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Chrysler Group LLC Document Number: PS-1791<S>

Process Standard Date Published: 2012-05-02


Category Code: D-1 Change Level: N
EASL Requirement: No
Restricted: No

WELD SCREWS - PROJECTION WELDING

1.0 GENERAL

1.1 Purpose of the Standard

This standard defines the projection welding process, quality requirements and methods of evaluating
weld quality of steel weld screws.

1.2 Purpose of the Process

This standard sets the process quality requirements for welding of weld screws to all automotive
components fabricated from coated and un-coated sheet alloys.

1.3 Application

Welds on screws are considered satisfactory when they carry the intended or expected service loads for
a required period. Service loads on screw welds in a vehicle are varied in both type and magnitude.
Therefore, they are not addressed by this specification. While the weld quality criteria of this specification
are consistent with service loading requirements, they are based on the use of process and product
monitoring. Any attempted application of this document to other uses such as post-crash screw weld
quality assessment, may lead to an erroneous result or conclusion.

1.4 Correlation to other standards

Fasteners covered by this standard shall meet the general specifications for dimension, material and
finish listed in PS-7099 “General Specifications: Fasteners and Fittings”. The design and performance
requirements of parts designated as ‘KTO’ are governed by Standards as listed in Table 1, unless
specified otherwise in the engineering releasing documents.

A shielded section <S> in this standard applies to safety welds as designated on the welding releases. In
this situation, the safety weld must comply with the requirements of EM-10001<S> ("Shield"
Requirements - Assembly Plants), EM-10002<S> ("Shield" Requirements - "Internal Supplier" Plants),
and EM-10003<S> ("Shield" Requirements - "External" Supplier" Plants). If the section is shielded in this
standard, but the weld is not designated as safety weld on the welding releases, then EM-10001<S>,
10002<S>, and 10003<S> do not apply to the weld, but the weld is still required to meet the section's
requirements. For more information refer to PF-SAFETY<S>.

Any deviation to the Supplier Quality lot control requirement as called out in EM-10001<S>, EM-
10002<S>, or EM-10003<S>, must be approved by the Supplier Quality Office and the Product Releasing
Group.

1.5 Coverage of this Standard

This standard is applicable to steel screws fabricated from MS-210, MS-2717 or MS-5378B steel (see
MS-BAR<S>) welded to all automotive components fabricated from MS-6000<D> (galvanized,
galvannealed, and electro galvanized), MS-66<S> and MS-67<S> (uncoated or bare), MS-264<S> (high
strength), and other weldable coated and uncoated steels approved for usage by Chrysler Group LLC’s

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Materials Engineering Office. The screws can be welded to weldable steels having a carbon equivalent
of 0.30 and a maximum sulfur content of 0.13%. The carbon equivalent is calculated by the following
formula:

C.E. = %C + %Mn/6

This standard also covers any commercial weld screws and steels approved for usage by Chrysler Group
LLC, Engineering Office, Materials Engineering.

The weld screws listed in Table 1 are considered preferred as they are listed in the KTO Catalog.

The fusion requirements are valid for weld screws welded to a single steel thickness only. Weld screws
welded to two steel thicknesses are unacceptable.

1.6 Limitations of this Standard

Projection welding of weld screws to High Strength Low Alloy Steels having a yield strength greater than
551.5 MPa (80,000 lbf/in) and Dual Phase with yield strength greater than 590 MPa shall be restricted to
only those applications specifically approved by Materials Engineering.

1.7 Requirements on Part Drawings

Any weld quality or special requirement for projection weld screws that is called out on the detail
assembly, CATIA/NX drawings, weld only drawings or weld releases takes precedence over the
requirements specified in this standard.

Strength values for weld screws not covered by MBN 10346 or Table 2 shall be called out on the detail
assembly, CATIA/NX drawings, weld only drawings or weld releases when required.

2.0 PROCESS

2.1 Condition of Weld Screw and Sheet Material

The surfaces of the weld screw and the adjacent steel at the time of welding shall be free from scale, rust,
paint, dirt and other contaminants that would adversely affect the quality of the welds.

2.2 Fit-up of Parts

The surface of the adjacent steel in the immediate weld area shall be sufficiently flat to permit uniform
contact of all projections of the weld screw with that surface.

The minimum distance from the nearest feature of the weld screw to an adjacent sheet metal edge or
radius shall not be less than 2t (t = metal thickness) or 3 mm (0.120 in.), whichever is less.

Weld screws shall be positioned accurately in fixtures to prevent electrical shunting and proper alignment
of the weld screw.

2.3 Electrodes

The resistance welding electrodes shall be of sufficient size to fully support the projection pattern. The
electrodes shall extend a minimum of at least 6.35 (0.250 in.) beyond the outer edge of the projection
pattern. One of the electrodes shall be provided with an insulated high wear-resistant insert to receive
the screw shank. The recommended electrode material is the Resistance Welder Manufacturers’
Association (RWMA) Class 2 or Class 3 copper alloy. Class 11 and 12 (Copper Tungsten) can be used
when electrode wear must be prevented. Electrode contacting surfaces shall be maintained parallel to
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each other and perpendicular to the electrode centerline (see Figure 1).

2.4 Weld Screws

Fasteners covered by this standard shall meet the general specifications for dimension, material and
finish listed in PS-7099 “General Specifications: Fasteners and Fittings”. Table 1 summarizes the
standards that are applicable to the most commonly used projection weld screws. The performance and
weld quality of all weld screws used on Chrysler Group LLC products which are not listed in Table 1, are
controlled by this standard unless specified in the Engineering release documentation.

2.5 Weld Schedules

The recommended weld schedules for Grade 5 weld screws are shown in Table 2. Note that the screws
listed in Table 2 are not part of the ‘KTO’ list.

A 20 to 30% increase in welding current, and a 10% reduction in electrode force, is recommended when
welding standard weld screws to galvanized (zinc coated) sheet steels. High side weld time and weld
current is recommended when welding standard weld screws to galvannealed (iron-zinc alloy) coated
sheet steels.

The set up strength values given in Table 2 for tensile strength are for guidance only, and are to be used
as an aid in welding equipment setup and maintenance.

2.6 Inspection<S>

The objective of the following inspection procedures is to prove weld quality, and to assure that adequate
process control is being employed. Inspection techniques to be used are visual inspection and
destructive testing.

2.6.1 Visual Inspection

2.6.1.1 Cracked Weld

A weld does not meet the requirements of this standard if the surface of the weld or in the area adjacent
to the weld exhibit cracks that can be seen without any form of magnification device.

2.6.1.2 Alignment

The weld screw attachment is discrepant if the threaded shank of the weld screw is off from the normal to
the mating surface by more than 5 degrees.

2.6.1.3 Head thickness reduction

The weld screw attachment is discrepant if the weld screw head thickness is reduced by more than 10%
as a result of the projection welding process.

2.6.1.4 Set-Down

- Standard Weld Areas

For standard weld areas, the weld screw attachment is discrepant if the weld screw is not seated to within
20% of the original height of the weld screw projection. For example, a weld screw with a projection
height of 1.3 mm (0.050 in.) shall be seated to within 0.25 mm (0.010 in.); the gap between the weld
screw and the adjacent part cannot exceed 0.25 mm (0.010 in.).

- Diamond and Safety Weld Areas


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For diamond and safety weld areas the weld screw attachment is discrepant if the weld screw is not
seated to within 15% of the original height of the weld screw projection.

2.6.2 Destructive Inspection

Destructive testing is the most precise method for determining the quality of the weld in a welded
fastener. Physical destructive testing shall be used to determine the strength of a projection welded
screw and/or the degree of fusion of the screw weld developed during the welding operations. One of the
destructive testing techniques described in this section shall be used during initial machine set-up, as well
as during production, at a regular frequency specified by the designated quality control instructions and/or
the responsible technical personnel. A destructive test shall also be performed after preventative
maintenance on the screw welding equipment.

2.6.2.1 Weld Tensile Strength (Push-off load)

The strength of the projection weld screw can be evaluated by measurements of the weld's tensile
strength, using a fixture similar to the one shown in Figure 2. To obtain accurate results, the push-off
load shall be applied normal to the plane of the attachment. The hole in the backup block shall be
approximately 10% larger in diameter than the maximum diagonal dimension of the weld screw being
tested.

The screw weldment strength is acceptable when the breaking load is equal to or greater than the value
listed in MBN 10346 or Table 2 for the proper screw style, screw size and metal thickness to which the
screw is being welded.

Strength at failure that is below the specified values of MBN 10346, Table 2, or any value that is specified
on engineering release documentation, make the projection weld screw discrepant.

2.6.2.2 Weld Fusion

The amount of fusion can be measured when analyzing the fracture mode of the weld after the weld
screw has been detached from the sheet metal it was welded to. The weld screw can be detached by
either a peel test or an impact test.

In a Peel Test the screw is either pulled or peeled from its attachment base metal.

In an Impact Test (Least preferred method) the screw is broken loose by the application of one or more
impact loads such as a hammer blow.

To pass these tests, one or more of the following conditions shall be met:

- Buttons are pulled at each projection that is equal to at least 70% of the projection base area.

- Interface fracture with weld fusion at each projection equal to at least 70% of the projection base area.
Weld fusion will be indicated by evidence, of severe strain, distortion or partial tearing of the base
metal, along with a "rough and grainy" weld fracture surface. (See Figures 3 & 4)

- A combination of button and interface fractures with weld fusion at each projection equal to at least 70%
of the projection base area.

NOTE: The push-off test (see section 2.6.2.1) shall be used to resolve disputes when complex interface
weld fractures occur that cannot be readily analyzed. This condition may occur when welding M6
(1/4 in.) weld screws to MS-66<S>/MS-67<S> thicker than 1.5 mm (0.06 in.), or to MS-264<S>
thicker than 0.76mm (0.03 in.). This condition may also occur when welding M8 (5/16 in.) weld
screws to MS-66<S>/MS-67<S> thicker than 2.3 mm (0.09 in.), or MS-264<S> thicker than 1.5
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mm (0.06 in.)

Projection welded screws exhibiting any one of the following characteristics upon being destructively
tested shall be considered discrepant:

- Stick Welds: An interface break after tensile, impact or peel testing which shows little or no fusion at
the interface accompanied by brittleness and low strength (See Figure 4).

- Substandard Fusion: An interface fracture after tensile, impact or peel testing which indicates less than
70% fusion of the projection base area.

- Severe Expulsion: An interface fracture after tensile, impact or peel testing in which metal expulsion
during the weld cycle reduced the effective weld area to less than 70% of the projection base area.

3.0 QUALITY

Refer to CS-9801 for general quality requirements.

4.0 DEFINITIONS/ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

Discrepant Weld: A discrepant weld is one that differs from the requirements of this standard. Even
though these welds differ, they still may have useful engineering properties.

Projection Welding of Weld Screws: Projection welding of weld screws is a resistance welding process
wherein the weld screw is fused to an adjacent part by the heat obtained from the resistance to the flow of
electrical current through the areas held together under pressure by electrodes. The resulting welds are
localized at predetermined points by the contact of the projections on the bottom surface of the screw
head with the adjacent part.

KTO: Acronym for Small Part Optimization.

5.0 GENERAL INFORMATION

Three asterisks “***” after the section/paragraph header denotes single or multiple technical changes to
the section/paragraph. Specific technical changes within a section, subsection, table, or figure may be
highlighted in yellow.

Certain important information relative to this standard has been included in separate standards. To
assure the processes submitted meet all of Chrysler requirements, it is mandatory that the requirements
in the following standards be met.

CS-9800 - Application of this standard, the subscription service, and approved sources
CS-9003 - Regulated substances and recyclability

Within Engineering Standards, the Regulatory (Government-mandated) requirements are designated by


<S> and <E> which correspond to Safety and Emission Shields respectively. When applicable, the
Chrysler mandated requirements are designated by <D> which correspond to the Diamond symbol and
by <A> for Appearance related objectives, respectively.

For specific information on this document, please refer to the contact person shown in the "Publication
Information" Section of this document. For general information on obtaining Engineering Standards and
Laboratory Procedures, see CS-9800 or contact the Engineering Standards Department at
engstds@chrysler.com.
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6.0 REFERENCES

Chrysler ASTM ISO SAE Federal


Standards Standards Standards Standards Standards
CS-9003
CS-9800
CS-9801
EM-10001<S>
EM-10002<S>
EM-10003<S>
MS-210
MS-264<S>
MS-2717
MS-5378
MS-6000<D>
MS-66<S>
MS-67<S>
MS-BAR<S>
PF-SAFETY<S>
PS-7099
Quality and Reliability Documents

Other Documents
Resistance Welding Manual, Revised Fourth Edition, RWMA, 2003.
- Available from www.RWMA.org
MBN-10346
MBN-75
- Available from https://daimler.portal.covisint.com/web/portal/home

7.0 ENGINEERING APPROVED SOURCE LIST

Not Applicable

8.0 PUBLICATION INFORMATION***

Contact/Phone Number: William Trojanowski, 248.512.0318


Alternate Contact/Phone Number: Joseph Beckham, 248.512.6498
Department Name & Department Number/Tech Club/Organization: Engineering Operations
(Deg)/Materials COC – Welding/Department 5810
Date Standard Originally Published: 1960-01-24
Date Published: 2012-05-02
Change Notice:
Description of Change:
- Updated format.
- Updated contacts

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TABLE 1: CURRENT KTO WELD SCREWS
Weld
Dimensional
Shape Size Part Number Performance
Standard
Standard
06104951AA
06104952AA
06104953AA
M6 06104954AA MBN 75 (1) MBN 10346
06104955AA
06104956AA
06104957AA

06104958AA
06104959AA
06104960AA
06104961AA
06104962AA
M8 MBN 75 (1) MBN 10346
06104963AA
06104964AA
06104965AA
Weld Screws 06104966AA
(header point) 06104967AA

06104968AA
06104969AA
M10 MBN 75 (1) MBN 10346
06104970AA
06104971AA
06104972AA
M12 06104973AA MBN 75 (1) MBN 10346
06104974AA
06104975AA
06104976AA
06104977AA
M14 06104978AA MBN 75 (1) MBN 10346
06104979AA
06104980AA
06104981AA

NOTE 1: The material used to manufacture MBN 75 is MS-5378B

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TABLE 2: PROJECTION WELDING OF GRADE 5 or
PROPERTY CLASS 8.8 AND 9.8 WELD SCREWS (1)
Minimum Strength
Recommended Schedule (2) Set-up Strength
Metal <S>
Nut
thickness Tensile Tensile Electrode Weld Tensile Tensile
Size Current
(mm) Strength Strength Force, Time Strength Strength
(kA)
(N) (lbf) N (lbf) (Cycles) (N) (lbf)
M4 0.76-1.29 4450 1000 6230 1400
(#8) 1.30-1.87 5340 1200 6670 1500
3560
1.88-2.45 5780 1300 5-7 10 - 13 7120 1600
(800)
2.46-3.29 6230 1400 7560 1700
> 3.30 6670 1500 8010 1800
M5 0.76-1.29 4890 1100 8900 2000
(#10) 1.30-1.87 8010 1800 10680 2400
4450
1.88-2.45 8900 2000 6 - 10 13 - 15 11120 2500
(1000)
2.46-3.29 9340 2100 11570 2600
> 3.30 10230 2300 12010 2700
M6 0.76-1.29 5340 1200 11120 2500
(1/4) 1.30-1.87 10230 2300 13340 3000
5780
1.88-2.45 11570 2600 8 - 12 15 - 18 15570 3500
(1300)
2.46-3.29 13340 3000 20020 4500
> 3.30 15570 3500 22240 5000
M8 0.76-1.29 5780 1300 11570 2600
(5/16) 1.30-1.87 11120 2500 14230 3200
7120
1.88-2.45 15120 3400 12 - 16 19 - 22 22240 5000
(1600)
2.46-3.29 17790 4000 24470 5500
> 3.30 20020 4500 26690 6000
M10 0.76-1.29 7120 1600 12460 2800
(3/8) 1.30-1.87 12460 2800 15570 3500
8010
1.88-2.45 16900 3800 16 – 20 21 - 24 24470 5500
(1800)
2.46-3.29 20020 4500 25800 5800
> 3.30 22240 5000 28910 6500
NOTE 1: Applicable to Grade 5 or Property class 8.8 or 9.8 weld screws projection welded to
coated MS-6000<D> or un-coated steel fabricated from MS-66<S> or 67<S> or MS-
264<S> (See Section 1.6 for limitations).
NOTE 2: Schedules determined using AC. A 20 to 30% increase in welding current and a 10%
reduction in electrode force are recommended when welding weld nuts to galvanized
(zinc coated) sheet steels. Upper end of the range of weld time and weld current is
recommended when welding weld nuts to galvannealed (iron-zinc alloy) coated sheet
steels.

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FIGURE 1: WELD SCREW ELECTRODE DESIGN

FIGURE 2: WELD SCREW TESTING FIXTURE

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FIGURE 3: EXAMPLE OF GOOD WELD - BUTTON PULL AT 3 PROJECTIONS

FIGURE 4: EXAMPLE OF DISCREPANT WELD –


INTERFACIAL FRACTURE AT ONE PROJECTION WITH NO EVIDENCE OF FUSION

#####

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