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EED 2402 CIRCUIT THEORY 2 END OF

LABORATORY REPORT 7-8


StdName : SERCAN ALIÇ
StdID :2014502007
Date :09.12.2019
Group:B04

THEORY
7. in the experiment, we studied how to calculate the phase difference in a circuit and
how this phase difference emerged. the phase difference, and other necessary explanations
will be made below.8. in the experiment, we examined the impedance concepts, the
workings between them, and how they behave in circuit. The procedures and the necessary
explanations will be made in order.

What is the phase?


In electricity, “phase” is the “phase difference” in what is meant when it is called "Phase". However,
in the three-phase electrical systems used today, each of these wires is referred to as a “phase” because it
uses three currents with a difference of 120 degrees between them.It is generally wrong to mention the
phase of any electrical current directly, but it can be mentioned that the“phase difference” from another
current or a reference.RST doesn'T mean anything special. just 1. Phase 2.Phase 3.it is used to distinguish
as a phase. currently, the transformer manufacturers call it a b c. R S T voltage voltage current phases are
different from each other as so different from each other non-Daya enters the transformer from the
transformer from each other and the same the same the only difference is the phase angle of the sinusoidal
qualifications, someone is different from the other work in harmony and the three of them coincide with
each other more than normal when a short-circuit explosion occurs.For three phases in electricity, we can
say that the angle of 120 degrees between them is different 3 force.

What is phase difference?


The voltage and current are the same in resistive resistive circuits and the reactive power is not
generated. The electric circuit works with full efficiency power. Circuits with capacitive and inductive
circuits with a phase difference to occur that cause systems systems systems.In capacitive circuits, the
current phase moves forward from the voltage phase. In inductive circuits, the voltage phase moves ahead
of the current phase. This phase difference in capacitance and inductive circuits creates inefficiencies in
energy use. The unused power resulting from phase difference is called reactive power.

Figure 1 phase difference

Resistors in Phasor Domain.


Figure 2 Resistors in Phasor
Domain.

There is no phase difference between the voltage and current on the resistor. In order to make the
difference, the circuits must be capacitive or inductive.

Capacitors in Phasor Domain

Figure 3 Capacitors in Phasor Domain.


There is a phase difference between current and voltage in capacitive circuits, and that the phase
difference of approximately 90 degrees. The current is ahead of the voltage.

Inductors in Phasor Domain


Figure 4 Inductors in Phasor
Domain.

The phase difference between current and voltage in the inductor circuits is approximately 90 degrees,
and this phase difference voltage from the current.

How is the phase difference calculated?


There are two different ways to calculate phase difference, as we have learned now, by looking at the
graphs of time difference by calculating and XY mode by looking at the difference between the length of
a calculation made by looking at the difference. These calculations are as follows.

Figure 5 phase difference calculated


By looking at the XY mode, the calculation is done by looking at the places where the shape is cut in y
direction.

Figure 6 phase difference calculated XY Mode


The above graphs are the values of the differences between current and voltage, and this applies to
systems that are easy to understand and calculate. When the phase difference is 90 degrees or the phase
difference is 0 degrees, the graphs actually tell us what elements the system consists of.

What is impedance?
Self resistance is a distinguishing feature specific to any substance that causes the substance to
increase or decrease its resistance due to its chemical properties. The impedance of different substances
may be the same, but the self-resistance may not be the same. R=LQ / Q stop. (Resist resistance=
length*self Resistance/section, also called impedance or electrical impedance) is the difficulty resisting
alternating current (AC in English). In the circuit, the resistance of the capacitor and inductance, such as
the elements that have varying values over time, is used instead of resistance. The self-resistance not only
describes the visible amplitude of the voltage and current, but also explains the visible phase. There is no
difference between resistors and resistors in da (DC) circuits. Resistance can be called self resistance with
zero phase angle.

The equivalent resistance of a circuit can also be represented as resistors. The following is the impedance
calculations of the other elements required for this.

Figure 7 impedance table

Inductor impedance
Figure 8 Inductor impedance

Capacitor impedance
Figure 9 Capacitor impedance

Impedance consists of resistance and the combination of the reactor. When alternating current
passes through an impedance, there may be a phase difference between 0o and 90o between the current
passing and the voltage drop. When the phase difference is zero, the impedance becomes completely
resistive, i.e. only resistance. When the phase difference is 90o (positive or negative), the impedance
(inductive(+90o) or capacitive(-90o) is the only reactor.The impedance is indicated by “Z” and the unit is
Ohm(ω).

The ideal resistance contains only resistance, no reactors. The ideal inductor and capacitor contain
only reactors.Does not include resistance. All circuit elements contain impedance. Impedance can include
reszistans(resistance) and reactants together.The phase angle of the current is the difference between the
voltage on an arc and the current flowing through it. For the Ideal resistance, there is no phase difference
between the current and the voltage.Thus, the phase angle is "0o". In the ideal coil(inductor), the voltage
is always 90o ahead of the current.Therefore, the angle indicating the phase difference is positive.Thus,
the coil impedance is the phase angle +90o of the XL. For the ideal condenser, the current is 90o ahead of
the voltage.Therefore, the angle indicating the phase difference is negative.The capacitor impedance is
90o, so the phase angle of the XC is 90o.

APPLICATION & RESULTS


Experiment 7
First, to try Instrumentation amplifiers, we checked whether the 5 volt voltage is working properly by
connecting the other one to the ground.

1-a) Then we first set up the coil-containing circuit and examined the phase angles and graphs of it. The
phase difference here is related to resistance and coil coils. and since it is the input and Vo we rate, the
phase difference is the phase difference between them.

Figure 11 Inductor circuit


Figure 12 Inductor circuit graph

CH1 X channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

CH2 Y channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

Time/div=0.1mS+-0.01mS

I calculated the phase difference here using the formulas that I explained and showed in the first part of
the calculation.
Figure 13 phase values

Here, the values do not appear exactly, I write down the values myself.

Phase difference =18 degree

1-b) In two steps, I recalculated the results using the XY mode to calculate the phase difference and
found that the results were different. This is due to the fact that the measurement cannot be accurately
structured in XY mode.

Figure 14 XY mode phase value

CH1 X channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

CH2 Y channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

Time/div=XY Mode

I observed the phase angle I calculated here as slightly less than the first one.

Phase difference =17.87 degree

1-c) In this section, I calculated the phase angles of the circuit by taking the trigger and found that the
results here are closer to the results in the first part. I explained the calculations here in the first part and I
showed you how to find them.

Phase difference =17.886 degree


After this part of the circuit in bird XY mode again by measuring the calculations repeated.

Figure 16 trigger XY mode Inductor circuit graph


2-a) 2. İn the section of the Circuit Vin instead of Vin Vl VR by connecting between the phase angle
and the graphics of the observation and measurement did.
Figure 18 Inductor and resistor circuit graph

CH1 X channel V/div=0.2V+-0.02V

CH2 Y channel V/div=0.2V+-0.02V

Time/div=0.1mS+-0.01mS

2-b)

Figure 18 Inductor and resistor circuit calculete

Phase difference =81.58 degree

Figure 19 Inductor and resistor circuit


In this part, I observed the XY mode of the circuit. The difference is obvious because we cannot measure
sufficiently precisely, but because of the XY mode, we can say about 90 degrees.

Figure 20 Inductor and resistor circuit XY Mode

CH1 X channel V/div=0.2V+-0.02V

CH2 Y channel V/div=0.2V+-0.02V

Time/div=XY Mode

3-a) 3. in the section, we examined the phase angles and state of the circuit by connecting the capacitor
to the circuit instead of the coil . We have seen here that the angles are the same, but there are 180
degrees difference between them.
Figure 21 Capacitor and resistor circuit

Here we calculate the phase angle of the capacitor, and I showed you how to calculate this, here's the
angle.

Phase difference =87.4 degree

Figure 22 Capacitor and resistor circuit

CH1 X channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

CH2 Y channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

Time/div=0.1mS+-0.01mS

3-b) Then I did the XY mode review of the circuit. this circuit is not done very precisely because of a
nice result, but because of the shape will be 90 degrees. That's why you say it from Shape.

Phase difference =90 degree


Figure 23 Capacitor and resistor circuit XY Mode

CH1 X channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

CH2 Y channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

Time/div=XY Mode

4-a) 4. In the section we tried to observe the changes in the phase angle of the circuit by changing the
resistance in the circuit. We have seen here that the change of resistance in the circuit has not made a
huge change in the Phase pain, but it has an effect.

Phase difference =88.78 degree


Figure 24 Capacitor and 2k resistor circuit
Figure 25 Capacitor and 2k resistor circuit

CH1 X channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

CH2 Y channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

Time/div=0.1mS+-0.01mS

4-b) In this section, we calculated the phase angle in the circuit from the shapes shown in XY mode, and
since the result is not too sensitive, there is no certainty in the calculations.
Figure 26 Capacitor and 2k resistor circuit

CH1 X channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

CH2 Y channel V/div=2V+-0.2V

Time/div=XY Mode

Figure 27 Capacitor and 2k resistor circuit XY Mode

Experiment 8
8. in this study, we calculated and observed how the impedance values of the circuits were calculated and
the graphs and phase angles of these impedance values.

1-a) First, we set up our circuit and observed how the signal that we applied to our circuit appeared at
the exit.
Figure 28 impedance Vout wave graph
Figure 29 impedance Vout wave graph

CH1 X channel V/div=1V+-0.1V

CH2 Y channel V/div=2V+-0.0V

Time/div=0.1mS+-0.01mS

2-a) Secondly, we gave our circuit the necessary signal and calculated the phase angle of our circuit.
Then we calculated the impedance values of the circuit and found the value of the coil in the circuit, and
we saw which coil corresponds to the value.
Figure 30 XY Mode 10k Hz and 1K Hz

10k Hz
Phase difference =6.63 degree

Component value=0.137 H = 137mH


Figure 31 10k Hz XY Mode

CH1 X channel V/div=1V+-0.1V

CH2 Y channel V/div=1V+-0.1V

Time/div=XY Mode

1k Hz
Phase difference =59 degree

Component value=96mH
Figure 32 1k Hz XY Mode

CH1 X channel V/div=1V+-0.1V

CH2 Y channel V/div=1V+-0.1V

Time/div=XY Mode

200 Hz
Phase difference =87. degree

Component value=42mH
Figure 33 200 Hz XY Mode
Figure 34 200 Hz XY Mode
CH1 X channel V/div=1V+-0.1V

CH2 Y channel V/div=500mV+-

50mV

Time/div=XY Mode

50k Hz
Component value = 765mH

Figure 35 50k Hz
Figure 36 50k Hz graph

CH1 X channel V/div=0.1V+-0.01V

CH2 Y channel V/div=10mV+-1mV

Time/div=0.2uS+-0.02uS

QUESTIONS
Experiment 7
1. What creates phase difference during the sinusoidal excitation?
Previously we saw that a Sinusoidal Waveform is an alternating quantity that can be presented
graphically in the time domain along an horizontal zero axis. We also saw that as an alternating quantity,
sine waves have a positive maximum value at time π/2, a negative maximum value at time 3π/2, with zero
values occurring along the baseline at 0, π and 2π.
However, not all sinusoidal waveforms will pass exactly through the zero axis point at the same time, but
may be “shifted” to the right or to the left of 0o by some value when compared to another sine wave.

2. Why we can not use Alternate trigger mode in phase difference measurements?
The circuit is not a simple voltage phase difference, so we do not use other modes. Here we measure
the phase angles of the coil dienç and the capacitors of the circuits . It is difficult to measure systems with
more than one impedance value.

3. Explain phase relation between current and voltage of the inductor. Why it
assumes the value you have measured?
We have seen in the previous tutorials that in an AC circuit containing sinusoidal waveforms,
voltage and current phasors along with complex numbers can be used to represent a complex
quantity.When the switch is closed, an AC voltage, V will be applied to resistor, R. This voltage will
cause a current to flow which in turn will rise and fall as the applied voltage rises and falls sinusoidally.
As the load is a resistance, the current and voltage will both reach their maximum or peak values and fall
through zero at exactly the same time, i.e. they rise and fall simultaneously and are therefore said to be
“in-phase ”.
Then the electrical current that flows through an AC resistance varies sinusoidally with time and is
represented by the expression, I(t) = Im x sin(ωt + θ), where Im is the maximum amplitude of the current
and θ is its phase angle.

4. As a dual situation, explain the phase relation between current and voltage of the
capacitor.
Capacitors store energy on their conductive plates in the form of an electrical charge. When a
capacitor is connected across a DC supply voltage it charges up to the value of the applied voltage at a
rate determined by its time constant.
As the sinusoidal supply voltage reaches its 90o point on the waveform it begins to slow down and for a
very brief instant in time the potential difference across the plates is neither increasing nor decreasing
therefore the current decreases to zero as there is no rate of voltage change. At this 90o point the potential
difference across the capacitor is at its maximum ( Vmax ), no current flows into the capacitor as the
capacitor is now fully charged and its plates saturated with electrons.

5. What is the reason behind that the phase difference between capacitor voltage and
capacitor current is not affected by changing the resistance?
In the RC series circuit above, we can see that the current flowing into the circuit is common to
both the resistance and capacitance, while the voltage is made up of the two component
voltages, VR and VC. The resulting voltage of these two components can be found mathematically but
since vectors VR and VC are 90o out-of-phase, they can be added vectorially by constructing a vector
diagram.
To be able to produce a vector diagram for an AC capacitance a reference or common component must be
found. In a series AC circuit the current is common and can therefore be used as the reference source
because the same current flows through the resistance and into the capacitance. The individual vector
diagrams for a pure resistance and a pure capacitance are given as:

6. Explain why changing the resistor value yields a change in the phase difference at
Procedure Step (23)?
In a circuit with resistance and other elements, total voltage and current calculations are made over
the impedance. As the circuit is written as V= VR+VC or VR+VL, the elements in the circuit affect the
incoming current of the circuit and the AC angle. in the case of changing resistors, changes in phase angle
in the circuits are observed and accordingly show the changes in the results in the calculations.
CONCLUSION
7. in the experiment, we first saw methods of measuring the phase angles of the
circuits. These methods are in two forms. 1. T/T*360 and the other arcsin(a/B) are in the
form. There are places where some of these methods are used and some are not available.
The first one is related to the elements and simplicity of the circuits, frequencies are not
the same for non-phase can not talk once in terms of. in order to talk about this, the circuits
must be at the same frequency. Therefore, the frequencies of the circuits are equal. When
calculating the phase angles of the circuits, we saw that there is 180 degrees difference
between the capacitor and the coil as the phase angle. The current and voltage in the coil
are 90 degrees between the phase angle. because the voltage is ahead of the current, the
phase angle in the circuit is formed due to this. in the case of the capacitor, the current is
higher than the voltage, so a phase difference of 90 degrees is formed between the two.
This shows us that the circuit coil and capacitor circuit elements of this universe must be
connected to the FA and changing the angle of the phase angle. this is necessary because
pain can influence resistance in the circuit by the impedance values of the circuit with
KVL and KCL as simple as aims to analyze from here as can be understood, the circuit
elements in the circuit depends on the phase angle.

8. in the experiment, we learned how to calculate the impedance values in the circuits
and how to find these values. the impedance analysis method allows us to analyze circuit
time and phase angles. This opens the way for us to follow simple KCL and KVL
equations and other graphing methods. 8. as we did in the experiment, we saw how to find
transformations and values between them using impedance values. We used phase angles
to calculate the values of capacitors and coils in the circuit and we saw how they behave
capacitive and inductive and how they work in these situations. The real and imaginary
parts of a circuit give us some information about the circuit, which gives us information
about the state of the circuit. One of these two states because the state of the circuit, the
circuit of inductor and capacitor values for the imaginary part. Provides information about
how the circuit works the circuit is offset to us whether these parts. We can calculate the
coil and capacitor values of the circuit by taking advantage of the phase angles in the
circuit. If we evaluate all these two experiments together, we can use them to solve phase
angles and impedance values of a circuit and these methods open the door to many
methods we have used before. This is a very simple circuit analysis.