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To understand why the average middle/secondary school student is chronically tardy, we must
understand what the student is experiencing or expressing by performing the tardy behavior.
According to some theorists, the behavior could be conditioned upon stimuli prior to or resulting
from the behavior, while others may suggest that it is based upon a lack of sleep, anxiety, low self-
esteem or even depression. There are many theorists with several varying theories. A few are
discussed here.

Of course, reasons for being late to class and other factors affecting the punctuality of a student
vary. There have been some theories that pointed out that tardiness is caused by the personality of a
person. Santillano (2010) stated that psychological theorists considered some “personality traits,
including low self-esteem and anxiety” as triggering factors of tardiness. She also mentioned that
while some theorists considered tardiness as an “inborn quality” since our being early or late is
“partially biologically determined”, which she also agreed, other experts also believed that some
people are “chronically tardy” for the reason that they consciously and unconsciously get good things
from it.

In the book cited by Santillano, “Never be late again: 7 cures for the punctually challenged”, the
author Diana DeLonzor suggested that some personality traits could most likely lead to a person
being often late. Some of the traits included were “struggling with self control”, “feeling nervous or
uncomfortable with social situations” and “getting distracted easily”. Santillano also discussed about
the study conducted by DeLonzor at San Francisco State University in 1997 in which she surveyed
225 respondents about their habits that makes them late from their appointments. It was also a test
on the personalities of the respondents that affect their habits. According to the results of
DeLonzor’s study, those respondents that were often tardy apt to be anxious and gets distracted
easily. In a recent article by Michele Novotni, she writes that people with ADHD are often running
late because of poor time management. They are often distracted and scrambling at the last minute
to find things like keys, cell phones, or finishing last second tasks. Students with this disorder may be
trying to desperately gather notebooks and things from their lockers during the passing period
without realizing that they are late.

Nakpodia and Dafiaghor attribute lateness or tardiness to a lot of factors or causes. Going late to
bed and waking up late next morning are the most common. The authors added film-watching late at
night as a cause for tardiness. The student may forget that he/she needs to be in school the next day.
The distance between the student’s home and school or solely the school’s location is also
considered by Nakpodia and Dafiaghor as a possible cause for tardiness. Not just because it takes
more time to get to school, but according to the authors, the student is susceptible to more
distractions and hindrances along the way. Parent’s untimely tasks and commands are also reasons
that students come late to school. Habitual tardiness can also be learned from other members of the
family, especially from the older ones. Lack of a firm and consistent policy on punctuality also
encourages students to come late to school since there are no consequences attached to lateness or
tardiness. These causes of tardiness will lead to serious effects.

Another study was conducted by Enamiroro Oghuvbu in Nigeria. The objective of the study was to
determine the causes of the absenteeism and lateness among the secondary students in Nigeria and
to seek for solutions to the growing problem. According to Oghuvbu (2008), female students are
more likely to be late than male students because of “their involvement in domestic activities by
their parents”. Also, as cited by Oghuvbu, “distance to school, school discipline, family background
and school location” (Emore, 2005) are some of the common causes for the tardiness of the
secondary students.

Oghuvbu collected the data from a sample size of 17, 417 Nigerian respondents from 2005-2006.
The sample was made up of 20 principals and 50 each from a set of teachers, parents and students.
The means of collecting data was through a thirty-item questionnaire answerable by either strongly
agree (SA), agreed (A), disagree (D), and strongly disagreed (SD). The questionnaire had four
questions, one of which was about the causes of lateness among the secondary students of Nigeria.

The study revealed that the causes of lateness among the secondary students in Nigeria were
“going late to bed because of watching films and home movies, resulting in waking up late in the
morning, distance to school and keeping friends who are not students” (Oghuvbu, 2008). These
results were consistent with the results of Oghuvbu’s referenced studies which proves that tardiness
among students has been a growing problem and that it is caused, not just because of the students,
but also because of the lack of imposing discipline from the parents.

Sometimes, it is not solely the students’ fault for the chronic behavior. Another factor that could
affect the punctuality of a student is the response of the teachers to tardy students. Sprick and
Daniels (2007) stated that the range of the teachers’ response was “from ignoring them to sending
them to office” (p. 21). This variation could lead the students to confusion as to how important it is
to be on time in going to class. Another reason is the lack of motivation. Students who come to
school on time are not given incentives or rewards. Also, responses to tardiness are lenient, that is,
nothing is done until the tenth strike or more. Another reason is “giving the student the impression
that they won’t be missing anything if they are late” since in some classes, no important activities or
instructions and no lessons are being done for first few minutes. Lastly, crowded hallways could
create traffic, thus blocking the way of other students and making it hard for them to pass through.
Background of the study

The purpose why we study the effects of tardiness in the academic performance of SHS in
Binowang National High School is to know the causes of tardiness and how to avoid thus problem
affects their concentration to their academic performance in school and it makes students in getting
lazy in school.
Many senior high school students come late to school and as a result, academic subjects will
be affected as well as the grades, and they will be able to miss classes at it affects their class
performance, that is why every senior high school student should eliminate the cause regarding
A tardy student presents a lack of responsibility. Being tardy all the time to class is a sign of
carelessness and a waste of time. Being on time is not only a duty for students, but also a part of
good manners, respect and reputation. Hence, student should know how to value there and do their
best not to be tardy at all times. Tardiness is not much of an issue for student nowadays, to them it
seems to be a normal thing. Nonetheless, some reasons that cause the tardiness among students can
tell whether it is being committed or not being pressured.
With tardy students entering the school day at abnormal times and potentially missing a
large number of cumulative instructional hours, teachers must divert their attention away from
regular teaching time and towards remediation. Are there negative effects on achievement
generated when one student’s actions empede learning for other classmates?

Statement of the Problem

Generally, the main focus of the study is to know all about the relationship between tardiness and the
academic performance of the senior high school students of Binowang National High School S.Y: 2019-2020.
Specifically, this world attempt to find answer to the following questions.

1. What is the profile of the students in terms of?

a. Age
b. Gender
c. Grade level/section

2. What are the factors for student’s tardiness?

3. How can tardiness affect the student’s academic performance?

The null hypothesis below was tested at 0.05 level of significance:
1. There is no significant relationship between tardiness of students and the academic
2. There is no domain of tardiness that significantly affects student’s academic performance.
3. There is no effects of students tardiness to the academic performance.