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Captain Stuart T.

Sheppard
Virginia Evans - Jenny Dooley
You will serve on
many ships in your Merchant
Navy career. But no matter whal ship
you are on, the parts are the same. For
example, every ship has a hull or trame. Below
the waterline, a stem reaches from the keel to
the forecastle. A sternpost extends from the keel
to the fantail or poop deck. Propellers, or
screws, drive the ship.
Above the waterline, bulwarks line the weather
deck. Decks above the weather deck are part
of the superstructure. A mast is still
present on ships, but not to support
sails. Modern masts carry flags
and signal lights.

Vocabulary
E) Match the words (1-8) with the definitions
Get ready! (A-H).
O Before you read the passage, talk about 1 _ hull 5 _ weather deck
these questions. 2 _ mast 6 _ propeller
What are sorne exterior parts of a ship above 3 _ keel 7 _ sternpost
the waterline? 4 _ waterline 8 _ poop deck
2 What are sorne exterior parts of a ship below
A a part of a ship that extends from the keel
the waterline?
along the rear of a ship
B a long, vertical beam that extends up from a ship
Reading e the shell of a ship
f) Read the chapter from a seaman's guide. D a long beam that runs along the bottom of a ship
Then, mark the following statements as E the level al which a ship's surface meets the
true {T) or false (F). water
1 _ Ali ships have a keel below the water line. F a device with rotating blades that drives a ship
2 _ The sternpost is above the weather deck. G the top level of a ship lhil,I is exposed to air
S::t:11
3 _ Modern masts hold sails. H the rear part of a main deck
4
O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which word best fits Speaking
each blank.
Q With a partner, act out the
forecastle / fantail roles below based on Task 7.
A The _ _ _ _ _ is located at the back end of a ship. Then switch roles.
B The is found at the front of a ship.

2 screw / stem Did your class ...


A A _ _ _ _ _ pushes a ship forward. We never ...
B The extends from the keel to the front We'/1 get a lecture on ...
of a ship.

3 bulwark / superstructure Student A: You are a student.


A A _ _ _ _ _ protects equipment and personnel on Talk to Student B about:
the weather deck. • a recent class
B Any deck above the weather deck is part of the • parts of a ship you saw
• what you will see tomorrow

0 ~ Listen and read the chapter from a seaman's guide


again. Which part of the ship is between the keel and Student B: You are a student.
the forecastle? Talk to Student A about parts of
a ship.
Listening
O~ Listen to a conversation between two students.
Choose the correct answers. Writing
What is the conversation mainly about? 0 Use the chapter from a
A a test on parts of a ship seaman's guide and the
B difieren! visits to a ship conversation from Task 8
to fill out the diagram.
C parts al a ship below the waterline
D the functions of modern masts

2 What will the man most likely do tomorrow?


A climb a mast
B clean the weather deck
C tour the ship's superstructure
D learn about structures below the waterline

O" Listen again and complete the conversatíon.

Student 1: Hi Tom. Did your class 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ r,


ship today?
Student 2: We did. But we didn't 2 _ ___.
Student 1: That's too bad. 3 _ _ _ _ did you sea?
Student 2: We never got below the weather deck. But I saw
parts al the 4 _ _ .
Student 1: My class saw that, too. One student climbed the
5 ___ 2
Student 2: We're going back tomorrow. We'II get a lectura on the 3
structure below the 6 _ _ . 4
5
O Before you read the passage, talk about
these questions.
What structures do seamen go through to
enter different areas of a ship?
2 What are the nautical terms for land-based
structures like floors. ceilings, and stairs? What
other land-based structures have different
names on ships?

Reading
6 Read the passage on ship interiors. Then,
choose the correct answers.
What is the passage mainly about?
A improvements to ship interiors
B common misconceptions about ship interiors
C comparisons between ship interiors and
buildings Vocabulary
D rules for exiting the interiors of ships E) Writea word or phrase that is similar in
meaning to the underlined part.
2 Which of the following ship structures does NOT
have a similar structure on land? Watch your head, there is a low ceiling in this
A deck C passageway level. _ v _ r _ e __
B bulkhead D compartment 2 Never block the ~ with boxes.
p_s _ a __ w _ _ s
3 What is the difference between bulkheads 3 A non-watertight divider separates these
and partitions? compartments. p _ _ t __ i _ n
A Partitions have ladders. 4 The crew's ~ are rather small on this ship,
B Bulkheads feature watertight doors. so don't bring a lot of gear.
C Bulkheads are also known as the head. _ o __ a _ t _ e _ _ s
D Partitions are above a compartment and 5 Glose that opening between decks.
bulkheads are below. _ a_ c _

6
-
O FIJI in the blanks with the correct words Speaking
and phrases from the word bank.
(l) With a partner, act out the roles below
w!iff!lJ,-,+'1: based on Task 7. Then switch roles.

head hatch watertight door


l0dder deck Can you tell me where the ...
You're talking about ...
Always keep a closed. Turn ... out of this ...
2 The uses seawater to
flush toilets.
3 A lower was covered in Student A: You are a student. Talk to
water alter the accident. Student B about:
4 Go up this to get to the • the location and land-based name of an
weather deck. interna! structure
5 The was sealed, and so the • the corree! name of the structure
flooding was contained to one compartment. • how to get to the location

0 " Listen and read the passage on ship Student 8: You are an officer. Talk to Student A
interiors again. What is a structure that about a part of the ship and how to get to it.
does not have an equivalent on land?

Listening
Writing
0 íl Listen to a conversation between a
student and an officer. Mark the following 0 Use the passage on ship interiors and the
statements as true (T) or false (F). conversation from Task 8 to fill out the
student's notes.
_ The woman uses the correct term for a
restroom.
2 _ The man gives directions to the head. p of ashiP: In e ior
3 _ The woman must go to a difieren! deck.
Structure on Land Structure on a Ship
6 íl Listen again and complete the Floor
conversation. Ceiling
Hallway
Student: Excuse me. sir.
Room
Officer: What is it? º1
Student: Well, l'm a student, sir. And l'm a
1 _ _ _ _ _ . Can you tell me where
the 2 _ _ is?
Officer: The bathroom? You're talking about the
3___
Student: Yes, of course, sir. l'm still 4 _ _
_ _ _ _ this.
Officer: Turn right out of this 5 ___ Go up the
first ladder in the passageway and turn left.
Student: Thank you, sir. So it's up on the first
6 _ _?
Officer: That's corree!.
7
················ ....
..·•,..
. ~
:" This vessel has systems to meet sailors' \
r :" every need. Ventilation and potable water \
· .: systems provide fresh air and water. The \
:' electrical, compressed air, and fue! systems \
: provide power. You'II have every resource that you do ~
: on land. :
: Of course, many ship systems aren't needed on land. :
~ \ These systems address the ship's needs. The :
•. propulsion, steering, and mooring systems allow :
\ the SS Hayes to go and stay where she needs /
\ to. The drainage and saltwater systems .-·
•,. add and remove water to keep her in •:
~ . ~
•• 1nm....... ••....
.......................

Get ready! Vocabulary


O Before you read the passage, talk about 9 Match the words (1-6)
with the definitions (A-F).
these questions.
1 _ ventilation system
What systems support the crew of a ship?
2 _ potable water system
2 What ship systems are needed to move a ship?
3 _ mooring system
4 _ drainage system
Reading
5 _ propulsion system
f) Read the introduction to a ship. Then, 6 _ steering system
complete the chart.
A a set of ropes or anchoring devices used to
System Function secure a ship in one place
B machinery that creates the thrust to push a ship
Provide fresh water
C a set of machinery and vents that circulate
2 _ _ _ __ _ fresh air
Provide power D a set of machinery that transforms non-drinkable
salt water into drinkable water
Drainage System
3 _ _ _ _ __ E a set of devices that direct a ship
Saltwater System F a set of pipes, valves, and drains that remove
excess water 3

8
C) Fill in the blanks with the correct words and phrases Speaking
from the word bank.
(l) With a partner, act out the
~ ,m,: roles below based on Task 7.
Then switch roles.
saltwater system electrical system
1"1f, 1 1 ~· m fuel system
,. : The computers had no power until the _ _ _ _ _ __
Are there any questions?
What does the ... do?
was turned on again. lt ... for a lot of things.
2 The _______ cools engines and provides water
for ballast and firefighting.
3 The boiler failed due to a problem with the _ _ _ _ __ Student A: You are an instructor.
4 Air from the _ _ _____ is usad to clean devices Talk to Student B about:
and to provide power to sorne tools. • a question about ship syste/'l"s
• the function of a system
0 " Listen and read the introduction to a ship again. • the function of another system
Which systems add and remove water from the ship?
Student B: You are a student.
Listening Talk to Student A about two ship
0 " Listen to a conversation between an instructor and systems.
a student. Choose the correct answers.
What is the conversation mainly about?
A the differences between two systems Writing
B which systems are most importan! 0 Use the introduction to a
C how a system affects sailors' lives ship and the conversation
D where different systems are located from Task 8 to fill out the
ship introduction.
2 What is a function of the saltwater system?
A to create water for bathing
B to cool engines with water
e to clean a ship's water pipes
D to provide drinking water

O" Listen again and complete the conversation.

Instructor: So, are there any questions on the ship's systems? r-,¡
Student: Yes, ma'am. l'm not 1___ ___ the water systems.
Instructor: 2 _________ the potable water system
or the saltwater system?
This ship has systems to meet the
Student: Well, both, 1guess. What's 3 _ _ _ _ ? needs of the crew and the vessel.
Instructor: lt's simple. The 4 ______ ___ turns
saltwater into drinking and bathing water. ____ : provides electrical power
Student: Then what does the 5 ______ do? _ _ _ : provides fresh water

Instructor: lt uses saltwater for a lot of things. 6 ______ , _ _ _ : provides bailas!


saltwater cools engines. Does that help?
Student: Yes ma'am, thanks.

9
Get ready! Reading
O Before you read the passage, talk about 8 Read the passage on stability. Then,
these questions. choose the correct answers.
What are the types of stability in a ship? What is the article mainly about?
2 What are sorne structures that maintain ship A ways that the center of gravity affects ship
stability? stability
B how difieren! factors affect ship stability
C the best structures for maintaining stability
D how to calculate the trim of a ship

2 Which of the following is NOT a structure used


( center of gravity ) to maintain stability?
A stabillzer wing e trim
B bilge keel D antiroll tank

3 What is true of antiroll tanks?


A they change the center of gravity
B they preven! changes in drafts
C their size depends on displacement
D they are also known as bilge keels

Vocabulary
E) Match the words (1-8) with the definitions
(A-H).
( bilge keels )
_ transversa stability 5 _ draft
2 _ center of buoyancy 6 _ antiroll tank
3 _ longitudinal stability 7 _ displacement
4 _ center of gravity 8 _ stability

A a ship's ability to resist turning over fore or aft


B the volume of water that a ship takes the
place of
A guide to ship stability C the ability of a ship to float upright and resist
overturning
The stability ol a ship depends on manv factors. Here D a ship's ability to resist turning over on either side
are key points to know before lurther discussion:
E the distance between the keel and water line
• There are two types of stability. Transverse stability
runs athwartship: longitudinal stability runs !ore F a tank inside the ship that transfers water to
counter rolling
and aft.
• Trim is the ditterence between fore and aft drafts. G an imaginary point where all weight would be
Load ships carefu\\y, as it attects the trim. pulled down
• The center of gravity is difieren\ for every ship. On H an imaginary point where all forces push up
an even keel, it will be in line with the center of
buoyancv.
• Structures such as bilge keels and stabilizer wings
help maintain stability. Antiroll tanks transfer water
to counter rolling. The greater a ship's displacement,
1O the \arger the size ol the tanks it needs.
O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which Speaking
word or phrase best fits each blank.
Q With a partner, act out the roles below
athwartship / trim based on Task 7. Then switch roles.
A A pipe that is _ _ _ _ _ _ runs from one
side to another.
Describe a ..
B The _ __ _ _ _ of a ship is the
What about ...
difference in drafts from front to back.
lts job is to _
2 bilge keel / stabilizer wing
A A _ _ _ _ _ _ can change its angle to
adjust to difieren! conditions. Student A: You are a Merchant Navy
B A _ _ _ _ _ _ runs along the hull of a instructor. Talk to Student B about:
ship. • difieren! structures far ship stability
• what the structures do
0 " Listen and read the passage on stability
again. What does trim refer to and how is it
Student 8: You are a student in a Merchant
affected?
Navy program. Talk to Student A about
structures used to stabilize ships.
Listening
0 " Listen to a conversation between an
instructor and a student. Mark the following Writing
statements as true (T) or false (F).
_ The speakers discuss types of stabilizing
0 Use the passage on stability and the
conversation from Task 8 to fill out the
structures. student's notes.
2 _ Bilge keels can change angles.
3 _ The woman cantuses a bilge keel and Student's notes
stabilizer.
Ship Stability
f) " Listen again and complete the
conversation.
There are different structures used to maintain
Instructor, Midshipman Smith, 1 _ _ _ - - - O - - - -· Sorne ships wíll have two _ __ _
bilge keel.
____ attached to the bottom of the _ _ __
Student: Yes, sir. A bilge keel is a fin on
2 _____ _ _ _ _ the hull.
They come in pairs. Similarly, ships may have _ _ _ _ _ _ __
e
Instructor: What is it far? These structures can change _ __ _ _ __
Student: 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to minimize This helps reduce _ _ __
rolling.
Instructor: 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ the stabilizer wings?
Student: They are fins that can change their angle.
Instructor: And what is their purpose?
Student: Stabilizer wings do the 5 ______
_ _ _ bilge keels. They reduce rolling.
Instructor: 6 _ __ ___ .

11
.I, " - .5. Nautical directions
-
:c..,_
~ ':_. '

Get ready!
O Before you read the passage, talk about
these questíons.
Why do sailors use differeílt words to describe
the "lett• aíld "right" of a ship?
port-
,..,.. ____________
1'
2 What are sorne of the most commoíl words
used to describe directioíls Oíl ships? . ' starboarc
o b ow ''

:.
''
-------- -----------·r---------- --

..

-----
-------
,,_ 1n oard
!to: ~
~eading 'ª
1r
-
-
-
""
=
•r , t . _
1

f 6 Read the newsletter. Then, mark the


following statements as true (T} or false (F).
Your first time Oíl a ship is like your first visit to _ Port and starboard are opposites.
aílother couíltry. lt eveíl has a differeílt laílguage 2 _ The bow is abaft to the stern.
- ílautical directioíls. You'll learn every terrn sooíl,
but for ílOW, just learn the basics.
3 _ Moving inboard rneaíls rnoviílg below the
deck.
Laíld-based Term Nautical Terrn
Froílt Bow Vocabulary
Rear Stern
Left* Port 0 Match the words (1-6) with the definitions
Right* Starboard (A-F).
Backward* Aft _ iílboard 4 _ below
2 _ abaft 5 _ topside
Sorne terrns are harder. For example, if sornething
is abaft to sornethiílg else, it's closer to the stern. 3 _ astern 6 _ outboard
lf it's astern, it's behiíld the ship. lf somethiílg is
A away from the ceílterliíle
inboard, it's clase to the centerliíle of a ship.
Outboard is the opposite. But sorne terms mean B toward the ceílterline of a ship
exactly what they souíld like. Forward just rneaíls C on a lower deck
forward. And topside iterns are above the D above the waterliíle or Oíl deck
waterline, while iterns below are oíl lower decks. E behiíld a ship
*Wheíl faciílg the bow F closer to the stern
~

12-----~ ~~~..,,.~~~~~..._..
O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which word best fits Speaking
each blank.
9 With a partner, act out the
bow / stern roles below based on Task 7.
A The _ _ _ _ _ is considered the front of a ship. Then switch roles.
B When a ship is moving backwards, sailors stand at the
_ _ _ _ _ to ensure it doesn't hit anything.
Take it ·-
2 port / starboard l'm sorry. That's the ...
A When facing the stern, _ _ _ _ _ is to a sailor's left. Make sure you store it ...
B When facing the stern, is to a sailor's right.

3 aft / forward Student A: You are a student.


A To move from the stem to the bow is to move _ _ _ __ Talk to Student B about:

B Take the wire _ _ ___ from the bow to the stern. • an ítem to be delivered
• clarifying where to take it
0 " Listen and read the newsletter again. What does it • the side to store it on
mean if something is abaft to something else?
Student B: You are an officer.
Listening Talk to Student A about where
to store an item and the correct
0 " Listen to a conversation between a student and an
terms to use.
officer. Choose the correct answers.
What is the purpose of the conversation?
A to state where to deliver an ítem
B to explain the difference between inboard and outboard
Writing
C to describe an item's location 0 Use the newsletter and the
conversation from Task 8 to
O to corree! common nautical language errors
fill out the sailor's guide.
2 Where should the wire go?
A to port C to the bow
B inboard D below the deck

f) " Listen again and complete the conversation.

Student: Sir, 1 have that new wire you asked for.


Officer: Oh, good. Take it 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ - - -·
e
Student: Yes, sir. l'm sorry, sir. That's the back?
Officer: No. Take it 2 ___ _And you need to learn 3 _ __
_ _ _ _ _ _ a ship.
Student: l'm sorry, sir. Is there anything else?
Term on Land Term on a Ship
Officer: Yes. Make sure you store it 4 ____ You know which
sida that is?
Student: 1 do, sir.
Officer: Good. Now get 5 ______ _ _ _ . There's still
more wire to move 6 _ __ .

13
Communications: Audio

ll1ll) If) f)11Ell1l'l'f)ll' S f, IJI 1)E


Bravo Brah voh
Radio operators have great responsibility. Messages must be
Charlie Cha~ lee
delivered quickly. But a simple error can cause major problems.
For that reason, radio communication relies on procedural words, Delta Dell tah
or prowords. These terms speed up communication and reduce Echo Ecisoh
errors. Memoriza the following terms: Foxtrot l EQ!s§ trol
Golf Golf
fMeán1ng•. ~~~'~* ~~~~,¿:-e:;~¿.:;,.. -.;:=;;]
Hotel Ho tell
~ 1 received our messa e.
~ 1 am finished s eakin and need a res onse. India In dee ah
~ 1am finished eakin and no res nse is needed. Juliet J.fil'l lee fil
Kilo ~loh
Lima wmah
Repeat your last transmission. Mike Myk
The next word will be spelled out letter by letter. November No vem ber
The phonetic alphabet {figure 1) also provides clear communication- Osear ~cah
even between speakers of different languages. Use it instead of the Papa Pahgª1}
normal pronunciation of letters. Otherwise, letters like C, and E can Q Quebec Keh~
be heard incorrectly. R Romeo Row me oh
s Sierra See air rah
T Tango Tang go
u Uniform XOl.! nee form
V Víctor Vik tah
O Before you read the passage, talk about these questions. w Whiskey ---,
Wiss key
X X-ray Ecks ray
1 Why should radio communications be as simple and as fast
Yankee Yang key
as possible?
2 What are sorne common prowords that aid radio
communications?

Reading
Vocabulary
f.) Read the radio operator's guide. Then, choose the
correct answers. €) Match the words {1-5) with the
definitions (A-E).
1 What is the purpose of the document?
_ affirmative
A to provide instructions on repairing radios
2 _ negative
B to list common errors made by radio operators
3 _ proword
C to describe the training requirements for radio operators
4 _ phonetic alphabet
D to explain methods to improve radio communications
5 _ radio communication
2 Which of the following requests a response from another
speaker? A a word or phrase that
represents a longer message
A roger B negativa C over D out
B a procedural word meaning "yes"
3 What can you infer about the phonetic alphabet? C a set of words that represen!
A lt has special meanings for each letter. individual letters
B lt was designad to slow down the speed of speech. D a procedural word meaning •no•
C lt should only be used if letters are heard incorrectly. E the transmission of information
D 11 is learned by radio operators who do not speak English. over different frequencies
14
O Fill in the blanks with the correct words and phrases Speaking
from the word bank.
O With a partner, act out the
ffi BANK

1spell .iut over say again roger


roles below based on Task 7.
Then switch roles.

Speaker 1: SS Grant, this is SS Junebug. 1 _ __ __ Can we get a ...


Speaker 2: 2 _ _ _ _ _ SS Junebug. I missed that. Say again ...
Speaker 1: SS Grant, do you have a crew member named Is there any storm activity?
Smith onboard?
Speaker 2: SS Junebug, 1 missed that name, 3 _ _ _ __
Student A: You are a radio
Speaker 1: SS Grant, that name is Smith. 4 _ _ _ __
operator. Talk to Student B about:
sierra mike India tango hotel.
• weather conditions
Speaker 2.: Negative, SS Junebug. No Smith on board here.
• a missed piece of information
Speaker 1: Roger that. SS Junebug 5 _ _ _ __
• ending the communication

0 '"6 Listen and read the radio operator's guide again.


Which word shows the conversation is finished? Student B: You are a radio
operator. Talk to Student A about
weather conditions.
Listening
0 O Listen to a conversation between two radio operators.
Mark the following statements as true (T) or false (F).
Writing
_ The woman asks for a weather report.
2 _ The woman asks the man to spell information that she 0 Use the radio operator's guide
and the conversation from
missed.
Task 8 to fill out the radio
3 _ The man's ship has poor radio reception due to a storm. operator's chart.

O O Listen again and complete the conversation.


Radio Operator's Chart
Operator 1: SS Haverton, this is SS Bell. 1 _ _ _ .
Operator 2: SS Bell, this is SS Haverton.
o Common Prowords - You should know
the function of these prowords and use
Operator 1: SS Haverton, this is SS Bell. Can we get a 2 _ __ them for ali radio communications.
_ _ _ on your location?
_ _ _ : acknowledges a message
Operator 2: SS Bell, this is SS Haverton. Winds southeast al 14
was received
knots.
_ _ _ : requests that information
Operator 1: SS Haverton, this is SS Bell, 1 missed that. 3 _ __
be repeated
_ __ : states that you have
Operator 2: SS Bell, this is SS Haverton. 1 say again, winds are
finished your message and
southeast at 14 knots.
need an answer
Operator 1: SS Haverton, this is SS Bell. 4 _ _ _ , is there any
_ _ _ : states that you will spell a
storm activity?
word
Operator 2: SS Bell, this is SS Haverton. s ___ , SS Bell. _ _ _ : states that you have
Operator 1: This is SS Bell. 4 _ _ _ , _ _ _ _
finished a message and do
not need an answer

15
1,,., ., .,41., Communications: Visual ~

~ Satellites let ships communicate on opposite sides of


• ~ the world. But for centuries, sailors relied on visual
, communication. Those methods are still taught, just
in case. For example, during radio silence or a radio
/
failure, visual communication methods are vital.
The main method of visual communication is flashing
light. With flashing light, a light sends a Morse code
message. In non-directional method, that message

A
is sent in ali directions. In the directional method, a
signal lamp sends the message in one direction.
Semaphore is an older forrn of visual communication.
~/ lt is only effective over short distances and is rarely
w, used. Still, semaphore has advantages. With
semaphore flags, sailors can exchange basic
information, even if they speak different languages.

.-··· . ---·
Vocabulary
€) Match the words (1-6) with the definitions
e-•-• o-- (A-F).
D 1 c_ Morse code 4 f radio silence
_
Q --·-
2 _a visual communication 5 _e flashing light
E •
R •-•

_b radio failure _d semaphore


f ··-· s •••
G --• 3 6
T
H ••••
1 u ··- A the act or process of sending and receiving
V •••- information using flags or light
J ----
W •--
K -•- X-••-
B an event in which a radio does not work
L •-••
y-·-- C a communication system that uses short and

Get ready!
%. --·· long flashes of light or beeps
D a system of communication based on positioning
O Before you read the passage, talk about flags
these questions. E a system of communication based on turning
lights on and off
1 Why are visual communication methods still
F a condition or order in which ali radio
taught in modern times?
communications are not allowed
2 What are sorne types of visual communication
methods?
O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which
word or phrase best fits each blank.
Reading
1 semaphore flag / signa! lamp
f) Read the article on visual communication. A Morse code can be sent with a
Then, mark the following statements as
true (T) or false (F).
signal lamp
B Asemaphore
_ _ ____ flag
is only effective over short
_ Morse code can be sent by signa! lamp distances.
and semaphore flag.
2 _ A non-directional message can be seen by 2 directional method / non-directional method
any ship in seeing distance. A The _ directioned method
_ __ _ _ requires a signal lamp.
3 _ Semaphore is more effective over longer B A message sent by the _ _ non_ _directional
_ _
distances than flashing light. can be seen by any ship inmethod
the area.
16
0 g Listen and read the article on visual Speaking
communication again. What are the
strengths and weaknesses of semaphore? Q With a partner, act out the roles below
based on Task 7. Then switch roles.

Listening
/ want to run a ... exercise.
0 g Listen to a conversation between a
Should we practice ·- or ... ?
captain and an officer. Choose the correct
answers. ... is fine.

1 What is the purpose of the conversation?


A to explain what a flashing light message Student A: You are a captain. Talk to
means Student B about:
B to review methods of sending visual • a visual communication exercise
communications • types of communication to use
C to interpret a Morse code message • the information to be sent
~ to schedule a visual communication exercise
2 Why does the woman suggest the non-directional Student B: You are an officer. Talk to Student A
method? about a visual communication exercise.
A The information sent will not be secret.
B The message must be sent over a long
distance. Writing
C The ship has no semaphore flags on hand.
D The sailors receiving the message speak a
0 Use the article on visual communication
and the conversation from Task 8 to fill
difieren! language.
out the officer's orders for the visual
communication exercise.
@ g Listen again and complete the
conversation.

Captain: Mr. Green, 1 want to run a 1 ___


_ _ _ exercise tomorrow. 0
First Officer: Very well. Should we practice
2 _ _ _ _ _ _ or semaphore?
First Officer: _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __
Captain: l'd 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ both.
First Officer: We can do that. Should I warn the Date of exercise: _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _
crew?
Methods to use: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Captain: No. 1 want to see how they respond.
First Officer: 1 understand. For the Morse code,
4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ the
directional method or the
non-directional method?
Further instructions: _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __
Captain: Non-directional 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ .
We won't be sending any secret
messages soon.
First Officer: 6 _ _ _ _ __ . 1'11 make the
arrangements.

. /~
( 1 17
Using s·gnal Flag
Ships mostly rely on radio communication while at
sea. But be prepared to communicate in other
ways if your radio fails. Signa! flags are your first
line of communication if the radio is not available.
The lnternational Code of Signals gives you a
guide to the different messages you can send.
Single letter signals are used in both the most

111 2
common and urgent situations. Less common
operational situations use two letter signals.
Medica! communications are always three letter
signals that start with "M." Your vessel's call sign
is represented by a tour letter identity signa!.

~I
The flag hoist should typically display ene
message al a time. lf multiple messages are
necessary, use a tackline to separate them on
the halyard.

~ - ~ ~ •~ m ~ - =~ ~ ~~ ~ a
" 1 C. 11 l • 5 " o • • 1 11 !O CI ~
~ - u~ x oo ~ ~
" 1 1 M • ., • •

lnternational Vocabulary
€) Match the words (1-7) with the definitions

Code ol Signals
(A-G).
1 _F M 5 _F signal flag
2 _G urgen! 6 _C identity signal
3 _B halyard 7 _D two letter signal
4 _A lnternational Code
Get ready! of Signals
O Before you read the passage, talk about A a system of letter codes for communication
these questions. B a rope that raises flags
1 Why should seamen know how to use signal C a code that represents a vessel's call sign
flags? D a cede used in less common situations
2 What are sorne different types of signa! flag E the beginning of a medica! code
messages?
F a flag that represents a letter or number
G requiring attention immediately
Reading
f} Read the instructions on signal flags. Then, 8 Read the sentences and choose the correct
complete the chart. words.

We used a(n} three letter signa! / identity


Code Message
signa! when we had a medica! emergency.
Single Letter Signals 1 Common and urgen 2 An urgen! situation is usually represented by a
single letter signal / two letter signa!.
Two Letter Signals 2 Operational situations
3 Check the lnternational Code of Signals / flag
Medical situation hoist to see if the other vessel has responded.
Three Letter Signals 3
4 Use a signal flag / tackline to separate multiple
Four Letter Signals 4 Identity signal
messages.

18
0 g Listen and read the instructions on Speaking
signal flags again. How is a medical code
different from other signals? (i) With a partner, act out the roles below
based on Task 7. Then switch roles.

Listening
We have to use ...
0 g Listen to a conversation between two
Here, use ...
seamen. Choose the correct answers.
There shou/d be a ... we can use.
What information do the seamen need to send?
A The captain ordered radio silence.
B Urgen! medical help is required. Student A: You are a seaman. Talk to
~ We need assistance from another vessel.
Student B about:

D We are helping another vessel repair a


• sendíng a signal flag message
broken hull. • the type of message needed
• which code to use
2 What will the woman likely do next?
A look up a signal code
Student B: You are a seaman. Talk to Student A
B corree! a signal error
about sending a signa! flag ínessage.
rn prepare the halyard
D confirm that WRVV needs help

@ g Listen again and complete the


Writing
conversation. 0 Use the instructions on signal flags and
the conversation from Task 8 to fill out
Seaman 1: The captain ordered 1 ___ the seaman's communication log.
- - - · We're practicing sending 0
messages with signal flags.
Seaman 2: Wow, 1 haven't used those 2 _ __
- - - - - - · What's the message?
~ D! D, ~
~ D. ~ E3:=q
Seaman 1: We need to tell vessel WRVV that
3 _ _ __ _ _ . The
message should say our hull is
damaged.
Seaman 2: Let me 4 _ _____ _ __ ,
~ Ck-?
~~ ~
Here, use MAA.
Seaman 1: What? No, that can't be right. We don't
need 5 _ __ - - -· There should
be a single letter signal we can use.
:t Seaman 2: Oh, 1 see. Okay, use V instead.
Seaman 1: That sounds right. 6 _ ____ _
___ for the flag hoist.

Type of communication used: _ __ _ __ _


a
Type of code needed: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
19 Message sent: _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __
d.
le

19
Seaman's O Before you read the passage, talk about
these questions.
Guide What are sorne challenges of learning nautical
measurements?
2 How are measurements at sea different from
As an up-and-com ing seaman, you'II be those used on land?
flooded with new words. Sorne will seem
odd, or difficult to remember. Given time, Reading
these terms will become second nature.
Words for measureme nts show how f} Read the guida for new seamen on
different the language can be: measurem ents. Then, choose the correct
answers.
• Distances are measured in
nautical miles, or 6,076 feet. 1 What is the article mainly about?
• Use fathoms, not feet, to (AJ what words are used fer measurements at sea
measure depths. A fathom is B a comparison of the metric system and
equal to six feet, or 1.8 meters. imperial system of measurement
• The word cable, referring to C the origin of nautical words fer measurement
measurement, equals 100
D the importance of using nautical terms for
fathoms.
distance
• To measure speed use knots,
not miles or kilometers per hour. 2 Which of the following is NOT a nautical
• Sorne terms are mistaken for measurement?
land-based measurements. For A knot e fathom
example, a gross ton doesn't B gross ton CID miles per hour
refer to the weight of a ship's
mass. lt measures a vessel's 3 What can you ínter about the term ·gross ton"?
interna! volume. A lt is no longer in use.
B lt changas with higher speeds.
CS'.) lt is often usad incorrectly as a measure of
weight.
D lt is the most difficult measurement to
calculate.

1 nautical mile = 1.1 s miles


Vocabulary
E) Match the words (1-6) with the definitions
(A-F).
1 nautical mile = 1.85 km
b fathom
_ 4 _d gross ton
2 _e knot 5 _c nautical mile
3 _a cable 6 _f foot

A a measurement equal to 100 fathoms


B a measurement of depth
C a distance measurement
D a measurement of volume
E a measure of speed
F a measurement equal to 12 inches
20
(i) Read the sentence pairs. Choose which Speaking
word or phrase best fits each blank.
(l) With a partner, act out the roles below
1 gross ton / depth based on Task 7. Then switch roles.
A The ______ of the water is 6 fathoms.
B A _ _ _ _ _ _ measures volume, not
How far ...
weight.
We're traveling at ...
2 distanc e / speed lt'/1 take about ...
A The _ _ _ _ _ _ to the next port is 150
nautical miles.
B A ship's _ _ _ _ _ _ is measured in knots. Student A: You are a ship's captain. Talk to
Student B about:

0 " Listen and read the guide for new • when you must arrive at port
seamen on measurements again. How is • the distance to port
depth measured at sea? • how fast you are traveling

Listening Student 8 : You are a navigator. Talk to Student A


about when you will reach your next port.
O" Listen to a conversation about
navigation. Mark the following statements
as true (T) or false (F).
1 _f The ship is behind schedule. Writing
2 _f The ship is traveling at twelve knots.
3 _t The ship will reach the port at 1500 hours.

f) " Listen again and complete the


conversation.

Officer: Roberts, 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ finish your r-


watch we should review our course.
Navigator: Sure thing. l've updated the ship's log
already. lt 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ we're on
schedule
Officer: We need to reach Newton by 1500
hours. What's our distance?
Navigator: We're about ninety nautical miles out
3 ____. Officer: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ __
Officer: And 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ ? Date: _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Navigator: We're traveling at fifteen knots. Time: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __
Officer: By my calculations, it'II 5 _ __
Curren! Speed: _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ six hours to get there.
Distance to Destination: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Navigator: 1 reckon the same thing. We'II be.
6 ______. Estimated Time to Arrival: _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

12

1 fathom = 6 feet = 1.8 meters 1 foot = 12 inches

21
Get ready!
O Before you read the passage, talk about these questions.
1 What are sorne crew positions?
2 What are the responsibilities of an OS and an AB?

Reading
f} Read the job postings for crew members. Then,
choose the correct answers.
What is the purpose of the posting?
A to explain the benefits of a career in a merchant navy
B to list available positions for a ship's crew
C to describe examination requirements for shipping crews
D to compare c ruise ship and cargo ship jobs

2 Which of the following is NOT a duty of the chief steward?


A order supplies C oversee the wiper
B supervise the galley D supervise the chief cook

3 What can you infer about a ship's crew members?


A an AB is ranked above an OS
B the chief cook is ranked above the chief steward
C the steward's assistant orders supplies for the galley
D the chief steward is in charge of the boatswain

Vocabulary
E) Match the words (1-6) with the definitions (A-F).
1 _ b steward's department 4 _f maintenance
2 _e steward's assistant 5 _c watchstander
3 _a chief cook 6 _d chief steward

A the person who supervises meal preparation


B the station responsible for meals and housekeeping
C a crew member who keeps watch
D the person who directs personnel in the steward's department
E an entry-level person in the steward's department
F the act or process of keeping something in working condition

22 :. - , . · . ·- ~
-- - ' , ~ - . .
O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which Speaking
word best fits each blank.
(¡} With a partner, act out the roles below
boatswain / wiper based on Task 7. Then switch roles.
A The _ _ _ _ _ _ cleans and maintains
the galley.
P/ease tell me ...
B A _ _ _ __ _ is in charge of the deck
I spent ...
crew.
Describe ...
2 AB / OS
A A sailor with no experience starts as an
Student A : You are an interviewer for a
B Becoming an _ _ _ _ _ _ requires shipping position. Talk to Student B about:
passing an exam and many hours at sea. • what experience he or she has
• how much time she spent on a job
0 " Listen and read the job postings for • training he or she received
crew members again. What is the chief
steward responsible for?
Student B: You are a job applicant. Talk to
Student A about your past experience.
Listening
0 " Listen to a conversation about a job
interview. Mark the following statements
as true (T) or false (F).
Writing
1 _ The woman was on a ship out of Panama.
0 Use the job postings for crew members
and the conversation from Task 8 to fill
2 _ The man is an OS. out the job description.
3 _ The man has taken the watchstanding exam.

O" Listen again and complete the


conversation.

lnterviewer: Please 1 _ _ _ _ about your r-,._


shipping experience, Mr. Wales.
Applicant: 1 just advanced to Able Seaman-
Special. 1 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ on
a bulk ship out of Panama.
lnterviewer: Congratulations. When did you take
the AB certification exam?
Applicant: 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ the exam in August,
and received my certificate last
month.
lnterviewer: Great. 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ please
describe your duties as an OS? Position: _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ __
Applicant: 1 mostly performed maintenance and
cleaning duties 5 ______ deck. Primary duties:

lnterviewer: Oíd you get any other training you'd


like 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ about?
Applicant: 1 passed the watchstanding exam in
June.
~,,ew Melh6e
o~
».• ~
• ;; Ship's Captain: Henry Adams '
•~ , Representing owner Charlotte E. Haddock
•$,,' Deck Department
~, Chief officer: Erica Miller
,t._-.; ,' Second officer: James McBride
_. / Boatswain/ third mate: Juan Martinez
'4 f Engineering Department
fll I Chief engineer: Michael Donovan (Chief's Ticket)
: Second engineer: Andrea Cho
1 Third engineer: Brett Davidson
, Fourth engineer: Margare! Smith

' \
\
Crew notes: A special welcome to Ship's Master
Henry Adams. Captain Adams joins us from the SS
\ Ursula. He will be onboard the SS Virginia through
\ November.
\ \ _ Before the SS Ursula, Captain Adams worked
, aboard the SS Harriet as chief mate. He
'.. served 365 days on the Harriet to ;
" -, complete his captain's ,,
' - -!llllto..___,_
license.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ .,..,.,

Vocabulary
Q Match the words (1-6) with the definitions
(A-F).
1 _e chief engineer 4 _d second engineer
2 _c mate 5 _f captain
3 _a chief officer 6 _b deck departrnent

~ Get ready! second officer


A a narne for a position that requires a license or
other qualifications and training
O Before you read the passage, talk about B the group of crew members responsible for
these questions.
watchkeeping and for maintenance of the
What is the deck department responsible for? ship's hui!, lifesaving and firefighting gear,
2 Who are the two highest ranked crew cargo gear, and accommodations
members within the engineering department? C the crew rnernber who oversees a ship's deck
departrnent an.d acts as second-in-cornmand
Reading after the captain
D the crew mernber responsible for day-to-day
f) Read this crew list for a shlp. Mark the operations and maintenance of the
following statements as true (T) or false (F).
engineering department
_f The boatswain is a member of the E the highest ranked rnernber of the engineering
engineering department. departrnent
2 _f Henry Adams holds a Chiefs Ticket. F a ship's highest ranked officer; responsible for
3 _t The captain is new to this ship. the ship on behalf of its owner

24
O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which Speaking
word or phrase best fits each blank.
0 With a partner, act out the roles below
second officer / master based on Task 7. Then switch roles.
A The _ _ _ _ __ spoke with the ship's
owner about new crew members.
The thing is ...
B The _ _ _ _ __ took over for the chief
You want ...
officer, who was sick that day.
What about ...?
2 Chief's Ticket / engineering department
A Michael Donovan is in charge of the
Student A: You are a new crew member. Talk
to Student B about:
B To become a chief engineer, one must
possess a(n) _ __ __ _ • being new to the ship
• your duties
0 \f Listen and read the crew list for a ship • who to contact
again. What position did Captain Adams
hold previously?
Student B: You are a crew member. Talk to
Student A about which officer to speak with.
Listening
0 \f Listen to a conversation between two
crew members. Mark the following
statements as true (T) or false (F).
Writing
1 _ Both speakers are new crew members.
0 Use the crew list for a ship and the
conversation from Task 8 to fill out
2 _ The man is supposed to help with navigation. the crew assignment form.
3 _ The woman recommends that the man
speak with the chief officer.

f) \f Listen again and complete the


conversation.

Crew Member 1: Excuse me, l'm a new crew fJ


member. 1 _ _____ ask ~

you a question?
Crew Member 2: Of course. 2 _ ____ _ !
Crew Member 1: Thanks. l'm supposed to be
helping with 3 _ _ _ .
Crew Member 2: You're in the 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ ? Crew mernber: _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ _
Me too.
Crew Member 1: Great! 5 _ _____ New/returning: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
_ __ , 1 don't know who I can Department: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __
talk to about navigation duties.
Crew Member 2: Oh, you want Mr. McBride. He's Duties: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
the 6 _ _ _ _ _
Get ready!
O Before you read the passage, talk about
these questions.
1 Why should a sailor know how to sew?
2 How does a sailor decide which numbered
duck to use for a project?

Reading
f) Read this sailor's guide on canvas. Then,
choose the correct answers.
1 What is the main purpose of this guide?
A to describe common mistakes when using
canvas
B to teach sailors how to sew canvas
C to demonstrate different types of stitches
O to explain how to use canvas for a project

2 When sewing with canvas, which step of the


process should a sailor always repeat?
A choosing the numbered duck
B measuring
Sailors use canvas to create many useful items.
Hammocks, sea bags, and boat covers are a few
e stitching
examples. When using numbered duck, choose the O treating the canvas
canvas weight c arefully. Then measure how many bolts
3 What is one type of treated canvas?
you will need. Repeat your measurements for correctness.
A seaman must sew using different types of stitches. The A waterproof canvas C duck #10
type of stitch depends on the canvas weight. AII warps B duck #2 O woven canvas
and wefts must be taut and neatly aligned. One broken
thread can hinder any project. Vocabulary
Treated canvases require special care. Storage methods
may differ for waterproof c anvas, for example. €) Fill in the blanks with the correct words
from the word bank.

~ : •

we t stitches threads
sew canvas warp

A ______ runs lengthwise across a


piece of canvas.
2 A _ _ _ _ _ _ runs crosswise across a
piece of canvas.
3 A cloth is made up of many _ _ _ _ __
4 Sailors use _ _ _ _ _ _ to make everything
from sea bags to boat covers.
5 Every sailor should learn how to _ _ _ _ __
( canvas )
6 When working with canvas, sailors should know
how to sew different types of _ _ _ __ _
26
O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which Speaking
word or phrase best fits each blank.
0 With a partner, act out the roles below
1 treated / waterproof based on Task 7. Then switch roles.
A The officer decided to make his canvas
_ _ _ _ _ _ so he could use it during
l'm trying to ...
rainstorms.
8 Canvas can be _ _ _ _ __ in a number Make sure ...
of ways. Next ...

2 bolts / numbered duck


A When measuring canvas, sailors should use Student A: You are a seaman. Talk to
_ _ _ _ _ _ as the unit of measurement. Student B about:
B The sailor chose a heavier _ _ _ _ __ • tips for a canvas project
because he was making a hammock. • numbered duck
• steps to take
0 " Listen and read the sailor's guide on
canvas again. What should a sailor do to
ensure accurate results on their canvas Student 8: You are an officer. Talk to Student A
project? about the steps in using canvas.

Listening
0 " Listen to a conversation between a
Writing
seaman and an officer. Mark the following 0 Use the sailor's guide on canvas and the
statements as true (T) or false (F). conversation from Task 8 to fill out the
materials request.
_ The woman has made severa! sea bags.
2 _ Choosing a type of stitch is the first step.
3 _ The woman suggests using a lighter
numbered duck.
6 Virginia)

O" Listen again and complete the


conversation.
Crew member making request: _ _ _ _ _ __
Seaman: Good morning, officer. Can 1 1 _ __ O Date requested: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _
___ about something?
Officer: Sure, Nathan. 2 _ _ _ __ _ .
Materials needed: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __
Seaman: Well, l'm trying to make a sea bag. Do
you have 3 _ _ _ ___ ?
Officer: l've made many of !hose! First, 4 _ __
_ _ _ you have the right canvas. lntended use: _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __
Seaman: Hmm. lt's 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ , so I was
thinking a three or a four.
Officer: Four is a good choice. 6 _ _ _ ___
_ _ _ and not too light.
lf specific materials are not available, is there a
possible alternative? _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __

27
~ \\\ese reminders
.
\\~!~:,e 100 start painting!
Get ready!
O Before you read the passage, talk about
Do ••• these questions.

... use the corree! paint for your What are sorne different types of marine paint?
project. Topside paint is designad 2 When does paint need to be touched up?
to protect against wind and sun.
Bottom paint is better for saltwater Reading
protection. For both types of
protection, use boot topping paint. f) Read the poster on painting. Then, choose
the correct answers.
... apply primer first. Primer ensures
the paint adheres properly. lt also What is the poster mainly about?
contains anti-corrosion agents. A different painting methods
B tips for painting effectively
Don't ••• C how to remove rust
... paint over rust. Use a scraper to D ways to conserve paint
remove rust before painting. For
2 Which product is better for weather protection
deep or heavy rust, use a grinder.
than underwater protection?
... waste paint. Touch up small areas
with a flat brush instead of a roller A boot topping paint C bottom paint
to avoid using too much paint. B topside paint D primer

3 Which is NOT an instruction from the poster?


A Touch up small areas with a roller.
B Always remove rust first.
C Apply primer to preven! rust.
D Use boot topping paint for wind, sun, and
saltwater protection.

Vocabulary
6) Match the words (1-5) with the definitions
(A-E).
1 _ rust 4 _ bottom paint
2 _ painting 5 _ boot topping paint
3 _ touch up

A a coat applied to underwater areas only


B a coat applied to areas along the waterline
C a red substance formed when metal breaks down
D the process of applying a coating
E to reapply something in small areas
O Place the words and phrases from the word bank Speaking
under the correct headings.
Q With a partner, act out the
BANK roles below based on Task 7.
Then switch roles.
topside paint flat brush primer
roller scraper grinder
You need to ...
Coatings Paint applicators Rust removers So /'// need ... paint.
Shou/d I use ... ?

Student A: You are a lieutenant.


Talk to Student B about:
0 Q Listen and read the poster on painting again. What are • a painting project
sorne of the qualities of primer?
• what steps to take
• what tools to use
Listening
0 " Listen to a conversation between a lieutenant and Student B: You are a seaman.
a seaman. Check (✓ ) the instructions that the woman
Talk to Student A about a
gives the man. painting project.
O Do sorne painting.
2 O Use topside paint.
3 O Touch upa rust spot.
Writing
4 O Apply rust-resistant primer.
5 O Remove rust with a grinder.
0 Use the poster on painting
and the conversation from
Task 8 to fill out the seaman's
O" Listen again and complete the conversation. work report.
Lieutenant: Seaman Nelson. 1need you to 1 _ _ _ _ __

Seaman: Yes, ma'am. What needs to be done?


Lieutenant: Not a lot. You just need to 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ a small
rust spot on the starboard hull at the waterline. Area of vessel: _ _ _ _ _ __ _
Seaman: So l'11 need 3 _ __ _ _ _ - - -· Should 1
remove the rust before I paint?
Lieutenant: Yes. And then 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of rust-
resistant primer before you put on the final coat.
Seaman: Yes, ma'am. Do I need a grinder to s _ __
______? Description of work: _ _ _ _ __

Lieutenant: 1don't think so. A 6 _____ _ should do the trick.

Tools/products needed: _ _ _ __

29
By now, you probably know how a ship moves. This
chapter tells you how to keep it stationary.
A ship's crew uses ground tackle to stop a ship while
at sea. The anchor holds the ship in place. lt connects
to the ship with a shackle at the end of a sturdy cable.
The crew lets out the anchor by turning the wildcat
with the windlass. A devil's claw holds the anchor in
place while underway.
The crew must know the appropriate scope of the
anchor chain. Most ships carry ten to twelve shots per
anchor. This is enough to moor safely in most
anchorages. In crowded or busy areas, the crew might
put a second anchor under foot. lts purpose is to
reduce swing.

Vocabulary
0 Fill in the blanks with the correct words
from the word bank.

~ ,w,:
windlass shackle chain
devil's claw ground tackle

The _ __ _ _ prevents the anchor from


dropping unexpectedly.
2 When the _ __ __ broke, the anchor
carne loose from its cable.
3 The _ _ _ _ _ lets out the anchor and
pulls it in again.
Get ready! 4 A series of strong metal links makes up the
O Before you read the passage,
talk about these questions. 5 The crew needs a whole new set of _ _ __
befare the voyage.
What is the function of an anchor?
2 What are sorne parts used to operate an anchor?
O Read the sentences and choose the
correct words.
Reading The scope / windlass is too short for this deep
f) Read the textbook chapter on ground tackle. water.
Then, mark the following statements as true 2 Turn the shackle / wi ldcat to release the chain.
(T) or false (F).
3 You will feel the devil's claw / cable loasen
_ A ship uses ground tackle while docked at when the anchor hits the bottom.
port. 4 Release another ground tackle / shot before
2 _ An anchor without a devil's claw can be you lock up the chain.
released. 5 The chain / anchor hooks into the sea bottom
3 _ A second anchor is useful in deep waters. to keep the ship in place.
30
0 " Listen and read the textbook chapter Speaking
on ground tackle again. How does scope
affect anchoring? 0 With a partner, act out the roles below
based on Task 7. Then switch roles.

·stening
Do you have any questions about ground
,.. listen to a conversation between an
tackle?
ns!ructor and a student. Choose the
l'm not sure ...
:::orrect answers.
What do you do after ...
• N'.at is the main idea of the conversation?
;.. drfferent methods for dropping anchor
3 oow a windlass is operated Student A: You are a naval instructor. Talk to
C the right scope for a particular vessel Student B about:

D determining how much chain to release • ground tackle


• the process for dropping an anchor
2 What "is the next step after the anchor hits the
• his or her questions
sea floor?
A locking up the chain immediately
Student 8: You are a student. Talk to Student A
B pulling up the chain with the windlass
about dropping an anchor.
C releasing the chain from the anchor
O continuing to release the chain

O" Listen again and complete the Writing


conversation. 0 Use the textbook chapter on ground tackle
and the conversation from Task 8 to fill
Instructor: Do you have any questions about out the student's notes.
1_ _____?
Student: Yes, Mr. Fredericks. 1 see how the
windlass 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - ·
But l'm not really sure how you know
when you're anchored.
Instructor: The chain is very tight as the anchor
sinks. Then, you feel the chain loosen
when the anchor hits 3 _ __

Student: Oh, 1 see. And what do you do after


4 ------ _ _ _ ? Parts used to release the anchor are ...
Instructor: 5 _ _ _ __ _ the chain. You do
that until you reach the proper scope
for your vessel and sea conditions.
Student: Then 6 _ _ ____ the anchor When the chain loosens ...
chain?
Instructor: That's right.

Lock up the anchor when ...

-- _... ..
~
These days, helmsmen often rely on iron mikes, or Ottos, to
stay on course. But remember that you still have important
responsibilities when in the pilot house. Your vessers
steering gear USf:S extremely powerful electrohydraulic
systems. lt must be operated with great care.
Even though gyropilots do most of the steering, you must
- -- sometimes take the wheel yourself. This usually happens
in difficult conditions or emergencies. Always know which
officer has the conn so you know whom to take directions
from.
Docking is an especially important task for a helmsman.
Your rudder is not effective at slow speeds, so you must
be able to maneuver with the bow thruster.

Vocabulary
E) Match the words (1-5) with the definitions
(A-E),
1 _ gyropilot 4 _ on course
2 _ helmsman 5 _ have the conn
3 _ electrohydraulic

A traveling along a planned route


B to be in command of a vessel
C a device that steers automatically
D a person who steers a vessel
E creating power with electricity and fluid pressure

Get ready! O Read the sentence pairs. Choose which


word or phrase best fits each blank.
O Before you read the passage, talk about iron mike / wheel
these questions.
A Under normal conditions, most steering is
1 What are the parts of a steering system? done with the _ __ __ _
2 Why must a helmsman know who is in B In emergencies, you must steer manually
command of a vessel? with the _ _ _ _ _ _

2 pilot house / steering gear


Reading A The _ __ _ _ _ includes the wheel
f) Read the memo on steering responsibi lities. and the rudder.
T hen, mark the following statements as true
B The navigation equipment is in the
(T) or false (F).
_ In difficult conditions, manual steering should
be used instead of the gyropilot. 3 bow thruster / rudder
A Use the _ __ __ _ to change course
2 _ A helmsman is responsible for knowing who
rapidly.
has the conn.
3 _ Docking requires careful maneuvering with B For slight shifts to the front of the ship, use
the _ _ _ _ __
the rudder.
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0 g Listen and read the memo on steering Speaking
responsibilities again . When does a
helmsman take manual control of the 0 With a partner, act out the roles below
steering? based on Task 7. Then switch roles.

Listening We're veering to the _


0 g Listen to a conversation between a / tried to •. but ...
helmsman and a captain. Choo se the Ease to ...
correct answers.
1 What is the purpose of the conversation?
Stude nt A: You are a helmsman. Talk to
A to determine the vessers heading Student B about:
B to steer through a storm
• the vessers course
e to get back on course • your actions
D to change the planned route
• what to do next
2 What will the man likely do next?
A let the woman take the wheel Stude nt B: You are a captain. Talk to Student A
B calculate the current heading about the vessel's course.
e switch to gyropilot steering
D make slight adjustments to the rudder
Writing
O g Listen again and complete the
0 Use the memo on steering responsibilities
conversation.
and the conversation from Task 8 to fill
Helmsman: Captain, we seem to be 1 _ __
out the steering log.
___ __ _ to the northwest.
Captain: How did that happen? Manual Steering Report
Helmsman: We were about ten degrees 2 _ _
_ Reason for switching to manual steeñng:
_ _ _ after the storm. 1tried to make
a correction, but it jusi got worse.
Captain: You have to be careful not to
3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ too much in
these situations.
Problems encountered, if any:
Helmsman: l'm sorry, Captain. 1 realize that now.
What 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ?
Capta in: Where are we now?
Helmsman: Now, we're off twenty degrees in the
5 ____.
_;:; Corrections:
Capta in: Okay. 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to
five degrees rudder, then wait and see
if we need to make further adjustments.

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