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ASPHALT PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE

COMPOSITE: LABORATORY EVALUATION

By I. L. AI-Qadi, 1 Member, ASCE, H. Gouru, 2 and


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R. E. Weyers, 3 Member, ASCE


(Reviewed by the Highway Division)

ABSTRACT: The lack of strain characteristics of rigid pavements and bridge deck
overlays and the susceptibility of flexible pavements and hot-mix asphalt overlays
to abrasion wear. fuel spillage, and stripping suggests the search for a material that
possesses the unique properties of both Portland cement concrete and hot-mix
asphalt such as asphalt-Portland cement concrete composite (APCCC), APCCC is
a hot-mix asphalt with a high air void content (25-30%) filled with resin-modified
cement grout. The grout consists of Portland cement, fly ash, sand, water, and
Prosalvia admixture. The resulting concrete has the properties of both flexible and
rigid concrete. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the performance of
APCCC under control conditions. The program included the following tests: sta-
bility, indirect tensile strength, compressive strength, resilient modulus, water sen-
sitivity, freezing and thawing, and chloride intrusion resistance. The tests were
performed at three levels of moist curing: no moist curing, one-day moist curing,
and three-day moist curing. APCCC specimens were tested over a period of 28
days. The results were compared to those of hot-mix asphalt and Portland cement
concrete control specimens. The study concluded that APCCC strength and du-
rability properties are better than those of hot-mix asphalt. The chloride intrusion
into APCCC specimens was found to be less than that into normal Portland cement
concrete. The study shows that APCCC is an effective alternative material to be
used as a bridge deck overlay.

INTRODUCTION

O v e r 80% of military airport p a v e m e n t s in the U n i t e d States are h o t - m i x


asphalt and usually s u b j e c t e d to s e v e r e a b r a s i o n and fuel spillage. F e d e r a l
Highway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( F H W A ) e s t i m a t e d that 9 3 % of the 2,700,000
kilometers of the p a v e d roads in the U n i t e d States h a v e b i t u m i n o u s surfaces
(Francis 1990). Flexible highway p a v e m e n t s are susceptible to abrasion wear,
fuel spillage, and stripping. T h e stripping p r o b l e m has r e s u l t e d in the in-
troduction of various anti-stripping additives to d e c r e a s e the stripping po-
tential. R e c e n t l y , stone mastic asphalt has b e e n e v a l u a t e d in m a n y states
as a m e a n s to i m p r o v e the overall p e r f o r m a n c e o f flexible p a v e m e n t s . A n -
o t h e r p r o b l e m that m a t e r i a l s ' e n g i n e e r s are facing is c h o o s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e
bridge deck overlays, to r e d u c e the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e
bridge decks due to the c o r r o s i o n o f r e i n f o r c i n g steel caused by chloride
intrusion ( " A A S H T O " 1986).
T h e existing bridge d e c k o v e r l a y s include low s l u m p d e n s e c o n c r e t e , latex
modified c o n c r e t e , microsilica f u m e c o n c r e t e , h o t - m i x asphalt o v e r l a y , and

~Asst. Prof., Civ. Engrg. Dept., Virginia Polytech. Inst. and State Univ., Blacks-
burg, VA 24061-0105.
2Transp. Engrg., Metropolitan Washington Council Government, Washington,
DC 20022-4210.
3Prof., Civ. Engrg. Dept., Virginia Polytech. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg,
VA.
Note. Discussion open until July 1, 1994. To extend the closing date one month,
a written request must be filed with the A S C E Manager of Journals. The manuscript
for this paper was submitted for review and possible publication on November 23,
1992. This paper is part of the Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 120, No.
1, January/February, 1994. 9 ISSN 0733-947X/94/0001-0094/$l.00 + $. 15 per
page. Paper No. 5170.

94

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


preformed membranes overlaid with hot-mix asphalt. Although concrete
overlays possess high strengths, they lack strain characteristics, and have a
high initial cost. In this study, asphalt-Portland cement concrete composite
(APCCC) was evaluated as a cost-effective alternative to conventional and
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modified Portland cement concrete overlays.


APCCC has been used extensively in Europe for the past 30 years. It is,
basically, an open graded hot-mix asphalt with air void contents of 25-30%
filled with resin modified cement grout. Thus, APCCC possesses the unique
properties of both Portland cement concrete and hot-mix asphalt, namely
the flexible characteristics of hot-mix asphalt and wear, abrasion, and fuel
spillage resistance of Portland cement concrete.
APCCC was tested in the United States in the early 1970s by the United
States Army Corps of Engineers at Waterways Experiment Station; how-
ever, no positive results were achieved. Recently, the United States Army
Corps of Engineers at Waterways Experiment Station tested this material
in the field, with technical guidance from the manufacturer, against fuel
spillage and abrasive forces (Ahlrich and Anderton 1991). The field results
indicated good performance and prompted an extensive laboratory inves-
tigation of this material.
In this study, a hot-mix asphalt with an air void content of 25-30% and
a resin modified cement grout mix that can penetrate into the air voids of
the designed hot-mix asphalt were identified. APCCC properties were eval-
uated; the tests included stability and flow, indirect tensile strength, com-
pressive strength, resilient modulus, water sensitivity, durability to freezing
and thawing cycles, and chloride intrusion.

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
Materials
The components of the APCCC are hot-mix asphalt and resin modified
cement grout. For hot-mix asphalt, No. 68 and No. 10 dolomitic limestone
aggregates (gradation is presented in Table 1) and AC-20 asphalt cement
were used. The fine aggregate has a bulk specific gravity of 2.79, apparent
specific gravity of 2.82, and an absorption of 0.7%. The coarse aggregate
has a bulk specific gravity of 2.65, apparent specific gravity of 2.68, and an

TABLE 1. Aggregate Gradation of APCCC Hot-Mix Asphalt


%Passing
No. 68 No. 10 Aggregate
Sieve aggregate aggregate blend
(1) (2) (3) (4)
No. 200 0.0 10.0 1.9
No. 100 0.0 13.0 2.5
No. 50 0.0 16.0 3.0
No. 30 0.0 26.3 5.0
No. 16 0.0 44.7 8.5
No. 8 2.0 55.0 12.0
No. 4 6.0 90.0 22.0
3/8 in. 31.0 100.0 44.0
1/2 in. 59.3 100.0 67.0
3/4 in. 100.0 100.0 100.0
1 in. 100.0 100.0 100.0

95

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


absorption of 0.4%. The blended aggregate has an apparent specific gravity
of 2.71.
The individual components of resin modified cement grout are Portland
cement, fly ash, standard sand, water, and resin admixture. Type I Portland
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cement was used. The resin additive was Prosalvia (PL7), manufactured in
France. The resin additive acts as a strength producing agent and as a water
reducing agent to increase the flow rate of the grout to achieve better
penetration into the hot-mix asphalt.

Job Mix Formula


The job mix formula (JMF) of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) was proportioned
to provide a mixture with maximum density at a desired air void content
range. As the desired air void content is very high, compaction effort must
be low, and a high percentage of coarse aggregates should be used. Preparing
the JMF included the determination of the optimum compaction effort and
optimum asphalt content.
In this study, the aggregate gradation suggested by the resin admixture
manufacturer was used, after being evaluated (see Table 1). A turning base
Marshall compactor was used to prepare the H M A specimens. To achieve
the required air void content, four compaction efforts were tried: 10 blows
on each surface, 15 blows on each surface, 15 blows on only one surface,
and 20 blows on only one surface. The least bulk specific gravity was ob-
tained when a compaction effort of 15 blows from one surface was used.
However, the difference between the air void contents obtained for the
specimens compacted by 15 blows at one surface and that compacted by 10
blows at each surface was insignificant. Therefore, a compaction of 10 blows
at each surface was used throughout the study, as the Marshall procedure
suggests compaction at each surface.
The estimated optimum asphalt content was determined from the follow-
ing empirical formula (Ahlrich and Anderton 1991):
P = (a)(k)(5V'-~) ........................................... (1)
2.65
= . .................................................. (2)
Y
where P = percent of asphalt by weight of aggregate, ",/= apparent specific
gravity of aggregate, k = richness modulus of aggregate, having a value of
3-3.5 depending on the maximum size of aggregate, E = conventional
specific surface area = 0.25G + 2.3S + 12s + 135f, G = percentage of
aggregates retained on 6.3 mm opening sieve, S = percentage of aggregates
passing 6.3-mm opening and retained on No. 50 sieve, s = percentage of
aggregates passing through 50 and retained on 200, and f = percentage of
aggregates passing through No. 200 sieve.
The estimated optimum asphalt content was calculated to be 4.1% by
weight of aggregate. Marshall specimens were prepared using the estimated
optimum asphalt content as well as specimens with asphalt contents of 3.7,
3.9, 4.3, and 4.5%. The optimum asphalt content was selected on the basis
of unit weight, air void content, and voids in mineral aggregates (VMA).
The optimum asphalt content was found to be 4.05% by weight of aggregate
and was used throughout the study. The average bulk specific gravity of
hot-mix asphalt specimens used to prepare APCCC specimens was 1.90,
the maximum theoretical specific gravity was 2.54, the average air void
content was 25.32%, and the average unit weight was 1,900 kg/m>
96

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


TABLE 2. Resin Modified Grout Mix Design
Material % by weight
(1) (2)
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Cement 38.5
Fly ash 19.2
Sand 12.7
Water 26.8
Additive 2.8
[Flow time] 8.1s
[Specific gravity] 1.74

Resin Modified Cement Grout


The grout mixture proportions and properties are presented in Table 2.
The flow time of the grout was determined using marsh flow cone (Ahlrich
and Anderton 1991; A1-Qadi et al. 1993). The flow time of the grout is
defined as the time of a flux of one liter (1,000 mL) of grout through the
marsh flow cone and is expressed in seconds. The flow time of water is 6
s. A flow time between 7 and 9 s is considered acceptable for the grout to
penetrate the hot-mix asphalt under low vibration. A high flow time (too
heavy) grout does not penetrate the hot-mix asphalt completely, while a
low flow time grout does not gain sufficient strength.
To prepare the grout, cement, sand, and fly ash were mixed in dry con-
dition and water was added while mixing. Prosalvia admixture was added
while stirring. The elapsed time after mixing the grout and the determination
of flow time shall not exceed 15 s to avoid any segregation of the components.
The average specific gravity of the grout, from a total of 17 tests, was 1.74,
with a standard deviation of 0.03; the average flow time was found to be
8.1 s with a standard deviation of 0.2. The components of the grout may
be adjusted slightly to obtain a desired flow time.
APCCC Specimen Preparation
Hot-mix asphalt (HMA) specimens were prepared in accordance with the
Marshall method except for the number of blows. Air void contents were
calculated for each specimen by determining the bulk and maximum the-
oretical specific gravities. H M A specimens were then wrapped with duct
tape to contain the liquid grout. Grout was prepared and placed into spec-
imens while it was stirred. Using a vibrating table, specimens were vibrated
during the grout penetration until no bubbles were noticed. A complete
penetration was achieved using this method. The degree of vibration should
not be too high to avoid any segregation of the grout ingredients (A1-Qadi
et al. 1993). After the grout cured for one day, the duct tape was removed
and the air void content was determined for each specimen. The average
unit weight of APCCC specimens was 2,310 kg/m 3 and the average air void
content was 2.2%. The percentage of the hot-mix asphalt air void filled with
grout was 93.0%.
TESTING PROGRAM
To determine the effects of moist curing on the properties of the APCCC
specimens, tests were conducted at three different moist curing periods: no
moist curing, one-day moist curing, and three-day moist curing. Since Port-
land cement concrete gains strength over time, tests were conducted at ages
of 1, 3, 7, and 28 days. The moist curing period, for moist cured specimens,
97

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


was considered part of the total testing period, i.e., a test at 28 days for
three-day moist curing consists of three days of moist curing followed by
air-dry curing for 25 days.
For comparison purposes, wearing surface hot-mix asphalt specimens,
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Virginia SM-5, and normal Portland cement concrete specimens were pre-
pared and tested along with the A P C C C specimens. The aggregate gradation
of SM-5 H M A and their properties are p r e s e n t e d in Tables 3 and 4, re-
spectively. O n e percent filler was replaced with hydrated lime in A P C C C
and SM-5 H M A specimens. Portland cement concrete control specimens

TABLE 3. Aggregate Gradation of SM-5 Hot-Mix Asphalt


Sieve size Percent passing
(1) (2)
No. 200 8.2
No. 100 10.7
No. 50 15.9
No. 30 23.0
No. 16 31.2
No. 8 45.5
No. 4 71.8
3/8 in. 97.4
1/2 in. 100.0

TABLE 4, SM-5 Hot-Mix Asphalt Properties


Category Quantity
(1) (2)
VTM, % 5.4
VMA, % 17.9
VFA, % 69.5
Flow, 0.25 mm 14.7
Unit Weight, kg/m3 2356.0
Asphalt content, % 5.4
Stability, kN 8.7
Indirect tensile strength, kPa 751.0
Water sensitivity tensile strength ratio (TSR), % 87.0
Freeze thaw tensile strength ratio (TSR), % 70.0
Resilient modulus, MPa 2040
Water sensitivity resilient modulus ratio, % 82.9
Freeze thaw resilient modulus ratio, % 67.5

TABLE 5. Portland Cement Concrete Mix Design


Category Quantity
(1) (2)
Portland cement (type I), kg/m3 381.0
Fine aggregate, kg/m 3 71.6
Coarse aggregate, kg/m 3 106.6
Water, L/m 3 165
Air entraining agent (Daravair), ml/m3 256

98

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


TABLE 6. Portland Cement Concrete Properties
Category Quantity
(1) (2)
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Slump, cm 9.0
Unit weight, kg/m3 2370
Air void content, % 6.8
1-day compressive strength, MPa 17.4
7-day compressive strength, MPa 26.9
28-day compressivestrength, MPa 37.0

20

18- ,.o,o,*'e7" Nm•;OIST CURING

I-D_a.AYMOIST CURING
3"D_'D_~AY
MOIST CURINQ I
16-

!I"
.* t"
I CONTROL (8M-8) J

12 e .t iB,.,,~

10"
.,e

1'o l's ~o is 30
CURING TIME (DAYS)
FIG. 1. Stability Results

were air-entrained and their properties are presented in Tables 5 and 6. All
tests were conducted in triplicates at room temperature, about 22~ unless
stated otherwise.
The following tests were performed: Marshall stability and flow (ASTM
D 1559), indirect tensile strength (ASTM D 4123), compressive strength
(ASTM D 1074), resilient modulus (ASTM D 4123), and water sensitivity
analysis (modified Lottman method). Specimens were evaluated for dura-
bility by exposing them to 25 rapid freezing and thawing cycles in accordance
with ASTM C 666 and to chloride intrusion. Specimens prepared for chloride
intrusion evaluation were cured for 28 days before being exposed to salt
solution ponding. Those specimens were exposed to 7, 11, and 15 dry/wet
cycles of three percent (by weight) NaC1 solution. The period of each cycle
was seven days: three days of salt solution ponding and four days of air
drying. A 2.5 mm dike of modeling clay was cemented on top of each
specimen to hold the NaCI solution.

RESULTS
The stability test results for the three moist curing levels of APCCC are
presented in Fig. 1. The results indicate that stability increases with moist
curing time. However, the stability gained between one-day and three-day
moist curing is small compared to the stability gained between no moist
99

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


curing and one-day moist curing. After 28 days, the increase in stability (at
all levels of moist curing) was high compared to SM-5 HMA, which has an
average stability value of 8.7 kN (Table 4). This suggests that the stability
of one-day moist cured APCCC is almost 20% greater than that of HMA
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when tested after three days of casting and greater than twice if tested after
28 days of casting. The flow measurements, on the other hand, did not show
any particular pattern for different curing periods and moist curing levels.
The flow values ranged from 10 to 30. After three days, specimens' flow
values for the three levels of curing were below the maximum allowable
hot-mix asphalt flow; except for three-day moist curing specimens at 28-day
testing, which showed high flow values, averaging 30. The rough circum-
ferences of the APCCC specimens are believed to affect the flow measured
values.
For compressive strength evaluation, specimens were prepared with a
height-to-diameter ratio of one. The specimens were prepared in three
layers, after trial and error, to achieve 25-30% air void content. The spec-
imens were filled with grout in the same way presented earlier. The top
surface was not smooth enough due to the presence of the grout. Therefore,
sulfur capping was used during the compressive strength testing. The results
of the compressive strength tests for the three moist curing levels are pre-
sented in Fig. 2. A compressive strength gain of a factor of three was
observed over the 28-day period for the three moist curing levels. The
difference in compressive strength between the three moist curing levels
over the 28 days was minimal.
Indirect tensile test on cylindrical specimens is both practical and versatile
for determining the hot-mix asphalt properties for pavement response and
performance prediction (Roque and Butler 1991). Tensile strength is related
to thermal and shrinkage cracking resistance and is measured as the max-
imum tensile stress an asphalt paving mixture can withstand. Indirect tensile
strength was determined after 1, 3, 7, and 28 days after preparation of the
APCCC specimens for the three moist curing periods; results are presented
in Fig. 3. The results indicate a minimum difference between one-day and
three-day moist curing compared to the results of no moist curing. The

7000 ,urn -.n.-

,,'"'" N~. OISTCURING


..............................................................................................................
,,; ...... , A,,O,.TOUR,NO

> J J " - - ~ ' - ' ~ -1 ........................ 13-o,Y . o . T ouR,.


5O00
z,
4000 ........................................-~~::..'.....',-] ~l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

it,, -t
3oool ........................ :.~./ ....................................................................................................................

=E
8
1000/ . . . . .
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
CURING TIME (DAYS)
FIG. 2. Compressive Strength Results
100

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


1200 I "'~176
~=O.I.-IM0 IST CURING
/
1100-] ........................................................
::'~:~;;~""~ ,':'S........ :':"['~'~........................................... I~DtY MOIST CURING
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10501 .................................."~I~"St::':'~[~['";';,-':':::''[~'I ........................................................................... DAY MOIST CURING


10oo^l...............................
/ "~.:~ ................................................................................................................
;'= ....................................................................................................... [ CONTROL (5M-6)
.50- ........................ ..........................................................................................................................

.= 9oo- .................7";':/"" ..............................................................................................................................


7
............. ....................................................................................................................................

,,o,
800- ...........)41~-/'' ..................................................................................................................................

750---~,'-' ~ -': -: .......

;'oo ~ 1'o l's :;o :;5 3o


CURING TIME (DAYS)

FIG. 3. Indirect Tensile Strength Results

5000-
CURING
-•_MOIST
~ 4500- I-D__~_AYMOIST CURING

J
4000 SSS"o
Q
O 3500'
I--
z
tu 3000
_a_
w
I1; 2500

D ~ D 0
20O0
o g 1'o 1'5 ~o 25 30
CURING TIME (DAYS)
FIG. 4. Resilient Modulus Results

indirect tensile strength of the no moist curing specimens increased by 25%


over the first 28 days of air curing, while the indirect tensile strength of the
one-day and three-day moist curing increased by almost 60% over the same
period. Although the indirect tensile strength of APCCC specimens was
found to be the same as that of SM-5 H M A when tested after one-day
curing, it increased dramatically over the tested period, illustrated in Fig.
3.
The resilient modulus tests were conducted initially using a Mark II re-
silient modulus device to indicate the stiffness of the material (Mamlouk
and Sarofim 1988). Due to the fact that Poisson's ratio is unknown for this
material and cannot be determined using the Mark II device, an MTS
machine was used to determine the resilient modulus of APCCC specimens
as well as their Poisson's ratios. The average Poisson's ratio for APCCC
101

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


was found to be 0.23. The resilient modulus, at room temperature, of APCCC
was found to be higher than that of SM-5 H M A and increased over time
(Fig. 4). After 28 days, the resilient modulus of APCCC was more than
twice that of SM-5 H M A at the three investigated moist curing levels. The
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difference in resilient modulus between the three moist curing periods was
found to be minimal.
The moisture sensitivity of APCCC was determined using the modified
Lottman method (Parker and Gharaybeh 1988), with the exception that the
SM-5 H M A was not aged before compaction. The indirect tensile strength
results for moisture conditioned and unconditioned specimens are presented
in Fig. 5. The results showed that all tensile strength ratios (TSR) exceeded
0.75 except for the three-day moist curing at 28 days. The no moist curing
specimens showed the highest TSR values followed by the one-day moist

900-
.,.ID..,

n NO-MOIST CURING
v ..................................... --:---7::::::'.,,m
850 ..................................
~'~.......................................... : .......... ::"" ":::"~.............................................. 1-DAY MOIST CURING
I'- ," . . . . . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .. ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . ............................................... III .-ff~.
o
z 9 -OAY M O I S T C U R I N G
tu Bif"~,'//
E 800- ~" C O N T R O L (SM-B)
(/)
UJ
..I

z 7 S O ..................................................................................................................................................................

I--
o
UJ 7~ .................................................................................................................................................................
n-
u
o
zm

6so ~ '5 " io is ~o gs P~ 30


CURING TIME (DAYS)

FIG. 5. Water Sensitivity Results (Indirect Tensile)

4500.

4000

3500-
~ O
-I_~AY
~N_~_MOIST
CURING
MOIST

3-D~AYMOISTCURING
CONTROL(SM-5)
CURING

o
o 3000

z
w 2500"

&O
0c 2000 ................................................................................................................................................................

D C3 D

15oo g 1'o 1's 2'o 2'5 3o


CURING TIME (DAYS)
FIG. 6. Water Sensitivity Results (Resilient Modulus)

102

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


curing specimens. The resilient modulus results for water conditioned and
unconditioned specimens are presented in Fig. 6. All resilient modulus ratios
(RMR) exceeded 80%. The difference in RMR values at different moist
curing levels were insignificant.
Since Portland cement is used as part of the grout, a durability test for
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APCCC should include freezing and thawing. The rapid freezing and thaw-
ing test, ASTM C 666, was used. Temperatures were varied between - 18
and 4~ during a four-hour cycle. The exposure was 25 cycles for each
specimen. This method was considered more appropriate for this material
than the slow freezing and thawing, ASTM C 671, and Texas freeze-thaw
pedestal test (Kennedy et al. 1982). The only modification to the standard
test was the size and shape of the specimen. Slots not filled with APCCC
specimens, in the freezing and thawing machine, were filled with concrete
prisms to assure the accuracy of the test execution.
The susceptibility of APCCC specimens to freezing and thawing was
determined by evaluating the indirect tensile strength and resilient modulus
of conditioned, exposed to freezing and thawing, and unconditioned spec-
imens. The results of the freezing and thawing effect on the indirect tensile
strength and resilient modulus are presented in Figs. 7 and 8, respectively~
A significant effect of the 25 freezing and thawing cycles after seven days
curing was observed. The indirect tensile strength was reduced by 20-25%
for all tested specimens, while the resilient modulus of conditioned speci-
mens was reduced by almost 50%. It must be noted that specimen surfaces
were rough after the freezing and thawing exposure, which may have af-
fected the indirect tensile strength and resilient modulus measurements.
For chloride intrusion, at the end of the dry/wet cycles period, specimens
were cut into quarters and grout was extracted at two depths from the top
surface; 19 mm (between 6 mm and 32 mm) and 44 mm (between 32 mm
and 57 mm). At least three grams of powdered grout was collected from
each depth and stored in labeled plastic containers. Extreme care was taken
during the grout extraction to avoid collecting any asphalt cement or pow-
dered aggregate. Asphalt cement contains chemicals that may influence the
readings of the specific ion probe used to measure CI- in the grout. The

850 I ...m,-
... "i-M~176
.oo :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::" .............
..............C*"..................I
.............................................................................................................

Z , , o .............................. ............................................................................................ ......................- - ~


7 0 0 .............. ~ " / " ............................... ,.,~:::::::::'..2JJJJ ............................................................................
[ CONTROL (SM,,S)
~':i ........... ..............
650...................................................................................................................................................................
Z
600................................................................................................................................................................
ig
550..................................................................................................................................................................

5OO
o g 1'o l's 2'0 ~s 30
CURING TIME (DAYS)

FIG. 7. Freezing and Thawing Effects (Indirect Tensile)

103

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


22t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NO-MOI
. . . . . . . .S. .T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CURING

.....................................................................
ii i i iiiii i . . . . . . . :,.o,,,oo-
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2200t ....~ ..............................................~D .-._.~.A..V.c.o.m C


..R U
..oR
.L.N
M
I..G
.O.a.T..
2000.............................................................................................................................................
(sM.s)

1600.............................................................................................................................................................
t
El:
1400- , , , , ,

1200
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
CURING TIME (DAYS)

FIG. 8. Freezing and Thawing Effects (Resilient Modulus)

specific ion probe is sensitive to some chemicals such as B r - , O H - , I - ,


and S-. Similarly, powdered mortar was drilled and collected from the
Portland cement concrete specimens in order to compare the chloride in-
trusion of the two materials.
The existing A A S H T O T-260-84 method to analyze chloride content is
time-consuming. Simpler methods including nondestructive and destructive
techniques are in use. Nondestructive methods such as dual neutron-gamma
ray and neutron-gamma ray spectroscopy are available, but require expe-
rienced scientists to calibrate and skilled labor to operate in addition to
their high cost (Herald et al. 1992). Destructive methods such as specific
ion probe, argentometric digital titrator, spectrophotometer, gas chromato-
graph, quantab titrator strips, and x-ray fluorescence are available in the
market. An extensive study conducted at Virginia Tech concluded that
specific ion probe is cheaper, easier, and produces results similar to those
obtained by A A S H T O T-260-84 method (Herald et al. 1992). Thus, this
method was used to analyze the chloride content in this study.
The calibration of the specific ion probe involves using five known con-
centrations of sodium chloride ions such as 0.001, 0.003, 0.03, 0.06, and
0.125%. Voltmeter readings were obtained for these known concentrations
and a regression equation was obtained, between millivolt readings and
known concentrations, and is presented in (3):
[ 10(-0'1755X+2"867833) -- 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3)
Y1 = 300

where Y1 = measured chloride content, percent, and X = millivolt reading,


mW.
The values were compared with those obtained using A A S H T O T-260-
84 method and the following correlation was obtained to predict the chloride
percentages (R 2 = 99.9%):

}12 = 1.468561Y1 + 0.008807 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4)


104
J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.
where Y2 = predicted chloride content according to A A S H T O method,
percent, and Y~ = measured chloride content using specific ion probe,
percent.
The percentages of the chloride ions were converted to kilograms per
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cubic meter. The specific gravity of resin grout is 1.742, and unit weight is
1,742 kg/m 3. Thus, to convert the percentage of chloride ions into kilograms
per cubic meter of the grout, the percent chloride content should be mul-
tiplied by 17.42.
However, the sample was extracted from the grout, which was only 25.3%
of the mixture. Thus, to obtain the amount of chlorides per cubic volume
of APCCC, the conversion factor should be multiplied by 25.3%. The mul-
tiplier for the Portland cement concrete was found to be 22.18 to convert
to kilograms per cubic meter.
The background chloride in all three moist cured A P C C C specimens was
found to be 0.036 kg/m 3 and in the Portland cement concrete (PCC) was
found to be 0.12 kg/m 3. The chloride content, at the end of the dry/wet
cycles period, of A P C C C specimens at two depths, 19 m m and 44 mm, from
the surface and those of PCC are presented in Tables 7 and 8, respectively.
The values presented in Tables 7 and 8 are the predicted chloride ion content
in the specimens after applying the corresponding correction factor. The
results are also illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10.
The results indicate that the resistance of A P C C C to chloride intrusion
was higher than that of PCC. After seven dry/wet ponding cycles, the chlo-
ride content of A P C C C at 19 m m and 44 m m were 0.40 and 0.28 kg/m 3,

TABLE 7. Chloride Content at Various Depths for APCCC

Ponding Moist Chloride Content (kg/m3) a


(cycle curing Average STD at Average STD at
number) (days) at 19 mm 19 mm at 44 mm 44 mm
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
7 None 0.40 0.19 0.28 0.15
7 1 0.37 0.24 0.10 0.04
7 3 0.42 0.42 0.18 0.06
11 None 0.65 0.58 0.34 0:14
11 1 0.61 0.47 0.26 0.24
11 3 0.26 0.17 0.08 0.04
15 None 1.54 0.49 1.23 0.48
15 1 1.05 0.55 0.30 0.08
15 3 1.09 0.45 0.24 0.17
aBackground chloride content for APCCC is 0.036 kg/m3.

TABLE 8. Chloride Content at Various Depths for PCC

Pondings Chloride content (kg/m3) ~


(cycle number) 19 mm 38 mm
(1) (2) (3)
7 0.47 0.30
11 1.31 0.47
15 2.37 0.89
"Background chloride content for PCC is 0.12 kg/m3.

t05

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


2,5
9 ,.,liB-,*,
N2~MOISTCURING
5 2.0- 2'"O"TCUR'NG I
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~)AY MOISTCURING
I--
zul 1.5-
I CONTROL(PCC) [
i--
z
o
u
111 1.O-
Q

o, ..............If-'-'~' ~.......... i ........


o.5
o

0.C
7 /3 g io ~'1 1'2 1'3 1',~ 15
TIME OF SALT APPLICATION (WEEKS)

FIG. 9. Chloride Content at 19 mm from Surface

i!2m_'-iMOISTCURING
2AY MOISTCURING
oi .................................................................................................................................
~_~._DAYMOISTCURING
. . . . .

0.8- CONTROL(PCC) I
Z
0 0.6-
0
I11
0.4-
o
o

O.C
7 g ~ io 1'1 17 ia i4 is
TIME OF SALT APPLICATION (WEEKS)

FIG. 10. Chloride Content at 44 mm from Surface

respectively, for no moist curing; 0.37 and 0.10 kg/m 3, respectively, for one-
day moist curing; and 0.42 and 0.18 kg/m 3, respectively, for three-day moist
curing, whereas for PCC, the values were 0.47 and 0.30 kg/m 3 at 19 mm
and 44 mm, respectively. This can be explained by the low permeability of
APCCC, which has only 2.2% air voids compared to PCC, which has 6.8%
air voids.
The results also indicate that the chloride intrusion in APCCC decreases
with the increase in moist curing; especially after 11 dry/wet cycles of pond-
ing. The values (at 11 dry/wet cycles of ponding) at 19 and 44 mm from
surface were 0.65 and 0.34 kg/m 3 for no moist curing, 0.62 and 0.26 kg/m 3
for one-day moist curing, and 0.26 and 0.08 kg/m 3 for three-day moist curing,
respectively. However, a long time of moist curing may adversely affect the
hot-mix asphalt and cause a potential future stripping.
106

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


The discrepancy in the chloride content values of APCCC may be ex-
plained by the presence of small amounts of asphalt cement in the drilled
powder of the grout, despite the utmost care taken to avoid that. However,
the results still show that APCCC is effective in reducing the intrusion of
chlorides.
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The study shows that one-day moist curing specimens perform, in general,
better than the ones without moist curing. This can be explained by the
water requirement of Portland cement, in the cement grout, during the
hydration process. Although tested properties of three-day moist curing
shows a little more improvement over the one-day moist curing, this im-
provement may not be that crucial considering economic and time factors.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


A laboratory investigation of asphalt-Portland cement concrete composite
(APCCC) was initiated to study its properties. The laboratory testing pro-
gram included stability and flow, indirect tensile strength, compressive
strength, resilient modulus, water sensitivity, freezing and thawing, and
chloride intrusion. APCCC specimens were evaluated over a period of 28
days and cured for three different moist curing levels: no moist curing, one-
day moist curing, and three-day moist curing. The study found that all tested
properties showed dramatic improvement compared to a typical hot-mix
asphalt wearing surface.
No studies have been conducted to investigate the potential of APCCC
as a corrosion abatement technique. In this study, the material was evaluated
for its effectiveness in reducing chloride intrusion. The study concluded that
APCCC reduces the intrusion of chloride ions by two to three times com-
pared to those of Portland cement concrete, except for those of no moist
curing.
This investigation concluded that APCCC has the potential to be used
as a bridge deck overlay due to its low air void content, which should protect
bridge decks from chloride intrusion. This study recommends that APCCC
be moist cured for one day to assure the hydration of Portland cement in
the grout and thus achieve better performance.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The research described herein was supported by the Strategic Highway
Research Program (SHRP). This paper represents the views of the writers
only, and is not necessarily reflective of the views of the National Research
Council, the views of SHRP, or SHRP's sponsor. The results reported here
are not necessarily in agreement with the results of other SHRP research
activities. They are reported to stimulate review and discussion within the
research community.

APPENDIXl. REFERENCES
"AASHTO, FHWA, TRB, NCHRP, and SHRP--research plans." (1986). Final
Report TRA 4-1-60. Technical Research Area 4, Transportation Research Board,
Washington, D.C.
Ahlrich, R. C., and Anderton, G. L. (1991). "Construction and evaluation of resin
modified pavement." Final Report No. GL-91-13, U.S. Army of Engineers, Water-
ways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., 46.
AI-Qadi, I. L., Prowell, B. D., Weyers, R. E., Dutta, T., Gouru, H., and Berke,
N. (1993). "Concrete Bridge Protection and Rehabilitation: Chemical and Physical
107

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.


Techniques, Corrosion lnhibitors and Polymers." Report No. SHRP-S-666, SHRP,
National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 248.
Francis, F. B. (1990). "Hot-mix asphalt in practice in the United States." AASHTO
Quarterly, 69(2), 13.
Herald, S. E., Henry, M., AI-Qadi, I. L., Weyers, R. E., Feeney, M. A., and
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HowLum, S. F. (1992). "Condition evaluation of concrete bridges relative to


reinforced corrosion, volume 6: method for field determination of total chloride
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National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 155.
Kennedy, T. W., Roberts, F. L., and Lee, K. W. (1982). "Evaluation of mixture
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Mamlouk, M. S., and Sarofim, R. T. (1988). "Modulus of asphalt mixturesan un-
resolved dilemma." Asphalt Materials and Mixtures, Transportation Research Re-
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ParkeL F. Jr., and Gharaybeh, F. A. (1988). "Evaluation of tests to assess stripping
potential of asphalt concrete mixtures." Asphalt Materials and Mixtures, Trans-
portation Research Record, 1171, 18-26.
Reynaldo, R., and Butler, W. G. (1992). "The development of a measurement and
analysis system to accurately determine the asphalt concrete properties using the
indirect tensile mode." J. Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 61, 304-
332.

108

J. Transp. Eng. 1994.120:94-108.

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