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MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES a. interest expense is deductible for tax purposes.

COST OF CAPITAL b. principal payments on debt are deductible for tax purposes.
c. the cost of capital is a deductible expense for tax purposes.
THEORY d. dividend payments to stockholders are deductible for tax purposes.
1. All of the following statements are correct except:
a. The matching of asset and liability maturities is considered 11. The overall cost of capital is the
desirable because this strategy minimizes interest rate risk. A. Rate of return on assets that covers the costs associated with the
b. Default risk refers to the inability of the firm to pay off its funds employed.
maturing obligations. B. Average rate of return a firm earns on its assets.
c. The matching of assets and liability maturities lowers default risk. C. Minimum rate a firm must earn on high-risk projects.
d. An increase in the payables deferral period will lead to a reduction D. Cost of the firm's equity capital at which the market value of the
in the need to non-spontaneous funding. firm will remain unchanged.

2. Which of the following would increase risk? 12. The explicit cost of debt financing is the interest expense. The implicit
a. Increase the level of working capital. cost(s) of debt financing is (are) the
b. Change the composition of working capital to include more liquid a. Increase in the cost of debt as the debt-to-equity ratio increases.
assets. b. Increases in the cost of debt and equity as the debt-to-equity ratio
c. Increase the amount of short-term borrowing. increases.
d. Increase the amount of equity financing. c. Increase in the cost of equity as the debt-to-equity ratio decreases.
d. Decrease in the weighted-average cost of capital as the debt-to-
3. A firm’s financial risk is a function of how it manages and maintains its equity ratio increases.
debt. Which one of the following sets of ratios characterizes the firm
with the greatest amount of financial risk? 13. In computing the cost of capital, the cost of debt capital is determined
A. High debt-to-equity ratio, high interest coverage ratio, stable by
return on equity. a. Annual interest payment divided by the proceeds from debt
B. Low debt-to-equity ratio, low interest coverage ratio, volatile issuance.
return on equity. b. Interest rate times (1 – the firm’s tax rate)
C. High debt-to-equity ratio, low interest coverage ratio, volatile c. Annual interest payment divided by the book value of the debt.
return on equity. d. The capital asset pricing model.
D. Low debt-to-equity ratio, high interest coverage ratio, stable return
on equity. 14. The interest rate on the bonds is greater for the second alternative
consisting of pure debt than it is for the first alternative consisting of
4. Which of the following classes of securities are listed in order from both debt and equity because
lowest risk/opportunity for return to highest risk/opportunity for return? A. The diversity of the combination alternative creates greater risk for
(E) the investor.
A. U.S. Treasury bonds; corporate first mortgage bonds; corporate B. The pure debt alternative would flood the market and be more
income bonds; preferred stock. difficult to sell.
B. Corporate income bonds; corporate mortgage bonds; convertible C. The pure debt alternative carries the risk of increasing the
preferred stock; subordinated debentures. probability of default.
C. Common stock; corporate first mortgage bonds; corporate second D. The combination alternative carries the risk of increasing dividend
mortgage bonds; corporate income bonds. payments.
D. Preferred stock; common stock; corporate mortgage bonds;
corporate debentures. 15. If a $1,000 bond sells for $1,125, which of the following statements are
correct?
5. If the return on the market portfolio is 10% and the risk-free rate is 5%, I. The market rate of interest is greater than the coupon rate on the
what is the effect on a company's required rate of return on its stock of bond.
an increase in the beta coefficient from 1.2 to 1.5? II. The coupon rate on the bond is greater than the market rate of
A. 3% increase interest.
B. 1.5% increase III. The coupon rate and the market rate are equal.
C. No change IV. The bond sells at a premium.
D. 1.5% decrease. V. The bond sells at a discount.
a. I and IV.
6. Cost of capital is b. I and V.
a. The amount the company must pay for its plant assets. c. II and IV.
b. The dividends a company must pay on its equity securities. d. II and V.
c. The cost the company must incur to obtain its capital resources.
d. The cost the company is charged by investment bankers who 16. Companies experience changes in interest expenses, variable cost per
handle the issuance of equity or long-term debt securities. unit, quantity of units sold, and fixed costs. Their degree of operating
leverage is not affected by the change in
7. All of the following are examples of imputed costs except A. Interest expenses
a. The stated interest paid on a bank loan. C. Quantity of units sold.
b. Assets that are considered obsolete that maintain a net book value. B. Variable cost per unit.
c. Decelerated depreciation. D. Fixed costs.
d. Lending funds to a supplier at a lower-than-market rate in
exchange for receiving the supplier’s products at a discount. 17. If the return on total assets is 10% and if the return on common
stockholders’ equity is 12% then
8. The theory underlying the cost of capital is primarily concerned with the a. The after-tax cost of long-term debt is probably greater than 10%.
cost of b. The after-tax cost of long-term debt is 12%.
A. Long-term funds and old funds. c. Leverage is negative.
B. Short-term funds and new funds. d. The after-tax cost of long-term debt is probably less than 10%.
C. Long-term funds and new funds.
D. Any combination of old or new, short-term or long-term funds. 18. The basis for measuring the cost of capital derived from bonds and
preferred stock, respectively, is the
9. Management knowledge of the cost of capital is useful for each of the A. after-tax rate of interest for bonds and stated annual dividend rate
following except for preferred stock
a. Making capital investment decisions. B. pretax rate of interest for bonds and stated annual dividend rate
b. Managing working capital. less the expected earnings per share for preferred stock
c. Setting the maximum rate of return on new investments. C. pretax rate of interest for bonds and stated annual dividend rate for
d. Evaluating performance. preferred stock
D. after-tax rate of interest for bonds and stated annual dividend rate
10. The pre-tax cost of capital is higher than the after-tax cost of capital less the expected earnings per share for preferred stock
because
19. The market value of a firm’s outstanding common shares will be higher,
everything else equal, if 26. When calculating a firm's cost of capital, all of the following are true
a. Investors have a lower required return on equity. except that
b. Investors expect lower dividend growth. A. The cost of capital of a firm is the weighted average cost of its
c. Investors have longer expected holding periods. various financing components.
d. Investors have shorter expected holding periods. B. The calculation of the cost of capital should focus on the historical
costs of alternative forms of financing rather than market or
20. When calculating the cost of capital, the cost assigned to retained current costs.
earnings should be C. All costs should be expressed as after-tax costs.
A. Zero. D. The time value of money should be incorporated into the
B. Lower than the cost of external common equity. calculations.
C. Equal to the cost of external common equity.
D. Higher than the cost of external common equity. 27. A company has made the decision to finance next year's capital projects
through debt rather than additional equity. The benchmark cost of
21. The three elements needed to estimate the cost of equity capital for use capital for these projects should be
in determining a firm's weighted-average cost of capital are A. The before-tax cost of new-debt financing.
A. Current dividends per share, expected growth rate in dividends per B. The after-tax cost of new-debt financing.
share, and current book value per share of common stock. C. The cost of equity financing.
B. Current earnings per share, expected growth rate in dividends per D. The weighted-average cost of capital.
share, and current market price per share of common stock.
C. Current earnings pers share, expected growth rate in earnings per 28. The weighted-average cost of capital approach to decision making is not
share, and current book value per share of common stock. directly affected by the:
D. Current dividends per share, expected growth rate in dividends per A. proposed mix of debt, equity, and existing funds used to
share, and current market price per share of common stock. implement the project
B. value of the common stock
22. An investor uses the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) to evaluate the C. cost of debt outstanding
risk-return relationship on a portfolio of stocks held as an investment. D. current budget for expansion.
Which of the following would not be used to estimate the portfolio's
expected rate of return? 29. Which class of leverage causes earnings before interest and taxes to be
A. Expected risk premium on the portfolio of stocks. more sensitive to changes in sales?
B. Interest rate for the safest possible investment. A. Credit.
C. Expected rate of return on the market portfolio. B. Financial.
D. Standard deviation of the market returns. C. Operating.
D. Intrinsic.
23. According to the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the relevant risk
of a security is its 30. A firm with a higher degree of operating leverage when compared to the
A. Company-specific risk. industry average implies that the
C. Systematic risk. A. Firm has higher variable costs.
B. Diversifiable risk. B. Firm's profits are more sensitive to changes in sales volume.
D. Total risk. C. Firm is more profitable.
D. Firm is less risky.
24. The weighted average cost of capital represents the
a. cost of bonds, preferred stock, and common stock divided by the 31. The purchase of treasury stock with a firm's surplus cash
three sources. A. Increases a firm's assets.
b. equivalent units of capital used by the organization. C. Increases a firm's interest coverage ratio.
c. overall cost of capital from all organization financing sources. B. Increases a firm's financial leverage.
d. overall cost of dividends plus interest paid by the organization. D. Dilutes a firm's earnings per share.

25. Which of the following is not considered a capital component for the 32. Which of the changes in leverage would apply to a company that
purpose of calculating the weighted average cost of capital as it applies substantially increases its investment in fixed assets as a proportion of
to capital budgeting? total assets and replaces some of its long-term debt with equity?
a. Long-term debt. A. B. C. D.
b. Common stock. Financial Increase Decrease Increase Decrease
c. Short-term debt. Leverage
d. Preferred stock. Operating Decrease Increase Increase Decrease
Leverage

Problems
1. Based on the following information about stock price increases and decreases, make an estimate of the stock's beta: Month 1 = Stock +1.5%, Market +1.1%;
Month 2 = Stock +2.0%, Market +1.4%; Month 3 = Stock -2.5%, Market -2.0%.
A. Beta is greater than 1.0. C. Beta equals 1.0
B. Beta is less than 1.0. D. There is no consistent pattern of returns.

2. What is the yield to maturity on Fox Inc.'s bonds if its after-tax cost of debt is 9% and its tax rate is 34%?
A. 5.94% B. 9% C. 13.64% D. 26.47%

3. Maylar Corporation has sold $50 million of $1,000 par value, 12% coupon bonds. The bonds were sold at a discount and the corporation received $985 per
bond. If the corporate tax rate is 40%, the after-tax cost of these bonds for the first year (rounded to the nearest hundredth percent) is
A. 7.31%. B. 4.87%. C. 12.00%. D. 7.09%.

4. The MNO Company believes that it can sell long-term bonds with a 6% coupon but at a price that gives a yield-to-maturity of 9%. If such bonds are part of
next year’s financing plans, which of the following should be used for bonds in their after-tax (40%) cost-of-capital calculation?
A. 3.6% B. 5.4% C. 4.2% D. 6%

5. Ambry Inc. is going to use an underwriter to sell its preferred stock. Four underwriters have given estimates (below) on their fees and the selling price of the
stock, as well as the expected dividend for each:
Fees Selling Price Dividends
Underwriter 1 $5 $101 $10
Underwriter 2 7 102 11
Underwriter 3 3 97 7
Underwriter 4 3 98 8
Which underwriter will produce the lowest cost of funds for the preferred stock?
A. Underwriter 1. B. Underwriter 2. C. Underwriter 3. D. Underwriter 4.

6. Gravy Company expects earnings of P30 million next year. Its dividend payout ratio is 40%, and its debt/equity ratio is 1.50. Gravy uses no preferred stock.
At what amount of financing will there be a break point in Gravy’s marginal cost of capital?
A. P45 million. B. P30 million. C. P20 million. D. P18 million.

7. Allison Engines Corporation has established a target capital structure of 40 percent debt and 60 percent common equity. The current market price of the
firm’s stock is P0 = $28; its last dividend was D0 = $2.20, and its expected dividend growth rate is 6 percent. What will Allison’s marginal cost of retained
earnings, ks, be?
a. 15.8% b. 13.9% c. 7.9% d. 14.3%

8. Doris Corporation's stock has a market price of $20.00 and pays a constant dividend of $2.50. What is the required rate of return on its stock?
A. 13.0% B. 12.5% C. 12.0% D. 11.5%

9. The ABC Company is expected to have a constant annual growth rate of 5 percent. It has a price per share of P32 and pays an expected dividend of P2.40.
Its competitor, the DEF Company is expected to have a growth rate of 10%, has a price per share of P72, and pays an expected P4.80/share dividend. The
required rates of return on equity for the two companies are:
A. B. C. D.
ABC 13.8% 9.6% 12.5% 16.2%
DEF 15.4% 8.6% 16.7% 18.2%

10. Frostfell Airlines is expected to pay an upcoming dividend of $3.29. The company's dividend is expected to grow at a steady, constant rate of 5% well into
the future. Frostfell currently has 1,600,000 shares of common stock outstanding. If the required rate of return for Frostfell is 12%, what is the best estimate
for the current price of Frostfell's common stock?
A. $65.80 B. $62.51 C. $47.00 D. $27.41

11. Newmass, Inc. paid a cash dividend to its common shareholders over the past 12 months of $2.20 per share. The current market value of the common stock is
$40 per share, and investors are anticipating the common dividend to grow at a rate of 6% annually. The cost to issue new common stock will be 5% of the
market value. The cost of a new common stock issue will be
A. 11.50% B. 11.79% C. 11.83% D. 12.14%

12. What return on equity do investors seem to expect for a firm with a $50 share price, an expected dividend of $5.50, a beta of .9, and a constant growth rate of
4.5%?
A. 15.05% B. 15.50% C. 15.95% D. 16.72%

13. Blair Brothers’ stock currently has a price of $50 per share and is expected to pay a year-end dividend of $2.50 per share (D 1 = $2.50). The dividend is
expected to grow at a constant rate of 4 percent per year. The company has insufficient retained earnings to fund capital projects and must, therefore, issue
new common stock. The new stock has an estimated flotation cost of $3 per share. What is the company’s cost of equity capital?
a. 10.14% b. 9.21% c. 9.45% d. 9.32%

14. The DCL Corporation is preparing to evaluate the capital expenditure proposals for the coming year. Because the firm employs discounted cash flow
methods of analyses, the cost of capital for the firm must be estimated. The following information for DCL Corporation is provided.
 Market price of common stock is $50 per share.
 The dividend next year is expected to be $2.50 per share.
 Expected growth in dividends is a constant 10%.
 New bonds can be issued at face value with a 13% coupon rate.
 The current capital structure of 40% long-term debt and 60% equity is considered to be optimal.
 Anticipated earnings to be retained in the coming year are $3 million.
 The firm has a 40% marginal tax rate.
If the firm must assume a 10% flotation cost on new stock issuances, what is the cost of new common stock?
A. 14.50%. B. 15.56%. C. 15.32%. D. 15.50%.

15. Fitzgerald is interested in investing in a corporation with a low cost of equity capital. By using the dividend growth model, which
of the following corporations has the lowest cost of equity capital?
Stock Price Dividend Growth Rate
C.S. Inc. $25 $5 8%
Lewis Corp. 30 3 10%
Screwtape Inc. 20 4 6%
Wormwood Corp. 28 7 7%
A. C.S. Inc. C. Screwtape Inc.
B. Lewis Corp. D. Wormwood Corp.

16. The common stock of Anthony Steel has a beta of 1.20. The risk-free rate is 5 percent and the market risk premium (k M - kRF) is 6 percent. Assume the firm
will be able to use retained earnings to fund the equity portion of its capital budget. What is the company’s cost of retained earnings, k s?
a. 7.0% b. 7.2% c. 11.0% d. 12.2%

17. Colt, Inc. is planning to use retained earnings to finance anticipated capital expenditures. The beta coefficient for Colt's stock is 1.15, the risk-free rate of
interest is 8.5%, and the market return is estimated at 12.4%. If a new issue of common stock were used in this model, the flotation costs would be 7%. By
using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) equation [R = RF + ß(RM - RF)], the cost of using retained earnings to finance the capital expenditures is
A. 13.21% B. 12.99% C. 12.40% D. 14.26%

18. Stock J has a beta of 1.2 and an expected return of 15.6%, and stock K has a beta of 0.8 and an expected return of 12.4%. What must be the expected return
on the market and the risk-free rate of return, to be consistent with the capital asset pricing model?
A. Market is 14%; risk-free is 6%. C. Market is 14%; risk-free is 4%.
B. Market is 12.4%; risk-free is 0%. D. Market is 14%; risk-free is 1.6%.

19. If the return on the market portfolio is 10% and the risk-free rate is 5%, what is the effect on a company's required rate of return on its stock of an increase in
the beta coefficient from 1.2 to 1.5?
A. 3% increase B. 1.5% increase C. No change D. 1.5% decrease
20. An investor was expecting a 15% return on his portfolio with beta of 1.25 before the market risk premium increased from 6% to 9%. Based on this change,
what return will now be expected on the portfolio?
A. 15.00% B. 18.00% C. 18.75% D. 22.50%

21. What happens to expected portfolio return if the portfolio beta increases from 1.0 to 2.0, the risk-free rate decreases from 5% to 4%, and the market risk
premium remains at 8%?
A. It increases from 12% to 19%. C. It increases from 13% to 20%.
B. It increases from 13% to 16%. D. It remains unchanged.

22. Computechs is an all-equity firm that is analyzing a potential mass communications project which will require an initial, after-tax cash outlay of $100,000,
and will produce after-tax cash inflows of $12,000 per year for 10 years. In addition, this project will have an after-tax salvage value of $20,000 at the end of
Year 10. If the risk-free rate is 5 percent, the return on an average stock is 10 percent, and the beta of this project is 1.80, then what is the project's NPV?
A. $10,655 B. $3,234 C. -$37,407 D. -$32,012

23. The expected returns, standard deviations, and beta coefficients of four stocks are given below:
Expected Return Standard Deviation Beta Coefficient
M 18% .65 .9
N 20% .9 1.2
O 20% .4 1.5
Q 21% 1.2 1.7
Given an expected return on the market portfolio of 18% and a risk-free rate of 12%, which stock(s) is(are) overvalued or undervalued?
A. M and N are undervalued; O and Q are overvalued.
B. M is undervalued; N, O, and Q are overvalued.
C. M, N, O, and Q are overvalued.
D. M, N, O, and Q are undervalued.

24. Grateway Inc. has a weighted average cost of capital of 11.5 percent. Its target capital structure is 55 percent equity and 45 percent debt. The company has
sufficient retained earnings to fund the equity portion of its capital budget. The before-tax cost of debt is 9 percent, and the company’s tax rate is 30 percent.
If the expected dividend next period (D1) is $5 and the current stock price is $45, what is the company’s growth rate?
a. 2.68% b. 3.44% c. 4.64% d. 6.75%

25. A company has $650,000 of 10% debt outstanding and $500,000 of equity financing. The required return of the equity holders
is 15%, and there are no retained earnings currently available for investment purposes. If new outside equity is raised, it will
cost the firm 16%. New debt would have a before-tax cost of 9%, and the corporate tax rate is 50%. When calculating the
marginal cost of capital, the company should assign a cost of <List A> to equity capital and <List B> to the after-tax cost of
debt financing.
A. B. C. D.
List A 15% 15% 16% 16%
List B 4.5% 5.0% 4.5% 5.0%

26. A company has $1 million in shareholders' equity and $2 million in debt equity (8% bonds). Its after-tax weighted-average cost of capital is 12%, but it uses
15% as the hurdle rate in capital budgeting decisions. During the past year, its operating income before tax and interest was $500,000. Its tax rate is 40%.
What is the company's cost of equity capital?
A. 8% B. 12% C. 15% D. 26.4%

27. What is the weighted average cost of capital for a firm with 40% debt, 20% preferred stock, and 40% common equity if the respective costs for these
components are 8% after-tax, 13% after-tax, and 17% before-tax? The firm's tax rate is 35%.
A. 10.22% B. 10.52% C. 11.48% D. 12.60%

28. Datacomp Industries, which has no current debt, has a beta of .95 for its common stock. Management is considering a change in the capital structure to 30%
debt and 70% equity. This change would increase the beta on the stock to 1.05, and the after-tax cost of debt will be 7.5%. The expected return on equity is
16%, and the risk-free rate is 6%. Should Datacomp's management proceed with the capital structure change?
A. No, because the cost of equity capital will increase.
B. Yes, because the cost of equity capital will decrease.
C. Yes, because the weighted-average cost of capital will decrease.
D. No, because the weighted-average cost of capital will increase.

29. Heavy Metal Corp. is a steel manufacturer that finances its operations with 40 percent debt, 10 percent preferred stock, and 50 percent equity. The interest
rate on the company’s debt is 11 percent. The preferred stock pays an annual dividend of $2 and sells for $20 a share. The company’s common stock trades at
$30 a share, and its current dividend (D0) of $2 a share is expected to grow at a constant rate of 8 percent per year. The flotation cost of external equity is 15
percent of the dollar amount issued, while the flotation cost on preferred stock is 10 percent. The company estimates that its WACC is 12.30 percent. Assume
that the firm will not have enough retained earnings to fund the equity portion of its capital budget. What is the company’s tax rate?
a. 30.33% b. 32.87% c. 35.75% d. 38.12%

30. Wiley’s new financing will be in proportion to the market value of its present financing, shown below.
Book Value ($000 Omitted)
Long-term debt $7,000
Preferred stock (100 shares) 1,000
Common stock (200 shares) 7,000
The firms’ bonds are currently selling at 80% of par, generating a current market yield of 9%, and the corporation has a 40% tax rate. The preferred stock is
selling at its par value and pays a 6% dividend. The common stock has a current market value of $40 and is expected to pay a $1.20 per share dividend this
fiscal year. Dividend growth is expected to be 10% per year. Wiley’s weighted-average cost of capital is (round your calculations to tenths of a percent)
a. 13.0% b. 8.3% c. 9.6% d. 9.0%

31. A company has determined that its optimal capital structure consists of 40 percent debt and 60 percent
equity. Assume the firm will not have enough retained earnings to fund the equity portion of its capital
budget. Also, assume the firm accounts for flotation costs by adjusting the cost of capital. Given the
following information, calculate the firm’s weighted average cost of capital.
kd = 8% P0 = $25
Net income = $40,000 Growth = 0%
Payout ratio = 50% Shares outstanding = 10,000
Tax rate = 40% Flotation cost on additional equity = 15%
a. 7.60% b. 8.05% c. 11.81% d. 13.69%
32. Dobson Dairies has a capital structure that consists of 60 percent long-term debt and 40 percent common stock. The company’s CFO has obtained the
following information:
 The before-tax yield to maturity on the company’s bonds is 8 percent.
 The company’s common stock is expected to pay a $3.00 dividend at year end (D 1 = $3.00), and the dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7
percent a year. The common stock currently sells for $60 a share.
 Assume the firm will be able to use retained earnings to fund the equity portion of its capital budget.
 The company’s tax rate is 40 percent.
What is the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?
a. 12.00% b. 8.03% c. 9.34% d. 7.68%

33. Bradshaw Steel has a capital structure with 30 percent debt (all long-term bonds) and 70 percent common equity. The yield to maturity on the company’s
long-term bonds is 8 percent, and the firm estimates that its overall composite WACC is 10 percent. The risk-free rate of interest is 5.5 percent, the market
risk premium is 5 percent, and the company’s tax rate is 40 percent. Bradshaw uses the CAPM to determine its cost of equity. What is the beta on Bradshaw’s
stock?
a. 1.07 b. 1.48 c. 0.10 d. 1.35

34. Company X is interested in calculating it weighted-average cost of capital. Company X has a current financial structure that is composed of 50% debt, 40%
common stock, and 10% preferred stock. Ignore the effects of cost of retained earnings. The beta of Company X stock is 0.7, and the current risk-free rate
of return is 4%. The market risk premium is 6%. The preferred dividend on Company X preferred stock is set at $2.25, and the net issuance price per share
(which happens to be the same as the current price per share) of preferred stock is $30. Debt issued by Company X yields an 11% stated interest rate to
investors. The marginal tax rate for Company X is 40%. What is the weighted-average cost of capital for Company X?
a. 0.0743 b. 0.0820 c. 0.0660 d. 0.0733

35. For a firm with a degree of operating leverage of 3.5, an increase in sales of 6% will
A. Increase pre-tax profits by 3.5%. C. Increase pre-tax profits by 21%.
B. Decrease pre-tax profits by 3.5%. D. Increase pre-tax profits by 1.71%.

36. In its first year of operations, a firm had $50,000 of fixed operating costs. It sold 10,000 units at a $10 unit price and incurred variable costs of $4 per unit.
If all prices and costs will be the same in the second year and sales are projected to rise to 25,000 units, what will the degree of operating leverage (the extent
to which fixed costs are used in the firm’s operations) be in the second year?
a. 1.25 b. 1.50 c. 2.0 d. 6.0

37. This year, Nelson Industries increased earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) by 17%. During the same period, net income after tax increased by 42%. The
degree of financial leverage that existed during the year is
A. 1.70. B. 4.20. C. 2.47. D. 5.90.

38. A company has unit sales of 300,000, the unit variable cost is $1.50, the unit sales price is $2.00, and the annual fixed costs are $50,000. Furthermore, the
annual interest expense is $20,000, and the company has no preferred stock. Accordingly, the degree of total leverage is
A. 1.875 B. 1.50 C. 1.25 D. 1.20
Questions 39 through 42 are based on the following information.
A new company requires $1 million of financing and is considering two arrangements as shown in the table below:
Amount of Amount of Before-Tax
Arrangement Equity Raised Debt Financing Cost of Debt
#1 $700,000 $300,000 8% per annum
#2 $300,000 $700,000 10% per annum
In the first year of operations, the company is expected to have sales revenues of $500,000, cost of sales of $200,000, and general and administrative expenses of
$100,000. The tax rate is 30%, and there are no other items on the income statement. All earnings are paid out as dividends at year-end.
39. If the cost of equity is 12%, the weighted-average cost of capital under arrangement #1, to the nearest full percentage point, would be
A. 8% B. 10% C. 11% D. 12%

40. Which of the following statements comparing the two financing arrangements is true?
A. The company will have a higher expected gross margin under arrangement #1.
B. The company will have a higher degree of operating leverage under arrangement #2.
C. The company will have higher interest expense under arrangement #1.
D. The company will have higher expected tax expense under arrangement #1.

41. Under financing arrangement #2, the degree of financial leverage (DFL), rounded to two decimal places, would be
A. 1.09 B. 1.14 C. 1.32 D. 1.54

42. The return on equity will be <List A> and the debt ratio will be <List B> under arrangement #2, as compared with arrangement #1.
A. B. C. D.
List A Higher Higher Lower Lower
List B Higher Lower Higher Lower
ANSWER SHEET
Theory Problem
1. A 16. A 31. B 1. A 16. D 31. A
2. C 17. D 32. B 2. C 17. B 32. D
3. C 18. A 3. A 18. A 33. D
4. A 19. A 4. B 19. B 34. D
5. B 20. B 5. C 20. C 35. C
6. C 21. D 6. A 21. C 36. B
7. A 22. A 7. D 22. D 37. C
8. C 23. C 8. B 23. A 38. A
9. C 24. C 9. C 24. C 39. B
10. A 25. C 10. C 25. C 40. D
11. A 26. B 11. D 26. D 41. D
12. B 27. D 12. B 27. D 42. A
13. B 28. D 13. D 28. C
14. C 29. C 14. B 29. B
15. C 30. B 15. B 30. C