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SPE 90829

Transition Time of Cement Slurries, Definitions and Misconceptions, Related to


Annular Fluid Migration
Murray J. Rogers, SPE, Robert L. Dillenbeck, SPE and Ramy N. Eid, SPE, BJ Services Company

Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.


that the cement will transmit gas.
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition held in Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 26–29 September 2004.
This paper will establish a definition for cement transition
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
time and discuss the misconception of only using gel strength
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to development to control gas migration. Test data that exhibits
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at gas tight slurries with long transition and those with short
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
transition that allowed gas influx will be shown. Also
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is discussed in the paper will be the advantages of cements with
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to a proposal of not more than 300
words; illustrations may not be copied. The proposal must contain conspicuous a short transition in controlling high-pressure water flows.
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.
Introduction
The control of annular gas migration after cementing has been
Abstract the subject of many studies and papers 1-6. These include
Transition time of cement slurries is a term that has been used practical approaches, theoretical approaches, mathematical
throughout the oil industry for many years. During this time, modeling and physical modeling, each concentrating on one or
the term has been defined, redefined and misused to cover a two specific causes of gas migration. The one thing that all
wide range of cementing topics. This has led to numerous these studies have in common is the fact that they all present
misconceptions and confusion as to what transition time really valid conclusions, and although beneficial, have all failed in
means. For many years, this term has been directly tied to the field applications at one time or another. These failures
term right-angle-set, which relates to the speed in which illustrate that although we have learned a great deal about the
slurries undergoing continuous shear go from a pumpable to a causes and prevention of gas migration, there is still a lot to
non-pumpable state. Once pumping is stopped, the profile of learn. However, before we can progress, we need to make
how cement transition from a liquid, to a gel, to a set cement sure that we understand and are using the preferred
changes. These changes can directly affect the performance of nomenclature.
cement slurries to control fluid migration.
The term transition time has been used to refer to the dynamic
With the advent of the Ultrasonic Cement Analyzer (UCA), set profile of cement slurries as exhibited on a pressurized
the term ”transition time” of cement slurries was redefined. consistometer. In other words, slurries that provided a short
UCA’s have developed into an essential piece of equipment. transition time were those which demonstrated what is
Not only can they achieve compressive strength information, referred to as a “right angle set” on a thickening time chart.
but the apparatus can also provide a continuous measurement Fig. 1 illustrates what is meant by right angle set. By
of how cement sets in static state. This information has definition a “right angle set” is one in which the viscosity of a
shortened wait on cement (WOC) time, and provides an slurry remains relatively low through a majority of the test and
excellent profile on how fast cement develops strength. then rapidly sets in a 20 to 45-minute time frame to more than
However, the transducers in a standard UCA only provide 70 Beardon Units of Consistency (Bc)4. Work performed in
information after the cement develops a compressive strength 1993 by Mueller 7 demonstrated that the set profile during a
set. With improvement in computerization and transducers, a dynamic-state event is not representative of the way that some
more sensitive evaluation of gel strength development can be cement slurries will develop gel forces under static conditions .
studied. Most slurries are designed to provide thickening times in the
range of 4 hours, when the actual job time may be less than 1
Another definition for transition time is the use of a static gel hour. Slurries that exhibit a right angle set after 4 hours in a
strength (SGS) analyzer to measure the time from which dynamic test, may demonstrate a different profile if placed
cement goes from 100 lbf/100 sq. ft (48 Pa) to 500 lbf/100 under static conditions 1 hour into the test. Once cement
sq.ft (240 Pa). It has become an industry standard that once movement is stopped, SGS development may occur within
cement slurries reach an SGS of 500 lbf/100 sq. ft (240 Pa)., several minutes to over an hour, dependent on well conditions
gas or other fluids cannot be transmitted through the cement. and slurry designs. Wellbore temperature and pressure, along
The faster that you achieve this optimum SGS, the less likely
2 SPE 90829

with slurry density and additives are the main contributing cement/pipe interface, cement/mud interface and through the
factors determining how SGS’s develop. For these reasons, cement matrix itself. Assuming that the cement slurry is
the term “right angle set” (a dynamic analysis), should not be designed to minimize volume reduction, the first three
used when referring to slurries with short transition times mechanisms are a function of following good cementing
(static-state test). practices1,4. These include mud/annular conditioning, proper
centralization, casing movement, good displacement
Another misconception on transition time is the use of the efficiency and proper spacer design. Good cementing
initial compressive strength determination, derived from an practices are an extremely important part of achieving a good
UCA. In some cases, the time from 50 psi to 500 psi has been annular seal. However, it is not the intent of this work to
used as a determining factor for how fast slurries will further explore these practices. Instead, the authors believe
transition into a solid. The time to 500 psi is important in that preventing flow through the cement matrix requires the
reducing WOC time, but may have little to do with the SGS use of a fit-for-purpose cement. Designing such a cement
development of cement slurries. Some of the confusion is requires focus on multiple slurry properties that include the
from the fact that an ultrasonic gel strength analyzer is following:
available on the market. This instrument is called the static gel 1. Stabilized slurry – which includes zero free fluid and
strength analyzer (SGSA) and will be described later in this minimal particle segregation.
paper. Part of the confusion stems from the fact that the 2. Low fluid-loss – normally fluid losses below 50 cc’s
SGSA can also be used to determine compressive strength, in 30 minutes is recommended.
while a UCA cannot be used to determine SGS. 3. Short transition time – although a desirable property,
concentrating on transition time solely can provide a
As described by Sabins et al, “transition time is the period false sense of security.
during which the slurry changes from a true hydraulic fluid to 4. Minimize volume reduction – Several papers 2, 3, 11 on
a highly viscous mass showing some solid characteristics” 8, gas migration discuss volume reduction during the
under static-state conditions. From this point forward, the plastic-state, which is controlled primarily by the
aforementioned definition will be used when referring to slurries fluid loss and is relatively small. More than
transition time. In this work and others, it is generally 95% of the hydration volume reduction occurs after
accepted that at SGS development greater than 100 lbf/100 sq initial set. The entry rate for gas or fluid can never be
ft (48 Pa), gas or fluid intrusion into the gelled cement can more than the total cement volume losses rate.
occur. This is considered the start of the transition time and is 5. Reduced internal slurry permeability – Although
the point in which full hydrostatic pressure transmission is Sutton and Ravi 2 present a good case that slurry
restricted. In an effort to prevent shallow water flows, permeability has a direct relationship to fluid loss, in
Mueller 9 proposed a program to calculate the initial transition our work we noted variances in the permeability
time based on downhole parameters. This provides a during the initial hydration of the slurry. These
mathamatical approach to calculate the critical gels at which variances may be attributed to the type of fluid loss
fluid intrusion can occur. The transition time ends when the additive used or to an increase in permeability during
SGS increases to 500 lbf/100 sq ft (240 Pa). At this point, the the induction period. We observed that the use of
slurry developed sufficient gel strength to prevent fluid or gas materials which reduce permeability of the cement
migration into the cement column. In subsequent work, can help to minimize flow paths for gas or fluid.
Sabins and Sutton 10 proposed reducing the transition time Figure 2 demonstrates this increase in permeability.
between 100 and 500 lbf/100 sq ft to less than 40 minutes. The fluid loss for this slurry was approximately 12
This suggests that reducing the transition time will minimize cc’s using a convensional fluid loss cell and API
the time for fluid or gas intrusion into the cement. Although procedures. During the hydration of the slurry, the
the authors agree with this statement in principal, permeability appeared to increase. There was also a
concentrating on short transition times as your primary simultaneous increase in filtrate production, causing a
approach to gas control is a one-dimensional approach to a voulume reduction.
multi-dimensional problem. This work will demonstrate that
some slurries with short transitions can fail when tested in a Test Equipment Description
gas migration model. It will also show that in some cases The cement slurries examined in the laboratory for this work
slurries with extremely long transition times can prevent were subjected to a variety of tests. Those tests included
intrusion of gas, if otherwise properly designed. standard API HTHP thickening times, and Fluid Loss testing,
as well as non-API gas migration model, and SGS testing.
Given the previous definition for transition time, a brief
description of the mechanisms to control fluid or gas Thickening Time: All HTHP slurry thickening times were
migration is needed. This paper will not attempt to establish a performed following API RP-10B testing standards, on HTHP
cure-all for gas migration, but is intended to illusrate that this pressurized consistometers using API test schedules
is a multi-phase problem requiring a broader testing approach. appropriate for the simulated well depth and specific
temperature gradient.

It is generally understood that gas migration can occur Fluid Loss: The HTHP slurry fluid loss tests were all
between channels at the cement/formation interface, performed following API RP-10B standards in standard HTHP
SPE 90829 3

stirred fluid loss cells, at temperatures reflective of the wells top. However, in instances where gas is actually working
for which the slurries were being tested. through the slurry matrix, the slurry pore pressure will
typically cease its decline over time and begin to rise again, as
Gas Migration: For testing a slurry's resistance to internal gas high-pressure formation gas forces its way into the setting
flow during setting, a gas flow test model similar to one cement slurry matrix. At the same time, data recording will
described by Beirute and Cheung 6 was utilized. An typically indicate excess slurry filtrate being forced from the
operational diagram of the actual test cell is illustrated in setting slurry, and in some instances, whole gas will be
Figure 3. This gas flow model is equipped to measure the detected flowing through the slurry and out of the test cell.
permeability of the cement while being subjected to
pressurized gas intrusions from the reservoir. In the subject As originally discussed by Beirute and Cheung 6, in order for a
test cell, three distinct pressures are applied to the cement slurry to be considered gas tight in a test with the model, the
slurry during the test. slurry pore pressure needs to continue to decline until the
slurry is fully set and there should be no gas flow through the
The hydrostatic pressure that would normally be transmitted to setting slurry. Figure 4 illustrates the results from the model
the top of the cement column by the fluids above the cement with a slurry that maintained low permeability during
(such as drilling mud and/or cement spacers) is simulated by transition and resisted flow of the high pressure gas. Figure 5
mineral oil from a pressurized storage vessel. This oil is illustrates a test where the slurry was not able to resist gas
pushed to the top of a traveling piston, which in turn rests on flow and therefore the test was deemed a failure.
top of the slurry in the test cell. Normally, 1,000 psi is used to
simulate the hydrostatic head on the cement slurry. The Since the original development of the model, field results with
travelling piston contains a small port in its center and is fitted slurries designed to pass the gas model have shown good
with a 325/60 mesh stainless steel screen across its face that correlations to results obtained from field applications.
makes contact with the cement slurry in the test cell. On the
backside of the traveling piston, the central port is connected Static Gel Strength: As previously mentioned, currently there
to a 0.25-in. diameter stainless steel tube, which is 10.0-in. are not any industry recognized standard methods for the
long. This tube is used to introduce the second of the three determination of SGS in oilfield cement systems. However,
pressures. ISO is evaluating three different types of laboratory test
devices in order to attempt to develop such standards. One of
In this case, it delivers pressurized nitrogen gas to simulate the the test devices being evaluated is an ultrasonic test device
effect of a reservoir gas being injected into setting slurry in the (SGSA) that uses interpretation of ultrasonic transmissions
annulus of a well. The screen across the face of the travelling passing through the cement slurry to determine the developing
piston is used to simulate a high-pressure, high-permeability SGS.
gas zone. For testing, a constant pressure of 500 psi is used to
simulate this high-pressure interval. A second device being evaluated is a vane device. This device
is essentially a “Vane type rheometer” that operates with an
The third pressure used in the test is introduced to the cell via intermittent shear. Unlike other equipment available to
a port in the bottom of the assembly. This bottom port is measure SGS, the vane device is limited to about 800 psi
covered with the same type of 325/60-mesh stainless steel pressure.
screen as the face of the travelling piston. Once again,
nitrogen gas is utilized via this port and screen. A pressure The third device works in a very similar fashion to an HTHP
regulator, is utilized to hold a constant 300 psi to simulate a consistometer, in that the slurry is brought up to bottomhole
lower pressure, high-permeability formation. The pressure and temperature over time, while being continuously
performance of the regulator is similar to a check valve. If the sheared at a rate consistent with slurry placement in a well.
pressure on the test cell side of the regulator is greater than After being conditioned under bottomhole conditions for a
300 psi, then the regulator allows fluids (either cement filtrate time approximately equal to that required for placement in a
or Nitrogen gas) to leak off. Once the test cell is filled with well, the test device then is transitioned over into the SGS test
cement slurry and the desired temperature and pressure mode. In this mode, the SGS of the slurry is continuously
conditions simulated, the test can be run. monitored over time by means of a special paddle immersed in
the slurry inside a pressurized vessel. The resistance on the
The gas flow test model actually records (automatically, via paddle rotated at a continuous shear of 0.26°/min, is measured
microprocessors) the (static) fluid loss, transition time, and by a strain gauge.
permeability of the setting cement. As well as all pressures,
the volume of any cement filtrate and/or whole gas that passes For this work, all SGS determination was preformed with a
through the cement is also recorded. Additional pressure device that functions in the same manner as the third type of
monitoring ports in the cell allow for the recording of the tester described above. This modified piece of tabletop
actual pore pressure of the cement slurry as it cures. This laboratory equipment functions both as a standard HTHP
particular pressure reading is critical during the test, as a gas consitometer, as well as a SGS analyzer. Figure 6 shows the
tight slurry will typically show a gradual decline of the slurry entire machine. In the thickenong time mode, it can actually
pore pressure as the slurry sets and no longer transmits the function as a fully capable HTHP consistometer. However, in
simulated hydrostatic pressure of the fluid above the cement SGS testing, this mode is typically used only to simulate the
4 SPE 90829

shearing of the slurry during placement into the annulus of a temperature for 20 minutes, the slurry was transferred into a
well. As described previously, once the slurry has been pre-heated cell jacket (of same temperature). As described in
conditioned in the placement simulation mode, the device is the equipment section, a pressure of 1,000 psi was used to
then switched over into the SGS testing phase of the test. simulate the hydrostatic head. Pressures of 500 psi and 300
Figure 7 shows a close-up of the control panal, which by psi, respectively, were used to simulate high and low-pressure
means of a microprocessor instrumentation column and a thin zones. Although these pressures can be altered to simulate
lanyard, as shown on Figure 8, takes over the very precise actual well conditions, it was found that these parameters
drive of the paddle from the large motor used in the provide a standardized test procedure under a worse case
consistometer/conditioning mode. This instrumented column scenario. The slurry was then kept static at temperature and
controls the rate of rotation of the paddle. Although capable of pressure for the duration of the test, normally 24 to 48 hours.
vaiable rotation rates, 0.26o/minute was used as a standard for The parameters discussed above, along with the fluid loss,
our testing, which is roughly equal to one complete rotation in volume reduction and gas volume, were automatically
about 23 hours. It is the drag of the slurry on this very slowly monitored and recorded for the duration of the test. The data
turning paddle that is used to compute the SGS. Typically, was transferred to a computer where it was plotted against
once a slurry has obtained an SGS of 500 lbf/100 sq ft (240 time as seen in Figure 9.
Pa), the test is considered to be finished and is terminated.
The SGS of the slurry was then tested as described in the
equipment section of this work. The slurry was ramped up to
Data Presentation: pressure and temperature while being sheared at 150 rpm
Although the authors have observed numerous examples of (such as it would be in an HPHT thickening time test). After
slurries that support their findings, four designs were chosen conditioning for 2 hours, (which is the time to mix, pump and
to demonstrate the typical misconceptions with regards to displace the slurry), the top-drive motor was turned off and the
transition time as defined previously. These slurries are: secondary motor was activated and attached to the strain
gauge to initiate SGS testing. A lanyard attached the strain
1. Portland Class H + GMR + DA + EA + FWC mixed gauge to the paddle, which pulled it through a rotation of 0.26
at 16.2 ppg in fresh water °/min. The force required for that rotation was then monitored
through the data acquisition system and plotted on a chart
2. Portland Class H + GMR + DA + LTR + KCl mixed recorder. As mentioned previously, the time from 100 lbf/100
at 15.7 ppg in fresh water sq ft (48 Pa) to 500 lbf/100 sq ft (240 Pa) is the measure of
transition time. Figure 10 exhibits the results of this test.
3. Portland Class H + GMR + DA + FLA mixed at 16.5
ppg in fresh water This final test of the slurry was a thickening time
determination on a conventional HTHP consistometer to
4. LSC mixed at 15.8 ppg that provides low fluid loss record its set profile. The same pressure and temperature
properties. parameters were also used for this test. The consistency of the
slurry was measured and the test stopped when it reached 70
Slurry 1: Represents a multi-functional slurry designed to Bc. The results of this testing can be seen in Figure 11.
provide a short transition time, control fluid or gas intrusion
and exhibit a right angle set on the HPHT consistometer. This Slurry 2: Represents a multi-functional slurry design that
design is considered an ideal case scenario, since it addresses exhibits a satisfactory transition time, yet allows gas intrusion
most of the causes of gas migration, as previously discussed. when tested on the Gas Model. This slurry is similar to Slurry
The slurry composition is a blend of Portland cement 1, with the addition of Potassium Salt (KCL) and a low
containing additives that provide gas migration reduction temperature retarder (LTR). In this case, the GMR was not of
(GMR). These materials aid in fluid loss control, free fluid sufficient quantity or type to prevent gas influx.
prevention, bonding and internal slurry permeability
reduction. GMR additives can consist of a broad range of Basic testing criteria for this slurry used a BHCT of 138°F
materials such as latex, polyvinyl polymers, silica fume (58.9°C), an initial pressure of 550 psi, a final pressure of
blends, etc. This design also included a cement dispersant 4,900 psi and a ramp rate of 40 minutes. All slurry preparation
(DA), an expanding additive (EA) and a free water control and conditioning was done according to API RP 10-B
additive (FWC). specifications.

Basic testing criteria for this slurry used a bottomhole The Gas Model test was conducted first, using the same
circulating temperature (BHCT) of 110°F (43.3°C), an initial procedure discussed previously. Figure 12 shows the results
pressure of 400 psi, a final pressure of 2,900 psi and a ramp of this Gas Model test.
rate of 20 minutes. All slurry preparation and conditioning
was done according to API RP 10-B specifications. The SGS of the slurry was then tested as described in the
equipment section of this paper with the temperature and
For Gas Flow Testing, the slurry was mixed and ramped up to pressure ratings listed for Slurry 2. In this case, the slurry was
bottomhole circulating temperature (BHCT) on an conditioned for 4 hours to simulate total job time. After
atmospheric consistometer. Once conditioned and stable at conditioning the motor was switched to SGS mode, as
SPE 90829 5

described for Slurry 1. The results of this testing is shown in As noted in figure 9 for slurry 1, the hydration of the slurry
Figure 13. began to occur about 4 hours into the gas model test. At this
time the filtrate production leveled out at approximately 40
Slurry 3: In this test, the authors investigated the ability of a cc’s. The pore pressure of the cement slurry continued to drop
slurry that exhibits an extremely long transition time to control for 7 hours after the initial pressure drop was noted. No influx
annular gas migration. This slurry consisted of a blend of of gas was recorded during this 24-hour evaluation.
Portland cement containing a GMR, DA and fluid loss
additive (FLA). The fluid loss of Slurry 3 was controlled to Figure 10 of slurry 1 exhibits the transition time of this slurry
less than 50 cc’s/ 30 minutes. The combination of the low design.. The SGS development from 100 lbf/100 sq ft (48 Pa)
fluid loss to control volume reduction and the GMR to reduce to 500 lbf/100 sq ft (240 Pa) was 47 minutes. Although at the
the matrix permeability of the slurry during hydration, has upper limits of what would normally be considered acctable
been shown to aid in preventing gas migration. by the authors, this design provided satisfactory SGS results.
The last figure 11 is a scanned image of the thickening time
The test criterion used for Slurry 3 was identical to that used chart for slurry 1. The slurry exhibited a thickening time of
for Slurry 2. 3:30 hours. For the first 2 1/2 hours of the test the slurry
exhibited a consistency of 10 Bc. Once it began to set it took
The Gas Model was conditioned and run similar to those tests approximately 15 minutes to go from 40 Bc to 70 Bc. This set
previously mentioned for Slurry 1 and 2. The result of the gas profile would be considered a ‘right angle set’.
model for this slurry is shown in Figure 14.
The slurry provided a pass scenario for all three catergories
The SGS or transition time was run using the procedure evaluated. Although, this may be desirable it is not always
described previously in this work. Job time for this specific practical considering the varability and quality issue with the
design was 3 hours prior to starting the SGS test. The result numerous cements on the market. It is important not to
for this test is shown in Figure 15. dismiss a specific design that has a long transition time, if the
slurry is still capable of passing a gas flow test.
Slurry 4: The final slurry design was chosen to exhibit the
typical misconception that SGS development (transition time) Figure 13 of slurry 2 demonstrate an excellent transition time
and a ‘‘right-angle-set’’ demonstrated on the conventional of 33 minutes from 100 lbf/100 sq ft (48 Pa) to 500 lbf/100 sq
HPHT consistometer are related. In this example the slurry ft (240 Pa). Although the transition time exhibited by slurry 2
used is known as a liquid storable cement (LSC) system. is considered satisfactory to prevent fluid or gas intrusion, it
Although initially developed for use in remote locations, its can be observed in figure 12 that the slurry exhibited gas
unique properties have established a broader market in many migration 7½ hours into the gas flow test. It also should be
parts of the world. For some specific jobs, a long transition noted that the slurry design exhibited less than 40 cc’s fluid
time is the main requirement requested by the operator. The loss in the standard fluid loss cell. In the gas model more than
composition of this slurry was a mixture of Portland cement, a 85 cc’s of filtrate was produced for the duration to the test.
combination of silica flour (325 mesh) and sand (100 mesh), The last 20 cc’s of filtrate was made during the onset of
cement plasticizer, retarder, FLA, anti settling agent and an hydration, which has been observed in many failed tests over
intensifier, for activation. the years. A possible explanation for this is that the rapid
volume reduction caused by increased permeability during
For this application the slurry was ramped to a BHCT of initial hydration allowing gas influx into the matrix of the
180°F (82°C) in 1 hour at an initial pressure of 700 psi and a slurry.
final pressure of 7700 psi. The slurry temperature was held
constant for 1 hour to simulate job time. After this period the Slurry 3 is a classic case of a gas flow test that passes (figure
slurry was ramped to BHST of 222°F (105.5°C) over a 3 hour 14) and a transition time that fails (figure 15).. The slurry
period. This is following guidelines established by the pore pressure drop started at approximately 4½ hours into the
operator to simulate actual job conditions. test, and continued for 10 hours before stabilizing. The
transition time chart demonstrates what is considered to be a
Since this is a special slurry design it is not mixed in very slow gel strength development. Basically it took 4:19
accordance with API procedure. A standard laboratory hours to go from 100 lbf/100 sq ft (48 Pa) to 500 lbf/100 sq ft
procedure has been established to provide mixing instructions (240 Pa).
that more closely simulate field applications. This procedure
has been used successfully, to mix and store LSC, for over 8 Slurry 4 was a special case in which it was necessary to design
years. The thickening time profile is shown in figure 16. a slurry to provide an extremely long transition time. This
was accomplished by use of a special LSC system. Figure 17
The transition time was conducted using the procedure shows the results of the transition time or SGS test. It can be
established earlier in this work. A condition time of 2 hours noted that the slurry obtained 100 lbf/100 sq ft (48 Pa) within
was used prior to initiating the SGS mode. The result of this 30 minutes after switching to the SGS mode. However, it took
test is shown in figure 17. nearly 24 hours to reach 500 lbf/100 sq ft (240 Pa). This slow
gel development would not have been anticipated under
Discussion accepted ideaology, given the right angle set exhibited in
6 SPE 90829

figure 16. The thickening time chart exhibits a slurry that Acknowledgement
produced a consistency of less that 8 Bc for over 40 hours and The authors would like to thank BJ Services for their
then increased to 70 Bc in 10 minutes. This is considered a support and permission to publish this paper. The authors
true right angle set. Figure 16 and figure 17 are a good would also like to thank Scott Bray and Chris Perez for
indication that right angle sets and short transition times do their assistance in generating the data used in this paper.
not necessarily correlate to each one another. Additional thanks are extended to Doris Porter and Harold
Brannon for their assistance in finalizing and proofing this
Conclusions paper.
From the investigations and results discussed in the paper, the
authors propose the following conclusions: References
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SGS is singularly critical for preventing gas 12 February, 1986.
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Nomenclature Gas Drilling Difficulties in the Gulf of Thailand”,
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0
C - Degrees Centigrade Selection of Cement Recipes To Control Fluid
cc - Cubic Centimeter Invasion After Cementing”, paper SPE 19522,
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F - Degrees Fahrenheit November, 1990.
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Pa - Pascal Strength Requirements for Cements Employed in
ppg - Pounds per Gallon SWF Mitigation”, paper OTC 14282, prepared
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sq. ft. - Square Feet Houston, 6-9 May, 2002.
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Technical Conference, New Orleans, 26-29
September, 1982.
SPE 90829 7

11. Sabins, F.L. and Sutton, D.L., “Interrelationship


Between Critical Cement Properties and Volume
Changes During Cement Setting”, paper SPE
20451, presented at the 1990 SPE Annual
Technical Conference, New.
Time

Class H + FLA + Retarder @ 16.5 ppg tested at 180°F


TT – 3:45 hrs FL – 12 cc’s FW - Zero

Figure 2 – Gas model chart showing the rapid filtrate


0 5 10 15 increase during cement hydration
DC VOLTAGE

Figure 1 – Right Angle Set

Figure 3 – Gas Model Schematic


8 SPE 90829

Figure 4 – chart showing a gas flow test that passed Figure 5 – chart showing a gas flow test that failed

Figure 6 – Tabletop HTHP consistometer conversion to SGS tester.


SPE 90829 9

Figure 7 – Microprocessor instrument panel used for modified Figure 8 – Lanyard assembly used to converte the SGS
tabletop SGS tester tester to gel testing mode

Cement Pore Pressure


500 lbf/100 sq ft
Cement Filtrate

100 lbf/100 sq ft

Figure 9 –Gas Flow Model chart for Slurry 1 (Passed)


Start SGS test mode

Figure 10 – SGS chart for Slurry 1


10 SPE 90829

Figure 11 – Thickening time chart of Slurry 1

Cement Filtrate Cement Pore


Pressure

Gas Volume

Figure 12 – Failed Gas Flow Model chart for Slurry 2


SPE 90829 11

500 lbf/100 sq ft

100 lbf/100 sq ft

Start SGS test mode

Figure 13 – SGS chart of Slurry 2

Cement Pore Pressure

Cement Filtrate

Figure 14 – Gas Flow Model chart of Slurry 3 (Pass)


12 SPE 90829

500 lbf/100 sq ft

Folded Chart - approximately 90


minutes of chart not shown.

100 lbf/100 sq ft

Start of SGS test mode

Figure 15 – SGS chart of Slurry 3 (Long Transition Time)


SPE 90829 13

Right Angle Set

Folded Chart - approximately 37


hours not shown

Figure 16 – Thickening time chart of Slurry 4 (Right Angle Set)


14 SPE 90829

Folded Chart - approximately


19 1/2 hours not shown
100 lbf/100 sq ft

Figure 17 – SGS chart of Slurry 4 (Long transition time)

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