Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

EXPERIMENT NO.

Use of vernier caliper to measure dimensions of given jobs.

Proposition:

Least count of measuring instrument is the ratio of smallest division on main scale and
total number of divisions on vernier scale or thimble scale.

Total reading = Main scale reading + (least count x vernier scale reading) of vernier
caliper

DIAGRAM : VERNIER CALIPER

PROCEDURE:

Construction: It consists of two scales. Fixed scale is called as a main scale & it is calibrated
on L- shaped frame, which carries a fixed jaw. The movable scale is called as vernier scale & it
slides over the main scale, which carries movable jaw. When the two measuring jaws are in
contact with each other, the scale should show zero reading. An adjustable screw is provided
for fine adjustment of movable jaw. Also, a lock nut is provided to lock the sliding scale on
main scale.

Working : The movable jaw assembly is so adjusted that the two measuring jaws just touch the
work piece to be measured. Then the lock nut is tightened. Final adjustment depends upon the
sense of the correct feel & it is made by the adjusting screw. As the adjusting screw rotates the

1
movable jaw also moves. After final adjustment has been made, the other locking nut is also
tightened & the reading is taken.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

2
EXPERIMENT 2

Topic : Micrometer screw – gauge .

Aim : To determine the diameter of a thin wire or the thickness of a sheet of metal accurately .

Assembly of the instrument :

It consists of a U-shaped frame fitted with a screwed spindle which is attached to a thimble.

Least count = pitch / number of divisions on the circular scale

Determination of Diameter of a Wire

The wire whose thickness is to be determined is placed between the anvil and spindle end, the
thimble is rotated till the wire is firmly held between the anvil and the spindle. The ratchet is
provided to avoid excessive pressure on the wire. It prevents the spindle from further
movement. The thickness of the wire could be determined .

Reading = Linear scale reading + (Coinciding circular scale x Least count)

3
FOR EXAMPLE :

Here the reading will be = 2.5 mm + (46 x 0.01)


= (2.5 + 0.46) mm
= 2.96 mm

Tabular column :

Linear scale reading Coinciding circular


scale reading
S.NO (L.S.R) L.S.R + (C.C.R x L.C)
(C.C.R)

4
Experiment 3

Purpose: To determine the density of PVC

Theory:
The density of a substance is the mass per unit volume of the substance, i.e.
ρ=M/V .......... (1)
Before the density of a substance could be determined, it is necessary to measure the mass and
volume of a sample of the substance. Using relationship (1), the density of the substance could
be calculated.

Procedure:
To determine the density of PVC

(a) Measure the external and internal diameters of a PVC tube at different parts of the tube.
Determine the average external and internal diameters of the tube.
(b) Measure the length at different parts of the tube. Determine the average length.
(c) Weigh the tube using a triple beam balance.
(d) Calculate the density of PVC.

Volume of PVC tube = cross-sectional area × length


= π/ 4 ( a 2 – b 2 ) × l
a = external diameter, b = internal diameter, and l = length

Result :

5
Experiment 4

Purpose: To determine the density of Steel

Theory:
The density of a substance is the mass per unit volume of the substance, i.e.
ρ=M/V .......... (1)
Before the density of a substance could be determined, it is necessary to measure the mass and
volume of a sample of the substance. Using relationship (1), the density of the substance could
be calculated.

Procedure:
To determine the density of steel
(a) Measure the length of a steel wire.
(b) Measure the diameter at different parts of the wire. Determine the average diameter.
(c) Weigh the wire using a triple beam balance.
(d) Calculate the density of steel.

Volume of steel wire = cross-sectional area × length


= π/ 4 a 2 l
a = diameter, and l = length

6
Experiment 5

Purpose: To determine the density of Cooking oil

Theory:
The density of a substance is the mass per unit volume of the substance, i.e.
ρ=M/V .......... (1)
Before the density of a substance could be determined, it is necessary to measure the mass and
volume of a sample of the substance. Using relationship (1), the density of the substance could
be calculated.

Procedure:
To determine the density of cooking oil
(a) Weigh an empty measuring cylinder.
(b) Measure 200 cm3 of cooking oil using the measuring cylinder.
(c) Weigh the filled measuring cylinder.
(d) Calculate the density of the cooking oil.

Mass of oil = M 1 – M 2
M1 = mass of cylinder + cooking oil
M2 = mass of cylinder .

7
Experiment 6

Topic: Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

Purpose: To determine the acceleration due to gravity using a simple pendulum and to
investigate the effect of large amplitude oscillations.

Theory:
The oscillation of a simple pendulum is a simple harmonic motion if
(i) the bob of the pendulum is a point mass,
(ii) thread is having negligible mass,
(iii) the amplitude of oscillation is small (< 10°).

From the theory of SHM, the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is given by

l = length of pendulum
g = acceleration due to gravity

g could be calculated if T and corresponding l were known. If a set of values of T and l are
measured, a graphical method could be used by plotting T2 against l and the average value of g
is obtained from the gradient s of the graph, i.e.
s = 4π2 /g

The time taken for one oscillation is known as the time period (T).
The number of oscillations made by the pendulum in one second is called its frequency
(symbol n or f). Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz).

8
Procedure:
(a) Set up the pendulum as in Figure
(b) Measure the length l of the pendulum.
(c) Oscillate the pendulum and the time for proper number of oscillations is measured. Repeat
this measurement, so that an average time is obtained and hence the corresponding period T is
calculated.

Repeat the above procedure for other values of l. Obtain a minimum of 3 sets of readings for l
and T.
(d) Plot a graph of T2 against l.
(e) From the graph, determine the value of g.

(f) Calculate g from

No. of Lengths 'l' of Time for Time for one 2 2T2/l (s2
T (S)
Trails pendulum (cm) 10Oscillations 't' (s) oscillation 'T' (s) cm-1)
1
2
3
4
5

Result :

9
EXPERIMENT 7

MEASUREMENT OF THE SPEED OF SOUND IN AIR

Apparatus
1000 ml graduated cylinder, resonance tube, set of tuning forks in the frequency range 256 Hz
to 512 Hz, vernier calipers, meter stick, stand (longest upright type), clamp and wooden block.

Procedure
1. Clamp the tube so that the water in the graduated cylinder closes its lower end. The tube
should be free to slide vertically through the clamp jaws. Take an approximate value of
-1
300 m s for the speed of sound to obtain a rough estimate of the quarter wavelength
resonance position.
2. Strike the highest frequency (512 Hz) tuning fork on the wooden block, and hold it in a
horizontal position just above the mouth of the tube (Fig. 1).
3. Slide the tube slowly up/down until the note heard from the tube is at its loudest;
resonance is now occurring.
4. Tighten the clamp in this position and measure the length of the air column (from the
water level to the top of the tube) l1 with a metre stick.
5. Clamp the tube (or its extension) so that the air column is 2 or 3 cm less than 3l1 (Fig. 2).
6. Obtain a second weaker resonance with the same tuning fork by again sliding the tube
until the note heard is at its loudest, at the three-quarters wavelength resonance position.
7. Clamp the tube in this position and measure with a metre stick, the air column length l2 at
this resonance.
8. Repeat this procedure to obtain the corresponding values of l1 and l2 for all the tuning
forks in order of decreasing frequency.
9. Record the measurements in a table.
10. Calculate the wavelength using λ = 2( l2 – l1 ) in each case .
11. Calculate the speed of sound from c = f λ for each of the tuning forks.
12. Find the average value for the speed of sound.

RESULTS
-1
f/HZ f/lH /zm l2/m λ/m
1 c/m s

10
11
EXPERIMENT 8

Topic: Stationary Waves

Purpose: To study stationary waves in a string and to determine the mass per unit length of the
string.

Theory:

Apparatus:
(i) A 'G' clamp
(ii) A reel of insulated copper wire
(iii) A.c. power supply (2 − 12 V)
(iv) A metal rod
(v) Two magnadur magnets
(vi) A magnet holder
(vii) Thread
(viii) A pulley
(ix) A wooden wedge
(x) A plastic dish to hold the slotted masses
(xi) Slotted masses of combination of 2, 5, 10, and 20 g
(xii) A metre rule
(xiii) A fine V−shaped wire to serve as a “rider”

Procedure:
(a) Set up the apparatus as in Figure
(b)Connect the copper wire winding to the 2 V, 50 Hz power supply.
(c) Place the magnadur magnets above and below the metal rod.
(d) Tie one end of the thread to the metal rod and the other end to the plastic dish that carries
the slotted masses. The length of the thread from the end of the rod to the pulley should
not be less than 1.5 m.
(e) Switch on the power supply. Adjust the length of the metal rod so that it is vibrating at
maximum amplitude. Clamp the metal rod firmly as shown in Figure 7.
(f) Place the wooden wedge below the thread and next to the pulley. Adjust the position of the
wooden wedge so that a steady stationary wave is observed.
(g) Add extra masses to the plastic dish and observe the stationary wave in the string.
12
(h) Starts from 2 g of slotted mass and mass of dish as M, measure and record the distance l
between two successive nodes.
(i) Tabulate l and W, where W = Mg.
(j) Plot a graph of W against l2.
(k) Calculate the gradient of the graph.
(l) Deduce the mass per unit length m of the thread used if the frequency of the power supply is
50 Hz.

13
EXPERIMENT 9

AIM : INVESTIGATION OF THE VARIATION OF FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY


OF A STRETCHED STRING WITH LENGTH

Apparatus
Signal generator, U-magnet, sonometer with a newton balance or tensionometer (0 to 50 N)
and tension key.

Procedure

1. Place the sonometer wire between the poles of the U-magnet, positioned midway
between the bridges.
2. Fix the tension at a constant value (e.g. 20 N), using the tension control key.
3. Place the bridges as far apart as possible and measure the length of the wire l between the
bridges with a metre stick.
4. Slowly increase the applied a.c. frequency from 0 Hz, until the wire vibrates.
5. Note the value of this frequency when the vibration is at its maximum.
6. Reduce the length of the wire, by sliding one bridge towards the other one. Reposition
the magnet midway between the bridge supports and measure the fundamental
frequency for that length.
7. Repeat this procedure for different lengths of wire and measure the corresponding
fundamental frequencies.
8. Record the measurements in a table.

9. Plot a graph of frequency f against inverse of length 1 / l

RESULTS :

Conclusion
A straight line through the origin will verify that frequency is inversely proportional to the
length l.

14
15