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CLASS PRACTICE For Chapter 1 (24 Marks)

Q1 (2 Marks)
z Foundations are the connections between a structure and the ground that
supports it.

z It is the part of an engineered system which transmits to, and into, the
underlying soil or rock the loads supported by the foundation and its self

Q2 (5 Marks, Any 5 points, @1x5)

1. Locate the site and the position of load.
2. Physically inspect the site for any geological or other, evidence of possible
3. Establish the field exploration program and on the basis of discovery set up the
necessary supplemental field testing and the laboratory test program.
4. Determine the necessary soil design parameters based on integration of test
data, scientific principles, and engineering judgement.
5. Design the foundation using the soil parameters from step 4.
6. The foundation should be economical and be able to be built by the available
construction personnel.

Q3 (2 Marks)
z Rational techniques
Ω developed from the principles of physics and engineering science, and are
useful to describe mechanisms we understand and are able to quantify.
z Empirical techniques
Ω based primarily on experimental data and thus are especially helpful when we
have a limited understanding of the physical mechanisms.

Q4 (3 Marks)
z Construction tolerances in foundations are wider than those in the
superstructure, so the as-built dimensions are often significantly different than
the design dimensions.
z Uncertainties in soil properties introduce significantly more risk.
z Foundation failures can be more costly than failure in the superstructure.

Chapter 1 Class Practices

Q5 (5 Marks, Any 5 points, @1x5)
1. Required reliability (i.e. the acceptable probability of failure).
2. Consequences of a failure.
3. Uncertainties in soil properties and applied loads.
4. Construction tolerances (i.e., the potential differences between design and
as-built dimensions).
5. Ignorance of the true behaviour of foundations.
6. Cost-benefit ratio of additional conservatism in the design.

Q6 (5 Marks, Any 5 points, @1x5)

z Loading
z Ground conditions
z Buildability
z Local Environment / restriction
z What loads are to be supported
z The extent of foundation settlement in response to these loads

Q7 (2 Marks)
z Shallow foundations
Ω transmit the structural loads to the near-surface soils, with the ratio of depth to
width generally equals to or less than unity (i.e. D/B <= 1).

z Deep foundations
Ω transmit some or all of the loads to deeper soils, with Dp/B => 4 in general.

CLASS PRACTICE For Chapter 1 (24 Marks)

1. What are foundations?

2. List the steps in designing a foundation.
3. Discuss the rational and the empirical techniques.
4. Why FOS for foundations are greater than those for superstructures?
5. Factors affecting the FOS.
6. List the performance criteria for foundation.
7. Discuss Shallow and Deep foundation.

Chapter 1 Class Practices