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IT Notes:

1. Data Communication:
“Data communications (DC) is the process of using computing and communication technologies to
transfer data from one place to another, and vice versa. It enables the movement of electronic or digital
data between two or more nodes, regardless of geographical location, technological medium or data
contents.”

Data communications incorporates several techniques and technologies with the primary
objective of enabling any form of electronic communication. These technologies include
telecommunications, computer networking and radio/satellite communication. Data communication
usually requires existence of a transportation or communication medium between the nodes wanting to
communicate with each other, such as copper wire, fiber optic cables or wireless signals.

For example, a common example of data communications is a computer connected to the Internet via a
Wi-Fi connection, which uses a wireless medium to send and receive data from one or more remote
servers.

Modes of Data Communication:

There are three modes of transmission, namely: simplex, half duplex, and full duplex. The
transmission mode defines the direction of signal flow between two connected devices.

2. DATA TRANSMISSION:

Data transmission is the process of sending digital or analog data over a communication medium
to one or more computing, network, communication or electronic devices. It enables the transfer and
communication of devices in a point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and multipoint-to-multipoint
environment.

Data transmission is also known as digital transmission or digital communications.

Data transmission can be analog and digital but is mainly reserved for sending and receiving digital data.
It works when a device or piece of equipment, such as a computer, intends to send a data object or file to
one or multiple recipient devices, like a computer or server. The digital data originates from the source
device in the form of discrete signals or digital bit streams. These data streams/signals are placed over a
communication medium, such as physical copper wires, wireless carriers and optical fiber, for delivery to
the destination/recipient device. Moreover, each outward signal can be baseband or passband.

In addition to external communication, data transmission also may be internally carried to a device. For
example, the random access memory (RAM) or hard disk that sends data to a processor is also a form of
data transmission.

Types of Data Transmission

I. Serial Transmission:

When data is sent or received using serial data transmission, the data bits are organized in a specific order,
since they can only be sent one after another. The order of the data bits is important as it dictates how the
transmission is organized when it is received. It is viewed as a reliable data transmission method because
a data bit is only sent if the previous data bit has already been received.

Serial transmission has two classifications: asynchronous and synchronous.

1) Asynchronous Serial Transmission


Data bits can be sent at any point in time. Stop bits and start bits are used between data bytes to
synchronize the transmitter and receiver and to ensure that the data is transmitted correctly. The
time between sending and receiving data bits is not constant, so gaps are used to provide time
between transmissions.

The advantage of using the asynchronous method is that no synchronization is required between the
transmitter and receiver devices. It is also a more cost effective method. A disadvantage is that data
transmission can be slower, but this is not always the case.

2) Synchronous Serial Transmission


Data bits are transmitted as a continuous stream in time with a master clock. The data transmitter
and receiver both operate using a synchronized clock frequency; therefore, start bits, stop bits,
and gaps are not used. This means that data moves faster and timing errors are less frequent
because the transmitter and receiver time is synced. However, data accuracy is highly dependent
on timing being synced correctly between devices. In comparison with asynchronous serial
transmission, this method is usually more expensive.

II. Parallel transmission: When data is sent using parallel data transmission, multiple data bits are
transmitted over multiple channels at the same time. This means that data can be sent much faster than
using serial transmission methods.

Given that multiple bits are sent over multiple channels at the same time, the order in which a bit string is
received can depend on various conditions, such as proximity to the data source, user location, and
bandwidth availability. Two examples of parallel interfaces can be seen below. In the first parallel
interface, the data is sent and received in the correct order. In the second parallel interface, the data is sent
in the correct order, but some bits were received faster than others.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Parallel Data Transmission

The main advantages of parallel transmission over serial transmission are:

 It is easier to program.

 Data is sent faster.

Although parallel transmission can transfer data faster, it requires more transmission channels than serial
transmission. This means that data bits can be out of sync, depending on transfer distance and how fast
each bit loads. A simple of example of where this can be seen is with a voice over IP (VOIP) call when
distortion or interference is noticeable. It can also be seen when there is skipping or interference on a
video stream.

COMPONENTS/TYPES OF DATA TRANSMISSION:

In data communication terminology, a transmission medium is a physical path between the


transmitter and the receiver i.e it is the channel through which data is sent from one place to another.
Transmission Media is broadly classified into the following types:
1. Guided Media:
It is also referred to as Wired or Bounded transmission media. Signals being transmitted are directed and
confined in a narrow pathway by using physical links.
2. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP):
This type of cable consists of a special jacket to block external interference. It is used in fast-data-rate
Ethernet and in voice and data channels of telephone lines.

Advantages:

 Better performance at a higher data rate in comparison to UTP

 Eliminates crosstalk

 Comparatively faster

Disadvantages:

 Comparatively difficult to install and manufacture

 More expensive

 Bulky

(ii) Coaxial Cable


It has an outer plastic covering containing 2 parallel conductors each having a separate insulated
protection cover. Coaxial cable transmits information in two modes: Baseband mode(dedicated cable
bandwidth) and Broadband mode(cable bandwidth is split into separate ranges). Cable TVs and analog
television networks widely use Coaxial cables.

Advantages:

 Increased capacity and bandwidth

 Light weight
 Less signal attenuation

 Immunity to electromagnetic interference

 Resistance to corrosive materials

Disadvantages:

 Difficult to install and maintain

 High cost

 Fragile

 unidirectional, ie, will need another fibre, if we need bidirectional communication

2. Unguided Media:
It is also referred to as Wireless or Unbounded transmission media. No physical medium is required for
the transmission of electromagnetic signals.

Features:

 Signal is broadcasted through air

 Less Secure

 Used for larger distances

There are 3 major types of Unguided Media:

(i) Radio waves


These are easy to generate and can penetrate through buildings. The sending and receiving antennas need
not be aligned. Frequency Range: 3 KHz – 1GHz. AM and FM radios and cordless phones use Radio
waves for transmission.

Further Categorized as

(i) Terrestrial

(ii) Satellite.

(ii) Microwaves
It is a line of sight transmission i.e. the sending and receiving antennas need to be properly aligned with
each other. The distance covered by the signal is directly proportional to the height of the antenna.
Frequency Range: 1GHz – 300GHz. These are majorly used for mobile phone communication and
television distribution.

(iii) Infrared
Infrared waves are used for very short distance communication. They cannot penetrate through obstacles.
This prevents interference between systems. Frequency Range: 300GHz – 400THz. It is used in TV
remotes, wireless mouse, keyboard, printer, etc.

3. Computer Architecture:
Computer architecture is a specification detailing how a set of software and hardware technology
standards interact to form a computer system or platform. In short, computer architecture refers to how a
computer system is designed and what technologies it is compatible with.

As with other contexts and meanings of the word architecture, computer architecture is likened to the art
of determining the needs of the user/system/technology, and creating a logical design and standards based
on those requirements.

Explanation:

A very good example of computer architecture is von Neumann architecture, which is still used by most
types of computers today. This was proposed by the mathematician John von Neumann in 1945. It
describes the design of an electronic computer with its CPU, which includes the arithmetic logic unit,
control unit, registers, memory for data and instructions, an input/output interface and external storage
functions.

There are three categories of computer architecture:

 System Design: This includes all hardware components in the system, including data processors
aside from the CPU, such as the graphics processing unit and direct memory access. It also
includes memory controllers, data paths and miscellaneous things like multiprocessing and
virtualization.

 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA): This is the embedded programming language of the central
processing unit. It defines the CPU's functions and capabilities based on what programming it can
perform or process. This includes the word size, processor register types, memory addressing
modes, data formats and the instruction set that programmers use.

 Microarchitecture: Otherwise known as computer organization, this type of architecture defines


the data paths, data processing and storage elements, as well as how they should be implemented
in the ISA.

4. DATA MANIPULATION:
Data manipulation is the process of changing data to make it easier to read or be more organized.
For example, a log of data could be organized in alphabetical order, making individual entries
easier to locate. Data manipulation is often used on web server logs to allow a website owner to
view their most popular pages as well as their traffic sources.
5. NETWORKING AND ITS TYPES:
A network, in computing, is a group of two or more devices that can communicate. In practice, a
network is comprised of a number of different computer systems connected by physical and/or wireless
connections.

Computer networking is an engineering discipline that aims to study and analyze the communication
process among various computing devices or computer systems that are linked, or networked, together to
exchange information and share resources.

Computer networking depends on the theoretical application and practical implementation of fields like
computer engineering, computer sciences, information technology and telecommunication.

TYPES OF NETWORKING:

A router, network card and protocols are the essential pillars upon which any network is built. Computer
networks are the backbone of modern-day communication. Even public switched telephone networks are
controlled by computer systems; most telephonic services are also working with IP.

The increasing scope of communication has led to much advancement in the networking field and in its
relative industries like hardware, software manufacturing and integration. As a result, most households
have access to one or more networks. There are three broad network types:

 Local Area Network (LAN): Used to serve a small number of people located in a small
geographical space. Peer-to-peer or client server networking methods can be employed.

 Wide Area Network (WAN): Formed to connect a computer with its peripheral resources across
a large geographical area.

 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)/Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN): Formed
without the use of wires or physical media to connect hosts with the server. The data is
transferred over radio transceivers.

 Metropolitan Area Network (WAN): A network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but
smaller than a WAN, such as a city. A MAN is typically owned and operated by a single entity
such as a government body or large corporation.

6. Network Topology:
Network topology refers to the physical or logical layout of a network. It defines the way
different nodes are placed and interconnected with each other. Alternately, network topology may
describe how the data is transferred between these nodes.

There are two types of network topologies: physical and logical. Physical topology emphasizes the
physical layout of the connected devices and nodes, while the logical topology focuses on the pattern of
data transfer between network nodes.

Types of Network Topology:


The physical and logical network topologies of a network do not necessarily have to be identical.
However, both physical and network topologies can be categorized into five basic models:

 Bus Topology: All the devices/nodes are connected sequentially to the same backbone or
transmission line. This is a simple, low-cost topology, but its single point of failure presents a
risk.

 Star Topology: All the nodes in the network are connected to a central device like a hub or
switch via cables. Failure of individual nodes or cables does not necessarily create downtime in
the network but the failure of a central device can. This topology is the most preferred and
popular model.

 Ring Topology: All network devices are connected sequentially to a backbone as in bus topology
except that the backbone ends at the starting node, forming a ring. Ring topology shares many of
bus topology's disadvantages so its use is limited to networks that demand high throughput.

 Tree Topology: A root node is connected to two or more sub-level nodes, which themselves are
connected hierarchically to sub-level nodes. Physically, the tree topology is similar to bus and star
topologies; the network backbone may have a bus topology, while the low-level nodes connect
using star topology.

 Mesh Topology: The topology in each node is directly connected to some or all the other nodes
present in the network. This redundancy makes the network highly fault tolerant but the escalated
costs may limit this topology to highly critical networks.

7. Network Devices:
Network devices, or networking hardware, are physical devices that are required for
communication and interaction between hardware on a computer network.

Types of network devices

Here is the common network device list:

 Hub

 Switch

 Router

 Bridge

 Gateway

 Modem

 Repeater

 Access Point
Hub:

Network Hub is a networking device which is used to connect multiple network hosts. A network
hub is also used to do data transfer. The data is transferred in terms of packets on a computer network. So
when a host sends a data packet to a network hub, the hub copies the data packet to all of its ports
connected to. Like this, all the ports know about the data and the port for whom the packet is intended,
claims the packet.

Switch:

Like a hub, a switch also works at the layer of LAN (Local Area Network) but you can say that a switch
is more intelligent than a hub. While hub just does the work of data forwarding, a switch does 'filter and
forwarding' which is a more intelligent way of dealing with the data packets.

So, when a packet is received at one of the interfaces of the switch, it filters the packet and sends only to
the interface of the intended receiver. For this purpose, a switch also maintains a CAM (Content
Addressable Memory) table and has its own system configuration and memory. CAM table is also called
as forwarding table or forwarding information base (FIB).

Modem:

A Modem is somewhat a more interesting network device in our daily life. So if you have noticed around,
you get an internet connection through a wire (there are different types of wires) to your house. This wire
is used to carry our internet data outside to the internet world.

However, our computer generates binary data or digital data in forms of 1s and 0s and on the other hand,
a wire carries an analog signal and that's where a modem comes in.

A modem stands for (Modulator+Demodulator). That means it modulates and demodulates the signal
between the digital data of a computer and the analog signal of a telephone line.

Network Router:

A router is a network device which is responsible for routing traffic from one to another network. These
two networks could be a private company network to a public network. You can think of a router as a
traffic police who directs different network traffic to different directions.

Bridge:

If a router connects two different types of networks, then a bridge connects two subnetworks as a part of
the same network. You can think of two different labs or two different floors connected by a bridge.

Repeater:
A repeater is an electronic device that amplifies the signal it receives. In other terms, you can think of
repeater as a device which receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power so that the
signal can cover longer distances.

For example, inside a college campus, the hostels might be far away from the main college where the ISP
line comes in. If the college authority wants to pull a wire in between the hostels and main campus, they
will have to use repeaters if the distance is much because different types of cables have limitations in
terms of the distances they can carry the data for.

8. EVOLUTION OF INTERNET:

Internet is one component which has recently become the key ingredient of quick and rapid lifestyle. Be it
for communication or explorations, connecting with people or for official purposes, ‘internet’ has become
the central- hub for all.

In simple term Internet is access of Human’s success.

Origins of the Internet:

The Internet started as an experiment in the late 1960s by the Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA, now called DARPA).

DARPA experimented with the connection of computer networks by giving grants to multiple
universities and private companies to get them involved in the research.

ARPANET:

 Advance Research Project Agency Network. (ARPANET )


 World’s first operational network - 1967.
 ARPANET was developed under U.S. Department Of Defence (DOD ), it was developed to
survive nuclear attack.
 It was the 1st network to implement the protocol suit TCP/IP.
 DOD divided the network into HOSTS & Subnet.
 Subnet is another type of Network.
 ARPANET consisted of 4 main computers located at :
o University of California, Los Angeles.
o University of California, Santa Barbara.
o The Stanford Research Institute.
o University of Utah.
 Each of these computers served as a host on the network, commonly today known as server.

NSF

 NSF - National Science Foundation.


 1980 – Started to make high capacity network for Academic & Engineering Research.
 NSF connected its huge network of five supercomputer centres, called NSFnet to ARPANET in
1986.
 1990 – Interworking of ARPANET, NSFnet & other Private Network resulted into INTERNET.

Internet Journey

 In 90’s Internet cost is Rs. 25,000 - 9.6kbps for 250 hours only.
 In 20th century Internet has become more cheaper & faster – Rs. 400 – 1mbps Unlimited Internet
for 28 days.
 Internet evolution from Computer to Smartphone.
 In 70’s – LAN Network & 1997 – Wireless Network ( WIFI )
 Over the year Internet for Mobile phones is Changed GPRS - 2G – 3G – 4G – 5G.
 Fastest Network in the world.

9. WWW:

Stands for "World Wide Web." It is important to know that this is not a synonym for the Internet. The
World Wide Web, or just "the Web," as ordinary people call it, is a subset of the Internet. The Web
consists of pages that can be accessed using a Web browser. The Internet is the actual network of
networks where all the information resides.

Things like Telnet, FTP, Internet gaming, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), and e-mail are all part of the
Internet, but are not part of the World Wide Web. The Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the
method used to transfer Web pages to your computer. With hypertext, a word or phrase can contain a link
to another Web site. All Web pages are written in the hyper-text markup language (HTML), which works
in conjunction with HTTP.

10. E-commerce:

Electronic commerce or ecommerce is a term for any type of business, or commercial transaction, that
involves the transfer of information across the Internet. It covers a range of different types of businesses,
from consumer based retail sites, through auction or music sites, to business exchanges trading goods and
services between corporations. It is currently one of the most important aspects of the Internet to emerge.

Ecommerce allows consumers to electronically exchange goods and services with no barriers of time or
distance. Electronic commerce has expanded rapidly over the past five years and is predicted to continue
at this rate, or even accelerate. In the near future the boundaries between "conventional" and "electronic"
commerce will become increasingly blurred as more and more businesses move sections of their
operations onto the Internet.

Types of e-commerce:
Generally speaking, when most people think of e-commerce, they think of the purchase of goods
or services by use of the internet. However, there is a more specific way to refer to the type of online
transaction by the means of mentioning which e-commerce category the transfer falls under. There are six
basic types of e-commerce — Business-to-Business (B2B), Business-to-Consumer (B2C), Consumer-to-
Consumer (C2C), Consumer-to-Business (C2B), Business-to-Administration (B2A) and Consumer-to-
Administration (C2A) — and all of them represent a different purchasing dynamic.

I. BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS (B2B)

B2B e-commerce refers to all electronic transactions of goods and sales that are conducted
between two companies. This type of e-commerce typically explains the relationship between the
producers of a product and the wholesalers who advertise the product for purchase to consumers.
Sometimes this allows wholesalers to stay ahead of their competition.

II. BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER (B2C)

Perhaps the most common form of e-commerce, B2C e-commerce deals with electronic
business relationships between businesses and consumers. Many people enjoy this avenue of e-
commerce because it allows them to shop around for the best prices, read customer reviews and often
find different products that they wouldn’t otherwise be exposed to in the retail world. This e-
commerce category also enables businesses to develop a more personalized relationship with their
customers.

III. CONSUMER-TO-CONSUMER (C2C)

This level of e-commerce encompasses all electronic transactions that take place between
consumers. Generally, these transactions are provided by online platforms (such as PayPal), but often
are conducted through the use of social media networks (Facebook marketplace) and websites
(Craigslist).

IV. CONSUMER-TO-BUSINESS (C2B)

Not the most traditional form of e-commerce, C2B e-commerce is when a consumer makes
their services or products available for companies to purchase. An example of this would be a graphic
designer customizing a company logo or a photographer taking photos for an e-commerce website.

V. BUSINESS-TO-ADMINISTRATION (B2A)

This e-commerce category refers to all transactions between companies and public
administration. This is an area that involves many services, particularly in areas such as social
security, employment and legal documents.
VI. CONSUMER-TO-ADMINISTRATION (C2A)

Another popular e-commerce category, C2A e-commerce encompasses all electronic


transactions between individuals and public administration. Examples of this include taxes (filing tax
returns) and health (scheduling an appointment using an online service.

11. E-business:

Electronic business (e-business) refers to the use of the Web, Internet, intranets, extranets or some
combination thereof to conduct business. E-business is similar to e-commerce, but it goes beyond the
simple buying and selling of products and services online. E-business includes a much wider range of
businesses processes, such as supply chain management, electronic order processing and customer
relationship management. E-business processes, therefore, can help companies to operate more effectively
and efficiently.

Explanation:

Electronic business is a broader term that encompasses other common terms such as e-commerce and e-
tailing. As more of companies' sales, marketing and other internal business processes are conducted
digitally, electronic business processes such as customer relationship management (CRM), enterprise
resource planning (ERP), and content management are becoming increasingly important. This shift has
also been facilitated by improved security measures for online transactions.

12. E-banking:

E-banking is a product designed for the purposes of online banking that enables you to have easy
and safe access to your bank account.

Banks that offer online banking are sometimes called "brick-to-click." Many of these banks still provide
branch services but support online options. This distinguishes them from brick-and-mortar banks, which
offer no online services. Brick-and-mortar banks are becoming extremely rare in the age of digital
transactions, and most banks have begun moving a number of customer interactions to the Web.

With this service you save your time by carrying out banking transactions at any place and at any time,
from your home or office, all you need is internet access. E-banking enables the following:

• Accurate statement of all means available in your bank account


• Statement of current account, credits, overdrafts and your deposits
• Execution of national and international transfers in various currencies
• Execution of all types of utility bill payments (electricity, water supply, telephone bills, etc.)
13. WEB SERVICES:
A Web service is a software service used to communicate between two devices on a network.

More specifically, a Web service is a software application with a standardized way of providing
interoperability between disparate applications. It does so over HTTP using technologies such as XML,
SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI.

A Web service involves a service provider and a service requester (client). Because Web services feature
language transparency, it doesn’t matter whether the underlying system that provides the service is
written in Java while the client is written in Perl, Python or Ruby. For example, through Web services a
Windows server can interact with a Linux server or serve an application to computer desktops, laptops or
smart phones and other mobile devices over the World Wide Web.

14. Computer security and safety:

Computer security basically is the protection of computer systems and information from harm, theft, and
unauthorized use. It is the process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of your computer system.

Often people confuse computer security with other related terms like information security and cyber
security. One way to ascertain the similarities and differences among these terms is by asking what is
being secured. For example,

For example,

 Information security is securing information from unauthorized access, modification & deletion

 Computer Security means securing a standalone machine by keeping it updated and patched

 Cyber security is defined as protecting computer systems, which communicate over the
computer networks

It’s important to understand the distinction between these words, though there isn’t necessarily a clear
consensus on the meanings and the degree to which they overlap or are interchangeable.

So, Computer security can be defined as controls that are put in place to provide confidentiality,
integrity, and availability for all components of computer systems. Let’s elaborate the definition.

Components of computer system

The components of a computer system that needs to be protected are:

 Hardware, the physical part of the computer, like the system memory and disk drive
 Firmware, permanent software that is etched into a hardware device’s nonvolatile memory and is
mostly invisible to the user

 Software, the programming that offers services, like operating system, word processor, internet
browser to the user

The CIA Triad

Computer security is mainly concerned with three main areas:

 Confidentiality is ensuring that information is available only to the users.

 Integrity is protecting information from being modified by unauthorized users.

 Availability is protecting information from being modified by unauthorized users.

In simple language, computer security is making sure information and computer components are usable
but still protected from people or software that shouldn’t access it or modify it.

Computer Security Practices/safety:

Computer security threats are becoming relentlessly inventive these days. There is much need for one to
arm oneself with information and resources to safeguard against these complex and growing computer
security threats and stay safe online. Some preventive steps you can take include:

 Secure your computer physically by:

o Installing reliable, reputable security and anti-virus software

o Activating your firewall, because a firewall acts as a security guard between the internet
and your local area network
 Stay up-to-date on the latest software and news surrounding your devices and perform software
updates as soon as they become available

 Avoid clicking on email attachments unless you know the source

 Change passwords regularly, using a unique combination of numbers, letters and case types

 Use the internet with caution and ignore pop-ups, drive-by downloads while surfing

 Taking the time to research the basic aspects of computer security and educate yourself on
evolving cyber-threats

 Perform daily full system scans and create a periodic system backup schedule to ensure your data
is retrievable should something happen to your computer.

Apart from these, there are many ways you can protect your computer system. Aspects such as encryption
and computer cleaners can assist in protecting your computers and its files.

15. Computer Virus and its types:

A computer virus is a malicious program that self-replicates by copying itself to another program. In other
words, the computer virus spreads by itself into other executable code or documents. The purpose of
creating a computer virus is to infect vulnerable systems, gain admin control and steal user sensitive data.
Hackers design computer viruses with malicious intent and prey on online users by tricking them.

One of the ideal methods by which viruses spread is through emails – opening the attachment in the
email, visiting an infected website, clicking on an executable file, or viewing an infected advertisement
can cause the virus to spread to your system. Besides that, infections also spread while connecting with
already infected removable storage devices, such as USB drives.

It is quite easy and simple for the viruses to sneak into a computer by dodging the defense systems. A
successful breach can cause serious issues for the user such as infecting other resources or system
software, modifying or deleting key functions or applications and copy/delete or encrypt data.

Types of Computer Viruses

A computer virus is one type of malware that inserts its virus code to multiply itself by altering the
programs and applications. The computer gets infected through the replication of malicious code.
Computer viruses come in different forms to infect the system in different ways. Some of the most
common viruses are,

 Boot Sector Virus


 Direct Action Virus
 Resident Virus
 Multipartite Virus
 Polymorphic Virus
 Overwrite Virus
 Space filler Virus
 Boot Sector Virus:

This type of virus infects the master boot record and it is challenging and a complex task to remove
this virus and often requires the system to be formatted. Mostly it spreads through removable media.

 Direct Action Virus:

This is also called non-resident virus, it gets installed or stays hidden in the computer memory. It
stays attached to the specific type of files that it infect. It does not affect the user experience and system’s
performance.

 Resident Virus:

Unlike direct action viruses, resident viruses get installed on the computer. It is difficult to identify
the virus and it is even difficult to remove a resident virus.

 Multipartite Virus:

This type of virus spreads through multiple ways. It infects both the boot sector and executable files
at the same time.

 Polymorphic Virus:

These types of viruses are difficult to identify with a traditional anti-virus program. This is because
the polymorphic viruses alter its signature pattern whenever it replicates.

 Overwrite Virus:

This type of virus deletes all the files that it infects. The only possible mechanism to remove is to
delete the infected files and the end-user has to lose all the contents in it. Identifying the overwrite virus is
difficult as it spreads through emails.

 Space filler Virus:

This is also called “Cavity Viruses”. This is called so as they fill up the empty spaces between the
code and hence does not cause any damage to the file.

Harmful effects of computer virus:

 Computer virus can slow down your computer.

 Might corrupt your system files.

 Might make some programs faulty or corrupt.

 Might damage your boot sector creating problems when you boot into the windows.

 Might steal important information from your computer and send to some other person.

 Might change the power ratings of your computer and could blast the system.
Example of Parallel Transmission – Data Received Incorrectly

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Parallel Data Transmission

The main advantages of parallel transmission over serial transmission are:

 it is easier to program;

 and data is sent faster.

Although parallel transmission can transfer data faster, it requires more transmission channels than serial
transmission. This means that data bits can be out of sync, depending on transfer distance and how fast
each bit loads. A simple of example of where this can be seen is with a voice over IP (VOIP) call when
distortion or interference is noticeable. It can also be seen when there is skipping or interference on a
video stream.

When is parallel transmission used to send data?

Parallel transmission is used when:

 a large amount of data is being sent;

 the data being sent is time-sensitive;

 and the data needs to be sent quickly.