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Review of Literature

The role of parental expectations in affecting children's academic development has

received considerable attention from psychologists and sociologists over the last half

century. Overall, parental expectations were found to play an important role in children's

academic achievement. Students whose parents hold high expectations receive higher

scores, achieve higher scores on standardized tests, and continue longer in school than

parents do. which is relatively low (Davis-Kean 2005; Pearce 2006; Vartanian et al.

2007). Parental expectations are also linked to student motivation to achieve in school,

scholarship and social excellence, and the desire to attend college (Hossler and Stage

1992; Peng and Wright 1994; Reynolds 1998). Furthermore, the expectation of

academic parents mediates the relationship between family background and

achievement, and high parental expectations also appear to mitigate the influence of

low teacher expectations on achievement of students (Benner and Mistry 2007; Zhan


Yager, H. (n.d.). The Effects of Communication Styles on Marital Satisfaction. Retrieved from


Giftedness has often been equated with being academically talented or being a high

achiever in in school. Now there is growing concern about those gifted students who

could be described as unmotivated and underachieving in one or many academic areas.

Parents and teachers who have observed the exceptional potential of these youngsters

become intensely frustrated in efforts to increase the students' achievement, motivation

and self-discipline. The purposes of this article are to help parents and teachers in
understanding the nature and causes of underachievement, and to show them how to

work more effectively with underachieving gifted students. The information and

guidelines provided will be helpfulin preventing as well as reversing student patterns of

attitude and behavior.

Whitmore, J. R. (1986, April 1). Understanding a Lack of Motivation to Excel. Retrieved from


Their present study is among the first to integrate SDT research with research on

teacher expectations. By integrating these two perspectives, they were able to show

that teacher expectations affected need-supportive teaching and thereby students’

motivation and behavioural engagement. The findings of their present study highlighted

the value of taking teacher expectations into account to gain an understanding of how

motivation of all students can be fostered through need-supportive teaching.

Hornstra, L., Stroet, K., Eijden, E. van, Goudsblom, J., & Roskamp, C. (2018, December 12). Teacher

expectation effects on need-supportive teaching, student motivation, and engagement: a self-

determination perspective. Retrieved from