And the last – students from 6v. Hi-ho the derrio
The cockerel swims away
Звучат аплодисменты. 11) The pig swims away (2 times)
Hi-ho the derrio
Bедущий 1: We are glad to see you and we wish you good The pig swims away
luck! 12) The dog swims away (2 times)
Ведущий 2: All of us like New Year and we know what ani- Hi-ho the derrio
mal toy to give as a present. An animal is the symbol of The dog swims away
this day. But do you know the order of the animals in
the eastern horoscope? Ведущий1: Сontest №3. Do you know what sounds pro-
Bедущий 1: Contest №1. Put the following words in the duce these animals?
right order.
Ведущие по очереди называют животных из списка 1-го
Команды получают 12 карточек с названиями живот- конкурса, а командам нужно изобразить их при помощи
ных восточного гороскопа на английском языке. Им звуков. Выигрывает та команда, которая будет самой
нужно расположить их в правильном порядке. Выигры- артистичной.
вает та команда, которая быстро и правильно выпол-
нила задание. 2 ведущих подводят итоги и записывают Ведущий 2: Do you know what English sounds they produce?
количество баллов на доске.
Bедущий 2 называет снова этих же самых животных,
Bедущий 1: Contest №2. And now let’s sing the song to- а ведущий 3 произносит английский вариант звуков,
gether. которые издают эти животные.

На доске записаны названия этих же самых животных Rat: Squeak-squeak!


уже в правильном порядке с изображениями. Рядом песня Horse: Neigh-neigh!
(все поют под музыку песни “The pumpkin in the patch”). Ox: Moo-moo!
SCHOOL THEATRE English

63
February 2015

Ведущий 3: And now contest №4. Let’s draw now!

Выходят капитаны команд и вытягивают листочки, на


которых написано название животных. Задача команд
нарисовать то животное, которое вытянул капитан
команды, и подготовить защиту своего рисунка. По-
беждает та команда, которая правильно нарисует
рисунок (он должен соответствовать тому слову, ко-
торое вытянул капитан) и допустит наименьшее коли-
чество речевых ошибок.

Ведущий 2: And now contest №5. Pantomime contest!

По считалке выбирают команду, которая будет первой.

Ведущий 1: Fuzzy-wuzzy was a bear!


Fuzzy-wuzzy had no hair!
Fuzzy-wuzzy wasn’t fuzzy!
Was he?

В командах обсуждается, какое животное будет пока-


зано, и кто будет показывать. 2 человека из каждой ко-
манды показывают по одному действию. Отвечает та
команда, которая первой подняла руку. Побеждает та
команда, которая ответила первой и правильно назвала
слово по-английски.

Ведущий 3: And now we will check how quick-witted you


are! We will show you a fragment of a picture and you
should guess what animal it is.

Ведущие по очереди показывают фрагменты рисунков,


участники должны догадаться, какое это животное.
Побеждает та команда, которая первой подняла руку и
назвала слово правильно по-английски.

Ведущий 1: And the last contest! You should guess the mys-
tery. The mystery is hidden in the words that you are
going to use to make up a word combination. There is
a hint on the blackboard.

Команды получают листочки. На каждом листоч-


ке 1 буква. Они должны составить словосочетание a
mysterious day. На доске висит подсказка: календарь.
Выигрывает та команда, которая первой и правильно
Sheep: Baa-baa! составит словосочетание.
Tiger: Rrrrrrrrrrrrr! После всех конкурсов ведущие подводят итоги и на-
Monkey: Hoo-hoo! граждают участников.
Rabbit: Dddddddd! (Trembling.)
Cockerel: Cock-a-doodle-doo! Екатерина Юрьевна Чиркова,
Dragon: Har-hoo! МБОУ Игринская СОШ № 4,
Pig: Oink-oink! п. Игра, Удмуртская Республика
Snake: Sh-sh-sh!
Dog: Bow-wow! See cards in additional materials.
THE “EARTH” WITHOUT “ART” IS JUST “EH”...

Proverbs about Art


The greatest art is the art of life.
(American Proverb)
An art requires a whole man.
(French Proverb)
He who has an art
has everywhere a part.
(English Proverb)
An artist lives everywhere.
(English Proverb)
The artist never dies.
(Albanian Proverb)
Art is the right hand of nature.
(Albanian Proverb)
Art has no enemy except ignorance.
(Latin Proverb)
Art is art, even though unsuccessful.
(Danish Proverb)
Nature passes art.
(Traditional Proverb)
To whiten ivory with dye is to spoil
nature by art.
(Latin Proverb)
Without favour, art is like a windmill
without wind.
(Latin Proverb)
It is the perfection of art when
no trace of the artist appears.
(Latin Proverb)
Fortune and the arts assist each other.
(Latin Proverb)
Art and knowledge bring bread
and honor.
(Danish Proverb)

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Подписка на сайте www.1september.ru или по каталогу “Почта России”. Индексы: 79002 (бумажная версия), 12630 (CD-версия)
Сдача Г ИА и ЕГЭ с «Просвещением» – это просто!
Сборники упражнений в формате ГИА для каждого класса – это
дополнительные компоненты УМК серий «Английский в  фоку-
се» и «Звездный английский».
Пособия содержат разнообразные задания и  упражнения
в формате ГИА (ОГЭ), целенаправленно готовящие учащихся к сда‑
че экзамена по завершении 9 класса.

Сборники упражнений универсальны:


их можно использовать с любым УМК!

«Сборник устных тем для подготовки к ГИА» охватывает все темы, включенные в спецификацию го‑
сударственной итоговой аттестации по английскому языку. После каждой темы предлагается план-ответ,
который поможет учащимся подготовиться к устному рассказу, список вопросов, а также список полезных
слов и выражений к темам, не предполагающим заучивание фактической информации. После изучения
материалов сборника раздел «Говорение» ГИА не  будет представлять трудностей для учащихся. Кроме
того, материалы сборника можно использовать при подготовке к устным зачетам и экзаменам по англий‑
скому языку в 5–9 классах.

Серия “Practice Exam Papers”  – совместный проект издательства


«Просвещение» и британского издательства “Express Publishing”. Пособия
создаются носителями языка под строгим руководством русскоязычных
авторов‑экспертов ГИА и  ЕГЭ. Книги данной серии, начиная с  4  класса,
соответствуют последним демо-версиям экзаменов, содержат трениро‑
вочные тесты в  экзаменационном формате и  ключи ко  всем заданиям,
включая примерные ответы к  письменным упражнениям. Все пособия
выпускаются в комплекте с аудиоприложением на CD.

Электронное приложение-тренажер содержит интерак‑


тивные упражнения по чтению, лексике, грамматике и письму
(базового и повышенного уровней), направленные на отработ‑
ку лексико-грамматических знаний учащихся при подготовке
к ЕГЭ, а также аудиокурс к учебнику и рабочей тетради в фор‑
мате mp3. Диск может использоваться как на  уроках англий‑
ского языка, так и дома самостоятельно.

На диске:
Электронный тренажер для подготовки к ЕГЭ К УМК «Звездный английский» диск продается отдельно в боксе.
Аудиокурс к учебнику и рабочей тетради К УМК «Английский в фокусе» диск продается в комплекте с учебником.
Список треков к аудиокурсу

Ю.А. Смирнов. «Современная Британия»


“Contemporary Britain” («Современная Британия») – элективный курс по страноведению Велико‑
британии, содержащий новейшую информацию о стране изучаемого языка и готовящий к сдаче ЕГЭ
и других международных экзаменов.
Основные особенности курса:
Учебник
Аудиокурс (бесплатно на сайте)
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Авторская программа к курсу (бесплатно на сайте)
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