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DISCRETE TIME SIGNAL


EXAM IT ELX COMP EXTC INSTRU

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AVERAGE

DiGiTAL SiGNAL PROCESSING


By
☯ Kiran Talele
1. DISCRETE TIME SIGNALS

1.1 DT Signal Basics


Q(1) Determine whether the following DT signals are periodic or not. If periodic find the period.
π
(a) x[n] = cos ( 0.3 π n ) b) x[n] = cos( 0.3 π n + )
6
1 nπ nπ
c) x[n] = cos ( 0.3 π n ) + cos ( 6 π n ) d) x[n] = cos ( 4 ) cos ( )
8
π π π π
e) x[n] = cos ( n ) – sin ( n ) + 3 cos (n + )
2 8 4 3
ANS : a) Periodic with N = 20 b) Periodic with N = 20
c) Periodic with N = 60 d) Periodic with N = 16 e) Periodic with N = 16

Solution :
(a) x[n] = cos ( 0.3 π n )

Let x[n] = cos( 2πf n) = cos ( 0.3 π n )


So, 2πf n = 0.3 π n
0.3 3 k
∴ f = = =
2 20 N
Here digital frequency f is rational number.
So, x[n] is periodic with period N = 20.
π
(b) x[n] = cos( 0.3 π n + )
6
π
Let x[n] = cos( 2πf n+ φ) = cos ( 0.3 π n + )
6
So, 2πf n = 0.3 π n
0.3 3 k
∴ f = = =
2 20 N
Here digital frequency f is rational number.
So, x[n] is periodic with period N = 20.

1
© x[n] = cos ( 0.3 π n ) + cos ( 6πn)
Let x[n] = x1[n] + x2[n]
Where 1. x1[n] = cos ( 0.3 π n ) = cos( 2πf1 n)

So, 2πf1 n = 0.3 π n


0. 3 3 k
∴ f1 = = =
2 20 N 2
Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele
Here digital frequency f1 is rational number.
So, x1[n] is periodic with period N1 = 20.
1
2. x2[n] = cos ( 6 π n ) = cos( 2πf2 n)

1
So, 2πf2 n = 6 π n
1 k
∴ f2 = =
12 N
Here digital frequency f2 is rational number.
So, x1[n] is periodic with period N2 = 12.

3. Since x1[n] is periodic and x2[n] is periodic,


X[n] is periodic with period N = LCM { N1 , N2 }
So, N = LCM { 20, 12 } = 60

nπ nπ
(d) x[n] = cos ( 4 ) cos ( 8 )
Let x[n] = cos(A) cos(B) = ½ { COS (A+B ) + COS(A-B) }
nπ nπ nπ nπ
X[n] = ½ { COS ( 4 + 8 ) + COS ( 4 - 8 ) }
3π n πn
X[n] = ½ { COS ( ) + COS ( )}
8 8
Let x[n] = ½ { x1[n] + x2[n] }
3π n
(i) x1[n] = COS ( ) = cos( 2πf1 n)
8
3 k
∴ f1 = 16 = N ⇐ rational number
1
So x1[n] is periodic with period N1 = 16
πn
(ii) x2[n] = COS ( ) = cos( 2πf2 n)
8
1 k
∴ f 2 = 16 = N ⇐ rational number
2
So x2[n] is periodic with period N2 = 16

3. Since x1[n] is periodic and x2[n] is periodic,


X[n] is periodic with period N = LCM { N1 , N2 }
So, N = LCM { 16, 16 } = 16

Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele 3


Q(2) Determine which of the following sinusoids are periodic and compute
their fundamental period.
⎛ 30 n ⎞ ⎛ 62n ⎞
(a) cos 0.01π n (b) cos ⎜ π ⎟ (c) cos 3π n (d) sin 3n (e) sin ⎜ π ⎟
⎝ 105 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠
Solution :
1
(a) x[n] = cos 0.01π n = cos( 2πf n) ∴ f = ⇐ rational no.
200
X[n] is periodic with period N = 200
⎛ 30 n ⎞ 30 1
(b) x[n]= cos ⎜ π ⎟ = cos( 2πf n) ∴ f = = ⇐ rational no.
⎝ 105 ⎠ 210 7
X[n] is periodic with period N = 7
3
(c) x[n] = cos 3π n = cos( 2πf n) ∴ f = ⇐ rational no.
2
X[n] is periodic with period N = 2
3
(d) x[n] = sin 3n = sin ( 2πf n) ∴ f = ⇐ NOT rational no.

X[n] is NOT periodic.
⎛ 62n ⎞ 31
(e) X[n] = sin ⎜ π ⎟ = sin ( 2πf n) ∴ f = ⇐ rational no.
⎝ 10 ⎠ 10
X[n] is periodic with period N = 10

∞ ∞ ∞
Q(3) Show that ∑ x 2 [n] = ∑ x e2 [n] + ∑x o2 [n]
n=–∞ n=–∞ n=–∞

Solution :
For any DT sequence, x [n] = xe[n] + x0[n]
∞ ∞
∑ | x[n] |2 = ∑ | xe [ n] + xo [ n] | 2
n = −∞ n = −∞

= ∑ | xe2 [n] + xo2 [n] + 2 xe [n] xo [n] |
n = −∞
But xe [n] ⋅ xo [n] = 0
∞ ∞
∑ | x[n] |2 = ∑ | xe2 [n] + x02 [n] |
n = −∞ n = −∞

∞ ∞ ∞
∑ x 2 (n ) = ∑ x e2 (n) + ∑ x 02 (n) Proved
n =−∞ n =−∞ n =−∞

4
Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele
Q(4) If x[n] = 0 for n < 0, derive an expression for x[n] in terms of its
even part xe[n]. [ Comp-May-2006 ]

Solution :

For example consider x[n] = { 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1 } causal signal


Then
x[–n] = { 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0 }

xe[n] = {0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 }

We can write,

⎡2x e [n ] For n > 0⎤


x[n ] = ⎢⎢ x e [n ] For n = 0⎥⎥
⎢⎣ 0 For n < 0⎥⎦

i.e. x[n] = 2 xe [n] u [n] – xe [n] δ [n]

Q(5) Show that any arbitrary signal x[n] can be decomposed into its even part and odd part of the
signal components. ie. x[n] = xe[n] + xo[n]

Solution :

x[n] x[n]
Solution : Let x[n] = +
2 2
x[− n]
Adding and Subtracting we get,
2
x[n] x[n] x[− n] x[− n]
x[n] = + + −
2 2 2 2

⎡ x[n] x[−n] ⎤ ⎡ x[n] x[−n] ⎤


x[n] = ⎢ + + −
⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦

x[n] = xe [n] + xo [n]

Q(6) Show that for any arbitrary signal x[n],


⎡ x[n] + x[−n] ⎤ ⎡ x[n] − x[−n] ⎤
(i) x e [n] = ⎢ ⎥ (ii) x 0 [n] = ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦

Solution :

Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele 5


x[n] x[n]
Let x[n] = +
2 2
x[−n]
Adding and Subtracting we get,
2
x[n] x[n] x[−n] x[−n]
x[n] = + + −
2 2 2 2
⎡ x[n] x[−n] ⎤ ⎡ x[n] x[−n] ⎤
x[n] = ⎢ + + −
⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦
x[n] = xe [n] + xo [n] ----(1)

Put n = –n
x[−n] = xe [−n] + x o [−n] ----(2)

From the basic definition of even and odd signals we can write,
xe[n] = xe[–n] and x0[n] = – x0[–n]

By substituting in (2) we get, x[−n] = x e [n] − x o [n] ----(3)

⎡ x[n] + x[−n] ⎤
By adding eq(1) & eq(3) we get, x e [ n] = ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦

⎡ x[n] − x[−n] ⎤
By subtracting eq(3) from eq(1) we get, x 0 [ n] = ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦

Q(7) Prove that the auto correlation sequence at zero lag has highest magnitude with
respect to magnitude at any other lag.

Solution :

Autocorrelation of DT signal x[n] is defined as,


+∞
y[n] = ∑ x[m] x[m − n]
m= − ∞
+∞ +∞
At n = 0, y[0] = ∑ x[m] x[m] =
m= − ∞
∑x
m= − ∞
2
[ m] ………..(I)
+∞
Energy of the signal is defined as E = ∑x
m= − ∞
2
[m] …….(II)

From equation (I) and (II) y[0]= E That means, Autocorrelation sequence at zero
lag gives energy of the signal. That is the max value.

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Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele
1.2 Sampling
Q(8) Consider the analog signal x(t) = 3 cos (100 πt)
(a) Determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid
aliasing.
(b) Suppose that the signal is sampled at Fs = 200 Hz. What is the DT signal
obtained after sampling.
(c) Suppose that the signal is sampled at Fs = 75 Hz. What is the DT signal
obtained after sampling
π 2π
ANS : a) Min Fs = 100 Hz b) x[n] = 3 cos(n 2 ) c) x[n] = 3 cos(n )
3
Solution :
(a) To find minimum Fs
x(t) = 3 cos (100 πt) = 3 cos (a πF t) where F = 50 Hz
Min Sampling frequency Fs = 2 Fmax = 100 Hz

(b) To find DT signal


Put t = nTs = n/Fs = n/200
n
X[nTs] = 3 cos (100 π )
200
X[n] = 3 cos (0.5 π n)

(c) To find DT signal


Put t = nTs = n/Fs = n/75
n
X[nTs] = 3 cos (100 π )
75

X[n] = 3 cos ( n )
3

X[n] = 3 cos ( n )
3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q(9) Consider the signal, x(t) = 3 cos(50 π t) + 10 sin(300 π t) – cos(100 π t)


(a) If the signal is sampled with Fs = Nyquist rate, What will be the DT signal
obtained after sampling.
(b) If ideal interpolation is used, what will be the reconstructed analog signal?

π π
ANS : i) x[n] = 3 cos(n ) + 10 sin(n π ) – cos(n )
6 3
ii) x’(t) = 3 cos(50 π t) + 10 sin(300 π t) – cos(100 π t)

Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele 7


Solution :

(a) To find DT signal

Now, x(t) = 3 cos(50 π t) + 10 sin(300 π t) – cos(100 π t)


Let x(t) = 3 cos( 2 π F1 t) + 10 sin( 2 π F2 t) – cos( 2 π F3 t)
Where F1 = 25 Hz F2 = 150 Hz F3 = 50 Hz Here Fmax = 150 Hz
Nyquist rate Fs = 2 Fmax = 300 Hz
n n
Put t = nTs = =
Fs 300
n n n
x[n] = 3 cos(50 π ) + 10 sin(300 π ) – cos(100 π
300 300 300 )
π π
x[n] = 3 cos(n ) + 10 sin(n π ) – cos(n )
6 3

(b) To find reconstructed signal


Put n = t Fs = 300 t
π π
X’(t) = 3 cos( 300 t ) + 10 sin( 300 t π ) – cos( 300 t )
6 3
x’(t) = 3 cos(50 π t) + 10 sin(300 π t) – cos(100 π t)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q(10) Consider the signal, x(t) = 3 cos(50 π t) + 10 sin(300 π t) – cos(100 π t)
(a) If the signal is sampled with Fs = 200 Hz, What will be the DT signal
obtained after sampling. (b) If ideal interpolation is used, what will be the
reconstructed analog signal?
π π π
ANS : (a) x[n] = 3 cos(n ) - 10 sin(n ) – cos(n )
4 2 2
(b) x’(t) = 3 cos(50 π t) - 10 sin(100 π t) – cos(100 π t)
Solution :
(c) To find DT signal
n n
Put t = nTs = =
Fs 200
n n n
x[n] = 3 cos(50 π ) + 10 sin(300 π ) – cos(100 π
200 200 200 )
π π π
x[n] = 3 cos(n ) - 10 sin(n ) – cos(n )
4 2 2

(d) To find reconstructed signal


Put n = t Fs = 200 t
π π
X’(t) = 3 cos(2 00 t π ) + 10 sin( 200 t ) – cos( 200 t )
4 2 2
x’(t) = 3 cos(50 π t) - 10 sin(100 π t) – cos(100 π t)
8
Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele
Q(11) x(t) = 7 cos(250 π t). Determine the different analog signals that
gives samples identical to that obtained by sampling x(t) with
Fs = 200 Hz.
ANS : Hint Any signal with Fk = F + k Fs gives signal with
identical samples.
i) x0(t) = 7 cos(250 π t) ii) x1(t) = 7 cos(650 π t) iii) x2(t) = 7 cos(1050 π t)

Solution :
Let x(t) = 7 cos ( 250 π t ) = 7 cos( 2 π F t) where F = 125 Hz.

Any signal with Fk = F + k Fs gives signal with identical samples

i) For k = 0, F0 = F = 125
x0(t) = 7 cos(2 π F0 t) = 7 cos( 250 π t )
ii) For k =1, F1 = F + Fs = 325
x1(t) = 7 cos(2 π F1 t) = 7 cos( 650 π t )
iii) For k = 2, F2 = F + 2 Fs = 525
x3(t) = 7 cos(2 π F3 t) = 7 cos( 1050 π t)
etc…..
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q(12) x(t) = sin(480 π t) + 3 sin(720 π t) is sampled with Fs = 600 times per seconds.
(a) Determine the Nyquist rate.
(b) Determine the folding Frequency.
(c) What are the Frequencies in radians in the resulting DT signal x[n] ?
(d) If x[n] is passed through an ideal DAC what is the reconstructed signal.


ANS : a) Fs = 720 Hz b) Fo = 300 Hz c) f = d) x’[t] = -2 sin ( 480 π t)
5
Solution :
(a) To find Nyquist rate.
Now, x(t) = sin(480 π t) + 3 sin(720 π t)
Let Let x(t) = sin ( 2 π F1 t) + 3 sin( 2 π F2 t)
where F1= 240 Hz and F2=360 Hz
Nyquist rate Fs = 2 Fmax = 720 Hz

(b) To find Folding frequency


Folding frequency Fo = Fs/2 = 300 Hz

(c) To find DT Signal frequencies


n n
Put t = nTs = =
Fs 600
Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele 9
n n
x[n] = sin (480 π ) + 3 sin(300 π
600 600 )
⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛ 6π ⎞
x[n] = sin ⎜ n ⎟ + 3sin ⎜ n ⎟
⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠
x [ n ] = sin (0 . 8 π n ) + 3 sin (1 . 2 π n )
x [ n ] = sin (0 . 8 π n ) + 3 sin (− 0 . 8 π n )
x [ n ] = sin (0 . 8 π n ) − 3 sin (0 . 8 π n )
x [ n ] = − 2 sin (0 . 8 π n ) = – 2 sin ( n w)
Where digital frequency w = 0.8π rad.

(d) To find reconstructed CT signal


Put n = t Fs = 600 t
X’(t) = –2 sin (0.8 π 6 00 t)
X’(t) = –2 sin (480 π t )
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q(13) Consider the analog signal x(t) = 3 sin (100 π t)


a) The signal x(t) is sampled with a sampling frequency Fs = 300 samples/sec.
Determine the frequency of the DT signal x[n] and show that x[n] is periodic.
b) Find the sampling rate Fs such that the signal x[n] reaches its peak value of 3.
What is the minimum Fs suitable for this task ?

ANS : a) f = 1/ 6 b) Fs = 200 Hz

Solution :
(a) To find DT Signal frequencies
n n
Put t = nTs = =
Fs 300
n
x[n] = 3 sin (100 π
300 )
⎛ π ⎞
x[n] = 3 sin ⎜ n ⎟
⎝ 3⎠
Let x[n] = 3 sin ( n w )

Where w = π = 2π f
3
1 k
So f = 6 = N
Digital frequency f is rational number,
Therefore x[n] is periodic with period N = 6

10
Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele
(b) To find Fs

Now, x(t) = 3 sin (100 π t)


n
Put t = nTs =
Fs
n
x[n] = 3 sin (100 π
Fs )
Let x[n] reaches peak value of 3 at n=1
⎛ 100π ⎞
X[n] = 3 sin ⎜ Fs ⎟ = 3
⎝ ⎠
⎛ 100π ⎞
sin ⎜ Fs ⎟ = 1
⎝ ⎠
At w = π/2, sin() = 1
100π π
∴ =
Fs 2
Fs = 200 Hz
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q(14) A digital communication link carries binary coded words representing
samples of an input signal.
Xa (t) = 3 cos (600 πt) + 2 cos (1000 πt)
The link is operated at 10000 bits/s and each input sample is quantized into
1024 different voltage levels.
(a) What is sampling and folding frequency ?
(b) What is the nyquist rate for Xa (t)?
(c) What are the frequency in the resulting discrete time signal x(n) ?
(d) What is the resolutions Δ?

ANS : a) Fs = 1000 Hz and Fo = 500 Hz b) FN = 1000 Hz c) f1 = 0.3 and f2 = 0.5


d) Δ = 10 / 1024
Solution :

(a) To find sampling frequency and folding frequency

The link is operated at 10000 bits/s and


So Bit rate is 10000 bps.
Each input sample is quantized into 210 = 1024 different voltage levels.
That means each sample is digitized into 10 bits.

No of samples = Sampling Frequency Fs= 1000 Hz

Folding frequency Fo = Fs/2 = 500 Hz


Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele 11
(b) To find Nyquist Rate

Xa (t) = 3 cos (600 πt) + 2 cos (1000 πt)


Let xa(t) = 3 cos( 2 π F1 t) + 2 cos( 2 π F2 t)
Where F1= 300 Hz and F2 = 500 Hz.
Fmax = 500 Hz.

Nyquist Rate FNyquist = 2 Fmax = 1000 Hz.

(c) To find DT Signal frequencies


n n
Put t = nTs = =
Fs 1000
n n
x[n] = 3 cos ( 600 π
1000 ) + 2 cos (1000 π 1000 )
x[n] = 3 cos ( 0.6π n ) + 2 cos (nπ )
x[n] = 3 cos ( n w1 ) + 2 cos (n w2 )
Where w1 = 0.6 π and w2 = π

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Digital Signal Processing by Kiran Talele

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