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Академия управления

при Президенте Республики Беларусь


Система открытого образования

Л.В. Вертаева

IMPROVE YOUR SPEAKING SKILLS


IN ENGLISH

PART II

Учебно-методическое пособие
по устной практике английского языка

2-е издание, исправленное и переработанное

Минск
2005
2

УДК 802.0 (07)


ББК 81.2
I56
Серия основана в 2001 году

Рекомендовано к изданию Комиссией по приемке и аттестации электронных


версий учебных и учебно-методических материалов Академии управления при
Президенте Республики Беларусь.
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Академии
управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь.

Составитель Л.В. Вертаева


Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук, и.о. профессора кафедры второго языка (английский) Минского
государственного лингвистического университета Плеханова Т.Ф.
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры стилистики английского языка Минского
государственного лингвистического университета Крохалева Л.С.
.
I56 Improve Your Speaking Skills in English. Part II: учебно-методическое пособие
по устной практике английского языка. Часть II. – 2-е изд., испр. и перераб. /
Составитель Л.В. Вертаева – Мн.: Акад. упр. при Президенте Респ. Беларусь, 2005. –
194 с
ISBN 985-457-475-X

Целью пособия является развитие и совершенствование умений и навыков разговорной речи


на английском языке.
Пособие включает темы социально-бытового характера, аутентичный текстовый материал,
набор разнообразных коммуникативных ситуаций и комплекс как языковых, так и речевых
упражнений.
Пособие предназначено для студентов Академии управления при Президенте Республики
Беларусь и для широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык и владеющих базовой
программой средней общеобразовательной школы
.

УДК 802.0 (07)


ББК 81.2

ISBN 985-457-475-X (ч.2) © Вертаева Л.В., 2005


ISBN 985-457-474-1 © Академия управления при
Президенте Республики Беларусь,
3
2004
4

CONTENTS

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ 4
UNIT I. PEOPLE AS THEY ARE 6
STARTING – UP 6
VOCABULARY FOCUS 7
DISCUSSION FOCUS 19
PRAKTISING VOCABULARY 27
READ AND DISCUSS 38
UNIT 2. HOME, HOUSE AND FACILITIES 50
STARTING-UP 50
VOCABULARY FOCUS 52
DISCUSSION FOCUS 55
PRACTISING VOCABULARY 64
READ AND DISCUSS 74
UNIT III. JOBS AND CAREERS 87
STARTING-UP 87
VOCABULARY FOCUS 87
DISCUSSION FOCUS 100
PRAKTISING VOCABULARY 115
READ AND DISCUSS 125
UNIT IV. HEALTHY LIFESTYLES 145
STARTING-UP 145
VOCABULARY FOCUS 145
DISCUSSION FOCUS 149
PRACTISING VOCABULARY 161
READ AND DISCUSS 175
REFERENCES 193
5

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Настоящее пособие предназначено для совершенствования
навыков и умений разговорной речи на английском языке с
учетом базовой программы средней школы.
Пособие состоит из двух частей, включающих четыре главы,
предлагающих многоаспектное рассмотрение тематического
материала. Каждая из глав в свою очередь состоит из пяти
разделов.
Первый из них “Starting-Up” является введением в тему для
выяснения степени ознакомления студентов с материалом и
определения круга вопросов, а также аспектов предстоящего
более детального изучения темы.
Во втором разделе “Vocabulary Focus” акцент делается на
обогащение как активного, так и пассивного словарного запаса
студентов. Лексика вводится последовательными порциями по
тематическому принципу с учетом словообразовательных
моделей, синонимии, антонимии, сочетаемости слов и
особенностей их употребления. Предлагаемые здесь
тренировочные упражнения дают возможность обстоятельной и
всесторонней работы с лексическими единицами.
В третьем разделе “Discussion Focus” основное внимание
сосредоточено на разговорной практике. Здесь широко
используются диалогическая речь, приемы парной и групповой
работы на фоне монологических высказываний. Все виды
заданий носят, как правило, творческий характер и направлены на
активизацию речевой деятельности учащихся в различных
коммуникативных ситуациях.
Четвертый раздел “Practising Vocabulary” включает комплекс
тренировочных упражнений как языкового, так и речевого
характера для основательного закрепления тематического
словаря.
Последний раздел “Read and Discuss” посвящен обучению
говорению на основе тематических текстов различных
функциональных стилей. Чтение подчинено задаче развития
6

коммуникативных навыков студентов. Этой цели служат


предтекстовые и послетекстовые задания, ориентирующие
учащихся на активное самостоятельное говорение. Дискуссия
здесь является основной формой работы, предполагая не только
обсуждение конкретного содержания текста, но и ряда
проблемных вопросов, выходящих во внетекстовую
коммуникацию.
В данном пособии не предусмотрен автономно
оформленный обязательный список активных лексических
единиц. Активная лексика, как правило, представлена в разделе
“Vocabulary Focus” и частично в разделе “Discussion Focus”. В
результате преподаватель имеет возможность варьировать объем
лексики, подлежащей активному усвоению в зависимости от
уровня языковой подготовленности студентов.
Активная лексика подается на достаточно широком фоне
пассивного словаря, который также тематически маркирован и
составляет существенную долю общесловарного запаса
студентов. В группах с высоким уровнем владения языком
преподаватель может расширять активный лексический запас за
счет перевода в него определенной части пассивного словаря.
Учебную работу на материале данного пособия
рекомендуется вести не последовательно, т.е. постранично, а
параллельно по всем разделам, формируя определенный комплекс
заданий для каждого занятия и самостоятельной работы
студентов.
Представляется нецелесообразным изучать весь
предложенный материал в группах с недостаточно высоким
уровнем владения языком. Материал в пособии имеет разную
степень трудности. Преподаватель может по своему усмотрению
опустить отдельные задания, упражнения, тексты или изменить
порядок прохождения учебного материала.
Таким образом, данное пособие предоставляет
преподавателю максимум свободы в работе с учебным
материалом и дает возможность эффективно осуществлять
7

индивидуализацию учебного процесса, а также проявить


собственное творчество в обучающей деятельности.
8

UNIT I. PEOPLE AS THEY ARE


STARTING – UP
We come to this world just like guests for shorter or longer
visits. And while our life travel lasts from the station ‘Birth’ to the
station ‘Death’ we try to learn and understand a great many things.
What are we in this world? What for do we live here? What makes our
life worth living? What is it to be happy?
Generations come and go, but the same questions rise again and
again. What is good and evil? What is mortal and immortal in human
life? What is the value of money, power, fame, mind and spirit? Is
there anything or anyone that determines our lives? What is within our
power and what is entirely in the hands of our Lord?

A. Discuss in class with your partners.


1. What is the message John Heywood, an English poet of the
XVI century, sent to his readers in the lines below. Say what you think
about it.
The loss of wealth is loss of dirt,
As sages in all times assert,
The happy man’s without a shirt.

2. Comment on the wish Jonathan Swift expressed in the


following lines.
I’ve often wished that I had clear,
For life, six hundred pounds a year,
A handsome house to lodge a friend,
A river at my garden’s end.

3. What do you think of the advice, given in the lines below?


Explain the ideas expressed in them.
Live for those who love you,
For those who know you true,
For the cause that lacks assistance,
For the bad that needs resistance,
For the Future in the distance,
And the good that you can do!
9

4. Do you know any other poetic citations, maxims, proverbs,


sayings which express certain truths resulting from age-old
experience, wisdom and common sense?
e.g. Life is not a bed of roses.
While there is life there is hope.
He is the richest who has fewest wants.
Time wasted is existence, used is life. (Ed. Young)

VOCABULARY FOCUS
1. The first thing that catches your eye when you meet a new
person (a stranger) is his/her appearance.
A. How many words do you know for describing what people look like?
Write down as many words as you can under the following headings. You may
use the words given below.

age height build hair face skin


young short stocky curly round pale

complexion distinguishing features general appearance


fair a scar good-looking

long chubby smart scruffy moustache


straight blond well-dressed untidy handsome
thin ginger ugly pretty clean-shaven
thick wavy muscular slender dyed
fair red athletic grey charming
auburn fat elegant mole under 30
brown stout attractive dimple in her teens
plump slim plain beard well over 50
heavy obese bald freckle wrinkle
youthful adult swarthy elderly skinny

B. Make up 6 sentences with hyphenated adjectives of the type ‘red hair –


red-haired’ with the second part ~skinned, ~eyed, ~nosed, ~faced, ~cheeked,
~legged, etc.
e.g. Christine, tall, graceful, auburn-haired and a bit snub-nosed
looked pretty indeed.
10

C. What adjectives on the right will match the nouns on the left.
chin high
nose poor
lips thick
eyes bulging
gait thin
sight bushy
forehead awkward
eyebrows double
cheeks hollow
shoulders aquiline
D. Answer these remarks with the opposite description.

e.g. A: I thought you said he was the short, chubby one.


B: No, quite the opposite, he’s the tall, thin-faced one.

1. A: Was that his brother, the dark-skinned, wavy-haired one?


B: No, quite the opposite, his brother’s ......... .
2. A: She’s always quite well-dressed, so I’ve heard.
B: What! Who told you that? Every time I see her, she’s .......... .
3. A: So Charlene’s that rather plump fair-haired woman, is she?
B: No, you’re looking at the wrong one. Charlene’s ............. .
4. A: So, tell us about the new boss; good looking?
B: No, I’m afraid not; rather .............. .
5. A: I don’t know why, but I expected the tour-guide to be middle-aged
or elderly.
B: No, apparently she’s only ............... .

E. Choose the word which best completes each sentence.


1. She sometimes wears her hair ........ .
A) tied B) loose C) free D) fringe
2. He has a ............. complexion.
A) white B) spotted C) clear D) brown
3. Last year’s cycling accident has left him with a large ........... on his left
cheek.
A) mark B) cut C) wound D) scar
4. Mark’s hair is already ............., which isn’t surprising as his father lost
all his hair at an early age.
A) bald B) parting C) retiring D) receding
11

5. People with red hair often come out in ....... when they sunbathe.
A) stubble B) moles C) freckles D) blemishes
F. Discuss with your partner the following proverbs:
 Appearances are deceptive/deceitful.
 Never judge from appearances.
 A fair face may hide a foul heart.
 Beauty lies in lover’s eyes.
 The face is the index of the mind.

G. Bring some photos of people (relatives, friends, etc.) and describe in


detail their physical characteristics.
H. Suppose you write to the ‘personal’ column where people are seeking
partners. Describe your own appearance and that of a person you would like to
meet. Give as many details as possible.

2 People around us can be divided into two groups: relatives


and non-relatives. Relatives can be blood relations and relations by
law.
A. Give as many words as you can to describe blood relations.
e.g. mother, father, etc.

B. We also have relations by marriage. Explain the following.


 What do we call a husband’s or wife’s father, mother, sister, brother?
 Who are ‘a son-in-law’ and ‘a daughter-in-law’?
 Whom do we call a ‘step-mother’ (~ father, ~ sister, ~ brother)?
 What kind of relationship does a ‘half-sister’(~ brother) suggest?
 Who can be called a ‘foster-father’ (~ mother)?
C. Non-relatives can be divided into those with whom we maintain close
relations, more distant relations and no relations at all.

Sort out the following relationships to show closeness and


distance in friendship, work, love/romance and marriage.
close ---------------------------- more distant friend / lover /
workmate / good friend / steady boy / girl friend / colleague / best friend /
sweetheart / wife / fellow student / ex-lover / partner / acquaintance / husband

N.B. ex- can be used with or without (informally) another word:


e.g. She’s my ex (-girlfriend, etc.).
12

Mate is a colloquial word for a good friend. It can also be used in


compounds to describe a person you share something with.
e.g. classmate, shipmate, workmate, flatmate.
Workmate is usual in non-professional contexts; colleague is more
common among professional people.
Fiancé/ée can still be used for someone you are engaged to, but a lot of
people feel it is outdated nowadays. You will sometimes see husband- / wife-to-
be in journalistic style. English has no universally accepted word for ‘person I
live with but am not married to’, but partner is probably the commonest.

D. Match each person from the list with a suitable description. Use each
name once only.
cousin adult orphan nephew toddler best man fiancé
nurse niece twin bride neighbour ancestor widow
1) The son of your brother or sister.
2) A woman on the day of her marriage.
3) A young child who is learning to walk.
4) What a woman calls the man she is engaged to.
5) One of two children born at the same time.
6) A person who lives near you.
7) The daughter of your brother or sister.
8) A person who is fully grown.
9) A woman whose husband has died.
10) At a wedding, the friend of the bridegroom.
11) A person from whom one is remotely descended.
12) A child whose parents are dead.
13) A child of one’s uncle or aunt.
14) A woman or girl employed to look after babies or small children.

E. Arrange the words below under the headings ‘man’ and ‘woman’.
e.g. man woman
nephew niece

spinster godmother granny fiancé bachelor


grandpa godfather uncle groom best man
auntie widower bridesmaid fiancée widow
F. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence.
1. How long has Sarah been ........…. with Peter?
13

A) going back B) going in C) going out D) going up


2. They fell in love at first ..................… .
A) glimpse B) look C) sight D) viewing
3. How long have they been .............….?
A) betrothed B) engaged C) financed D) intended
4. When are they going to …............... ?
A) get married B)marry them C) marry each other D) marry themselves
5. Peter has asked Michael to be his ............ at the wedding.
A) best man B) bridesmaid C) eyewitnes D) godfather
6. Sarah has invited all her …................ to the wedding.
A) compatriots B) in-laws C) parents D) relations
7. Her parents have been married for 25 years and today is their ............. .
A) anniversary B) birthday C) jubilee D) marriage
8. The people in the flat upstairs are always having noisy .......…. .
A) debates B) discussions C) noises D) rows
9. When her mother remarried, she got on very well with her
new .............. .
A) ancestor B) forefather C) foster-father D) step-father
10. A diagram that shows the members of a family and their relationship
is called a family .........… .
A) branch B) line C) river D) tree
G. Study the following phrases and idioms for relationships. Use them in
sentences of your own.
1) She doesn’t just like Bob, she idolises him! I can’t stand him. [hate]
2) I really like Lisa, but her friend just turns me off. [excite hate]
3) Jo and I get on well with each other. [have a good relationship]
4) Adrian and Liz don’t see eye to eye. [often argue/disagree]
5) I’ve fallen out with my parents again. [had arguments]
6) Tony and Jane have broken up / split up. [ended their relationship]
7) George is having an affair with his boss. [a sexual relationship,
usually secret]
8) Children should respect their elders. [adults/parents, etc.]
9) Let’s try and make it up. [be friends again after a row]
10) She’s my junior/I’m her senior/I’m senior to her, so she does what
she’s told. [refers to position/length of service at work]
H. Read the following sentences attentively and correct the idioms used in
them.
1. Jo and Phil don’t get on eye to eye with each other.
14

2. I fell up with my parents last night. It wasn’t my fault.


3. We had a quarrel but now we’ve made it well.
4. Do you think Jim and Nora are making an affair? I do.
5. I see very well with all my colleagues at work.
6. She should learn to respect her elders.
7. Jo’s attractive, but her mate just turns me up completely.
I. Read the quotations below. Discuss with other students.
A. What do you think each one means?
B. Which do you agree with? Which do you disagree with? Why?

 Without a family, man, alone in the world, trembles with the cold.
André Malraux
 No matter how old a mother is, she watches her middle-aged children
for signs of improvement. Scott Maxwell
 Parents are sometimes a bit of a disappointment to their children.
They don’t fullfil the promise of their early years. Anthony Powell
 The family is the place, where the most ridiculous and the least
respectable things in the world go on. Ugo Betti
 God gives us our relatives: thank God we can choose our friends.
Ethel Watts Mumford

3. Man is a universe of talents and inabilities, ambitions and


laziness, strengths and weaknesses, raptures and disillusionment,
hopes and despair, good and evil. And this universe is no less exciting
and mysterious than the Universe around us. Man has always been
tempted to explore the outer space, getting further and further beyond
the Earth, while his inner world has remained as enigmatic as the
most remote planets and stars.
A. The following words describe intellectual ability of a person. Arrange
them under the two headings: a) having ability and b) lacking ability:
having ability lacking ability
e.g. able e.g. simple
bright; foolish; silly; clever; capable; stupid; senseless; gifted; brainless;
dull; talented; daft; shrewd; witty; dumb; dim; brainy; intelligent; smart; half-
witted; egg-head(ed); block-head(ed)
15

B. Match the headings which describe a person’s attitude towards life and
other people with the corresponding groups of adjectives. If necessary, consult a
dictionary.
I
1. Looking on either the bright or the a. relaxed/ pleased, carefree,
black side of things: comfortable;
tense/ anxious, nervous,
concerned.
2. Outward-looking or inward-looking b. sensitive/ tender,
(i.e. to the world around one or to responsive, sympathetic.
one’s inner world)
3.Calm or not calm with regard to c. optimistic/cheerful, sanguine,
attitude to life: confident, hopeful;
pessimistic/ gloomy, sullen,
depressed, hopeless.
4. Practical, not dreamy in approach to d. hardworking/ diligent,
life: industrious, conscientious;
lazy/ idle, slack, loafing.
5. Feeling things very intensely: e. extroverted/ sociable,
gregarious, showing-off;
introverted/ self-centered,
egoistic, lonely.
6. Inclined to work hard and f. sensible/ reasonable, rational,
systematically or on the contrary: down-to-earth.
II
1. Enjoying others’ company: a. impolite, rude, ill-mannered,
sharp, harsh, abusive, severe.
2. Disagreeing with others: b. honest, sincere, trustworthy,
truthful, straightforward,
aboveboard.
3. Taking pleasure in others’ c. jealous, envious, covetous,
pain: resentful, green-eyed, yellow-
eyed.
4. Relaxed in attitude to self d. sociable, affable, cooperative,
and others: friendly.
5. Not polite to others: e. easy-going, even-tempered,
composed, tranquil, self-
possessed, self-controlled,
carefree, level-headed, cool-
headed.
6. Telling the truth to others: f. cruel, sadistic, pitiless, harsh,
merciless, brutal, rough, wild.
16

7. Unhappy if others have what g. quarrelsome, argumentative


one does not have oneself: combative, passionate, violent.
17

C. Some characteristics can be either positive or negative depending on


your point of view. The words in the right-hand column mean roughly the same
as the words in the left-hand column except that they have negative rather than
positive connotations.
Study and explain the meanings of these words using a
dictionary if necessary.
Positive Negative
determined obstinate, stubborn, pig-headed;
thrifty, economical miserly, mean, tight-fisted;
self-assured self-important, arrogant,
full of oneself (coll.);
assertive aggressive, bossy (coll.);
original peculiar, eccentric, odd;
frank, direct, open blunt, abrupt, brusque, curt;
broad-minded unprincipled, permissive;
inquiring inquisitive, nosy (coll.);
generous extravagant;
innocent naive;
ambitious pushy (coll.).

D. Match these words with their opposites.

1. intelligent a. courteous
2. extroverted b. smart
3. generous c. nervous
4. comfortable d. cunning
5. rude e. tight-fisted
6. cruel f. conscientious
7. honest g. sympathetic
8. quarrelsome h. tense
9. friendly j. self-centered
10. simple k. kindly
11. relaxed l. half-witted
12. idle m. hostile

E. Match the words similar in meaning.


1. thrifty a. optimistic
2. shrewd b. gregarious
3. gloomy c. brainy
18

4. diligent d. economical
5. reasonable e. covetous
6. cheerful f. quarrelsome
7. harsh g. reliable
8. envious h. depressed
9. carefree j. rough
10. sociable k. industrious
11. argumentative l. rational
12. trustworthy m. tranquil

F. The words given below come from Greek and Latin. They describe
people’s attitudes, mental and emotional states. These borrowings usually have
academic and literary associations and have long become international words
in many European languages. Make sure you know their meanings and use them
correctly.

1) Try to match the adjectives in the left column with their


definitions on the right. Supply these adjectives with the
corresponding nouns.
1. cynical a. inclined not to believe; doubting state of mind
2. elegiac b. using bitter remarks intended to wound the feelings
3. sarcastic c. feeling wistful longing for smth. one has nown in the
past; homesick
4. melancholic d. touching, affecting, moving; sad, pitiful
5. sceptical e. sorrowful; mournful; funeral
6. nostalgic f. seeing little or no good in anything; showing his by
sneering and being contemptuous
7. pathetic g. low-spirited; sad; depressed; unhappy

G. A person’s character can be described with compound adjectives:

absent-minded (forgetful) easy-going (relaxed)


good-tempered (cheerful) warm-hearted (kind)
quick-witted (intelligent) big-headed (proud of oneself)
two/double-faced (hypocritical) self-centred (egotistical)

The family of compound adjectives with the second part “-


minded” is quite numerous, e.g. noble-minded. The first part cannot
only be an adjective but also an adverb and a noun.
19

e.g. a. technically techniques


commercially minded (mind keen on) commerce
historically history

b. career
business minded (conscious of the value or
money importance of career, etc.)

Some of these adjectives make up pairs with opposite meanings:


broad single strong
- minded - minded - minded
narrow double feeble
serious high
- minded - minded
light low
1) Now study the meanings of the ten two-part words above and try to
express them in one word:
e.g. broad-minded = tolerant; evil-minded = wicked; bad;
open-minded = unbiased.

2) Try to complete each of these word forks as shown in the examples.


Explain the meaning of the words you have written down.
1. possessed 2. short 3. good
self- _______ ____ - tempered ____ - natured
_______ ____ ____
_______ ____ ____
4. clear 5. bitter 6. warm
____ - headed ____ - tongued _____ - hearted
____ ____ _____
____ ____ _____

3) Translate the following words and expressions into English using


compound adjectives with the parts - faced, - blooded, - tongued, - witted,
-fisted:
1. двуличный, двоедушный, лицемерный;
2. наглый, бесстыжий, бесстыдный;
3. безжалостный, жестокий, бесчувственный;
4. вспыльчивый, горячий, страстный;
20

5. красноречивый, льстивый;
6. болтающий без удержу, с развязанным языком;
7. находчивый, смышленый;
8. скупой, прижимистый.

H . People are often compared to animals.


1) Study the meanings of the following adjectives and the patterns of their
formation from the corresponding nouns. Mind that these adjectives are mostly
used in spoken English.
cattish, catty or bitchy (malicious-tongued);
cocky (arrogant);
dogged (stubborn);
mousy (dull, uninteresting, shy, quiet);
foxy (crafty, cunning);
ratty (bad-tempered);
sheepish (awkward, self-conscious);
wolfish (cruel, brutal).

2) Use the adjectives above to name someone who behaves as is


described below:

If someone 1. is timid, feels uncomfortable, not knowing what to do with


himself;
2. seems to hide his thoughts, intentions, plans to get what he
wants;
3. looks too much/very sure of himself, pert and conceited;
4. does not easily give way to argument or persuasion, obstinate;
5. speaks of other people using cruel, hateful words;
6. is cross, irritated, annoying;
7. keeps very still, attracts no attention to himself.
3) There are also similes comparing people to animals, birds and fish.
Here are some of them. Can you complete the phrases with proper adjectives,
selecting them from the list below?
cunning meek stupid cross timid
dumb obstinate mad prickly still
brave stubborn quiet blind tender

1. as …… as a mouse 7. as…… as a bear with a


21

2. as …… as a mule sore head


3. as …… as a fox 8. as …… as a lamb
4. as …… as an owl 9. as …... as a hare
5. as …… as a fish 10. as …. as a lion
6. as ….... as a hedgehog 11. as ..... as March Hare.
12. as ….. as a chicken
N.B. In 1 and 2 two adjectives are possible, but the meaning remains the
same. In 4 two different adjectives supply different meanings.

I. There are many colourful idioms in English describing people, their


feelings and moods. Read the sentences below and match the idioms in bold
with their meanings on the right.

1. Everyone seemed to be in high spirits. a. very scared


2. She seems to be keeping her chin up. b. very sick or ill
3. He had a face as long as a fiddle. c. dizzy
4. I could eat a horse! d. lively, enjoying things
5. You’re looking a bit under the weather. e. happy despite bad things
6. I suddenly felt as if my head was going f. looked very
round. depressed/sad
7. I was almost at death’s door last week! g. very hungry
8. She was scared stiff / scared out of her h. not very well / ill
wits.

N.B. There is an element of exaggeration in these idioms; they make


comments on the situation and lighten the tone of what you are saying. So use
them only informally.

J. Complete these sentences with the idioms from above.

1. Don’t creep up behind me like that! You scared me ............. .


2. I don’t need a doctor, I just feel a bit under ........... .
3. I’ve had nothing since lunch; I could .......... .
4. When I met Jo again his face was smiling and he seemed to be
in .............. .
5. Whatever happens, I try not to lose heart and keep my ........... .
6. John turned back so abruptly that he felt as if .......... .
7. The illness got Tim in so violent a grip that a month later he found
himself at .......... .
8. On hearing the news Jill got so upset that her face became as
long ............... .
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K. Match the explanations on the right with the idiomatic expressions on


the left? They are all connected with different kinds of people.
1. a new broom a. someone who expresses opinions about things he/she
knows very little
2. a wet blanke b. someone who has no fixed roots
3. a stuffed shirt c. a pompous, self-opinionated person
4. a couch potato d. a gossip who wants to know everything that happens
to other people
5. an armchair critic e. someone who stands by you only when things are
going well
6. a fair weather friend f. someone who likes to sit in comfort and do nothing
7. a nosy parke g. a new person in charge who makes changes
8. a rolling stone h. someone who does not want to join in and spoils the
fun for everybody else
9. a slow-coach i. someone who is distant, unfriendly
10. an odd-ball j. someone who is slow in action or dull
11. a pain in the neck k. someone who is peculiar, strange
12. a cold fish l. someone who is nuisance, difficult
L. Work in pairs. Write a short dialogue using the expression you have
chosen above to act out in front of the class.

DISCUSSION FOCUS
A. Say if the speaker likes or dislikes the people he/she is talking about.
1. They say Joan is fairly broad-minded.
2. I think Jeff can be aggressive.
3. They live comfortably because Diana is very thrifty.
4. You need not worry, Molly is so frank.
5. Jill is very original and this occupation is not for her.
6. You seem to be too nosy, my little fellow.
7. Bob looks bossy, doesn’t he?
8. I find Philip arrogant.

B. Reword the sentences above to give the opposite impression.


e.g. They say Joan is rather unprincipled.
23

C. What characteristics does the speaker imply when he/she asks the
following questions. Choose the proper word from the box.
e.g. If you arrange an appointment for, say, 5 o’clock, do you arrive in
time? Punctual

pessimistic assertive sensitive sociable obstinate


argumentative inquisitive punctual extravagant

1. Do you prefer to be in the company of other people?


2. Do you choose to look at the dark side of things rather than the bright
one when something goes wrong?
3. Do you find it easy to tell your boss if you feel he or she has treated
you badly?
4. Do you always look out of the window if you hear a car draw up?
5. Do you often buy your friends presents for no particular reason?
6. Do you frequently disagree with what other people say?
7. Do you lie awake at night if someone has said something unkind to
you?
8. Do you become even more determined to do something, if people try to
persuade you not to?

D. Write down questions like those in the previous exercise to find


whether a person is the following:

1. sensible 2. blunt 3. eccentric 4. reliable


5. even-tempered 6. sincere 7. ambitious 8. crafty.

E. Choose five or six adjectives which you think best describe either your
own or a friend’s character. How do you or your friend demonstrate these
characteristics?

e.g. optimistic – I am optimistic because I prefer to hope for the best


even when I get into trouble or have bad luck.

F. The word “gentleman” is of English origin. Historically it named a


man who was entitled to bear arms and was attached to a court or the
household of a great noble. He was usually a man of wealth and social position,
of good family and did not have to work for a living. But with time passing these
24

meanings went out of use and nowadays “a gentleman” basically denotes a


courteous and honourable man.
Study carefully the group of words and phrases below. Select those which,
in your opinion, describe a person as a gentleman and comment on them.
civil polished tender well-bred
gallant mannerly impolite man of his
mean abrupt coarse word
refined violent evil high-minded
wild subtle ignorant gracious
sharp simple harsh unrestrained
man of honour
G. The word “decent” implies quite a number of positive human
characteristics. List as many of them as you can. You may start as follows:
e.g. A decent person is nice, proper, honest, …
A decent person is expected to keep his/her promise, …
A decent person is not likely to let you down, …
H. Read the extracts characterizing people and comment on the meaning
of the underlined phrases.
1. <…> that he is a good listener and often encourages people to speak,
that he is not much of a talker himself.
2. Samuel is indeed a man of great mental calibre <…> a scientist of an
outstanding reputation…
3. Mrs. Waller was a motherly soul and never took offence.
4. Lord Mountdrago <…> had intelligence, industry <…> courage,
insight and determination.
5. Unfortunately he was a horrible snob <…> and was coldly rude to
those whom he looked upon as his social inferiors.
6. Sometimes he could be enchanting and then you were surprised at his
wide knowledge and excellent taste.
7. “You know, Paris is the home for every kind of eccentricity.”
8. <…> the teacher’s personality should be pleasantly live and attractive.
This does not rule out people who are physically plain, or even ugly, because
many such people have great personal charm. But it does rule out such types as
the over-excitable, melancholy, frigid, sarcastic, cynical, frustrated and
overbearing.
25

9. <…> my parents are quite touchy about anything pretty personal,


especially my father. They are nice and all – I’m not saying that – but they are
also touchy as hell.
10. You never saw a little kid so pretty and smart in your whole life. She’s
really smart, I mean she’s had all A’s ever since she started school. As a matter
of fact, I’m the only dumb one in the family.

I. Skim the text “Graphology” and make a list of positive and negative
characteristics mentioned in the text.

Graphology
Speed
A person who writes quickly with no interruption in the strokes is
energetic and enthusiastic, especially about things, which are in his own
interests.
If you write slowly you don’t take risks. You are slow to take decisions.
Someone who writes fast and legibly is lively and likes to do things in
his own way. A fast and illegible writer is an individualist and has a strong
character. This person is talented and ambitious and usually very
imaginative.
Signature
You write your name more often than anything else and so your signature
is the most revealing part of your handwriting.
An underlined signature shows a forceful personality and someone who
has a high opinion of himself.
If you put a full stop or a dash after your signature this means that you
finish what you begin.
A very big signature shows a dominating personality.
A very small signature denotes a very shy and self-centered personality.
A unique signature shows an unusual personality.
Of course, there are many more details regarding how to write. But the
above examples give you a few ideas on how to read handwriting.
Sue Lake from BBC “Modern English”

1) Explain the difference in the meanings of the words “person”


vs. “personality”.
2) What sort of people can be described as forceful,
dominating, self-centred and unusual personalities?
26

3) Can you name anyone whose personality you admire? What


causes your admiration?
4) Make up sentences using the following phrases:
e.g. Samuel does not seem to be a person who will readily take risks in a
situation like that.

1. to take risks
2. to be slow (quick) to take decisions
3. to do things in one’s own way
4. to have a high opinion of oneself
5. to be an individualist
J. Read the dialogue “Sweet Temper” and characterize briefly the two
people taking part in it. How can you explain the meaning of the title?
Sweet Temper
I hate negative people
I couldn’t agree more.
I hate people who are miserable all the time.
I couldn’t agree more.
I hate people who are never satisfied.
I couldn’t agree more.
I hate people who are against everything.
I couldn’t agree more.
I hate people who criticize other people all the time.
I couldn’t agree more.
From “BBC Five Minutes’ Instant English”

1) Try to modify the dialogue changing the verb “hate” for its
opposite.
e.g. I hate negative people. – I love agreeable people.

2) Replace “I couldn’t agree more” with other conversational


formulas.
e.g. I should say so.
That’s just what I think.
You can say that again.

3) Role play both the original and the modified dialogues.


27

4) The verbs hate, dislike, loathe, detest are synonyms but they
have different degrees of intensity of feeling.Study their meanings and
try to order them on a scale, starting from the weakest to the
strongest.
detest – hate strongly; dislike – not like;
loathe – feel disgust for; hate – have violent
dislike for.
Scale
weakest ------------------------------------ strongest

K. Read the dialogue “At the Hairdresser’s”. What types of men are
opposed in it? Can you name any other male type?

At the Hairdresser’s
A: Oh, yes! My husband’s wonderful!
B: Really? Is he?
A: He is big, strong and handsome!
B: Well, my husband isn’t very big or strong, but he is very intelligent.
A: Intelligent?
B: Yes, he can speak six languages.
A: Can he? Which languages can he speak?
B: He can speak French, Spanish, Italian, German, Arabic and
Japanese.
A: Oh! .… My husband’s very athletic.
B: Athletic?
A: Yes, he can play football, cricket, rugby, can swim, ski and skate.
B: Can he cook?
A: Pardon?
B: Can your husband cook? My husband can’t play sports but he’s an
excellent cook. And he can sew and iron and… he is a good husband.
A: Really? Is he English?

1) How is surprise (or slight doubt) expressed in the dialogue?


2) What does the phrase “Is he English?” hint at?
3) Try to think of a dialogue, which may take place between two men
talking about their wives (or girlfriends).
4) Role-play both the dialogues.
L. Learn to discuss different people. Make use of the following.
28

1. What kind of person will never take a risk? (spend more than he can
afford, take anything to heart, arrest anyone’s attention, lose his temper, do a
silly thing, disobey instructions, wave in the face of danger, fail his friend).
2. What kind of people are quick to see the point? (are usually surrounded
by people, friends, are easily forgotten, are often lonely, think only for
themselves, feel uneasy in company, keep their thoughts to themselves, easily
lose their patience, enjoy other people’s confidence).
3. What kind of people are called business-like? (good mixers, poor
mixers, colourful, discreet, just, level-headed, sympathetic, revengeful,
squeamish, persistent, haughty, humble, placid, broad-minded, vulgar, vain,
ambitious).
4. What do you call a person who is unlike others? (can’t keep a secret,
can appreciate a piece of art, feels deeply, pokes his nose into other people’s
affairs, intrudes his views on others, is always sure of himself, is mostly in high
spirits, gets annoyed easily, keeps on forgetting things, says what he thinks, has
no moral principles).
5. What traits of character would you appreciate in a mother, a father, a
bosom friend, a teacher ... ?
6. What traits of character are required to make a good doctor, economist,
teacher, lawyer, journalist?

M. You know that emotional condition plays a decisive role in our life.
Say when people feel good, great, proud, joyful, uneasy, anxious, lonely,
miserable, low.
N. What qualities do you admire most in other people? Put these qualities
into order of importance:
ambition creativity good looks
honesty independence intelligence
loyalty sense of humour strength
tenderness understanding warmth

What other important qualities are missing from this list?


O. Which of these characteristics do you and your partner consider to be
more attractive and less attractive?
ambitious enthusiastic outspoken elf-confident
artistic frivolous passionate sensitive
cautious gregarious reserved serious
29

earnest introverted resourceful shy


easy-going out-going ruthless spontaneous

1) Which unattractive characteristics can you tolerate in your friends and


relations?
2) What kind of people do you get on with best?
3) What kind of people do you find it hard to get on with?
P. Work in small groups. Ask your partners these questions.
1. What kind of person do you think you are?
2. What sign of the zodiac were you born under? Do you think this affects
your character?
3. How true to your nature is the description of your zodiac sign?
4. What are the essential factors that help to mould a person’s character:
background and environment; educational possibilities; cultural standards;
circumstances?
5. What are the ways and means by which a person’s character is revealed
and estimated: appearance; speech characterization; manners and attitudes; likes
and dislikes?
R. Read the description below. What makes the description come to life is
the detail and examples that we give. Select the parts of the description which
give examples and details. Make notes under these headings where information
is given.
Physical appearance Character
1. Hair, eyes, complexion 1. General qualities
2. Height, build 2. Habits
3. Typical clothes 3. Abilities
4. Distinguishing features 4. Moods
The first thing everyone notices about him is his height – he is tall, almost
two metres. The second thing is how skinny he is. He is as thin as a rake. He
looks as if he has not eaten for months and yet he is always eating. He never
bothers much about his appearance, except for his hair. I joke about him looking
like an angry hedgehog when he gets out of bed in the morning – his short,
brown hair all spiky and sticking out. He spends hours trying to comb it flat but
with no success.
He is patient and kind. He always helps me with my maths, even if it
means giving up a night out with his friends. He is also calm. I’ve only ever seen
him angry once.
30

We get on each other’s nerves sometimes, but I wouldn’t change him for
the world.

S. Write about either your favourite person, or your least favourite


person, or anyone else. Try using this plan.

Paragraph 1. Say who you want to describe and why.


Paragraph 2. Physical description.
Paragraph 3. Character description.
Paragraph 4. Conclusion – sum up your feelings about this person.

PRAKTISING VOCABULARY
1. Translate from English into Russian paying attention to the
underlined parts.
1) Charles has receding hair. I think he’ll be bald in a few years.
2) Is Jane that obese auburn-haired woman?
3) Cathy is a very smart and elegant woman, always well-dressed; her
husband is tall and muscular, but untidy-looking.
4) Is your sister still in her teens? When does she come of age?
5) The doctor smiled: ‘You know, Paris is full of odd people.
6) Ron is not likely to lend you money; he is so greedy.
7) Margaret is intelligent, determined and ambitious; it’ll help her make a
good business career.
8) Sally doesn’t get on well with her parents, she is aggressive and
argumentative.
9) ‘Oh, young men are so wild these days!’ remarked Mrs. Dobson.
10) Mark was a bright boy, and it did not take him long to do his
homework.
11) Annette was a smart and thrifty housewife; she knew very well what
she had to do.
12) You should not be so straightforward; try to be more of a diplomat.
13) How can you like Larry? He seems to be double-minded, selfish and
money-oriented.
14) Oh, Willie, be a sensible boy and stop talking nonsense!
15) You’d better choose your words carefully, as Marion is rather touchy.

2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each


sentence.
31

1) You can’t tell what someone is like just from their ................... .
A) character B) appearance C) personality D) looking
2) I was born in Scotland but I ........................ in Northern Ireland.
A) grew up B) raised C) brought up D) rose
3) Edward was named after one of his father’s distant .................. .
A) family B) brothers C) members D) relations
4) Jane and Brian got married a year after they got ....................... .
A) divorced B) proposed C) engaged D) separated
5) Graham works well in class, but his ………...... could be better.
A) rudeness B) behaviour C) politeness D) acting
6) Julie had a terrible …………...... with her parents last night.
A) row B) discussion C) argue D) dispute
7) I got to ….......... Steve well last year when we worked together.
A) introduce B)know C)meet D) sympathise
8) Is Brenda married or ……..........? I don’t like to ask her.
A) spinster B) alone C) bachelor D) single
9) Parents and teachers have to try hard to understand the younger .... .
A) generation B) people C) adolescents D) teenagers
10) My father likes to be called a ‘senior citizen’, not an old age …... .
A) person B) relative C) gentleman D) pensioner

3. Complete each sentence with a noun formed from a verb in


the list.
acquaint bear behave celebrate die
engage greet marry relate resemble

1) All Sue’s friends and ...relations/relatives... came to her party.


2) I occasionally meet Terry, but he is more a/an ...... than a friend.
3) Mary received many cards congratulating her on the .............. of her
baby.
4) When Paul arrived, he received a warm and friendly ................ .
5) Six months after their ................, Michael and Lisa got married.
6) There was a great ................. in the village when their team won the
cup.
7) In an ideal ................, husband and wife share each other’s problems.
8) Diana and her mother look alike. There is a strong ................ between
them.
9) There was no trouble, and the ................. of the football fans was
excellent.
10) Tim cried when he heard about the ............... of his old dog.
32

4. The adjectives on the left are the opposites of the ones on the
right. Match them up.
1. clever 6. prejudiced a. conceited f. open-minded
2. generous 7. relaxed b. cruel g. self-confident
3. kind 8. sensible c. mean/stingy h. silly/foolish
4. modest 9. narrow-minded d. naive i. stupid
5. shy 10. sophisticated e. nervous j. tolerant

5. Decide which of the adjectives on the left have a similar


meaning to the ones on the right.
1. clever 8. two-faced a. sensible i. insincere
2. cunning 9. level-headed b. bright j. kind
3. sceptical 10. tense c. cheerful k. nervous
4. air 11. self-confident d. self-assured l. crafty
5. forgetful 12. snobbish e. absent-minded m. open
6. frank 13. reliable f. just n. stuck-up
7. jolly 14. good-natured g. trustworthy o. doubtful

6. Use a suitable prefix or suffix to form the opposite of each of


the adjectives below. Here are some examples:
un- unhappy, unpleasant in- insincere, incredible
dis- dishonest, dissatisfied im- impolite, impossible
il- illegible, illegal -less careless, harmless
agreeable discreet kind predictable
approachable efficient likeable reasonable
articulate enthusiastic logical reliable
biased flexible loyal respectful
competent friendly mature sensitive
considerate helpful obedient sociable
contented hospitable organised tactful
decisive imaginative patient thoughtful
dependable intelligent practical tolerant

7. Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence.


1) Children are not allowed to see this film. It’s for adults/old only.
2) By the time the vet arrived, the injured cat was already dead/died.
3) Unfortunately it rained on Nick and Helen’s wedding/marriage day.
4) David and Diana have two sons and one daughter/girl.
33

5) I think we should try to understand the problems of aged/old people.


6) There should be more facilities for youth/young people in this town.
7) Julie is very popular and has a wide company/circle of friends.
8) More than fifty relatives/parents were invited to Jack’s party.
9) Old Mrs Turner now lives in an old people’s home/house.
10) It’s my anniversary/birthday today. I’m eighteen years old.

8. Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence.


1) When her bicycle was stolen, Jill became extremely angry/nervous.
2) Peter felt ashamed/embarrassed when he had to make a speech.
3) I always write thank-you letters, just to be gentle/polite.
4) You never do anything to help me! You’re so lazy/tired.
5) Sue never does anything silly. She’s very sensible/sensitive.
6) The children had to stay in the house all day and felt bored/tired.
7) Tina doesn’t worry about anything and is always cheerful/sympathetic.
8) Mr Jackson is very annoyed/bad-tempered and often shouts at people.
9) When he heard about the accident, Alan was very damaged/upset.
10) I’ve got an important exam tomorrow and I’m a bit jealous/nervous.

9. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each


sentence.
1) Please don’t push. It’s very bad-tempered/rude/unsympathetic.
2) Jack hates spending money. He’s rather frank/greedy/mean.
3) Our teacher is very proud/strict/tolerant and won’t let us talk in class.
4) Helen never does her homework. She is rather gentle/lazy/reliable.
5) I didn’t talk to anyone at the party because I felt ambitious/lonely/shy.
6) When Harry saw his girlfriend dancing with Paul he felt jealous/selfish/
sentimental.
7) I don’t like people who are noisy and aggressive/courageous/sociable.
8) Thank you for bringing us a present. It was very
adorable/grateful/thoughtful of you.
9) Teresa never gets angry with the children. She is very
brave/patient/pleasant.
10) Tom always pays for everyone when we go out. He’s so
cheerful/generous/honest.

10. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each


sentence.
34

1) She’s a very ….. person – always smiling and in a good mood.


A) cheerful B) delighted C) glad D) pleased
2) He’s a very ……. person – I wish he was a bit more easy-going.
A) bad-tempered B) furious C) mad D) wild
3) Don’t tell her off – she’s very …..…. and she may start to cry.
A) responsive B) sensible C) sensitive D) sympathetic
4) People enjoy his company because he’s extremely ……….. .
A) adorable B) likeable C) lovable D) sympathetic
5) If you’ve got a problem, go and talk to her – I’m sure she’ll be …. .
A) patient B) sympathetic C) tolerant D) warm-hearted
6) He has excellent taste in clothes and always dresses ….…... .
A) cleanly B) healthily C) smartly D) tastily
7) When his wife started seeing more of the tennis coach, he became
very …..... .
A) arrogant B) envious C) jealous D) selfish
8) The twins keep pretending to be each other – they’re
such ................... children!
A) evil B) miserable C) naughty D) wicked
9) Thank you for my beautiful present. It was very …............ of you to
buy it for me.
A) charitable B) generous C) loyal D) reliable
10) If you give him a message make sure he writes it down because he’s
very …............. .
A) absent B) forgetful C) mindless D) preoccupied
11) You have to be quite …..... to stand up in front of an audience.
A) self-confident B) self-conscious C) selfish D) self-satisfied
12) She’s a very …............ little girl – her parents give her everything she
asks for.
A) consented B) discriminating C) generous D) spoilt
13) He’s a dreadful person – I can’t ..........…. him.
A) stand B) suffer C) support D) swallow
14) Everyone agrees that he’s a very ...........…. man.
A) beautiful B) gorgeous C) handsome D) pretty
15) When she first went to work in another city, she felt very ...... .
A) abandoned B) alone C) lonely D) single
16) Most people feel …......... before an examination.
A) absent-minded B) anxious C) eager D) nervy

11. Use the word in capitals at the end of each line to form a
word that fits in the space in the same line.
35

Jack’s Real Character


How easy is it to understand another person’s character?
My friend Jack, was once a rather (1) …… person. He ANNOY
was always getting into trouble at school because he was
so (2) ………. OBEY
In class he was very (3) ……..and never stopped making TALK
jokes. The teachers all told him he was (4) ……. because POLITE
he interrupted them. When I met him he was very (5) FRIEND
…….. and didn’t want to talk to me at all. People told me
that he stole things, and that he was (6) …… . His school HONEST
work was terrible. He didn’t take any (7) …… in his PROUD
writing, he never spent enough time doing his homework,
and he was not at all (8)…… One day he saw a gang of CONSCIENCE
boys attacking an old man. Jack hated (9) …… and he VIOLENT
fought them all until they ran away. He was awarded a
medal for (10) …… after that, people changed their BRAVE
minds about him.

12. Match these words with the descriptions given. Use each
word once only.
bad-tempered determined lazy reliable cheerful frank
mean selfish considerate honest punctual sympathetic

1) You always arrive on time. ........................................................ .


2) You are always happy. ............................................................... .
3) You do what you say you will do. ............................................. .
4) You say exactly what you think. ................................................ .
5) You don’t think about the needs of others. ................................ .
6) You have a strong wish to get what you want. ……….............. .
7) You are unkind, or not willing to spend money. ……............... .
8) You easily become angry with others. ……............................. .
9) You think about the needs of others. ......................................... .
10) You tell the truth and obey the law. ......................................... .
11) You understand the feelings of others. .................................... .
12) You try to avoid work if you can. ............................................ .

13. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each
word once only.
ambitious greedy polite sociable brave imaginative
proud stubborn grateful kind snobbish tolerant
36

1) I think I’ll stay here on my own, I’m not feeling very ...... today.
2) Diana wants to get to the top in her company. She is very ........ .
3) It’s not ……... to stare at people and say nothing!
4) I think you have to be very ……...... to write a novel.
5) Thank you for helping me. It was very ……...... of you.
6) Peter refuses to change his mind, although he is wrong.
He’s so ……….. .
7) It was very .............. of Sheila to put out the fire on her own.
8) Our neighbours look down on us. They are a bit ….............. .
9) Don’t eat all the cakes! You really are becoming .................!
10) If you lend me the money I’ll be very .................. .
11) I am very ............... of my new motorbike.
12) My parents don’t mind my crazy hair style. They are
very ……..... .

14. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Ann Johnson – A Confidential Report


Ann Johnson has worked at this college for three years. She is a (1) ….....
employee, and (2) …...... on well with the other members of the department. We
have all found her to be an excellent (3) …….... She has always been (4) ….....
for her lessons, and is an extremely (5) …...... member of staff who is able to
work independently. I can always (6) …..... on her to organise the end of term
play, and she has put on some extremely (7) …..... productions. Her students
often tell me how (8) ……... she is, always ready with a smile, and she has been
very (9) …...... to many of them. In (10) …..... she is not very talkative and
seems rather (11) …...... at first, and might not show her true (12) …..... in an
interview. Her work is excellent, and she is (13) …….... to succeed. She is also
quite (14) …......, and has applied for two other positions as Director of Studies.
I think that you can count (15) …..... Ann to make your school a success, and I
recommend her for the post of Director.

1) A) conscientious B) conscience C) consciousness D) conscious


2) A) goes B) carries C) gets D) likes
3) A) colleague B) adult C) employer D) fellow
4) A) timed B) late C) hourly D) punctual
5) A) greedy B) reliable C) stubborn D) lazy
6) A) request B) concentrate C) take D) rely
7) A) imaginary B) imagination C) imaginative D) imagined
8) A) tempered B) cheerful C) frank D) proud
37

9) A) kind B) aggressive C) polite D) mean


10) A) first B) times C) usual D) private
11) A) but B) shy C) however D) alone
12) person B) behaviour C) character D) part
13) A) used B) determined C) had D) supposed
14) A) obedient B) disappointed C) grateful D) ambitious
15) A) on B) for C) with D) to

15. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word
underlined.
1) You can’t rely on Joe. He is very unreliable.
2) Carla has very little patience. She is very …………….............. .
3) Jack shows no interest in this subject. He is .............................. .
4) Pat is lacking in honesty. She is …………………..................... .
5) Bill doesn’t act like a friend. He is ……………….................... .
6) Lisa doesn’t have much experience of this work. She is ..…..... .
7) Peter never acts politely. He is ……….….……….................... .
8) The official did not help us very much. She was ....................... .
9) Graham doesn’t consider other people. He is ............................ .
10) Ann refused to co-operate with the police. She was ................ .

16. Complete each sentence with an adjective from the box. Use
each word once only.
ashamed annoyed disappointed excited exhausted
fascinating glad jealous selfish terrified

1) When her team lost the cup final, Sue felt very disappointed.
2) I was …….... when Jack accepted my invitation to dinner but didn’t
come.
3) Mark was ……..... when he saw smoke coming from the plane’s
engine.
4) Thanks for your letter. I’m …......... to hear that you are feeling better.
5) David was .............. to tell his parents that he had been sent to prison.
6) After running for fifteen kilometres, Christine felt completely .... .
7) Helen felt ……... when she saw her boyfriend talking to another girl.
8) I felt really........ while I was waiting to meet the star of the film.
9) Mrs Dobson told us about her life. She is a ….......... person.
10) Tom doesn’t think about others, and is rather ................ .
38

17. Replace the words underlined in each sentence with one of


the phrases from the box.

are fond of fancy fed up with get on my nerves


give up let me down longing for put me off

1) I’m really looking forward to a few weeks’ holiday!


I’m really longing for a few weeks’ holiday! .
2) Sarah has decided to do without eating chocolate. ……...…. .
3) I wanted to study biology, but my teacher discouraged me. ..… .
4) Sports programmes on television really annoy me. ..…….… .
5) Do you feel like going to the cinema this evening? …….... .
6) Why can’t you tell the truth? I’m tired of your excuses! …… .
7) Terry and I like going for walks in the country. …….……… .
8) George agreed to help me, but then disappointed me. …….… .

18. Complete each sentence with a word from the box.

conscience death hand heart mood


tears temper thanks trouble voice

1) The children were happy because their teacher was in a good mood.
2) .................. to Mr Dawson, our car was repaired in time for our holiday.
3) Ruth was helpful, and went to a lot of ............ to make us comfortable.
4) Harry was leaning out of the window and shouting at the top
of his ……….. .
5) When Alice heard the bad news, she burst into ................. .
6) Neil is a very kind person. His .............. is in the right place.
7) If you do something bad, it will be on your ....... for a long time.
8) I was really angry, and lost my ….......... and shouted at people.
9) We need some help. Could you give us a …........... ?
10) The first time I saw a horror film, I was scared to ............... .

19. Complete each part sentence a) to j) with an ending from l)


to 10); a) is done as an example for you.
a) I have started going – .......................6)............................... .
b) When little Tina is grown – ................................................. .
c) I wonder if you could put – .................................................. .
d) Carol doesn’t really get – ..................................................... .
39

e) Everyone says that Tom – .................................................... .


f) Let’s have some friends – .................................................... .
g) Do you think you could look – ............................................ .
h) Why don’t we all get – ......................................................... .
i) Ellen and Laura were brought – ........................................... .
j) If I have time I’ll drop – ....................................................... .

1) .............................................................. takes after his father.


2) ...................................... together again next Friday evening?
3) .................................... up by an aunt after their parents died.
4) ............................................................ in on Steve for a chat.
5) ............................................... after my dog while I’m away?
6) ......................................... out with George’s younger sister.
7) ....................................... round and play charades on Friday.
8) ............................................ on well with her mother-in-law.
9) ............................................ up she wants to be an astronaut.
10) ............................................ us up for a few days next week?

20. Read the text. Some of the lines are correct and some have a
word which should not be there. Find this word.

A. What is Smart?
The British are ever generally regarded as the most
1 untidily dressed people in Europe, but I have often
2 thought that to the opposite is true. Take, for example,
3 the wearing of jeans. In many southern European
4 countries, it seems more perfectly acceptable for
5 both teachers and office staff to wear jeans, whereas
6 in Britain jeans are been considered far too
7 casual and are only acceptable if the work is so
8 dirty or unskilled. One office workers in Britain must
9 follow a very much strict dress code. Even in the hottest
10 weather, male employees are most required to wear
11 a suit and tie and female employees who must be
12 dressed in a skirt and tights. In these schools, the
13 dress code is not quite so formal, but staff still tend
14 to wear out shirts and smartish trousers or skirts.
15 The British may not be as stylish as like their European
16 counterparts, but a dress code still does then exist.
40

B. Being Superstitious
Many people are superstitious about different things.
One particular superstition, however, which it is shared
1 by the many people of the world, is the belief that
2 the number 13 is an unlucky number. This is why some
3 buildings do not have a 13th floor, and why some of
4 people do not like to sit at a table with 12 other people.
5 Despite this, no one really knows why so many people
6 do not like the number 13, although there are several of
7 theories. Another of common superstition is for people
8 to touch or knock on something made of wood if
9 when they want good luck to come their way or to
10 prevent anything bad from happening to them. People
11 used to believe that certain gods lived inside trees
12 and, whenever they were faced a difficult situation,
13 they would knock on the wood of a tree to ask for
14 the god’s help and protection. Although of this practice
15 continues on today, we often just say “touch wood”.

C. Loneliness
Loneliness is a disease of modern living, a result of which
people being more mobile and having more opportunities.
1 With the break-up of family units, there is little of
2 stability on which to build good relationships. Loneliness
3 isn’t something that can be solved itself simply by
4 seeing a counsellor, speaking to someone that on the
5 telephone or to being in the company of a lot of people.
6 Advice been often given includes: joining clubs, taking up a
7 sociable hobby or even by trying a part-time job if you
8 don’t work outside from the house. However, none of this
9 advice will provide with an easy answer. To ease the
10 feeling of emptiness it takes time. Friendships have
11 to be allowed to grow on and deep bonds can’t be
12 formed with just anyone. Anyone might be like a
13 victim of loneliness at some time or other in their
14 lives. If you change jobs, get married to or move,
15 you too might have had problems in a new environment.

21. Translate from Russian into English.


41

1. Филипп вполне порядочный человек. Я думаю, ему можно


доверять. 2. У Грэга скверный характер, и он плохо ладит с людьми. 3. Боб
– смышленый мальчик и все хватает на лету. 4. В этом доме я чувствую
себя неловко (не в своей тарелке). 5. Мистер Эдвард слишком высокомерен
и презирает всех, кого он считает ниже себя. 6. Я бы на твоем месте не
полагался на Тимоти. Он способен подвести. 7. Я не люблю
безответственных людей, которые обещают и не держат своего слова. 8. Ты
говоришь, он простой парень? А мне он кажется хитрецом и пронырой. 9.
Джереми – добросовестный и прилежный студент. У него нет проблем со
сдачей экзаменов. 10. К сожалению, Патрик не бережлив и легко тратит
деньги. 11. Мэтью – спокойный, выдержанный, рассудительный человек. В
его характере больше достоинств, чем недостатков. 12. Дядя Том – веселый
и общительный человек, хотя и вспыльчивый, но долго он злиться не
может. 13. Я завидую тем, кто целеустремлен и настойчив в достижении
поставленной цели. 14. Мне бы твою волю и терпение! 15. Толерантность
считается признаком образованного, культурного человека. 16. Как ты
можешь быть таким лицемерным! Неужели тебе не стыдно? 17. Многие
считают, что состояние экономики скоро улучшится, но некоторые
эксперты остаются скептически настроенными. 18. У Тима явно
технический склад ума, поэтому он хочет поступать в политехнический
институт. 19. Английские жены считают наиболее нетерпимыми
недостатками своих мужей эгоизм, недостаток ума, инертность, нежелание
помогать по дому, неопрятность, нечестность. 20. Английские мужья
больше всего осуждают в своих женах сварливость, глупость, сплетни,
мотовство, эгоизм.

READ AND DISCUSS


TEXT 1
Pre-Reading
A. Does your opinion of yourself fully coincide with what other people
think of you? Is it easy to be fairly objective in characterizing your own self?
Give your arguments.
B. Comment on the meaning of the two American idioms.
 That’s the way the cookie crumbles.
 Chew fat with somebody.

Reading
42

Read the text “It’s Мe, Oh Lord!” and do the exercises that follow.

It’s Me, Oh Lord!


Hi, I’m Tom Bailey, or Thomas Millhouse Bailey, to be exact. Thomas is
my first name, or given name, or Christian name. Millhouse is my middle name
and Bailey is my family name or surname. This is what my birth certificate says.
But never mind it, nobody calls me this way, just Tom or Tommy for short. You
may very well forget my middle name, too. God alone knows where it came
from, even my folks wouldn’t give me a straight answer. It just sounded O.K. to
them, I guess. Well, so be it, here I’m: Thomas Millhouse Bailey, whether you
like it or not.
I am a freshman at a Law School and have just turned 18. I do hope it’s a
turn for the better as I’m eager to do something meaningful in the adult world.
To begin with, I got into the School earlier this year and I enjoy every minute of
being there. This is some college! I hope I’ll tell you about it later on but now
let’s stick to the family topic.
Are you curious about my appearance? Well, nothing special, just an
ordinary guy. The only special thing about me is, probably, that I’m a bit on the
talkative side. Not really a chatter-box but I don’t mind chewing some fat with
peers. I’d rather say, I’m not a bad conversationalist and a story teller. Though I
chuckle it sometimes, that’s just for fun of it, take my word. I’m not after
cheating anybody, I think I’m a good mixer, that’s all. It makes my life a bit like
‘Alice in Wonderland’.
And so, my looks are pretty conventional. Imagine a fellow of a medium
height about 5’4’’ (five feet four), close cropped chestnut hair, slim, blue-eyed, a
big aquiline nose and long delicate fingers. That’s me, in person. A born
musician-turned-lawyer. How do you like it?
You may wonder if I am attractive. Truly speaking, I don’t give a damn, or
rather, the more polite way, I don’t care about that kind of stuff. One might say I
am, but with guys, it doesn’t really matter as much as with girls. For them, it’s
instrumental, or # 1, as I put it. This is what they themselves say. As far as I’m
concerned, I’d rather not talk them out of that, they know better. I wouldn’t
boast an exquisite taste but I guess I know a pretty face when I see one. Anyway,
this is only natural.
Being charismatic is my other asset. People enjoy my company, especially
those who are a bit shy or awkward. They are fishing for words each time they
gonna shoot something wise, and they never make it. It’s mostly me who does
all the talking, but I take care not to stick my neck out too far. I let them have
their say in all matters we discuss. All should be fair and square, right?
Otherwise they might say I’m looking down on people, which is not at all true. I
43

just enjoy being driving force behind each talk. Talking is indeed my cup of tea.
I never feel ill at ease with strangers, let alone with those of my age. They call
me easy-going and free-wheeling. And what’s wrong with that?
Speaking about myself first doesn’t mean I’m selfish. I’m doing it out of
convenience so that you could figure out at once what kind of person I am, what
my likes and dislikes are or whether you really can stomach the way I’m
presenting my story. I admit my language may sound rather reckless, but that’s
the way the cookie crumbles, that’s the way things are, I can’t help it. That’s my
style and my image. Let’s be democratic, at least for some little while, O.K.?

Post-Reading
A. Translate into Russian.
1) All should be fair and square. 2) I’m not looking down on people. 3) I
just enjoy being driving force behind each talk. 4) I never feel ill at ease with
strangers. 5) You could figure out at once. 6) Stomach the way I’m presenting
my story. 7) a chatter-box.

B. Use alternative words to say the same.


1) I’ve just turned 18. 3) It’s a turn for the better. 4) to do something
meaningful in the adult world; 5) Let’s stick to the family topic. 6) I chuckle it
sometimes. 2) a good mixer; 7) My looks are pretty conventional. 8) I don’t
give a damn. 9) being charismatic; 10) They are fishing for words. 11) to stick
one’s neck out too far.
C. Give synonymous words/expressions from the text for:
good-looking; quality; self-conscious; relaxed (pleasant); thing; fellow;
deceive; patronymic; appearance.
D. Explain in English.
1) birth certificate; 2) my folks; 3) I’m a freshman; 4) This is some
college!; 5) a bit on the talkative side; 6) not a bad conversationalist; 7) It makes
my life a bit like ‘Alice in Wonderland’; 8) a born musician-turned-lawyer; 9)
that kind of stuff; 10) For them it’s instrumental, #1; 11) I know a pretty face
when I see one.
E. Give the English for:
1) великолепный вкус; 2) неловкий, неуклюжий; 3) это мой конек,
моя стихия; 4) свободный, раскрепощенный; 5) делать что-либо из-за
44

удобства, по расчету; 6) небрежный, грубоватый; 7) Я ничего не могу с


этим поделать; 8) достоинство, преимущество.
F. Answer the following questions:
1) What does Tom do? 2) What does he look like? 3) Does he care much
about his appearance? 4) What is so special about him? 5) How does he get on
with other people?
G. Write down some 200 words about yourself and present your story in
front of the class.

TEXT 2
Pre-Reading
A. What sort of people can you call ‘eccentric’?
B. Give the words similar in meaning to the adjective ‘eccentric’.
Which words convey the opposite meaning?
C. Comment on the meaning of the idiom ‘an oddball’.

Reading
Read the texts ‘Calling All Eccentrics’ and ‘The Joys of Eccentricity’ and
do the exercises that follow.

Calling All Eccentrics


Do you live in a cave, sleep on the floor or live entirely on potatoes? If so,
then an American doctor would like to hear from you.
According to psychologist Dr David Weeks, many Americans believe that
all British people are eccentrics. So, two years ago, he began a study to find out
more. He advertised in Britain for eccentrics to contact him. So far, he has
examined 130 of the 200 people who answered.
According to popular belief, eccentrics are wealthy people who can afford
or indulge their eccentricities on a grand scale. But nowadays eccentrics are just
as likely to work at ordinary jobs. One man, for example, works in a bank from
9 to 5, but in his spare time carries a bow and arrow and thinks of his home as a
leafy corner of Sherwood Forest. He has officially changed his name to Robin
Hood, the name of the legendary British outlaw who lived there in the twelfth
century. Another eccentric is a social worker but lives in a cave and does long
charity walks wearing pyjamas. A third spends all his time in bed and a fourth
lives only on potatoes.
45

Dr Weeks has found that such oddballs have certain features in common,
they are often eldest children raised in strict homes.
Many have strange eating or sleeping habits and, although frequently
impatient with other people, are generally uncompetitive and hate sports. They
are poor conversationalists, but are often highly educated and read far more than
ordinary people. They are often creative and inventive, especially in the
scientific field. Not surprising eccentrics tend to live alone and they are more
likely to be men. They outnumber women by two to one.
If you are an eccentric, you can take heart from Dr Week’s study.
Eccentrics are less likely to be mentally ill than more conventional people and,
in his view, provide some harmless, welcome relief from ordinary people. But
different societies treat their eccentrics differently, so Dr Weeks has now started
a new study into American eccentrics.
Elizabeth Burke. From “BBC English”

The Joys of Eccentricity


Alan loves potatoes. He talks about them endlessly; he eats little else. He
has travelled to Peru and Bolivia to study their origins and has written a doctoral
dissertation on them. Ann’s passion are gnomes: she has put more than a
thousand plaster and concrete gnomes in the woodland around her home in
Devon. John’s passion is giant pandas. To raise money for their preservation he
walked over Great Britain in pyjamas and bare feet.
But in Britain eccentricity is tolerated. It even became the subject of a
scientific study. Psychologists found that eccentrics are more intelligent, more
creative, healthier, happier and they live longer than most people. Eccentricity
often begins in childhood and may even be inherited. The Prince of Wales is
eccentric: he believes in holistic medicine and chats with plants. One of his
relatives kept a boa constrictor as a pet and had to walk on crutches because his
toenails were 10 inches long. He spent millions building in the Mexican jungle
strange buildings and bridges that went nowhere and doors that opened onto
blank walls. But eccentric were also Benjamin Franklin, Charles Darwin and
Thomas Edison. The true eccentric’s hallmark is curiosity. Are you one, too?
“American English”

Post-Reading
A. Complete the following sentences with the right variant.

1) Dr. Weeks began his study .............. .


a) to contact as many eccentrics as he could.
46

b) to check what he knew about eccentrics.


c) to get some new pen pals.
d) to learn more information about this sort of people.

2) Many eccentrics ....................... .


a) are quite sociable people.
b) are keen on reading.
c) hate living alone.
d) are often likely to be mentally ill.

3) People become eccentrics because they ................... .


a) may be born like that.
b) were brought up in big families.
c) can afford to indulge their eccentricities.
d) hate sports and are uncompetitive.

4) In Dr. Week’s view eccentrics ................ .

a) are less harmful than conventional people.


b) should be treated differently from other people.
c) provide a welcome variety of human nature.
d) can hardly be a subject of scientific study.

B. Say if the following statements are true or false.


1. Eccentrics are not likely to work at ordinary jobs.
2. Eccentrics have certain features in common.
3. All scientists, as a rule, are eccentrics.
4. Eccentrics are often eldest children brought up in strict homes.
5. Different societies treat their eccentrics in a similar way.
6. Eccentric women outnumber men by two to one.
7. The British seem to be tolerant to eccentrics.
8. Psychologists have found that eccentrics are more intelligent, more
creative, healthier, happier and live longer than most people.
9. The true eccentric’s hallmark is the lack of interest to what surrounds
them.

C. Different societies (primitive, underdeveloped, civilized) treat their


eccentrics differently. Comment on this statement.
47

D. Can you give any example of eccentric behaviour from your life
experience (people whom you have met in your life)?

TEXT 3
Pre-Reading
A. What distinctive features of the English character can you name?

B. Give synonymous words or expressions for the phrase ‘to be


nuts’, which is a colloquial variant for ‘mad’. Consult a dictionary if
necessary.
Reading
Read the text “Who’s Nuts? Who’s Reserved?” and do the exercises that follow.

Who’s Nuts? Who’s Reserved?


What about the English character? Everybody says that the English are
cold, reserved and shy – I don’t agree – but the most reserved of all Englishmen
was William John Cavendish Bentick Scot, fifth Duke of Portland.
He was so shy he lived most of his life underground in a huge system of
rooms and tunnels he had built. After inheriting a beautiful country house from
his father, he hired hundreds of workmen and gave them strict orders that they
must not look at him or speak to him. Any workmen who disobeyed were
dismissed immediately.
The Duke hated meeting people and never invited anyone to his house,
but ordered the workmen to build the largest ballroom in England – underground
of course, plus a splendid library and an enormous billiard room.
The only time the Duke ever left his underground home was at night. A
female servant used to walk several yards ahead of him holding a light – with
orders never to speak or look behind. The Duke was also a bit crazy in the way
he dressed, wearing a floor-length fur coat in midsummer and always carrying
an umbrella whatever the weather. If he saw anyone who might try to speak to
him he used to put up the umbrella and hide behind it.
Not all the English are as the Duke, but it is true to say that most of us are
crazy about animals. Francis Henry Egerton, eighth Earl of Bridgewater, for
example, was mad about dogs. He had over a dozen of them, and used to take
them riding with him in his carriage.
He disliked human company, and never invited people to dinner, but
always dined with six of his favourite dogs. They were brought to table dressed
fashionably and wearing soft leather boots. Each was seated at his place, and a
48

napkin tied around his neck by a servant. The meal was served, the dogs ate off
plates, and the Earl conversed with his canine company.
And if we aren’t crazy about animals, then we’re probably mad about
sports like John Mytton who was nuts about hunting and shooting duck,
preferably stark naked, even in midwinter.
Mandy Loader

Post–Reading
A. Don’t you think that the Duke of Portland was eccentric rather than
shy? Give your arguments.
B. Some people would call Francis Henry Egerton’s way of treating his
dogs just extravagant. What about you?
C. What do you think about John Mytton’s way of hunting?
D. Skim the text “Many Britons Prefer Pets …” and give its summary.

Many Britons Prefer Pets to People, Children, Money and Jobs


London. Many British people prefer their household pets to their spouses,
their children, their jobs and even money, according to a survey published.
One in 10 people questioned by Options magazine considered their pets
more important to their happiness than their marital partners.
About one in five said pets were more important than children, and more
than a third of those questioned thought pets were more important than a job.
Nearly half of those who responded put pets above money.
A total of 94 per cent said they would prefer to spend time with their pets
rather than watch television.
More than half of pet owners who answered the questionnaire made it
clear that given the choice between staying at home with their four-legged
friends and socializing with people, they would stay at home.
E. How can you account for such a passionate love of the British for their
home pets?
F. Here is a description of the British as they are seen by other
Europeans: calm, reserved, open-minded, trustworthy, hidebound, insular,
superior, excellent sense of humour.

Comment on the words ‘hidebound’, ‘insular’, ‘superior’ using


an English-English dictionary.
49

G. Sum up what you’ve learned about the British national character.


H. Speak about the national character of the people in your native
country.

TEXT 4
Pre-Reading
A. Do you think the question “What’s Happiness?” is philosophical?
Why?
B. “Happiness is not what you want, but wanting what you have” (James
Stewart). What do you think about it?

Reading
Read the text “Happiness” and do the exercises that follow.

Happiness
Lots of different people call at my church. Some people want to talk about
getting married, or having their babies christened. Some have very difficult
personal problems and are extremely unhappy. Some want a cup of tea. And
some just want to talk.
I remember a few years ago, one of my regular visitors was what used to
be called ‘a gentleman of the road’ – today I suppose people would simply call
him a tramp. His name was Barney Teller. Barney always asked for a cup of hot
water – he always brought his own teabag – and got great pleasure from
discussing what he called ‘philosophical questions’.
Once the question was ‘What is happiness?’ The question caught me by
surprise; as strange as it may seem I’m not asked such questions very often, and
so I had to think about it for a long time.
‘Well’, I began, ‘I suppose that for many people happiness means having
enough to eat, a warm place to stay in winter, good health and enough money for
the basic necessities of life.’ I was just about to go into matters of spiritual
happiness, when Barney interrupted me.
‘Ah, but’, he said, ‘why is it that so many people wish they had more than
just that? Why are they unhappy in spite of their 4-bedroom houses, dish-
washers, deep-freezers, electric tin-openers, electric tooth-brushes, colour TV’s,
big cars and two foreign holidays every year? Are these things necessities of
life?’
Then Barney added that he personally was very happy, even though he
had nothing and never looked for happiness.
50

‘I don’t wish I were rich or had more money. I don’t even wish I had a
warm place to sleep tonight. I’ll be happy as long as I can walk and breathe... as
long as I can be free’ he said.
This made me think of a poster I had once seen... perhaps you have seen
it, too, but just in case you haven’t I’ll describe it for you. The poster shows a
beautiful butterfly with beautiful gold and red wings and this beautiful gold and
red-winged butterfly had just landed on someone’s shoulder... and the poster said
‘Happiness is like a butterfly. If you try to catch it, it will fly away. But if you
forget about it and get on with your life, it may just land on your shoulder.’
Suddenly, as I sat there that afternoon with Barney, the tramp, I began to
think, too, of all those people I mentioned before who came to me with their
personal problems. So many were looking for happiness – and never finding it.
Perhaps I ought to tell them about Barney sometimes – and perhaps I ought to
tell them that they will never find happiness if they look for it.
51

Post-Reading
A. Say in alternative words the following.
1) to call at one’s church; 2) to christen a baby; 3) a regular visitor; 4) a
gentleman of the road; 5) to catch smb. by surprise; 6) basic necessities of life;
7) spiritual happiness; 8) to go into the matters of; 9) a tramp; 10) a teabag; 11) a
tin-opener; 12) a poster; 13) to get on with one’s life; 14) to be just about to do
smth.

B. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text.


1. Он был одним из постоянных посетителей этого бара. 2. Их приход
застал меня врасплох. 3. Этих денег тебе хватит только на самое
необходимое. 4. Я как раз собирался замкнуть дверь, когда раздался
телефонный звонок. 5. Он может быть счастлив, если просто светит
солнце, небо голубое и можно спокойно дышать свежим воздухом. 6. Я
полагаю, что понятие ‘счастье’ связано более с духовными, чем
материальными ценностями.

С. Discuss the following questions.


1. Why do people come to the priest? 2. What kind of visitor was Barney
Teller? 3. What questions was he keen on discussing? 4. Barney Teller is a
happy man, isn’t he? What makes him happy? 5. What do you think of
comparing happiness to a butterfly? Does it seem convincing to you? What
could you compare happiness to?

TEXT 5
Pre-Reading
The old wisdom says that if you cannot change a situation or
circumstances, you had better change your attitude to them.
What would you say to it?

Reading
Read the text “Attitude is Everything” and do the exercises that follow.

Attitude is Everything
Jerry was the kind of guy you love to hate. He was always in a good mood
and always had something positive to say. When someone would ask him how
he was doing, he would reply, “If I were any better, I would be twins!” He was a
52

unique manager because he had several waiters who had followed him around
from restaurant to restaurant. The reason the waiters followed Jerry was because
of his attitude. He was a natural motivator. If an employee was having a bad day,
Jerry was there telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the
situation.
Seeing this style really made me curious, so one day I went up to Jerry
and asked him “I don’t get it! You can’t be a positive person all of the time. How
do you do it?”
Jerry replied, “Each morning I wake up and say to myself, ‘Jerry, you
have two choices today. You can choose to be in a good mood or you can choose
to be in a bad mood.’ I choose to be in a good mood. Each time something bad
happens, I can choose to be a victim or I can choose to learn from it. I choose to
learn from it. Every time someone comes to me complaining, I can choose to
accept their complaining or I can point out the positive side of life. I choose the
positive side of life.”
“Yeah, right, but it’s not that easy,” I protested.
“Yes it is,” Jerry said. “Life is all about choices. When you cut away all
the junk, every situation is a choice. You choose how you react to situations. You
choose how people will affect your mood.”
I reflected on what Jerry said. Soon after that, I left the restaurant industry
to start my own business. We lost touch, but I often thought about him when I
made a choice about life instead of reacting to it. Several years later, I heard that
Jerry did something you are never supposed to do in a restaurant business: he
left the back door open one morning and was held up at gunpoint by three armed
robbers. While trying to open the safe, his hand, shaking from nervousness,
slipped off the combination. The robbers panicked and shot him.
Luckily, Jerry was found relatively quickly and rushed to the local trauma
center. After 18 hours of surgery and weeks of intensive care, Jerry was released
from the hospital with fragments of the bullets still in his body. I saw Jerry about
six months after the accident. When I asked him how he was, he replied, “If I
were any better, I’d be twins. Wanna see my scars?” I declined to see his
wounds, but did ask him what had gone through his mind as the robbery took
place.
“The first thing that went through my mind was that I should have locked
the back door,” Jerry replied. “Then, as I lay on the floor, I remembered that I
had two choices: I could choose to live, or I could choose to die. I chose to live.”
“Weren’t you scared? Did you lose consciousness?” I asked.
Jerry continued, “The paramedics were great. They kept telling me I was
going to be fine. But when they wheeled me into the emergency room and I saw
the expressions on the faces of the doctors and nurses, I got really scared. In
their eyes, I read, ‘He’s a dead man’. I knew I needed to take action.”
53

“What did you do?” I asked.


“Well, there was a big, burly nurse shouting questions at me,” said Jerry.
“She asked if I was allergic to anything. ‘Yes,’ I replied. The doctors and nurses
stopped working as they waited for my reply, I took a deep breath and yelled,
‘Bullets!’ Over their laughter, I told them, ‘I am choosing to live. Operate on me
as if I am alive, not dead.’ ”
Jerry lived thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of his
amazing attitude. I learned from him that every day we have the choice to live
fully. Attitude, after all, is everything.

Post-Reading
A. Use alternative words to express the following.
1) Jerry was the kind of guy you love to hate; 2) If I were any better, I
would be twins; 3) When you cut away all the junk ….... ; 4) We lost touch
with .......; 5) Wanna see my scars?; 6) I declined to see his wounds; 7) an
emergency room; 8) a big burly nurse; 9) Life is all about choices; 10) lose
consciousness.

B. Give the English for.


1) размышлять над чем-либо; 2) интенсивная терапия; 3) хорошее
настроение; 4) любопытный; 5) иметь аллергию на что-либо; 6)
паниковать; 7) собраться с духом; 8) вопить, визжать; 9) испугаться; 10)
поразительный, потрясающий; 11) ограбление (вооруженное).

C. Pick up the phrases from the text which characterize Jerry as a unique
and optimistic person.
D. Answer the following questions.
1. What did Jerry do? 2. Why did several waiters follow him from
restaurant to restaurant? 3. What could the story-teller hardly believe? 4. What
happened to Jerry one day? 5. How different were the paramedics and the
professionals who took care of Jerry? 6. How did Jerry reveal his sense of
humour? 7. Why do you think Jerry survived in this dangerous situation?
E. Discuss the following.
1. Do you think an optimistic viewpoint of things is more preferable than
a pessimistic one? Give your arguments. 2. Do you think people are born to be
optimistic and pessimistic? Is there a chance for a pessimist to become more
optimistic? 3. Which are you? A pessimist or an optimist?
54

UNIT 2. HOME, HOUSE AND FACILITIES


STARTING-UP
There are many different types of housing in Britain, ranging
from the traditional thatched country cottage to flats in the centre of
towns. Houses are often described by the period in which they were
built (e.g., Georgian, Victorian, 1930s, or post-war) and whether they
are terraced, semi-detached or detached. As well as preferring houses
to flats, for many people a garden is also an important consideration.
Although Britain is relatively small the areas where people live vary
considerably: there are new towns and inner cities, suburbs, commuter
belts and the open countryside.

1. Read the descriptions of houses below and decide which of


them is for the English: a) the most desirable; b) second best; c) less
desirable; d) the least desirable.
a. Terraced houses are usually found in inner cities. They can be
anything up to 150 years old and were often built by industries to house their
workers near the factories. They are built in long rows where each house is
attached to the ones on either side. The back of this type of house faces the back
of another identical row of houses, so they are often-known as ‘back to backs’.
In recent years many terraced houses have been renovated; central heating has
been added and other improvements made to what was originally a simple and
sometimes primitive home with an outside toilet and no bathroom.
b. Semi-detached houses have been built in large numbers since the
1930s, when Britain’s towns and cities expanded into suburbs. Each house is
part of a pair and is joined on one side to its partner. The semi usually has a
small back and front garden, three bedrooms and a small bathroom. It is the
most popular type of house in Britain and could be called the home of ‘Mr. and
Mrs. Average’. Towns in Britain have areas which contain streets and streets of
semis, often with well-kept gardens.
c. The detached house stands by itself, usually with a garden all around
it. These houses are much more expensive than semis and are often owned by
professional people. Most detached houses are to be found in affluent suburbs or
in the ‘green belt’ – a strip of protected open countryside around a city, where no
industrial development or major building schemes are allowed. Some large cities
(particularly London) also have a ‘commuter belt’ – so-called because the
55

professionals who live there travel (commute) every day to work into the city by
train or car. London is surrounded by miles and miles of ‘commuter belt’. Some
commuters travel up to three or four hours a day to get from their homes to the
inner city.
d. Britain is famous for its country cottages which were often built on the
country estates of wealthy landowners. The workers on the estate rented the
cottages from the landowner and worked on the land. Cottages were also
frequently built around a village green. Cottages have low ceilings, wooden
beams and sometimes a thatched roof. In recent years some cottages have
become second homes, bought by professionals during the economic boom of
the 1980s.
e. In the 1950s and 1960s local councils cleared a lot of the slums in the
inner city areas and knocked down terraced houses in very poor areas. The
people were re-housed in tower blocks on the outskirts of the city or in the
centre of the city. Tower blocks can vary from 3-5 storeys high up to 10-20
storeys high. Each storey contains 5 or 6 flats for families. In recent years local
councils have tried to improve the areas around tower blocks by creating ‘green
space’, children’s playgrounds and facilities for the community to use. Some
tower blocks in large cities like London can be very dangerous at night and they
have been criticised for their long dark corridors, which encourage crime and
vandalism.
f. A bungalow is a small house in which all the rooms are on the ground
level. Many old people live in bungalows because there are no stairs to climb. In
Britain, large groups of bungalows are often built together on the edges of
towns, or in places were people go to live when they have retired from work,
such as the south coast. Many people find these groups of bungalows boring to
look at.
g. The town house, which can be found in the inner areas of most cities,
is an exception to the general pattern. There is great variety regarding both
design and use. They often have three or more floors, perhaps including a
basement or semi-basement. Although they are usually terraced, those that are
well-preserved and in a ‘good’ area may be thought highly desirable. Many have
been broken up into flats or rooms for rent. Most of the comparatively small
number of people who rent from private owners live in flats of this kind.

2. Using the information you have read above try to guess which
type of house is meant in the following sentences.
1) A …......… house not only ensures privacy, but is also a status symbol.
56

2) Most people would be happy to live in a …….. , reminiscent of pre-


industrial age.
3) The dislike of living in ...…..… is very strong in Britain.
4) In other countries millions of people live reasonably happily in ........... .
5) .......……. at the end of the row are a bit more desirable – they are the
most like a semi-detached.
6) A .............… house usually has no way through to the back except
through the house itself.
7) Many older people dream of going to live in a ….......... when they
retire.

3. Try to explain which of these homes is the best for the


following people.
a) an old couple; b) a couple with two young children; c) a family of six;
d) two students; e) a musician who practices at home; f) a writer who finds it
hard to sleep.

VOCABULARY FOCUS
1. Characterize the following types of houses which have not
been mentioned previously. Use a dictionary if necessary.
a. caravan d. dwelling g. palace
b. castle e. hut h. tent
c. houseboat f. mansion i. cabin

2. Study the kinds of flats given below. Speak on their good and
bad points. Which one is more to your liking?
 A basement is a part of a building consisting of rooms that are partly
or completely below the level of the ground.
 A bed-sitter, (formal bed-sitting room) is a rented room which has a
bed, table, chairs and somewhere to cook in it; a combined bedroom and living
room, especially one that is rented and serves as somebody’s residence.
 A maisonette is a small apartment on two levels which is part of a
larger building but has its own entrance.
 A penthouse is a luxurious apartment or set of rooms at the top of a
hotel or tall building.
 A self-contained flat has everything that is needed within itself (its
own kitchen, bathroom, and entrance).
57

 A studio (UK also studio flat, esp. US studio apartment) can also
be a small apartment designed to be lived in by one or two people. It usually has
one large room for sleeping and living in, a bathroom and possibly a separate
kitchen.

3. Draw a plan of a house and point out where the following


parts are situated.
a. attic e. ground floor i. backyard
b. loft f. basement j. gate
c. balcony g. cellar k. fence
d. first floor h. porch l. front door

4. All of the words below can be used instead of live. Using a


dictionary if necessary, match them with their definitions.
a. inhabit c. occupy e. settle g. lodge
b. reside d. squat f. stay h. dwell
1) to start to live in a place (after moving from somewhere else)
b. occupy 2) [of large groups of people or animals] to live in a country or area
c. settle 3) to live in a place for a while as a visitor or guest
d. lodge 4) [formal] to have one’s home in a place
e. reside 5) to be in (a house or room)
f. squat 6) [literary or old use] to live in a place
g. stay 7) to stay in someone else’s home in exchange for paying rent
h. dwell 8) to live in an unused building without permission and without
paying rent.

5. Complete the following sentences with the missing words


which answer the question ‘Where do they live?’.

1) Most English families live in a h………. house


2) A king lives in a p………….…..…....……….
3) A monk lives in a m………….....…...……….
4) A nun lives in a c……………..…...………….
5) Soldiers lives in a b…………...…….………..
6) A prisoner lives in a c………..…….…………
7) A gipsy lives in a c...........................................
8) An Eskimo lives in an i………….…..……….
9) A bee lives in a h………….….…....…………
10) A bird lives in a n………….…...…..……….
58

11) A dog lives in a k…………..…..…..……….


12) A horse lives in a s…………....…….………
13) A pig lives in a s…………….…..……………
14) A spider lives in a w…………....…….………

6. Fill in the blanks with the words of the same root. The first is
given as an example.
Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
1. house house ––––––– –––––
2. dwell
3. resident
4. inhabitable
5. lodger
6. accommodate
7. comfortably
8. urban
9. rent
10. decorator
11. homeward

7. A. Make two lists of words, word combinations and set


expressions with the words ‘home’ and ‘house’. Use a dictionary if
needed.
e.g. home house
homework housework
home town/country/land household
homecoming housing
home-made housewife
Continue these lists as long as you can.
B. Write down six sentences of your own using any items from the lists
above.

8. Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.


The well-known saying, ‘An Englishman’s home is his castle’, illustrates
the desire for privacy and the importance attached to ownership which seem to
be at the heart of the British attitude to housing.
Flats are not popular just because they do not give enough privacy. As
important as privacy is the opportunity of individual self-expression. People like
to choose the colour of their own front door and window frames, and also to
59

choose what they are going to do with a little bit of outside territory, however
small that may be.
The possibilities of displaying individuality, offered by the front garden,
are almost endless. In any one street, some are paved, some are full of
flowerbeds with paths in between, others are just patches of grass, others are a
mixture of these.
Just as the British idea of home is a mental concept as much as a physical
reality, so is the idea of domestic comfort. The important thing is to feel cosy –
that is, to create an atmosphere which seems warm even if it isn’t really warm.
Despite the reverence they tend to feel for ‘home’, British people have
little deep-rooted attachment to their house as an object, or to the land on which
it stands. It is the abstract idea of ‘home’ which is important, not the building.
This will be sold when the time and price is right and its occupiers will move
into some other house which they will then turn into ‘home’ – a home which
they will love just as much as they did the previous one.
Most British people do not ‘belong’ to a particular place, nor are they
usually brought up in a long-established family house to which they can always
return. Perhaps this is why they are not usually content to rent their
accommodation. Wherever they are, they like to put down roots. So, the desire
to own the place where you live is almost universal in Britain.

B. Give word-combinations, using the adjectives in the box and any nouns
that match them:
own private individual mental domestic cosy
particular abstract content physical universal

e.g. own (house; family; experience; duty; fate)


C. Discuss with your partners what ‘privacy’ and ‘self-expression’ mean.
D. Speak on the mental and physical components of the British concept of
‘home’.

9. Comment on the following English proverbs. Give their


Russian or Belarusian equivalents.
 Men make houses and women make homes.
 An Englishman’s home is his castle.
 Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
 Charity begins at home.
60

DISCUSSION FOCUS
1. Work in small groups and find out from your partners:
 if they like or dislike their present home
 what differences between homes in their country and Britain are
 about the advantages and drawbacks of living with your (one’s)
parents

2. Which of the facilities in the list do you use often? Which ones
do you think are important? Are there any other facilities not
mentioned which you would like to have in your neighbourhood?
What Do You Need in Your Neighbourhood?

Important Useful Not important


launderette ________ _____ ___________
library ________ _____ ___________
cinema ________ _____ ___________
supermarket ________ _____ ___________
bank ________ _____ ___________
post office ________ _____ ___________
swimming pool ________ _____ ___________
tennis courts ________ _____ ___________
newsagent’s ________ _____ ___________
football pitch ________ _____ ___________
basketball pitch ________ _____ ___________
park ________ _____ ___________
restaurant ________ _____ ___________
clothes shop ________ _____ ___________
art gallery ________ _____ ___________
bus stop ________ _____ ___________
video hire shop ________ _____ ___________
hairdresser ________ ______ ___________
pharmacy ________ ______ ___________
pub/cafe ________ ______ ___________

3. Describe the location of the house you live in. Make use of the
vocabulary given below.
A. The house you live in can be located
 in a superb modern complex
61

 in a side street
 in a lane
 in the city centre
 in the suburb
 in a residential area of the city (select area)
 on the main road
 off the main busy road / with heavy traffic
 far from the city centre
 convenient for public transport
 near the metro station
 close to the bus stop
 about ….. metres from …..
 some minutes’ walk from .....
 handy for .....
 a stone’s throw from .....

B. A house can:
 overlook the river .….
 look over the public library …..
 face the garden .….
 have a lovely/pleasant view on…

C. Name essential services/facilities that make life in your neighborhood


easy and pleasant, i.e. a park, a shopping center, a cinema, etc.

4. A. Discuss with your partners what your ideal living room


should contain.

B. Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.

We were to move in in a week and we spent every spare minute we had in


the house making preparations. We got some wallpaper and paste, and borrowed
buckets and brushes. We stripped the walls, and papered them, and I cleaned the
place out and polished the big metal grate in the living-room. When we’d done
that, on the Sunday evening, we looked round with pride. “Of course,” Charlie
said doubtfully, “it would look better if we had a bit of furniture.” We had bed
linen and towels that Charlie’s mother had given us as a wedding present and
some odds and ends of cutlery and crockery. Joe urged us to buy our furniture on
the never-never system, and offered to lend us the money. Even though I hated
taking it we agreed to accept the loan. We got a bed, oil-cloth for the living-
62

room floor and a rug. That was all. We needed a table, but decided to get one
second-hand. My grandfather gave us a chair and a small dresser. Nora and Joe
gave us a little chest-of-drawers and another chair. We had newspaper curtains
and a newspaper table-cloth but we were pretty pleased with ourselves and our
new home.
Jane Walsh
1) Make a list of the furniture items and other household things
the newly married couple got for their first home.
2) If you were in their place, would you need anything else
essential for starting a family life?
3) Do you think the never-never or hire-purchase system is really
helpful for many people, young couples in particular?
C. Discuss with your partners the problem of flat repairs. Speak on the
advantages and drawbacks of a) doing it by yourselves, b) having workmen to
do it for you. Try to use the following words and expressions:
to re/decorate bright blinds
to install gloomy burglar alarm
to do up outdated smoke detector
to restyle modern electrical wiring
to freshen up attractive fitted carpets
to renovate ugly utility room
to build in worn-out curtains
to finish built-in chandelier
to enlarge convenient rug
to remove shabby settee
to transform cosy cushions

5. Country or City?
A highly debatable problem of nowadays is whether it’s better to live in
the country or in a big city.
A. Discuss your preferences with the partners.
B. Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.

Back to Nature
I am one of the many city people who are always saying that given the
choice we would prefer to live in the country away from the dirt and noise of a
63

large city. I have managed to convince myself that if it weren’t for my job I
would immediately head out for the open spaces and go back to nature in some
sleepy village buried in the country. But how realistic is this dream?
Cities can be frightening places. The majority of the population live in
massive tower blocks, noisy, squalid and impersonal. The sense of belonging to
a community tends to disappear when you live fifteen floors up. All you can see
from your window is the sky, or other blocks of flats. Children become
aggressive and nervous – cooped up at home all day, with nowhere to play: their
mothers feel isolated from the rest of the world. Strangely enough, whereas in
the past the inhabitants of one street all knew each other, nowadays people on
the same floor in tower blocks don’t even say hello to each other.
Country life, on the other hand, differs from this kind of isolated existence
in that a sense of community generally binds the inhabitants of small villages
together. People have the advantage of knowing that there is always someone to
turn to when they need help. But country life has disadvantages too.
While it is true that you may be among friends in a village, it is also true
that you are cut off from the exciting and important events that take place in
cities. There’s little possibility of going to a new show or the latest movie.
Shopping becomes a major problem, and for anything slightly out of the
ordinary you have to go on an expedition to the nearest large town. The city-
dweller who leaves for the country is often oppressed by a sense of unbearable
stillness and quiet.
Some people have found (or rather bought) a compromise between the
two; they have expressed their preference for the “quiet life” by leaving the
suburbs and moving to villages within commuting distance of the large
conurbations.
What then of my dreams of leaning on a cottage gate, chewing a piece of
grass and murmuring “morning” to the locals as they pass. I’m keen on the idea,
but you see there’s my cat, Toby. I’m not at all sure that he would take to all that
fresh air and exercise in the long grass. I mean, can you see him mixing with all
those hearty males down on the farm? No, he would rather have the electric
imitation-coal fire any evening.

1) Say if you share the author’s views on the country and town
life. Does the author sound convincing in his reasoning?
2) Study the following phrases which hint at the arguments
concerning the country and town life. Develop them into full
statements and sort them out as arguments and counter-arguments:
e.g. The rush hour
64

You can hardly avoid the rush hour in a big city.


Quiet and peaceful
In a village you are likely to enjoy quiet and peaceful existence.

traffic jams; overcrowded buses; quiet and peaceful; lose touch with
nature; air-conditioned existence; more chances of employment; plenty of fresh
air; high rents; high crime rate; a feeling of belonging to the community;
isolated existence; more opportunity to succeed in life; high cost of living; dull
life; a big variety of entertainment; a house of your own; more stressful; packed
trains; difficult to control; big stores; the rush-hour.

6. What I like and dislike about my own town or city

A. Read the interviews of four Londoners and do the tasks that follow.

Peter Wilson: ‘The most difficult part of living in London is the appalling
transport facilities, everything from roads to underground, and we don’t seem to
be doing anything about it. The problem is at the top; they spend millions doing
up the stations and nothing on the services. I think it is dirty because the British
are dirty. They drop things. In this country there is a culture of the countryside;
as soon as you have made your pile you move out of town. I think one reason
London is such a poor place is that not enough rich people live here. They all
live outside.’
Shirley Wilson: ‘I don’t think it’s very safe, but I should not want to live
anywhere else. I am very wary when using transport but the dangers are part of
city life. I like everything in London, the theatres and the cinemas, but the
people are less friendly than elsewhere.’
Jad Adams: ‘The bad things like crime and high house prices are
exaggerated. People have always felt life was worse in the cities but if they
hated it that much they would live in Milton Keynes.’
Sallika Wijesinghe: ‘I don’t go out after six at night. When I first came to
England about 20 years ago you could walk the streets at two a.m. without fear,
but I have been mugged and abused and will not go out alone. It is an amusing
and entertaining place, but there is too much liberty, no discipline. I think it is a
very difficult city to manage. The underground is alright but the bus services are
awful. You wait for hours and then 16 come together, all empty. The roads are
full of pot-holes, you are always falling into pot-holes. What is needed is stricter
administration.’
B. Tick which points each speaker mentions. Explain what they said about
each point.
65

Entertainment Safety Transport Money Litter People


Peter .................................................................................................
Shirley …………………................……………………...………...
Jad ………............…….....………….…………………..………....
Sallika ……………….........……………………….…………….
C. What is your own town or city like? Exchange the information with
your patners.

7. Over the recent years there seems to have been a swing


against the popularity of high-rise buildings
A. Discuss with your patners strong and weak points of living in high-rise
houses.
B. Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.

Flats in the Clouds


Blocks of “high-rise” flats have been erected in large numbers in London
and in many other big cities. Just after the Second World War these immense
twenty-to-thirty storey buildings, hundreds of feet in height, were thought to be
the ideal solution to the dual problem of acute housing shortage and lack of
space in urban areas. At first, the ultramodern apartments were much sought
after by city dwellers, and hundreds of the vast blocks had been built before
anyone began to doubt that they were suitable places for people, children
especially, to live in. A well-known British architect, who personally designed
many of these buildings, now believes that they may well have inflicted a great
deal of suffering on those people who have been housed in them, and evidence
has been amassed by sociologists which suggests that severe loneliness and deep
depression are brought about by life within these great towers. Some
psychologists even maintain that an unduly large proportion of their inhabitants
suffer from mental disorders and develop criminal tendencies.

C. Say if your ideas are in any way similar to those of the author.

D. Pick out the key-words/phrases to describe:


 multi-storeyed buildings
 reasons for their erection
 reasons for disappointment in them
66

E. Read the interview with Professor Hill about the prospects of high-rise
housing.

Professor: Well, first of all, I think, we must make a clear distinction


between residential and commercial buildings. Where land is in fact still very
expensive – especially in the center of cities – high office buildings are still
being built. And some companies get prestige from operating from a large
modern beautiful building.
Well, some luxury flats are sill being built and the highest in the world is
at Lake Point Towers in Chicago. The highest in the United Kingdom is the
Shakespeare Tower, Barbican, in the City of London. But in the public sector
housing – that’s council flats – they’re no longer being built at the rate they were
in the 60s and early 70s. And the reasons for this are quite numerous: people feel
very isolated in them and lonely and they have this terrible feeling of being cut
off from the real world. So many of these flats were getting vandalised and
smashed up – the windows were being broken, lifts damaged and so on. And
oddly enough perhaps this doesn’t seem to happen in privately-owned blocks.
They tend to be much more secure. But perhaps that’s because they’ve got
porters or even guards to protect them.
Interviewer: Yes, what do you think can be done to prevent vandalism?

1) What new facts do you learn from the interview about high-
rise buildings?
2) Explain the notion of ‘vandalism’.
3) Can you guess what Professor Hill’s suggestions are? What
are your ideas about preventing vandalism?
4) Now read Professor Hill’s answer and compare it with yours.
Professor: Well, vandalism can only be prevented by encouraging the
tenants to take a pride in where they live, to feel that they own their
environment. Not housing families in these large high-rise blocks — perhaps
only single people or at least only childless couples. And ... um ... building more
low-rise accommodation and, I have to say, that... er ... in the last resort if all
else fails, by blowing up the blocks which attract the vandals.
Interviewer: That seems a wee bit drastic.
Professor: Well, in many cases, it’s the only thing that can be done.

8. The Place of My Dream


67

A. Scan the three descriptions and underline all the place words you can
find. List the words under the following headings.
1) housing, e.g. flat; 2) facilities, e.g. shop; 3) communities, e.g. town; 4)
parts of a community, e.g. outskirts; 5) natural features, e.g. mountain.

B. Add any other words you know, and then compare your lists with those
of your partners.
a. My dream home would be a large flat on the top floor of a luxury
apartment block in a quiet residential area of a large city. There would be parks
and other open spaces around, and it would be quite close to mountains. I
wouldn’t want it to be a seaside resort, but it shouldn’t be too far from the coast.
b. If I could live anywhere I liked, I’d choose an old house in the centre of
a medium-sized town. The town would have all the normal modem facilities like
banks, cinemas and supermarkets. Ideally it would also be of historical interest
with a castle or an old church, but it shouldn’t be too popular with tourists. It
would be close to water of some kind - perhaps a river or a lake.
c. If I could choose, I’d live in a small cottage in a country lane on the
outskirts of a village. The village would have a few small shops and a friendly
pub. It would be surrounded by countryside and be about ten miles from the
nearest town. Ideally, it would be in a hilly area close to a forest.

C. Think about your dream (or nightmare) home and describe it to your
partner.
D. What will the 21st century houses be like? Discuss it with your
partners.

9. People sell, buy houses and also let them for rent
A. What do you think people pay attention to when buying a house?
Discuss it with your partners.
B. Read the following advertisements for homes taken from a British
estate agent’s publicity. Assuming you had the money, which home, if any, would
you want to look at and why?
a. Spacious Victorian terraced house enjoying views across the city.
Handy for local shops, buses, schools, etc. Porch, entrance hall, 2 impressive
reception rooms, kitchen/breakfast room, bathroom with shower, 3 bedrooms,
gas central heating, small but delightful garden.
68

b. A purpose-built upper floor flat located in one of the city’s prime


residential areas, some 10 minutes’ walk from the city centre and railway
station. Close to local shops and canal path walks. Commanding superb views
over the city and surrounding hills. Gas central heating, hall, 6m x 4m living
room, bathroom, 2 double bedrooms with wardrobes, garage.
c. Southern outskirts of the city: a double-fronted pre-war semi-detached
3 bed-roomed house in a quiet tree-lined road. Convenient for local shops and
city buses. Period hall, good-sized lounge, dining room, utility room/storeroom,
electric storage heaters, double-glazing, charming mature garden, garage.
d. A very well-proportioned detached bungalow, not far from the city
centre, containing a luxury kitchen, an impressive open-plan living room with a
fireplace, 4 double bedrooms, and 2 bathrooms. Gas central heating, fair
decorative order throughout, large secluded garden, and double garage.

C. The following adjectives are all taken from the advertisements above.
Put them in the table according to whether their meanings relate to size,
distance, age or quality.
spacious fair good-sized prime superb pre-war close
period impressive luxury open-plan mature not far
secluded handy convenient charming well-proportioned
double-fronted purpose-built

Size Distance Age Quality

PRACTISING VOCABULARY
1. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying
attention to the underlined phrases.
1) I live in a Council House. 2) Rents are quite reasonable in this part of
the city. 3) I hope you’ve settled down comfortably in your new home. 4) We’ve
just moved in, that’s why our living room is in such a mess. 5) I like built-in
furniture, it’s so practical. 6) Please, wipe your feet on the mat before you come
in. 7) There’s plenty of room for a fridge next to this kitchen cabinet. 8) The
kitchen smells of gas. 9) The tap is leaking. I’ll have to get the plumber in to
have it repaired. 10) We’ve been looking for domestic help for quite a while. 11)
I do some little repairs in the house, once in a while. 12) Is there a socket where
I can plug in the tape-recorder? 13) The waste-bin is full again. I’ll empty it. Are
there any more bin-liners? 14) We keep our skis up in the attic during the
69

summer. They are out of the way up there. 15) The light-switch for the stairs is
on the landing as you come out of your bedroom.

2. Match the words from the list with the explanations.

bridge bungalow caravan castle cottage


semi-detached house terraced house tower

a) strong building made in the past to defend people against


enemies. ...castle…
b) A small house on wheels which is pulled by a car.
c) A house which is one of a pair of houses joined together.
d) A small house with only one floor.
e) This carries a road or railway over a river.
f) A house which is part of a row of houses all joined together.
g) A small house in the country.
h) A tall building standing alone, or as part of a castle or church.

3. Use the words given in capitals at the end of each line to form
a word that fits in the space in the same line. The first sentence is an
example.
Moving House

Moving house is said to be the third most (0) ... stressful...STRESS


experience you can have (coming after the (1) ..... DIE
of a close relative, or a divorce). The reason for
this is partly the (2) ........ involved, but also the ORGANISE
feeling of (3) ........ caused by completely changing SECURITY
your environment. Of course, a (4) ...... approach can SYSTEM
help ease the difficulties, especially on the day of
(5) ............. . Plan your packing carefully or, better, REMOVE
employ a (6) ........... company to pack and move RELY
your things.
This will (7) ......... lessen the amount of damage CERTAIN
to your (8) .............. It’s also a good idea to take POSSESS
out (9) ............... . Some worry is, of course, INSURE
(10) ....... but try to keep calm and look forward to AVOIDABLE
life in your new home.

4. Choose the correct word underlined in this sentence.


70

a) Will you be at home/at house later this evening?


b) Paul’s room is at the top of the stairs/steps opposite the bathroom.
c) Can you remember to clean the wash-basin/sink in the bathroom?
d) The rooms downstairs are so low I can touch the roof/ceiling.
e) Tony is a keen cooker/cook and always uses an electric cooker/cook.
f) You’ll find plates in the cupboard/wardrobe next to the fridge.
g) Ann was sitting at/to her desk, but Chris was sitting in/on an armchair.
h) I won’t be long. I’m just going upstairs for a bath/a bathe.
i) Lisa didn’t like doing homework/housework, so she paid a cleaner.
j) Under the house there’s a cave/cellar where we keep our old things.

5. Replace the words underlined by one of the words from the


list.
capital crowded international isolated
local neighbouring rural urban

a) It’s much healthier to live in a country area, far away from the city.
....rural....
b) Sue has just moved to a nearby town.
c) We lived in the middle of nowhere in an out of the way cottage.
d) Paris is the most important city of France.
e) There is not a lot of world news in this newspaper.
f) I do my shopping at the neighbourhood shops, not in the town centre.
g) At weekends the town centre is always full of people.
h) There is far too much pollution nowadays in city areas.

6. Use two words from the list to make a word and use the new
word to complete the sentence. One word is used twice.
dust room book down flower stairs wash ash basin
chair bin key arm bed case dish hole tray washer
a) It’s very cold in my .........., and I find it hard to sleep.
bed+room=bedroom
b) Sarah spent all afternoon sitting in a large .... in front of the TV.
c) I left my socks soaking in the .............. in the bathroom.
d) Do you think you could put all your rubbish outside in the ...... ?
e) There is a beautiful ........ full of roses right outside my window.
f) Don’t worry about the washing-up. We’ll put everything in
the ...................................... .
g) I can’t open the front door. Something is stuck in the ............. .
71

h) If you really insist on smoking, please use this .................. .


i) Can you come .............. ? There’s someone at the door for you.
j) In this ................. are the dictionaries and an encyclopedia.

7. Complete each sentence with a word from the list.


carpet curtains cushion drawer
pillow radiator settee socket
a) Is that chair comfortable, or would you like to use a ....cushion......?
b) Peter couldn’t use his computer as there wasn’t a ............... in the room.
c) This house has central heating, and there’s a ...... in every room.
d) I was so tired that I fell asleep as soon as my head touched
the ..................... .
e) Could you draw the ............... ? Someone is staring through the
window.
f) My bedroom has a fitted ............ which covers the whole floor.
g) The knives and forks are in the second .............. on the left.
h) Come over here and sit next to me on the ….............. .

8. Choose the most suitable word underlined in each sentence.


a) We arranged to meet in the centre of town in the main place/square.
b) Their cottage is in the heart of some beautiful country/countryside.
c) The children spent all day playing on the sandy beach/seaside.
d) I dropped my ice-cream on the earth/ground, so I couldn’t eat it.
e) This footpath/pavement leads across the fields to the village.
f) There was a wonderful scenery/view from my hotel room.
g) You can’t stop here. Car-park/Parking is not allowed in this street.
h) Helen decided to leave the country/land and work abroad.
i) Buses pass the bus station/stop outside my house every ten minutes.

9. Complete each sentence with a verb from the list in a suitable


form. You can use a verb more than once.
drop finish get look move put take turn

a) I’ve got nowhere to stay tonight. Can you ...put.... me up ?


b) We’ve bought a new house but we can’t ..... in until next month.
c) Adrian doesn’t ............. on with his neighbours, because they are so
noisy.
d) Jan likes cooking, but she says it ............ up a lot of her time.
e) Don’t forget to .............. off the television before you go to bed.
72

f) Helen has done most of the decorating and plans to ............ it off
tomorrow.
g) I have a large room, and it ............ out onto a beautiful garden.
h) Karen and Mike live next door and they often ....... in for a chat.

10. Fill the gaps in this passage with this, their, a, the, or 0 (i.e.
no article). Give a summary of the text.
60% of families in ............ UK own ............ own homes after borrowing
money (known as ............ mortgage) from ............ building society or bank.
They have to make ............ monthly repayment of ............ total sum (plus
interest) for 20-25 years. Borrowers can usually borrow ............ sum equivalent
to three times ............ annual salary, but need to put down ........... cash deposit of
10% of ........... purchase price. ............ people in Britain tend to move ...........
home several times in ........... lives. ............ typical pattern is for ............ young
couple to start as ‘first-time buyers’ in ............ small flat or house, then move
to ........... larger house when they have ............ family and, when ...........
children have left ............ home, to move into ........... smaller house or
bungalow. Usually they move into ............ other people’s houses or into ...........
new home that has been built on ............ new estate by ............ builder. Families
in ............ lower income groups are more likely to live in ............ rented
accommodation, for example in ......... council house or flat.
Moving home can be ............ stressful experience, only slightly less
traumatic than ........... bereavement or divorce. Often ........... buyer and seller
of ............ house are part of ............ ‘chain’, where ............ sale of one house
depends on ............ whole series of strangers doing ........... same thing at ............
same time. If one deal falls through at ........... last moment, ........ whole chain
breaks down and no one is able to move.

11. Complete each part sentence a) to h) with one of the


endings 1) to 8).
a) Please sit down and make yourself. 4) at home, while I make tea.
b) Many of our language students share …………............…….... .
c) I like Do-It-Yourself, but I’ve decided to have …...........……... .
d) Alan seems to have so many clothes that he can never find ….. .
e) If you can’t find the house you can always ask for …….....…... .
f) Susan lives on the tenth floor of ……….............................….... .
g) If you are short of money you can buy ….......................……... .
h) As we live in a semi-detached house, we hear ……........…….. .
73

1) room for all of them in the wardrobe.


2) a block of flats on the south side of the city.
3) directions at the bus-station.
4) at home, while I make some tea.
5) accommodation in the villages nearby.
6) the decorating done by a local firm.
7) a lot of noise through the wall from the family next door.
8) furniture from the street market near the cathedral.

12. Choose the most suitable word for each space.

A House in the Country


The house is situated among beautiful (1) .....b....., two miles from the
nearest village, surrounded by (2) .................. On a (3) .................. a short
distance from the house is a (4) ............., and a small (5) ….............. flows past
the end of the garden, which also contains a small (6) …......... The name of the
house, Rose Cottage, is on the garden (7) ..........., from which a (8) ........... leads
to the (9)............. door. On the (10) .............. floor there is a large (11) …...........
room, a dining room, a kitchen, and (12) …...... and toilet. (13) …......... there are
three bedrooms. There is also a garage next to the house. The village has a post
(14) ............, pub and supermarket, and there is a railway (15) ................ three
miles away.
1) a) view b) scenery c) sights d) looks
2) a) grass b) flats c) earth d) fields
3) a) mountain b) peak c) hill d) summit
4) a) wood b) greenery c) jungle d) forest
5) a) river b) channel c) stream d) canal
6) a) lake b)bath c) water d)pond
7) a) gate b) door c) opening d) entrance
8) a) road b) path c) way d) pavement
9) a) forward b) front c) first d) further
10) a) bottom b) back c) ground d) earth
11) a) lounge b) seating c) saloon d) living
12) a) bath b) bathroom c) basin d) washing
13) a) Over b) Up c) Upstairs d) Higher
14) a) shop b) centre c) place d) office
15) a) station b) stop c) post d) base

13. Fill each space with a word from the list and make a
compound word.
74

about bridge ground path park roads side skirts


a) Our children spend a lot of time having fun at the local
play ............ground…....
b) When you reach the cross ..................., take the road to Linton.
c) You have to turn left when you reach the next round ................ .
d) We can’t leave the car here. We’ll have to look for a car .......... .
e) Follow this foot ..................... until you reach the main road.
f) There was an old woman selling fruit at the road …….......... .
g) Paula lives on the out .................. of the town, where the countryside
begins.
h) You can cross the railway line by walking over a foot ….......... .

14. Read the following ads and write down paragraphs to


describe the houses they offer, using full grammatical sentences. The
ad in italics is given as an example.
13 Orchard Lane 13 Orchard Lane is a cottage.
Cottage It was built in 1820. It was built
Built: 1820 of stone with a thatched roof.
Stone/thatched roof Central heating was put in
Central heating: 1998 1998, and it was rewired in
Rewired: 2000 2000.
a. 44 Primrose Avenue b. 68 Jubilee Street
Detached House Town house
Built: 1935 Built: 1977
Brick/tiled roof Brick/flat roof
New roof: 1976 Sauna: January 1978
Redecorated: 1978. Repainted: May 1978
c. Kensington W.8.
Beautiful, detached house on quiet street. Fully furnished. 2 lge. recep.
rms., 3 beds., bath. Sep.W.C., kit. and util.rm., cloakrm., lge. gge, avail. Full gas
C.H., sm. gdn. Close shops/buses. £ 57 p.w.
d. Apartments Unfurnished – Manhattan

THREE ROOMS
85 ST 26 W. 3rm apts, hi ceils, full mod kchns & bth, frpl, lge closets, nr
subway. $ 865. See Mr.White or call 988-9128.
75

e. Apartments Unfurnished – Manhattan

FOUR AND SIX ROOMS


70’s EAST. LUXURY BLDG. Apts avail. for immed. occup. 1 bedrm fr
$365; 3 bedrms fr $575. No fee. Bldg.has 24-hr drmn serv. Air-cond. Lrge livrm
& dining rm. Call PL5-6797 eves.
f. House – Connecticut
WESTPORT - 9 rms, 3 bdrms, livrm w/ frplce, all air-cond, 2-car gar, lge
bsmt, lge kitch. John SMITH. Real Estate Agent (201) 637-3644

15. Each sentence contains an inappropriate word or phrase,


which is underlined. Replace it with a word or phrase from the list.
bookcase chimney fence floor
gate pane of glass step towel

a) Unfortunately the ball hit the window and broke a


glass. ......................... pane of glass ...
b) I washed my hands in the bathroom and dried them with a cloth.
c) There was a small wooden door leading into the garden.
d) As I sat down at the kitchen table, I knocked my cup onto the ground.
e) In the corner of Joe’s room was a small library for his books.
f) All round the garden there was a high wooden wall.
g) On the roof-tops Tina could see a tall fireplace pouring out smoke.
h) The floor of the kitchen is a bit lower, so mind the stair.

16. Read this student’s essay. There are six mistakes in making
comparisons. Find and correct them.
Some people like the city. Some like the country. I like the city because it
is more interesting from the country. The city is expensive than the country, but
it’s worth it. The restaurants are much better, and entertainment is more
available. Store hours are convenienter, so you can go shopping any time, day or
night.
I enjoy walking around the city. It is true that the country is clean than the
city, and it is also more quiet. But city streets are more exciting. There is always
something happening.
For me the city is definitely nicer that the country, and I hope to remain
here.
76

17. Agree with the following statements using the verb prompts.
The first one is done as an example:
1. – This room looks terrible. It really needs decorating. (do up)
– Yes, it needs doing up.
2. Look, the wallpaper isn’t sticking to the walls. (come off)
3. The fireplace is very ugly. We could remove it. (take out)
4. The flat doesn’t have any central heating. We must install it. (put in)
5. There are no shelves or cupboards. We could fix some to the walls. (put
up)
6. There’s a lot of rubbish in the room. It needs putting in the dustbin.
(throw out)
7. The cooker doesn’t work. It needs repairing. (to see to)
8. We must discuss it before we decide. (talk over)
9. We could start living here immediately. (move in)
10. We must consider it carefully before we decide. (think over)

18. Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable words.


1 If I could build my own house I’d make sure it had a ................. .
2 Our n............s are always complaining about the noise we make.
3 My friends live in a small ...................... house in a street where all the
houses look alike.
4 The block of flats she lives in has five s..................s and she lives on the
top f.................. .
5 In the city centre, an inexpensive a.................... is hard to find because it
is scarce.
6 Many new estates are being built on the o................s of the city and in
the s.................s.
7 I’d love to m............... to the country and live in an old ............. .
8 If someone borrows money to buy their home, they have to repay the
m................. .
9 If someone else owns your house or flat, you have to pay r...................
to a 1................. .
10 Modern flats often don’t have enough r.......... to store things in.
11 Books are usually kept in a b.................. or on s.................s.
12 Even though their house has c................. h.................. there is a
fireplace in the l.................. .
13 In a bedroom, clothes are kept in a ........................ .
14 The most important thing about a house or flat is that it should
be ........................ .
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19. Choose the best alternative to fill the gaps in these


sentences.
1 Some houses have a basement room where things are stored
called ................... .
a) an attic b) a cave c) a cellar d) a grave e) a loft
2 Some rooms don’t have curtains at the windows, they have ................
instead.
a) blinds b) carpets c) glass d) stores e) wallpaper
3 We haven’t got a garage, so we leave our car outside the house in
the ................. .
a) drive b) garden c) parking d) patio e) pavement f) porch
4 He keeps all his tools and do-it-yourself equipment in a …..…… in the
back garden.
a) barn b) bungalow c) hut d) shack e) shed f) stable
5 In your own garden, you can sunbathe on the ................. in the summer.
a) field b) flowerbed c) lawn d) meadow e) pasture

20. Translate from Russian into English.


1. Приехав в Шеффилд я остановился в отеле, но вскоре начал искать
постоянное жилье. 2. Его квартира находилась в цокольном этаже и зимой
там было сыро. 3. Когда мои родители вышли на пенсию, они переехали за
город, где купили крошечный одноэтажный домик. 4. В то время у нас
было мало денег и первую мебель мы купили в рассрочку. 5. Жизнь в
больших городах далеко не безопасна, так как уровень преступности
достаточно высок. 6. Отдельный дом, если только он не расположен где-
нибудь в отдаленной глубинке, не по карману большинству англичан. 7.
Около 70% населения Англии живут в домах, владельцами которых они
являются и которые, как правило, куплены в кредит. 8. Традиционный
строительный материал для жилых домов в Англии – кирпич (для стен) и
черепица (для крыш). 9. Часть населения живет в квартирах, которые они
снимают у частных домовладельцев. 10. В последнее время в Британии
вместо домов-башен строится жилье высотой не более 6 этажей. 11. Летом
Джейсон обычно уезжает в небольшую рыбачью деревушку и живет в
простом сельском доме с видом на прелестное озеро. 12. Час пик –
неизбежная болезнь больших городов, но люди привыкают
(приспосабливаются). 13. Когда Кристина и Кевин поженились, денег
хватило только на то, что снять небольшую однокомнатную квартиру на
окраине города. 14. У меня в подвале есть темная комната без окон, где
78

удобно проявлять фотопленку. 15. В новом доме достаточно большое


подсобное помещение для стиральной машины, сушилки и морозильника.

READ AND DISCUSS


TEXT I
Pre-Reading
A. From the information you already know try to guess which type of
house is the most popular in Britain from the viewpoint of ownership. Why?

B. Make sure you know the meaning of the words ‘mortgage’, ‘landlord’,
‘tenant’, ‘council’, ‘security’, ‘interest’, ‘tax’, ‘incentive’.

Reading
Read through Text I and do the tasks that follow.

The desire to own the place where you live is almost universal in Britain.
However, house prices are high. This dilemma is overcome by the mortgage
system, which is probably a more established aspect of everyday life than it is
anywhere else in the world. About 70% of all the houses in the country are
occupied by their owners and almost all of these were bought with a mortgage.
At any one time, half of these are owned by people who have borrowed 80% (or
even more) of their price and are now paying this money back month by month.
The normal arrangement is for the borrower to pay back the money over a
period of twenty to twenty-five years. The financial institutions known as
‘building societies’ were originally set up to provide mortgages. In the 1980s,
however, regulations were relaxed, so that banks now offer mortgages as well.
People are happy to take out mortgages because house prices normally
increase a bit faster than the general cost of living. Therefore, most people can
make a profit when they sell their house. So strong is this expectation that
phrases such as ‘first-time buyer’ and ‘second-time buyer’ are well-known. The
former can only afford one of the cheaper houses available. But around ten years
later, when some of their mortgage has been paid off, they can become the latter.
They sell their house at a profit and move into a more expensive house.
Although nearly everybody wants to own their house, it is only in the last
quarter of the twentieth century that a majority of people have done so. Before
that time, most working-class people lived in rented accommodation. At one
time, most of them rented from private landlords, some of whom exploited them
badly. In the 1950s and 1960s, however, millions of homes were built by local
government authorities. By 1977, two-thirds of all tenants lived in these ‘council
houses’ (or, in some cases, flats). Council rents are subsidized, so they are low.
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Each local council keeps a waiting list of households who want to move into a
council property. The order of preference is worked out by a complicated set of
priorities. Once they are given a council house, tenants have security; that is,
they do not have to move out even if they become rich.
From 1950 to 1980 the proportion of owner-occupiers gradually
increased. The ambition to own was made easier by policies of tax relief. Some
of the interest which people paid on their mortgage could be subtracted from the
income tax they had to pay and people selling their houses did not have to pay
‘capital gains tax’ on any profit. With both owner-occupiers and council tenants
increasing in numbers, the percentage of people who rented from private
landlords became one of the lowest in the world — and continues to be so.
Then during the 1980s, the number of owner-occupiers increased more
sharply. A major part of the philosophy of Thatcherism (under Prime Minister
Margaret Thatcher) was the idea of the ‘property-owning democracy’. Council
tenants were allowed to buy their council houses and were given financial
incentives to do so. The deregulation of mortgage-lending also encouraged
house-buying. So did an increase in the financial help given to owners who
wanted to make improvements to their property. At the same time, local councils
were severely limited in the number of properties which they could build and
were also encouraged to sell their properties to private ‘housing associations’.
As a result, the number of council tenants actually decreased.

Post-Reading
A. Finish the following sentences with the correct variant.

1. The ‘building societies’ were originally set up .......................... .


a) to construct more council houses
b) to provide private homes
c) to provide mortgages
d) to make more profit
2. People are happy to take out mortgages because ....................... .
a) house prices normally increase
b) the general cost of living goes up
c) the standard of living becomes higher
d) house prices increase a bit faster than the general cost of living
3. Before the last quarter of the 20th century most working-class people
lived in ............................. .
a) privately-owned accommodation
b) state-owned flats
c) rented accommodation
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d) the property they owned


4. The idea of the ‘property-owning democracy’ implied ............. .
a) encouraging house-buying
b) building more ‘council houses’
c) increasing the number of council tenants
d) limiting private ‘housing associations

B. Say the following in alternative words.

1) houses bought with a mortgage; 2) paying this money back month by


month; 3) In the 1980s <...> regulations were relaxed; 4) people can make
profit; 5) They sell their house at a profit; 6) Council rents are subsidized; 7) a
waiting list of households who want to move into a council property; 8) the
order of preference; 9) an owner-occupier; 10) Some of the interest which
people paid on their mortgage could be subtracted from the income tax; 11) the
philosophy of Thatcherism .

C. Find the sentences with ‘The former…’ and ‘…the latter’. Explain their
meaning.

D. Give the Russian equivalents for:


1) the mortgage system; 2) the building societies; 3) rented
accommodation; 4) private landlords; 5) council houses/flats; 6) council tenants;
7) a complicated set of priorities; 8) policies of ‘tax relief’; 9) pay ‘capital gains
tax’ on any profit; 10) give financial incentives; 11) housing associations.

E. Answer the following questions.

1. How important is the mortgage system in Britain? 2. Why are people


happy to take out mortgages? 3. What was the general background for providing
‘council houses’ in the last quarter of the 20th century? 4. What has encouraged
an increase in the proportion of ‘owner-occupiers’ since the 1950s? 5. What was
the contribution of M. Thatcher to the house-buying movement?

F. Scan the two small texts below and mark the key words/phrases.
Compare your list with that of your partner.

a. Owning and renting: class


In the middle years of the twentieth century, whether you owned or rented
a house was a marker of class. If you owned your house, you were middle class;
if you lived in a council house, you were working class. However, this is no
longer true. A clear majority of skilled manual workers are owner-occupiers, as
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are 40% of even unskilled manual workers. The proportion of people (of any
category) who own their house ‘outright’ (i.e. they have finished paying off the
mortgage) or rent privately is rather small. Only among those with higher-status
jobs are there more private tenants than council tenants.
b. Finding somewhere to live
If you want to buy a house, it is very rare to deal directly with the person
selling. Instead, you go to an estate agent. These companies exist solely to act as
‘go-betweens’ for people buying and selling houses. They help with the various
procedures – and take a fat commission! If you are interested in one of the
houses ‘on their books’, they will arrange a ‘viewing’. You can also spot houses
for sale by the ‘For sale’ signs which are put up on wooden posts outside the
houses concerned.
If you want to rent somewhere from a private landlord (not a council), the
usual place to look is in the local newspaper. Estate agents do not often deal with
places for rent, although there are special lettings agencies.
Another possible way of finding somewhere to live is to ‘squat’. Squatters
are people who occupy empty houses without paying rent. If you do not cause
any damage when moving in to an empty house, you have not broken the law. If
the owner wants to get you out, he or she has to get an order from the court to
have you evicted.
Alternatively, you could become a ‘New Age Traveller’ and live in a bus,
coach or van, moving from place to place.

G. Explain in English the following.

1) a marker of class; 2) skilled (unskilled) manual workers; 3) private


tenants; council tenants; 4) an estate agent; 5) ‘go-betweens’; 6) to take a fat
commission; 7) to spot houses for sale; 8) to have you evicted; 9) letting
agencies

H. Discuss with your partners what facts the texts above add to the ideas
developed in Text I.

TEXT II
Pre-Reading
A. Ask your partners if they have an idea about what accommodation
Britain can offer to foreign visitors and tourists.

B. Find out if anyone knows what the letters ‘B and B’ stand for and what
the word ‘crown’ means in relation to hotels.
82

Reading
Read the text ‘Accommodation’ and do the tasks that follow.

Accommodation
The range of accommodation in Britain is vast, from first class hotels to
camping and caravan sites. You can book accommodation in advance from your
own country through your travel agent or directly with the establishment you
want to stay in. You can also book in advance when you’ve arrived in Britain
through certain Tourist Information Centres (TICs). If you are travelling to the
more popular places in Britain during the peak holiday season, May-October, it
is advisable to book accommodation in advance.
The national tourist boards for England, Scotland and Wales publish
accommodation guides called Where to Stay. They are available from bookshops
and TICs.
Hotels
Hotels in Britain are not cheap, by comparison with some countries. The
prices they quote are normally per person, not per room. It is usual for breakfast
to be included in the price of a night’s accommodation. Some hotels offer ‘half
board’, accommodation, breakfast and one other meal; or ‘full board’,
accommodation, breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Hotels, in general, like guests to check in before 18:00. If you are likely to
arrive late in the evening it is advisable to let the hotel know. Check-out time is
usually 11:00 or 12:00 on the day of departure, although arrangements can be
made to check out later.
Guest houses
Guest houses are smaller and cheaper than hotels. They will probably
have fewer facilities than most hotels: there may not be a bar, nor private
bathrooms. In addition to the bedrooms there will be a living room for the use of
guests and a dining room. Some guest houses offer bed and breakfast only,
others offer lunch and dinner.
The tourist boards inspect hotels and guest houses throughout Britain
every year and classify them according to the facilities and services they
provide. There are six classifications: ‘listed’ (included in a list, catalog, or
directory) and one to five crowns. The more crowns a hotel or guest house has,
the wider its range of facilities and services is. ‘Approved’, ‘commended’ or
‘highly commended’ alongside the crowns means that the standards are
particularly high. A leaflet explaining the classifications is available free from
TICs.
83

Bed and breakfast


Bed and breakfast, often shortened to ‘B and B’, is the name for
establishments which offer bed and breakfast but not usually any other meals. B
and Bs are generally cheaper than hotels and guest houses and are found all over
Britain. Some are private houses run by the families who live there; others are
pubs; and some are farm houses on working farms. B and Bs generally give you
a chance to meet British people at home and to practise your English.
Some B and Bs offer an evening meal; you should check in advance if
you require this.
Youth hostels
The Youth Hostel Association has over 400 hostels in Britain. They are
very cheap and are often in buildings of special or historic interest. Although
there is no age restriction, youth hostels are mainly used by students and the
under 30s. In order to stay in a youth hostel you must be a member. You can use
British hostels by joining the International Youth Hostel Association in your own
country, or you can apply for an International Guest card when you arrive in
Britain. Everyone staying at a youth hostel is expected to help with the
housework. Simple meals and/or self-catering facilities are provided at some
hostels. Many hostels close for part of the year. You can find out more
information by writing to:
The Youth Hostel Association
Trevelyan House
8 St Stephen’s Hill
St Albans
Hertfordshire
ALI 2DY, Tel: 0727 55215

Post-Reading
A. Make a list of types of accommodation for visitors to the UK
mentioned in the text.
B. Use alternative words to say the following:
1) a range of accommodation; 2) camping and caravan sites; 3) a travel
agent; 4) accommodation guides; 5) per person, not per room; 6) a night’s
accommodation; 7) arrangements can be made to check out later; 8) to have
fewer facilities; 9) the tourist boards inspect hotels.
C. Give the English for:
1) бронировать место в гостинице; 2) разгар сезона отпусков; 3) полу-
пансион и полный пансион в гостинице; 4) время регистрации и выписки;
84

5) без ограничений возраста; 6) те, кому нет тридцати лет; 7) в условиях


самообслуживания; 8) управление по делам туризма.
85

D. Discuss with your partners.


1. How can you get accommodation in Britain? 2. What is advisable to
know about the hotels in Britain? 3. What’s a ‘guest house’? 4. What type of
accommodation is ‘B and B’? 5. What accommodation can Britain offer to
young people? 6. Can you compare the accommodation in Great Britain with
that in your country or any other country you have visited?

TEXT III
Pre-Reading
Sometimes old houses are a problem for the neighbourhood. Discuss with
your partners if they are worth reconstructing or should be destroyed for new
houses to be built.

Reading
Read the text “Just What We Are Looking For!!!” and do the tasks that
follow.

Just What We Are Looking For!!!


I left the hotel today at eight o’clock for an early appointment with the
agent, who yesterday assured me he had found me just the house we were
looking for. When I arrived he looked less convinced than I did. Even at that
time of the morning, I was already irritable and despondent as I arrived at the
first address. At first I walked past the house. Where it should have been was a
wilderness of trees and overgrown grass. Then out of the green darkness stepped
the agent. ‘Ah, there you are! It’s here,’ he said. I stepped in through the broken-
down gate, and walked up the dusty garden path. It immediately felt cooler and
calmer. The agent rattled a large bunch of keys, and tried several in the door,
talking to himself all the time, before he exclaimed, ‘Ah!’
We let ourselves in and walked into a deliciously cool, but dusty house.
He suggested I walk around by myself. I went into a gloomy living room
downstairs and switched on the light, but nothing happened. The agent heard me
clicking the switch and said, ‘Ah! No good. The switch needs mending. I’ll have
an electrician repair it immediately.’ I peered into the darkness and made out the
shape of a window on the far side. The agent walked over to the window and
threw open the peeling shutters, the sunlight streamed in. A rather faded sofa and
two battered armchairs sat around an open fireplace which hinted at log fires in
winter. The curtains were stripy but more or less in shreds. Outside there was a
terrace and beyond the trees, the dense undergrowth, the tall grass and the wild
plants that were once the garden, were the mountains in the distance. I walked
through into what must have been a kitchen, but only recognisable because of
86

the antiquated equipment which I last saw during a visit to a local museum. I
turned on the tap, and once again nothing happened. ‘The water needs to be
reconnected. We’ll get the plumber to do it. It’s no problem,’ the agent said.
Upstairs there were two bedrooms and a bathroom with low ceilings and
which were, despite being hidden in the roof, still quite cool. The bathroom had
no bath and not much room, but a beautiful view over the garden. The basin was
filthy with the dirt of the years during which the place had been unoccupied. I
sat on the brass bed in the dusty bedroom, and looked round, thinking, not bad,
not bad at all. In my mind, I could see the house with new curtains and carpets,
our own furniture, which had been in store for several months, books on the
shelves, beds made up, lengthy lunches on the terrace, endless summers and
warm winters. I could do most of the work myself.
I went down downstairs and the agent looked at me hopefully. It was
worth the lengthy search, the dusty visits to endless houses, the depressing
inspections of grim flats, to see his smile when I said to him, ‘It’s just what
we’re looking for.’

Post-Reading
A. Mark all the place words you can find and list them under the
following headings.
housing natural features
e.g. house e.g. overgrown grass
B. Match the words from the text with their definitions. Mind that there
are two extra definitions.
1. irritable a. making sad, low in spirits
2. wilderness b. having a long narrow band distinguished, as by
colour or texture, from the surrounding material
3. to rattle c. collection of things of the same sort placed or
fastened together
4. delicious d. uncultivated waste land
5. to click e. stern, severe; without mercy; gloomy
6. to peer f. look directly and fixedly, often with wide-open eyes
7. stripy g. make short, sharp sounds quickly, one after another
8. to stream h. make a short, sharp sound (like that of a key, turning
in a lock)
9. depressing i. giving delight (esp. to the senses of taste and smell,
to the sense of humour)
10. grim j. flow freely; move continuously and smoothly in one
direction
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11. bunch k. look (at, into smth.) closely, as if unable to see well
l. easily annoyed or made angry
m. make a loud noise
C. Say the following in alternative words.
1) a wilderness of trees and overgrown grass; 2) the broken-down gate; 3)
I <...> made out the shape of a window; 4) two battered armchairs; 5) an open
fireplace; 6) the antiquated equipment; 7) The bathroom had <...> not much
room; 8) which had been in store for several months; 9) It was worth the lengthy
search; 10) depressing inspections of grim flats.
D. Find in the text the equivalents for the following:
1) раздраженный и унылый (подавленный); 2) пыльная садовая
тропинка; 3) греметь большой связкой ключей; 4) восхитительно
прохладный; 5) мрачная гостиная; 6) облупившиеся ставни с
отслаивающейся краской; 7) огонь из поленьев дров; 8) диван с выцветшей
обивкой; 9) грязная раковина; 10) железная кровать; 11) занавески (шторы),
превратившиеся в лохмотья
E. Answer the following questions.
1. What do you think of this house for sale? 2. What details create a
negative impression about the house? Give as many words and phrases from the
text as you can to support your answer. 3. What were the positive features about
the house that impressed the story-teller favourably? 4. Why do you think the
story-teller made up his mind to buy the house?

TEXT IV
Pre-Reading
A. Some people say they would like to live on an island. Do you know
why? What about you? Discuss it with your partners.
B. Skim the text for the geographical names and say where these places
are situated.
C. Can you give any information about such well-known figures as
Henryk Sienkiewicz, a Polish novelist, and the two Hollywood stars, John
Wayne and Marlon Brando?
D. What do you know about Nobel prize, one of the most prestigious
international awards?

Reading
88

Read through the text “Master of All You Survey” and do the tasks that
follow.

Master of All You Survey.


Farhan Vladi may have just the island for you.
Thinking about an island all your own? How about a picturesque little
speck of rock and soil about half a mile off France’s Brittany coast? It comes
with a small, medieval castle equipped with telephone, television and electricity
– and, so we’re told, it’s haunted by literary ghosts. (In 1896, Polish Nobel Prize
winner Henryk Sienkiewicz closeted himself there while writing the novel “Quo
Vadis?”.) Perhaps you would prefer a tropic isle once owned by the late John
Wayne in the Pearl Archipelago some 20 miles off the west coast of Panama. If
not, there’s Marlon Brando’s Polynesian atoll in the Pacific, but that’s available
only for leasing, not for purchase. Whatever your tastes and your budget may be,
one man to get in touch with is Farhan Vladi, a German real-estate dealer based
on Hamburg who has built a lucrative international career as an island broker.
But bring cash – lots of it.
To be sure, there are some bargains available out there. An island in a
Canadian lake can be yours for a mere $10,000. A tiny private paradise of sand
and palm trees in the Bahamas sounds like a terrific deal for as little as $20,000.
But Vladi’s islands are more likely to fall in the $100,000 - to $300,000 price
range, and top-of-the-line retreats cost much, much more. The one with the
castle off Brittany carries a $1,4 million price tag. Last year, Vladi sold a 25-acre
island off Oahu, in Hawaii, to a Japanese client for $8,5 million. The drop in the
dollar makes islands quoted in U.S. currency a relative bargain for some buyers,
but – for whatever reason – banks are generally reluctant to lend large amounts
for the purchase of islands. About 80 percent of Vladi’s transactions are in cash.
The son of a German mother and an Iranian father, Vladi, 42, got into the
islands business two decades ago when he brokered the sale of an island in the
Seychelles. In the years since then he has sold more than 300 islands. Americans
and Germans were his best customers until a few years ago. Now the Japanese
are the big buyers.
Low-key approach: Vladi prospects for islands by photographing them
from a small rented plane, then discreetly snooping around to find out who own
them - and whether they would be willing to sell. Title deeds are usually
available for public inspection in the United States, but elsewhere they’re often
treated like state secrets. “In many countries you have to be a detective,” he
says. “The best sources of information are the fishermen.” Like real-estate
brokers everywhere, Vladi keeps an eye peeled for divorces, deaths or
bankruptcies that might result in an island’s being placed on the market. But
89

patience and tact are essential. “Island people are very shy,” he says. “You have
to be low key in approaching them.”
Vladi deals only in islands that are located in politically stable areas and
that place no restrictions on the buyer’s nationality. Given rising land values and
a diminishing supply, he recommends them as an investment. “Demand is
increasing because civilization is destroying nature and people want an
unpolluted environment,” says Vladi. “They find it on an island.” But at a price.

Post-Reading
A. Give the Russian equivalents for:
1) a picturesque little spec of rock and soil; 2) the late John Wayne; 3)
lucrative international career; 4) islands are more likely to fall in the $100,000 –
to $ 300,000 price range; 5) islands quoted in U.S. currency; 6) Vladi prospects
for islands .... ; 7) discreetly snooping around; 8) ... Vladi keeps an eye peeled
for divorces ... .
B. Find in the text the words and expressions to replace those underlined.
1) visited repeatedly by ghosts; 2) Henryk Sienkiewicz lived in seclusion
there; 3) a profitable international career; 4) a tiny private place of perfect
happiness; 5) the best available retreats; 6) banks are generally unwilling to
lend; 7) Vladi’s deals are in cash; 8) Americans and Germans are his best clients;
9) Papers about ownership rights are available for public inspection; 10) You
have to be quiet and discreet in approaching them.
C. Use alternative words and phrases to express the following.
1) medieval castle; 2) Brando’s Polynesian atoll; 3) available not only for
leasing, but for purchase; 4) Whatever your tastes <...> may be; 5) a terrific
deal; 6) a $ 1,4 million price tag; 7) the drop in the dollar; 8) he brokered the
sale of an island; 9) bankruptcies that may result in an island’s being placed on
the market; 10) place no restrictions on the buyer’s nationality; 11) Given rising
land values and a diminishing supply, he recommends ... .
D. Discuss the following with your partners.
1) What circumstances made Farhan Vladi a successful real-estate dealer?
2) Say how resourceful F. Vladi was in devising a method of searching an island
for sale? 3) ‘Civilization is destroying nature…’, says F. Vladi. Do you share his
point of view? Give your arguments.

TEXT V
Pre-Reading
90

A. Discuss the ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ of ‘Do-it-Yourself’ movement.


B. Make sure you know English names of at least ten tools which can be
helpful in doing some little repairs about the house, e.g.: ladder, hammer, nails,
etc.

Reading
Read through the text ‘Do-it-Yourself’ and do the tasks that follow.

Do-It-Yourself
Some people would say that the Englishman’s home is no longer his
castle; that it has become his workshop. This is partly because the average
Englishman is keen on working with his hands and partly because he feels, for
one reason or another, that he must do for himself many household jobs for
which, some years ago, he would have hired professional help. The main reason
for this is a financial one: the high cost of labour has meant that builders’ and
decorators’ costs have reached a level which makes them prohibitive for house-
proud English people of modest means. So, if they wish to keep their houses
looking bright and smart, they have to tackle some of the repairs and decorating
themselves. As a result, there has grown up in the post-war years what is
sometimes referred to as the ‘Do-It-Yourself Movement’.
The ‘Do-It-Yourself Movement’ began with home decorating but has
since spread into a much wider field. Nowadays there seem to be very few
things that cannot be made by the ‘do-it-yourself’ method. A number of
magazines and handbooks exist to show hopeful handymen of all ages just how
easy it is to build anything from a coffee table to a fifteen foot (4.5 metres)
sailing dinghy. All you need, it seems, is a hammer and a few nails. You follow
the simple instructions step-by-step and, before you know where you are, the
finished article stands before you, complete in every detail.
Unfortunately, alas, it is not always quite as simple as it sounds! Many a
budding ‘do-it-yourselfer’ has found to his cost that one cannot learn a skilled
craftsman’s job overnight. How quickly one realises, when doing it oneself, that
a job which takes the skilled man an hour or so to complete takes the amateur
handyman five or six at least. And then there is the question of tools. The first
thing the amateur learns is that he must have the right tools for the job. But tools
cost money. There is also the wear and tear on the nerves. It is not surprising
then that many people have come to the conclusion that the expense of paying
professionals to do the work is, in the long run, more economical than ‘doing it
oneself.
Post-Reading
91

A. Say if the following statements are true or false.


1. Many Englishmen are fond of working with their hands. 2. To hire
professional help has become rather costly. 3. The ‘Do-It-Yourself Movement’ is
concerned mostly with some of the repairs and decorating. 4. With the help of
magazines and handbooks, giving simple instructions, it is easy to build
anything. 5. To learn to do a skilled job properly one needs time and training. 6.
All a handyman needs is just a hammer and a few nails. 7. Paying professionals
can hardly ever be economical than ‘doing it oneself’.
B. Translate into Russian.
1) the high cost of labour; 2) the house-proud English people; 3) a 15 foot
sailing dinghy; 4) the finished article stands before you; 5) the expense of
paying professionals.
C. Paraphrase the following word-combinations from the text.
1) the average Englishman; 2) people of modest means; 3) houses looking
bright and smart; 4) to tackle some of the repairs; 5) hopeful handymen of all
ages; 6) many a budding ‘do-it-yourselfer’; 7) to learn a skilled craftsman’s job
overnight; 8) the amateur handyman; 9) the right tools for the job; 10) the wear
and tear on the nerves; 11) in the long run .
D. Give the English for:
1) частично, отчасти; 2) мастерская; 3) по той или иной причине;
4) ремонтные работы по дому; 5) постепенно; 6) на свою голову;
7) экономный, бережливый; 8) непрофессионал, любитель.
E. Discuss the following questions.
1. What circumstances encouraged the ‘Do-it-Yourself’ movement in
postwar Britain? 2. What feeds the popular illusion that “very few things cannot
be made by the ‘do-it-yourself’ method”? 3. What obstacles will anyone face
when entering a tricky path of a ‘do-it-yourselfer’?
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UNIT III. JOBS AND CAREERS


STARTING-UP
A. Discuss with your partners the motives which urge people to work.
B. Read the text below and discuss in class which ideas from the text you
share and which you don’t.

What Are We Working for?


Have you ever asked yourself what you are working for? If you have ever
had the time to consider this taboo question, or put it to others in moments of
weakness or confidentiality, you might well have heard some or all of the
following. It’s the money of course, some say with a smile, as if explaining
something to a small child. Or it’s the satisfaction of a job well done, the sense
of achievement behind the clinching of an important deal. I worked as a bus
conductor once, and can’t say I felt the same as I staggered along the swaying
gangway trying to give out tickets without falling over into someone’s lap. It’s
the company of other people perhaps, but if that is the case, what about farmers?
Is it the conversation in the farmyard that keeps them captivated by the job?
“Work is power and a sense of status,” say those who have either attained these
elusive goals, or feel aggrieved that nobody has yet recognised their leadership
qualities. Or we can blame it all on someone else, the family or the taxman. I
suspect, and I say this under my breath, that most of us work rather as Mr.
Micawber (a character from Dickens’s novel “David Copperfield”) lived, hoping
for something to turn up. We’ll win the pools, and tell the boss what we really
think. We’ll scrape together the money and open that little shop we always
dreamed of, or go round the world, or spend more time in the garden. One day
we’ll get that promotion we deserve, but until then at least we have something to
do. And we are so busy doing it that we won’t have time to wonder why.

VOCABULARY FOCUS
1. Here are some key words for the topic. Match the words in the
left column with their definitions on the right:
1) career a) what you do to earn your living
2) job b) is similar in meaning to job; however, is far less
common and is used mainly in formal and
official styles
3) line c) a job that you do because you have a very strong
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feeling that doing this job is the purpose of your


life
4) occupation d) a type of work in which you do or make things
with your hands
5) post/position e) the type of thing that someone is interested in or
good at
6) profession f) a job you are paid to do or activity that you do
regularly
7) trade g) the particular job that you have in a company or
organization
8) work h) a type of work such as medicine, teaching or law,
which requires a high level of training or
education
9) vocation i) your working life or the series of jobs that you
have during your working life

2. Complete the following sentences with the words from the


exercise above.
1) Please, give brief details of your employment history and present
…............ .
2) Writing books isn’t just a job – it’s a …......… .
3) The scandal brought his ……..… in diplomacy to a sudden end.
4) She has applied for the …........… of staff manager.
5) Cosmonautics has always been a male-dominated ….......…… .
6) I was thinking of some job in the domestic …........……. .
7) Most of the men worked in skilled …............such as carpentry or
printing.
8) You can’t hope to get a good ….......…. without any qualifications.
9) This is a small place and there isn’t much ........ at this time of the year.

3. Read the text below and pay attention to the words in bold.
a) What do you do?
To find out what someone’s job is you say ‘What do you do?’ Here,
Kerstin talks about her job:
‘I work for a large European car maker. I work on car design. In fact, I
run the design department and I manage a team of designers: 20 people work
under me. It’s very interesting. One of my main responsibilities is to make sure
that new model designs are finished on time. I’m also in charge of design
budgets.
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I deal with a lot of different people in the company. I’m responsible for
co-ordination between design and production: I work with managers at our
manufacturing plants.’

b) Word combinations with ‘work’


If you work or have work, you have a job. But you don’t say that
someone has a work. Work is also the place where you do your job. Here are
some phrases with ‘work’:
 Hi, I’m Frank. I work in a bank in New York City. I leave for work at
7.30 every morning.
 I go to work by train and subway.
 I get to / arrive at work at about nine.
 I’m usually at work till six.
 Luckily, I don’t get ill very much so I’m not often off work.

The economy is growing fast and more people are in work than ever
before. The percentage of people out of work has fallen to its lowest level for
30 years.

c) Types of job and types of work


A full-time job is for the whole of the normal working week; a part-time
job is for less time than that. You say that someone works full-time or part-
time.
A permanent job does not finish after a fixed period; a temporary job
finishes after a fixed period. You talk about temporary work and permanent
work.
d) Words used in front of ‘job’ and ‘work’
All these words are:
 satisfying, stimulating, fascinating, exciting: the work is interesting and
gives you positive feelings.
 dull, boring, uninteresting, unstimulating: the work is not interesting.
 repetitive, routine: the work involves doing the same things again and
again.
 tiring, tough, hard, demanding: the work is difficult and makes you
tired.

4. Pierre is talking about his work. Correct what he says using


words and word combinations from 3 (a-d).
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I work for a French supermarket company. (1) I work about the


development of new supermarkets. (2) In fact, I running the development
department and (3) I am manage for a team looking at the possibilities in
different countries. It’s very interesting. (4) One of my main is to make sure that
new supermarkets open on time. (5) I’m also charged with financial reporting.
(6) I deal at a lot of different organizations in my work. (7) I’m responsible of
planning projects from start to finish. (8) I work closely near our foreign
partners, and so I travel a lot.

5. Complete the text with one of the prepositions from 3b.


Rebecca lives in London and works in public relations. She leaves home
for work at 7.30 am. She drives (1) ................. work. The traffic is often bad and
she worries about getting (2) ................ work late, but she usually arrives
(3) ................. work at around nine. She finishes work quite late, at about eight.
‘Luckily, I’m never ill,’ she says. ‘I could never take the time (4) ....................
work.’ She loves what she does and is glad to be (5) ................ work. Some of
her friends are not so lucky: they are (6) ................. work.

6. A great variety of occupations can be roughly divided into


trades and professions.
Trades are occupations which demand a high level of manual skill and an
extended period of practical and theoretical training.
Professions are occupations which involve mainly intellectual, or
brainwork, and require a long period of higher education at university or an
institution of similar standard.
a. Here is a list of some occupations. Sort them out into two groups under
the headings.
trades, e.g. driver professions, e.g. musician
lawyer dentist hairdresser mechanic architect priest farmer
vet librarian physiotherapist child-minder police officer
accountant engineer scientist chef firefighter civil servant
tailor/dressmaker designer builder carpenter plumber
b. Add some more job-titles to these lists and compare your lists with
those of other students.

7. Some job-titles are found in a wide range of different places.


boss director manager executive administrator clerk
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secretary skilled worker unskilled worker labourer


receptionist public relations officer safety officer economist
security officer union official personnel officer sales assistant
adviser education officer research-worker supervisor
a. Check their general meaning in a dictionary. Then do the exercise
below to help you work out the more precise meanings.
b. Which of the job-titles above would best describe the following?
1) The person who represents the workers’ interests in disputes with the
management in a factory.
2) A person who has a high (but not the highest) position in a company
and whose job is to make important decisions.
3) An important person in a company who sits on the Board.
4) A worker whose job requires no special training.
5) A person generally in charge of the day-to-day administration in a
company.
6) The person who makes sure there are no risks of accidents from
machinery, etc.
7) A person whose job is to keep an eye on the day-to-day work of other
workers.
8) A person who does hard physical work.
9) The person who handles applications for vacant posts.
10) The person who gives out information to the press for a company.

8. Name at least one job that would be impossible for these


people.
1) Someone who didn’t go to university.
2) Someone with very bad eyesight (= cannot see very well).
3) Someone who is always seasick.
4) Someone who understands nothing about cars.
5) Someone who will not work in the evening or at weekends.
6) Someone who is afraid of dogs.
7) Someone who is afraid of heights and high places.
8) Someone who is terrible at numbers and figures.
9) Someone who can’t stand the sight of blood.
10) Someone who is a pacifist, who is anti-war.

9. What would you call someone who …………………


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1) is a diplomat of the highest rank, accredited as a representative in


residence by one government to another?
2) prepares and compounds medicines?
3) makes up computer programs?
4) checks tickets on a train?
5) is employed to maintain and clean the building?
6) directs a musical group?
7) designs or builds machines?
8) creates a musical piece?
9) makes, repairs and deals in jewelry?
10) a person who gives an immediate translation of words spoken in
another language?
11) displays unusual skill or daring in a film instead of an actor?
12) is a public officer with authority to hear and decide cases in a law-
court?

10. Complete these definitions.


1) An architect ...designs buildings . 5) A bricklayer ............
2) A university lecturer ................... 6) A stock broker .........
3) An accountant ............................. 7) A mechanic .............
4) A vet ........................................... 8) A surgeon ..............
9) A lawyer ................................…. 11) An economist …....
10) An engineer ........................….. 12) A firefighter ……..

11. Here are some useful expressions connected with work.


Study and sort them out under the following headings:
hours of work reasons for not other useful expressions
e.g. to work in shifts working e.g. to be on e.g. to have a top-paid
sick leave job
1) to work shift-work [nights one week, days next]
2) to be on flexi-time [flexible working hours]
3) to work nine-to-five [regular day work]
4) to go/be on strike [industrial dispute]
5) to get the sack [thrown out of your job]
6) to be fired [more formal than ‘get the sack’; often used as a direct
address: ‘You’re fired!’]
7) to be dismissed [more formal than ‘be fired’]
8) to be made redundant [thrown out, no longer needed]
9) to be laid off [more informal than ‘made redundant’]
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10) to give up work [e.g. in order to study]


11) to be on / take maternity leave [expecting a baby]
12) to be on / take sick leave [illness]
13) to take early retirement [retire at 55]
14) to be a workaholic [love work too much]
15) to be promoted [get a higher position]
16) to apply for a job [fill in forms, etc.]
17) to fall behind in one’s work [be late in doing something]
18) to work overtime/overnight [additional time worked/during night]
19) to work full-time/part-time [regular employment/temporary job]
20) to do odd jobs [occasional job]
21) to have steady work [fixed, permanent job]
22) to take a day off [day free from work]
23) to ask for leave of absence [permission to be absent from work]
24) to be on the dole/unemployment pay [government unemployment pay]
25) to shirk work [avoid work]
26) to give smb (a week’s, a month’s, etc.) notice [to tell someone that
they must leave their job in a week, a month, etc.]

12. Using the expressions above say what you think has
happened or is happening.
e.g. I’m not working now; the baby’s due in 3 weeks.
She’s on maternity leave.
1) I lost my job. They had to make cutbacks.
2) He’s enjoying life on a pension, although he’s only 58.
3) One week it’s six-to-two, the next it’s nights.
4) They’ve made her General Manager as from next month!
5) I was late so often, I lost my job.
6) I get in at nine o’clock and go home at five.
7) Your trouble is you are obsessed with work!
8) I’m a student, so I’ll be able to work only a few hours a day.
9) Sandy has caught a bad cold and has been off work for a week.
10) Harrison has now his mother visiting him, so he asked for permission
not to come to work for a couple of days.
11) David lost his job last month and now he earns his living by any job
that turns up.
12) Try as he may, Larry still fails to cope with all of this work.
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NB: as from in sentence 4) or as of mean ‘on and after a given date or


time’ (formal)

13. People may lose their jobs for different reasons.


Study the expressions below and sort them out under the following
headings: a) you give up a job voluntarily, e.g. to resign; b) you are dismissed
from work, e.g. to be fired.
to get the sack to be made redundant to be terminated
to be fired to take early retirement to hand in one’s notice
to quit a job to be disemployed to be laid off to resign

14. Old and new ways of working


Read the texts below paying attention to the phrases in bold.
A
I’m an office worker in an insurance company. It’s a nine-to-five job
with regular working hours. The work isn’t very interesting, but I like to be
able to go home at a reasonable time.
We all have to clock in and clock out every day. In this company, even
the managers have to, which is unusual!
NB: You also say clock on and clock off.

B
I’m in computer programming. There’s a system of flexitime in my
company, which means we can work when we want, within certain limits. We
can start at any time before eleven, and finish as early as three, as long as we do
enough hours each month. It’s ideal for me as I have two young children.
NB: BrE: flexitime; AmE: flextime

C
I work in a car plant. I work in shifts. I may be on the day shift one week
and the night shift the next week. It’s difficult changing from one shift to
another. When I change shifts, I have problems changing to a new routine for
sleeping and eating.
D
I’m a commercial artist in an advertising agency. I work in a big city, but I
prefer living in the country, so I commute to work every day, like thousands of
other commuters. Working from home using a computer and the Internet is
becoming more and more popular, and the agency is introducing this: it’s called
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teleworking or telecommuting. But I like going into the office and working
with other people around me.

15. Nature of work


Study the following speech patterns and use them correctly in sentences of
your own.

+ noun
human contact
long hours
team work
My work involves ……. + ~ ing
solving problems
travelling a lot
dealing with customers
16. Which person 1) – 5) is most likely to do each of the five
things a) – e) ?
1) A software designer in an Internet company. Has to be in the office.
2) An office worker in a large, traditional manufacturing company.
3) A manager in a department store in a large city. Lives in the country.
4) A construction worker on a building site where work goes on 24 hours
a day.
5) A technical writer for a city computer company. Lives in the country.
a) work in shifts
b) work under a flexitime system
c) telecommute
d) commute to work
e) clock on and off at the same time every day

17. Five people talk about their jobs. Match the jobs (1-5) to the
people (a-e) and put the words in brackets into the correct
grammatical forms.
1) accountant; 2) post woman; 3) flight attendant;
4) software developer; 5) teacher
a) Obviously, my work involves ................ (travel) a lot. It can be quite
physically ................ (tire), but I enjoy ............. (deal) with customers, except
when they become violent. Luckily this doesn’t happen often.
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b) I like ............ (work) with figures, but my job is much less ...........
(bore) and routine than people think. The work ............. (involve) a lot of human
contact and teamwork, working with other managers.
c) Of course, it involves getting up quite early in the morning. But I
like ............. (be) out in the open air. And I get a lot of exercise!
d) You’ve got to think in a very logical way. The work can be
mentally ............. (tire), but it’s very satisfying to write a program that works.
e) I love my job. It’s very ............. (stimulate) and not at all .............
(repeat): no two days are the same. It’s good to see the children learn and
develop.

18. When people ask you to explain your work/job, they may
want to know your main responsibilities (=your duties/what you have
to do), or something about your daily routine (=what you do every
day/week).
Read the sentences below and say which of them describe:
a) main responsibilities b) daily duties/routines
1) I’m in charge of (= responsible for) all deliveries out of the factory.
2) I have to deal with any complaints (= take all necessary action if there
are complaints).
3) I run the coffee bar and restaurant in the museum (= I am in control of
it / I manage it).
4) I have to go to /attend (formal) a lot of meetings.
5) I visit/see/meet clients (= people I do business with or for).
6) I advise clients (= give them help and my opinion).
7) It involves doing quite a lot of paperwork (a general word we use for
routine work that involves paper, e.g. writing letters, filling in forms, etc.).
NB: We often use responsible for / in charge of for part of something,
e.g. a department or some of the workers; and run for control of all of
something, e.g. a company or a shop.

19. Most workers are paid (= receive money) every month and
this pay goes directly into their bank account. It is called a salary.
We can express the same idea using the verb to earn:
My salary is $60,000 a year. (= I earn $60,000 a year.)
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With many jobs you get (= receive) holiday pay and sick pay (when you
are ill). If you want to ask about holidays, you can say: How much holiday do
you get? or How many weeks’ holiday do you get?
The total amount of money you receive in a year is called your income.
This could be your salary from one job, or the salary from two different jobs you
have. And on this income you have to pay part to the government – called
income tax.
Apart from the words pay and salary, there are also wage (зарплата) and
fee (гонорар).
a. Study the difference in the use of these words.
wage (now usually pl.) a fixed amount of money that is paid, usually
every week, to an employee, esp. one who does work that needs physical skills
or strength, rather than a job needing a college education
salary (usually monthly or quarterly) payment for regular employment
on a yearly basis
pay money paid for regular work or services, esp. in the armed forces
(the Navy, the Army, and the Air force)
fee charge or payment for professional advice or services (e.g. private
teachers or schools, examiners, doctors, lawyers, surveyors).
NB: In different countries, and in different trades and in different grades,
the salary that goes with a job may be only part of the package: extra benefits
like a company car or cheap housing loans, bonuses paid in a ‘thirteenth month’,
company pension schemes, free canteen meals, long holidays or flexible working
hours may all contribute to the attractiveness of a job.
b. Scan the list of people in different jobs given below and say which of
them are likely to get
1) fee 2) pay 3) salary 4) wage
tailor miner colonel barrister pop singer lorry driver
professor painter senior executive nurse actress MP
scientist army officer novelist dustman receptionist
surgeon doorman accountant docker pilot plumber

20. Pay and benefits


a. Read the texts below paying attention to the words in bold.
1) My name’s Luigi and I’m a hotel manager in Venice. I get paid a salary
every month. In summer we’re very busy, so we work a lot of extra hours, or
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overtime; the money for this is quite good. Working in a hotel, we also get nice
perks, for example free meals!
2) I’m Ivan and I work as a waiter in Prague. I like my job even if I don’t
earn very much: I get paid wages every week by the restaurant. We get the
minimum wage; the lowest amount allowed by law. But we also get tips,
money that customers leave for us in addition to the bill. Some tourists are very
generous!
3) I’m Catherine and I’m a saleswoman based in Paris. I get a basic
salary, plus commission: a percentage on everything I sell. If I sell more than a
particular amount in a year, I also get extra money - a bonus, which is nice.
There are some good fringe benefits with this job: I get a company car, and
they make payments for my pension, money that I’ll get regularly after I stop
working. All that makes a good benefits package.
4) My name’s Alan. I’m a specialist in pay and benefits. Compensation
and remuneration are formal words used to talk about pay and benefits,
especially those of senior managers. Compensation package and
remuneration package are used especially in the US to talk about all the pay
and benefits that employees receive. For a senior executive, this may include
share options (BrE) or stock options (AmE): the right to buy the company’s
shares at low prices. There may be performance-related bonuses if the
manager reaches particular objectives for the company.
5) Compensation is also used to talk about money and other benefits that
a senior manager (or any employee) receives if they are forced to leave the
organization, perhaps after a boardroom row. This money is in the form of a
compensation payment, or severance payment. If the manager also receives
benefits, the payment and the benefits form a severance package.
In Britain, executives with very high pay and good benefits may be
referred to as fat cats, implying that they do not deserve this level of
remuneration.
b. Roger and Julia are talking about Roger’s new job as a photocopier
salesman. Complete the conversation, using words from the texts above.
1 R: I get paid every month.
J: I see. You get a salary, not wages.
2 R: I usually have to work late: I don’t get paid for it, but I get a
percentage for every photocopier I sell.
J: So you don’t get. .................. , but you do get.................. . That’s
good.
3 R: The people in production get a ............... if they reach their
targets.
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J: Oh right. They get an extra payment for producing a certain


amount.
4 R: The company pays for medical treatment too, and the company
restaurant is fantastic.
J: Wow! The ............... sound very nice.
5 R: And they’ve given me a ................. to go and visit clients.
J: So you don’t have to buy a car, then.
6 R: What’s more, the company pays in money for us to get when we
don’t work any more.
J: Yes, it’s important to get a good .................... .
7 R: The total.................. is brilliant.
J: Yes, all that extra stuff is really worth having.
c. Which expressions from a and b could be used to continue each of these
newspaper extracts?
1) FAILED AIRLINE BOSS GETS MASSIVE PAYOUT
Shareholders are angry that despite very poor results, Blighty Airlines’
CEO, Mr Rob Herring, is leaving with £3 million in his pocket. They say it is
ridiculous to ‘reward’ bad performance with this sort of ... (2 possible
expressions)
2) MULTILEVER’S EXECUTIVE PAY
It was today revealed that Mr Carl Lang, head of consumer foods giant
Multilevel, earns a basic salary of $22 million with stock options potentially
worth an additional $10 million. Other payments brine to $35 million his total ...
(2 possible expressions)
3) MEGAFONE CEO GETS £10 MILLION ‘THANK YOU’ AFTER
TAKEOVER
The directors of Megafone, the world’s largest mobile phone company,
yesterday voted to give Mr Chris Ladyman, its chief executive, a special
payment of £10 million for negotiating the company’s takeover of
Minnemann. The directors referred to this as a ... (1 possible expression)
4) ANGRY SHAREHOLDERS ATTACK EXECUTIVE PAY
National Energy’s shareholders yesterday attacked the directors of the
company for paying themselves too much. Profits fell by 30 per cent last year,
but directors are being paid 30 per cent more. ‘They should be paid 30 per cent
less,’ said one shareholder. ‘These people are just...’ (1 possible expression)

21. Supply as many job-titles as you can to describe the


following professional areas:
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1) Film-making, e.g. producer / director / scriptwriter / actor / actress (film


/ movie star) / director of photography / hair stylist / editor / light master /
stuntman (woman), etc.
2) Airport 3) Firm/Company 4) Hospital 5) Hotel
6) A Court of Law 7) Factory/Plant 8) Railway (station)

DISCUSSION FOCUS
1. Work in small groups and discuss these questions with your
partners:
1) What do you do/plan to do for a living? 2) What do the other members
of your family do for a living? 3) Out of all the people you know, who has the
job you’d most like to have? Why? 4) If you could choose any job in the world
to do, what would it be? Why?

2. What do you like and dislike most about doing a job? When
speaking, try to use the following conversational formulas:
getting up early
I enjoy ............................. working indoors
I like ................................ working outdoors
having a routine
I don’t mind ................... working long hours
I hate / I can’t stand ...... working overtime
working with your hands
working on my own
sitting all day at the desk, etc.

3. What are the most important things for you in your work?
Arrange these aspects in order of importance and add some more
things which you think are important:
job satisfaction earning plenty of money
working for yourself earning enough money
meeting people security
having pleasant colleagues being part of a large company
promotion success
a. How important are the following to you in giving you job satisfaction?
Sort out the phrases below under the four headings.
very important important not important not relevant
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being popular with colleagues / being praised by your superiors / being


part of a team / being promoted / being successful / exercising power /
giving advice / security / helping others / increased responsibility /
influencing people / making money / learning new things / personal
freedom / respect of colleagues / seeing the results of setting up a new
system / working conditions / starting a project / being asked for advice /
status / solving problems / completing a project
Which of the features exist in your present job (or the job you’re planning
to do one day)?
b. How important are the following characteristics in helping someone to
be successful in their career?
very important important not important not relevant
a practical mind / ability to delegate / ability to express yourself / ability
to think on your own / ability to work fast / good education / ability to
write well / being good at giving orders / concentration / being good at
flattery / accepting responsibility / ambition / being good with figures /
being good with people / experience / good ‘connections’ / popularity
with colleagues / ruthlessness / physical and mental toughness / good
social background / patience / willingness to take risks
Which of these characteristics do you have yourself?

4. Education and training are important stages in preparing


someone for a particular job.
a. Read the conversation below and say which ideas you share and which
you don’t. Pay attention to the phrases in bold.
Margareta: The trouble with graduates, people who’ve just left
university, is that their paper qualifications are good, but they have no work
experience. They just don’t know how business works.
Nils: I disagree. Education should teach people how to think, not prepare
them for a particular job. One of last year’s recruits had graduated from Oxford
in philosophy and she’s doing very well!
Margareta: Philosophy’s an interesting subject, but for our company, it’s
more useful if you train as a scientist and qualify as a biologist or chemist -
training for a specific job is better.
Nils: Yes, but we don’t just need scientists. We also need good managers,
which we can achieve through in-house training courses within the company.
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You know we have put a lot of money into management development and
management training because they are very important. You need to have some
management experience for that. It’s not the sort of thing you can learn when
you’re 20!
NB: In AmE, you also say that someone graduates from high school (the
school that people usually leave when they are 18).
b. A skill is the ability to do something well, especially because you have
learned how to do it and practised it.
Jobs, and the people who do them, can be described as:
highly skilled skilled
(e.g. car designer) (e.g. car production manager)
semi-skilled unskilled
(e.g. taxi driver) (e.g. car cleaner)
You can say that someone is:
+ noun
customer care
electronics
skilled at computer software
or skilled in.. + ~ing
communicating
using PCs
working with large groups
You can also say that someone is:
computers
good with... figures
people
c. Are these jobs generally considered to be a) highly skilled, b) skilled, c)
semi-skilled, or d) unskilled?
1) teacher 7) office cleaner
2) brain surgeon 8) labourer
3) car worker on a production line 9) bus driver
4) airline pilot 10) office manager
5) stuntman 11) ticket collector
6) dressmaker 12) scriptwriter
108

5. Have you ever wanted to try someone else’s job?


The writer, Danny Danziger, recently spent a week working in each of
four different jobs to see what they were like. Below are short extracts from the
four articles he wrote about his experiences.
a. Read the four extracts and try to guess what job he is describing in
each one. Discuss your ideas with another student.
1) Alan never seemed to get bored by the same old questions. But he did
confide to me, ‘No one should do this job more than three years, because after a
while you look at the people, and they’re not people, they’re the broken tap in
room 23 or the lost wallet in room 7 or the couple who want to fly home because
they’re not having fun.’
2) The third gallery was the Time Measurement exhibit. Water clocks,
sundials, sand glasses, watches and chronometers. I saw my life ticking by,
second by micro-second.
Working in a more popular gallery you might be approached more
frequently, but the range of questions is unvarying. People only want to know
the same thing. ‘Where’s the nearest toilet/lift/cup of tea?’
3) During the week I went to bed early so I would not appear too awful in
the morning light, and each day started with an agony of indecision as I
wondered what to wear. I never lost my embarrassment at meeting people whose
prime interest was in my physical appearance.
4) The pace starts off leisurely enough. With my crisp white apron and
valet’s jacket I would feel cool and confident. It’s quiet enough at 12.15 to
notice the famous faces who are lunching. By one o’clock, the place is jumping.
As fast as tables are vacated new faces are slipping in. No time to enjoy the thrill
of a film star lighting a big cigar ... the sous-chef is screaming that the food for
table 166 is getting cold.
b. These are the four places where he was working. Can you match the
place with the extract, and add the name of the job?
Place Extract Job
Photographic studio ............. .....
Museum ............. .....
Restaurant ............. .....
Holiday resort .............. .....
c. Choose from the four extracts (1-4) to answer these questions.
1) In which job did Danny have to wear special clothes?
109

2) In which job did he have to work the fastest?


3) Which job made him feel most anxious?
4) Which jobs involved dealing with people’s problems?
5) Which job did the writer seem to find most boring?
6) In which job did Danny find the customers especially interesting?
7) Which job did he discuss with an experienced worker?

6. Recruitment and selection


a. Read the text below and explain the meaning of the words and phrases
in bold.
The process of finding people for particular jobs is recruitment or,
especially in American English, hiring. Someone who has been recruited is a
recruit or, in American English, a hire. The company employs or hires them;
they join the company. A company may recruit employees directly or use
outside recruiters, recruitment agencies or employment agencies. Outside
specialists called headhunters may be called on to headhunt people for very
important jobs, persuading them to leave the organizations they already work
for. This process is called headhunting.
b. Read the following texts and find the equivalents for the Russian
phrases: 1) заявление о приеме на работу, 2) объявления о рабочих
вакансиях, 3) биографические данные, 4) сопроводительное письмо.
Fred is a van driver, but he was fed up with long trips. He looked in the
situations vacant pages of his local newspaper, where a local supermarket was
advertising for van drivers for a new delivery service. He applied for the job by
completing an application form and sending it in.
Harry is a building engineer. He saw a job in the appointments pages of
one of the national papers. He made an application, sending in his CV
(curriculum vitae - the ‘story’ of his working life) and a covering letter
explaining why he wanted the job and why he was the right person for it.
NB: Situation, post and position are formal words often used in job
advertisements and applications.
BrE: CV; AmE: résumé or resume;
BrE: covering letter; AmE: cover letter
c. Read the text about the selection procedures and speak on the stages of
the process. Pay attention to the words in bold.
110

Dagmar Schmidt is the head of recruitment at a German


telecommunications company. She talks about the selection process, the
methods that the company uses to recruit people:
‘We advertise in national newspapers. We look at the backgrounds of
applicants: their experience of different jobs and their educational
qualifications. We don’t ask for handwritten letters of application as people
usually apply by e-mail; handwriting analysis belongs to the 19th century.
We invite the most interesting candidates to a group discussion. Then
we have individual interviews with each candidate. We also ask the candidates
to do written psychometric tests to assess their intelligence and personality.
After this, we shortlist three or four candidates. We check their
references by writing to their referees: previous employers or teachers that
candidates have named in their applications. If the references are OK, we ask the
candidates to come back for more interviews. Finally, we offer the job to
someone, and if they turn it down we have to think again. If they accept it, we
hire them. We only appoint someone if we find the right person.’
d. Replace the underlined phrases with correct forms of words and
expressions from a, b, and c.
Fred had already (1) refused two job offers when he went for (2) a
discussion to see if he was suitable for the job. They looked at his driving
licence and contacted (3) previous employers Fred had mentioned in his
application. A few days later, the supermarket (4) asked him if he would like the
job and Fred (5) said yes.
Harry didn’t hear anything for six weeks, so he phoned the company.
They told him that they had received a lot of (6) requests for the job. After
looking at the (7) life stories of the (8) people asking for the job and looking at
(9) what exams they had passed during their education, the company (10) had
chosen six people to interview, done tests on their personality and intelligence
and they had then given someone the job.

7. Look at this advertisement and say what attractions and


drawbacks of this job might be?

WORK IN BERMUDA
ACME Atlantic are a well-known and respected trading company. We
handle imports directly from manufacturers in 35 different countries, often to
our own specifications, and currently export to 46 different countries worldwide.
111

We are looking for enthusiastic people to work in our office in Bermuda


on temporary 3-, 6- and 9-month contracts. Applicants must be able to speak and
write at least one foreign language fluently and can be nationals of any country.
Experience in import/export will be an advantage, but as special training
will be available this is not essential. The main requirements are a willingness to
work as a member of a team, to cope with pressure, to use the telephone in a
foreign language and in English and to be prepared occasionally to work long
hours when necessary.
There are several posts available and long-term prospects are good,
though initially all successful applicants will be contracted for a maximum of 9
months.
The salary we will offer is excellent. We will pay for your return air fare
and provide adequate accommodation at a nominal rent.
Please apply in your own handwriting, enclosing your resume, to Charles
Fox, European Sales Office, ACME Atlantic Ltd, 45 Pentonville Road, London
EC2 4AC.

8. Look at this application letter from an applicant for the job. In


what ways does Arthur Dent seem suitable (or unsuitable) for the job?
Pay attention to the phrases which may be helpful when writing your
letter of application.
Dear Mr Fox,
RE: Work in Bermuda
I noted with interest your advertisement in today’s Daily Planet.
You will see from the enclosed CV that I have three years’ experience in
marketing. My responsibilities have included all types of administrative work,
product development, arranging and attending presentations, working with
clients and solving problems that arise.
Although I have an excellent relationship with my present employers, I
feel that my prospects with them are limited and that there would be more scope
for my talents with a larger, more dynamic company.
If you consider that my qualifications and experience are suitable, I
should be available for interview at any time.
Yours sincerely,
Arthur Dent
NB: The use of RE meaning “with reference to” is largely restricted to the
language of business, but it is also used informally as a convenient short form
112

standing for “regarding, concerning”: Re your invitation, I’ll be pleased to


come.

a. Read the letter of application for a job and then discuss the questions
that follow.
Dear Mrs Blake,
I am writing to apply for the position of Sales Manager in your Boston
office, as advertised in the Herald newspaper on 6th May.
As outlined in my curriculum vitae, I graduated from the University of
Brighton with a BSc in Business Studies and Economics in 1996.
Following my graduation from university, I moved to New York. where I
trained as a Sales Consultant for the Seabrook Company for three years. On my
return to England. I continued to work as a sales consultant until 2001, when I
obtained my current position.
At present I am employed as Assistant Sales Manager at Deerfield
Enterprises, where I am responsible for the organisation of staff and stock, as
well as the allocation of the budget within the sales department. My duties also
include planning new sales strategies, and I am generally noted for my
organisational and business skills, as well as my initiative.
I believe that I would be an ideal candidate for the position you have
outlined, as I have had extensive training with a well-known American firm. The
time which I spent living in New York also ensured that I obtained a valuable
insight into American culture and business practices. I also have several
professional contacts in America, which could prove to be extremely useful in
my future career. Finally. I am willing and able to relocate at short notice, which
I understand to be a requirement of the position.
Please find enclosed my curriculum vitae and two references from
previous employers, as requested. I would be happy to supply you with further
information should it be required. I thank you for considering my application
and am willing to attend an interview at any time.
Yours sincerely,
David Huntley

In which paragraph(s) has the writer:

 given details of the job he is applying for?


 mentioned academic qualifications?
 written about work experience?
 described personal qualities / suitability?
113

b. Read the letter again and replace the underlined information with
details – real or imaginary – about yourself (the job you would like to do, your
work experience, personal qualities, etc).

9. Read the information below which may prove to be useful.


In different countries, different conventions apply to the process of job
application and interviews. In most parts of the world, it’s common to submit a
typed or laser-printed CV (curriculum vitae – British English) or resume
(American English). This contains all the unchanging information about you:
your education, background and work experience. This usually accompanies a
letter of application, which in some countries is expected to be handwritten, not
word-processed. A supplementary information sheet containing information
relevant to this particular job may also be required, though this is not used in
some countries.
Many companies expect all your personal information to be entered on a
standard application form. Unfortunately, no two application forms are alike,
and filling in each one may present unexpected difficulties. Some personnel
departments believe that the CV and application letter give a better impression
of a candidate than a form.

10. Study the CV of Mary B. Scott and draft your own.


CURRICULUM VITAE
Name: MARY BRENDA SCOTT
Address: 44 London Road, Winchester S016 7HJ
Telephone: 01962 888990 (home)
01703 778777(work)
e-mail: 44maryscott@ao1.com
Date of birth: 30 August 1979
Marital status: single
EDUCATION
Churchill Comprehensive School, Basingstoke 1990–1995
Winchester Technical College 1995–1997
QUALIFICATIONS
GCSE Maths, English, French, Geography, History,
Spanish, Chemistry 1995
BTEC National Secretarial practice, Office Practice 1997
EXPERIENCE
Office assistant Totton Engineering, Totton 1997—1998
114

Secretary to Sales Director Totton Engineering,


Totton 1998—1999
Personal Assistant to Export Manager Millbank Foods,
Southampton 1999 to date
My work with Millbank Foods has involved responsibility for giving
instructions to junior staff and dealing with clients and suppliers in person and
on the telephone. I have accompanied the Export Manager to Food Trade fairs in
Germany, France and the USA.
OTHER INFORMATION
I speak and write French and Spanish quite well (intermediate level). I am
now taking an evening course in German conversation.
OTHER ACTIVITIES AND INTERESTS
I play club basketball regularly and I sing and play the guitar with a local
country and western band.
REFERENCES
Mr S.J. Grant, Personnel Manager, Millbank Foods, 34 – 42 South Dock
Drive, Southampton S08 9QT
Mr John Robinson, Sales Director, Totton Engineering, Cadnam Street,
Totton S023 4GT
Miss P.L. MacPherson, Head Teacher, Churchill Comprehensive School,
Independence Way, Basingstoke RG20 9UJ

11. When a firm takes on a new employee it is usual to ask for a


reference, i.e. the name of someone or some firm who will be ready to
answer questions about his character and work. References are
normally written by a person who knows the subject well: a teacher,
an employer or a personal friend.
a. Read the reference below and pay attention to the underlined phrases.
Packard Brown Ltd,
Digby Industrial Estate,
Silton, Bristol BS12 2PE

Reference for Timothy Harding


Timothy Harding has worked for this company for ten years. Throughout
this time he has shown himself to be a hard-working and enthusiastic employee.
He first joined the company as a junior sales representative but was soon
115

promoted and is now at the head of a successful team of sales representatives.


He manages the team with skill and energy and a significant increase in sales
achieved by the team is a measure of his success. He has considerable initiative
and this has been particularly evident in the area of training, where he has had a
notable success. The training programme he devised for his team has now been
adopted throughout the company with very positive results.
On a personal level, I have found Timothy to be a very honest and
considerate person and he is well-liked in the company. I have no hesitation in
recommending him for the job for which he has applied, though I would of
course be sorry to lose him.
Ms Claire Alexander
Director of Personnel
b. If you have agreed to write a reference, the prospective employer
should contact you giving enough information for you to be able to say
something relevant. Consider the following points:

 How well do you know the candidate?


 Do you have experience of the candidate’s work or personal life?
 Is the candidate trustworthy?
 Is the candidate hard-working?
 Is the candidate enthusiastic? Dedicated? Sunny? Serious?
 How well does the candidate work with a team? Is the candidate a
loner?
 Is the candidate ambitious? Loyal?
NB: Always be careful when writing a reference not to rely too much on
the superlative, or your words will be taken as effusive bluster.
c. Read the reference below and complete the gaps with the words and
phrases from the box.

any obstacle alongside a natural leader listens to has acted


trustworthy on the committee a valuable member of the society
inspires enthusiasm an effective addition compromises
Dear Mrs Biggins,

James Long
Thank you for your letter of 19th March, requesting a reference for James
Long.
116

I have known James for about ten years, since he joined the Buckby Local
History Society. We have both been ………. for a number of years, and James
………. as the society’s secretary and chairman.
James is …… and organizer. He ……..….. even among the most
lethargic of our members, and never lets ………… stand in his way. He
……….. the opinions and desires of others and ………. when necessary.
He has shown himself to be loyal and …………. , both as a personal
friend and as ……… . It is a pleasure to work …..… him.
I believe he would be an ………. to your team.
Yours sincerely,
Frank Mare

12. Factors important for getting a job.


a. In your opinion, which factors below are important for getting a job?
Choose the seven most important. Is there anything missing from the list?

age / sex /appearance / astrological sign / experience / hobbies / contacts and


connections / family background / handwriting / intelligence / marital status /
personality / sickness record / references / qualifications / blood group
b. Some people suggest that interviewers, who select the best candidates,
should look for three qualities:
intelligence and ability; emotional stability; conscientiousness.
Do you agree? Explain your opinion.

c. These words are often used in job advertisements. Companies look for
people who are:
 self-starters, proactive, self-motivated, or self-driven: good at
working on their own.
 methodical, systematic and organized: can work in a planned,
orderly way.
 computer-literate: good with computers.
 numerate: good with numbers.
 motivated: very keen to do well in their job.
 talented: naturally very good at what they do.
 team players: people who work well with other people.

d. Complete these extracts from job advertisements using words from


above.
117

1) You’ll need to be .............. , as you’ll be working on financial budgets.


2) As part of our sales team, you’ll be working independently, so you have
to be self- ………....... and self- ..................... .
3) We’re looking for someone who can work on ten projects at once. You
must be .............., ................... and ...................... .
4) We need ..................... journalists who are very good at their job and
extremely ................ to find out as much as they can.
5) You’ll be researching developments on the Internet, so you have to
be .................. . You must be ................., able to work on your own initiative,
and a ............... ................... . But as part of a team of researchers, you need to be
a good ................. too.

13. Job interview


a. Read the information below which can be helpful.
There are different kinds of interviews: traditional one-to-one interviews,
panel interviews where one or more candidates are interviewed by a panel of
interviewers and even ‘deep-end’ interviews where applicants have to
demonstrate how they can cope in actual business situations. The atmosphere of
an interview may vary from the informal to the formal and interviewers may
take a friendly, neutral or even hostile approach. Different interviewers use
different techniques and the only rules that applicants should be aware of may be
‘Expect the unexpected’ and ‘Be yourself’.
Progress interviews are interviews where employees have a chance to
review the work they are doing and to set objectives for the future. Such
interviews usually take place after a new employee has been working with a
company for several months, and after that they may take place once or twice a
year.
b. Some interviewers give candidates a hard time by asking them difficult
questions – like the 13 questions below.

 Can you think of three more questions you might be asked at an


interview? Add them to the list.
 What would your own answers to each of the questions be?
Rehearse your answers with your partner and make notes.
1) Tell me about yourself.
2) What do you think your strengths and weaknesses are?
3) We have a lot of applicants for this job, why should we appoint you?
4) Which is more important to you: status or money?
118

5) How long do you think you’d stay with us if you were appointed?
6) Why do you want to leave your present job?
7) What would you like to be doing ten years from now?
8) What are you most proud of having done recently?
9) What is your worst fault and what is your best quality?
10) Don’t you think you’re a little young/old for this job?
11) What are your long-range goals?
12) What excites you about the job you’re doing now?
13) How would you rate your present boss?
14) .............................................................................................. .
15) .............................................................................................. .
16) .............................................................................................. .
c. How would you feel in the following situations during an interview for
a job you really want to get? What exactly would you say or do in each
situation?
1) You are still waiting for the interview to begin half an hour after your
appointment.
2) Unexpectedly, you find that you’re going to be interviewed in a group
with several other candidates.
3) You have to sit in an uncomfortable, low chair.
4) The interviewer hasn’t prepared for the interview: he/she doesn’t seem
to have read your CV and application letter.
5) You take an instant dislike to the interviewer.
6) The interviewer never looks you straight in the eye.
7) You have a terrible headache. The room is very hot and stuffy and the
windows are closed.
8) You are asked about your political and religious beliefs.
9) The interviewer receives a phone call which seems to be going on too
long.
10) The interviewer talks too much and keeps interrupting you.
11) The interviewer keeps asking questions you can answer with Yes or
No.
12) At the end of the interview you still don’t have a clear picture of the
nature of the job.
13) The interviewer doesn’t tell you when you may expect to hear his/her
decision.
119

d. Here is some advice that might be given to an inexperienced


interviewer. Which points do you agree with? If you don’t agree or only partly
agree, give your reasons.
1) Make sure you are not interrupted or phoned during the interview.
2) Read the candidate’s CV and application letter before the interview
begins.
3) Ask the candidate to explain why he/she keeps changing jobs.
4) Make sure you have a clear picture of the nature of the job.
5) Ask each candidate the same questions.
6) Decide on a maximum of four key qualities required for the job.
7) Make sure the candidate has an uncomfortable, low chair.
8) Ask the candidate about his political and religious beliefs.
9) Only trust a candidate who looks you straight in the eye.
10) Trust your first impressions.
11) Never let the candidate feel relaxed.
12) Avoid talking too much yourself.
13) Avoid asking questions that can be answered with Yes or No.
14) Find out the candidate’s opinions on a variety of topics.
15) Encourage the candidate to ask you about fringe benefits, the pension
scheme and promotion prospects.
16) Tell the candidate about the scope of the job and its terms and
conditions.
17) Interview groups of candidates, rather than one-by-one.
18) Tell the candidate when he/she may expect to hear your decision.
e. Read this letter making an offer of employment. Then decide whether
the statements below are true or false.
1) Mr Wills will start work immediately.
2) He will receive one month’s salary on his first day at work.
3) His salary will be reviewed after six months.
4) His deputy will be Robert Stephens Jr.
5) He is allowed to join the company pension plan.
6) His working hours will be decided after discussion with Slim Gym’s
management.
7) He has to work a minimum of three months before leaving the
company.
8) Lyn Ashley expects him to telephone her to accept the job.
Mr. Bob Wills
5 York St.
120

Greenwich Village
New York NY 10011
August 26
RE: General Manager vacancy
Dear Mr. Wills,
Following your interview for the above position on August 24, I am
delighted to confirm our offer of the job, starting on January 1.
Your salary will be paid monthly in arrears. It will be reviewed annually
in July. You will report to Robert Stephens, Jr., Managing Director. Our normal
terms of employment are enclosed with this letter. We have a company pension
plan which you will be eligible to join.
Your working hours each week will include some evenings and weekends,
to be determined by mutual agreement. You will be entitled to ten days’ annual
vacation in addition to public holidays.
One month’s notice is required on either side to terminate the contract.
There will be a probationary period of three months. Should you decide to
accept the offer, please sign the enclosed copy of the contract and return it to me
as soon as possible.
I look forward to hearing from you in the near future.
Yours sincerely,
Lyn Ashley

PRAKTISING VOCABULARY
1. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying
attention to the underlined phrases and make up 6 sentences of your
own with any of these phrases.
1) I’m up to my eyes in work. 2) He does not want to fall behind in his
work. 3) Are you paid by the day or week? 4) What do you earn a month on the
average? 5) Are you able to manage with your salary? 6) Hands are always
wanted in factories. 7) Let me look into the newspaper. Perhaps, there is a
suitable post offered in the ‘appointments vacant’ section. 8) He will be
pensioned off in a three-month time. 9) In a few years I hope to be able to run
my father’s business. 10) She wants to take up law as a career. 11) Professional
men are often called ‘brain workers’. 12) What about this news ad? ‘Secretary,
required to assist in Research Dept., must be under 30, 5-day week, good
holidays, pension scheme. Minimum commencing salary ₤ 580 p.a., on
progressive scale’.
121

2. Match each job in list A with a place in list B, e.g.:


cashier/bank. More than one answer may be possible.
A cashier farmer mechanic photographer secretary
hairdresser miner pilot vicar dentist librarian
musician porter waiter cook
B bank garage studio kitchen coal-mine cockpit hotel
office surgery salon field concert hall restaurant
church library

3. Match each job from the list with the sentence which best
refers to the job.
accountant chef estate agent plumber architect
refuse collector firefighter postman/woman vet
carpenter optician electrician
a) Yesterday I had to give an injection to an injured bull. vet…
b) I get rather tired of picking up rubbish all day.
c) I can help you sell your house.
d) I can make new doors for the wardrobe if you like.
e) Make sure that the fish is fresh by looking at the eyes.
f) I’ll come round and replace all the pipes in the kitchen.
g) Unless you keep the receipts you’ll pay more tax.
h) The cause was either an electrical fault or a cigarette.
i) Always turn the power off at the mains before you start.
j) You can see the balcony on the plan for the second floor.
k) It’s a registered parcel. Can you sign here?
1) This pair also protects your eyes from the sun.

4. Which person from exercises 2 and 3 would you need in each


situation?
a) One of the radiators has burst and flooded your bedroom.
b) You are very short-sighted and get headaches when you read.
c) You have to carry a lot of heavy bags at the airport.
d) You think you need three fillings.
e) Your fringe is too long and you want a perm.
f) The floorboards in the living room need replacing.
g) Your pet goat has started sneezing.
h) You have read the menu twice and you are feeling hungry.
122

i) When you turn on your cooker, the fridge turns off.


j) Your car makes a funny whistling noise.

5. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. The words
can be used more than once.
business job living work
a) Jack makes his ..................... working as a journalist.
b) She has just left to go to ..................., I’m afraid.
c) They worked very hard and now have their own ....................... .
d) There are still nearly two million people without ...................... .
e) The cost of ................ has risen greatly over recent years.
f) Stop interfering! This is none of your .......................... .
g) Lucy has a very good ................... in an international company.
h) I can’t come out tonight. I’ve got too much .................... to do.
i) Some ................. men came and dug a hole in the road outside.
j) An early ...................... by Picasso was sold for £2,000,000.

6. Use the words in bold on the right to form a word that fits in
the space in the same line. Give your summary of the text.
a) Choosing the Right Career
Choosing the right career to suit your(0) personality personal
and one that lives up to your (1).... can be rather difficult. expect
We usually take certain factors into (2) .... when consider
making such a (3) …...... First of all, what are decide
the (4) …….... of the job? You need to find out require
what (5) ……….... are necessary before you hand in quality
your (6) ……...... form. Then, think of your career apply
prospects and consider whether there is ample (7) …. opportune
for (8) …..... Finally, you need to decide on the level promote
of (9) ….... you would be happy with and whether responsible
you will achieve a sense of job (10) ……... equal to satisfy
the work you put in.
b) Leaving a Job
I recently left my job in an (1) ............. agency advertisement
after a disagreement with my boss. She accepted my
(2) ............... but warned me that because of the resign
(3) ................ situation, I might have to get used to the economy
idea of being (4) ............... for a while. I thought employ
that she was trying to make a point, but after I had made
123

over fifty (5) ....... to other companies, I realised that apply


she was right. Although I am a (6) ….. designer, qualifications
I didn’t receive any offers of a job. After that I tried
working from home, but it was not very (7) ................ profit
Then I became an (8) ................... in a fast-food employ
restaurant, even though my (9) ….... were extremely low. earn
I wish I had accepted early (10) ............. from my old job. retire
That is what I disagreed with my boss about!

7. Complete each sentence with a word or compound word


formed from the word given.
a) Jack built his own boat in a .............. in his garden. work
b) I don’t have a job, so I’m living on .............. benefit. employ
c) We can’t .............. with these low prices. competition
d) Many pupils at ..... school have already chosen a career. second
e) This used to be a rural area but it has become .............. industry
f) ........ in our factories is falling because of absenteeism. produce
g) You won’t be paid much as a/an ............... worker. skill
h) The government is encouraging ........ in heavy industry. invest
i) Jim is very disorganised and not very ................ business
j) We would like details of your ............... on this form. qualify

8. Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence.


a) Jim is a real craftsman and works on a boat/with his hands/for a low
salary.
b) I had to call a plumber because my room was blacked
out/flooded/cracked.
c) If you are selling your house, you’ll need an advocate/a barrister/a
solicitor.
d) Peter is an undertaker and goes to funerals/the stock exchange/the
factory.
e) If you are an accountant you have to be good at figures/numbers/totals.
f) We were married by my uncle, who was the local father/official/vicar.
g) If you’re passing the vet’s, could you collect my carpet/cat/licence?
h) Helen doesn’t work for a company, she’s
freelance/liberated/unattached.
i) Most people would prefer a job/work/occupation which was near home.
j) The manager told David to make an application/invitation/interview for
the job.
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9. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each


sentence.
a) The building workers were paid their income/salary/wages every
Friday.
b) She’s only here for three weeks. It’s a/an full-time/overtime/temporary
job.
c) When he retired he received a monthly bonus/pension/reward.
d) Apparently she earns/gains/wins over £20,000 a year.
e) While the boss is away, Sue will be in charge/in control/in place of the
office.
f) Could I have two days away/off/out next week to visit my mother?
g) Paul was always arriving late, and in the end he was
pushed/sacked/thrown.
h) When I left the job, I had to hand in my application/dismissal/notice
three weeks beforehand.
i) How much exactly do you do/make/take in your new job?
j) If you have to travel on company business, we will pay your
costs/expenses/needs.

10. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. Use
each word once only.
agent competitor executive industrialist producer
client dealer foreman labourer trainee
a) Nowadays you often find that the top ................ in a company is a
woman.
b) If you have any problems with your work, talk to the ............... .
c) ‘Happy Chips’ is the number one ............. of potato crisps in the
country.
d) I’m starting next week as a ................. chef in a large hotel.
e) Our company is the ........ for several large insurance companies.
f) David was not content until he had become a rich ..................... .
g) Our firm is quite a long way ahead of our nearest ..................... .
h) With mechanisation it is difficult to find work as an unskilled ............. .
i) I have been working as a used car .......... for the past six months.
j) A company should make every ................ feel important.

11. Match each sentence a) to j) with a sentence 1) to 10) with a


similar meaning.
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a) She was given the sack. 1) She was given a better job.
b) She got a rise. 2) She answered an advertisement.
c) She got a promotion. 3) She decided to leave.
d) She retired. 4) She did the job carefully.
e) She applied for the job. 5) She didn’t have a job.
f) She resigned. 6) She earned her money that way.
g) She was unemployed. 7) She was dismissed.
h) She did it for a living. 8) She wanted a better job.
i) She was ambitious. 9) She was old and stopped work.
j) She was conscientious. 10) She was given more money.

12. Complete each sentence a) to j) with one of the endings 1) to


10). Use each ending once only.
A
a) If you work hard, the company will give you ……4)……....... .
b) In a different job I could get a higher ........................................ .
c) The best way to find new staff is to put a/an ............................. .
d) Because he had stolen the money, we decided that ................... .
e) She has a pleasant personality but hasn’t got the right ……….. .
f) In the meeting we are going to discuss the ................................. .
g) As he has three young children he doesn’t want ……............... .
h) I think it would be a good idea to send in your .......................... .
i) I’m afraid that in this job there aren’t very good ……...……..... .
j) We cannot give you the job without .......................................... .
1) ............................................. qualifications for a job of this kind.
2) ………........……...... advertisement in the local press on Friday.
3) .........………...…...... application for the job as soon as possible.
4) ................................ promotion to a more responsible position.
5) .......................................... full-time employment at the moment.
6) ……………...……..... references from your previous employer.
7) ....... dismissing him was the only possible action we could take.
8) ....................................... prospects for the future at the moment.
9) ....……………....... salary and better conditions of employment.
10) ............................... appointment of a new sales representative.
B
a) Workers in the mining industry have decided to come out in ... .
b) Union representatives pointed ................................................... .
c) The employers claim that working ............................................. .
d) Mr. Johnson added that the decision .......................................... .
e) It is claimed that government privatisation plans mean that at
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least ........................................ .
f) The two sides have now reached ................................................ .
g) The minister said that the dispute .............................................. .
h) The meeting agreed that a vote .................................................. .
i) Nobody is yet certain whether or not .......................................... .
j) The arbitration service recommended that ................................. .
1) ................................... to go on strike had not been taken lightly.
2) ................................ a thousand workers will become redundant.
3) ......................... shift workers should receive an increase of 6 %.
4) ..................... out that industrial action was inevitable unless
the management agreed.
5) ......... the train-drivers’ go-slow will disrupt commuter services.
6) ......................... agreement that there will be no more stoppages.
7) ....................... was not between the unions and the government.
8) ......................... sympathy with the train-drivers from tomorrow.
9) ........... should be taken on whether to stop picketing the factory.
10) .................... conditions have improved over the last two years.

13. Choose the most suitable word or phrase given.


a) We’re very busy this week. Can you work .........................?
A) extra time B) supplementary time C) overtime D) double time
b) I succeeded in my job through sheer hard ........................ .
A) work B) labour C) industry D) effort
c) Catherine works for a/an ................... engineering company.
A) main B) forefront C) outgoing D) leading
d) I’m thinking of changing my job because there are few ……....... of
promotion.
A) prospects B) opportunities C) chances D) sources
e) Bill has a real ................ for looking after handicapped children.
A) career B) post C) inspiration D) vocation
f) Ruth is looking for a new .................. at the moment.
A) vacancy B) appointment C) condition D) employment
g) I am well-qualified and have completed a ..... in graphic design.
A) lesson B) curriculum C) course D) timetable
h) In our company I am afraid there is very little ...... to work hard.
A) inspiration B) advantage C) gain D) motivation
i) The government is building a nuclear power .............. not far from here.
A) works B) factory C) station D) industry
j) It’s not very interesting work, but at least it’s a .................... job.
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A) regular B) continuous C) firm D) steady

14. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. Give


your summary of the text.

Choosing a Job
One of the most difficult decisions is choosing what to do for a (1)
…...... . For example, do you want to follow a definite (2) ……...., and (3) ..........
a low (4) …....... at the beginning, but have good (5) …..... in a company that
trains its (6) ….... ? Or are you more interested in taking any kind of work,
because you need a/an (7) …........ ? You may have to (8) ……...... the fact that a
good (9) …….... can be difficult to find. In that case, why not take a (10)
……....... one? You will gain some useful (11) ………..... . Remember that even
if you have the right (12) ............, you may have to (13) …….......... lots of
application forms before you are asked to (14) ……….... an interview. But don’t
worry if you don’t know what you want to (15) …...... exactly. You’ll enjoy
finding out!
1) A) salary B) living C) employee D)work
2) A) company B) training C) business D) career
3) A) earn B) gain C) win D) take
4) A) money B) profit C) cheque D) salary
5) A) promotions B) prospects C) futures D) hopes
6) A) employers B) crew C) staff D) persons
7) A) money B) cash C) account D) income
8) A) face up to B) go over C) come up with D) call off
9) A) work B) labour C) job D)seat
10) A) temporary B) overtime C) profitable D) short
11) A) experiences B) experienced C) experience D) experiencing
12) A) qualifications B) exams C) letters D) degrees
13) A) fall through B) get on C) turn down D) fill in
14) A) be B) attend C)make D) advertise
15) A) work B) job C) do D) employ

15. Choose the best alternative to fill each gap.


1) He has all the right .................. for the job.
A) certificates B) degrees C) diplomas D) qualifications
2) A doctor is a member of a respected .................... .
A) occupation B) profession C) trade D) work
3) It’s wise to think about choosing a ................. before leaving school.
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A) business B) career C) living D) profession


4) If you want a job you have to ....................... for one.
A) applicate B) apply C) ask D) request
5) You’ll probably have to .................... an application form.
A) fill down B) fill in C) fill on D) fill through
6) All the members of our .................... are expected to work hard.
A) personal B) personnel C) staff D) gang
7) If you’re a(n) ............. you have to do what your boss tells you.
A) director B) employee C) employer D) manager
8) You can earn more money by working ......................... .
A) extraordinary hours B) overhours C) overtime D) supplementary hours
9) She was ................... after three years with the company.
A) advanced B) elevated C) promoted D) raised
10) An apprentice is required to do several years’............... .
A) coaching B) education C) formation D) training
11) In Britain, people are usually unwilling to tell other people how much
they ...................... .
A) deserve B) earn C) gain D) obtain
12) A retired person is paid a ............... .
A) grant B) pension C) rent D) scholarship
13) According to everyone in the ............., she is a very good boss.
A) apartment B) compartment C) department D) employment
14) Some of my work is quite interesting, but a lot of it is just ....... .
A) habit B) practice C) routine D) tradition
15) If you are paid monthly, rather than weekly, you receive ....... .
A) revenue B) a reward C) a salary D) wages
16) The purpose of running a business is to make a ................... .
A) contribution B) money C) profit D) service

16. Read the text carefully. Some of the lines are correct and
some have a word which should not be there. Point it out. Give your
summary of the text
a) Marketing Interview
e.g. After searching out the jobs page of “The Times” I came across an
advertisement that really excited me.
1. It was for a trainee marketing assistant with a large
2. food company. After applying, I was invited me for
3. an interview almost straightaway. Following from a
4. brief private interview, I was led into a room which containing
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5. twenty or so other candidates in. We


6. were put into groups of four and given off three new
7. products to launch: a soft drink, an ice cream
8. and some chocolates. We have had two hours
9. to discuss and choose on names, packaging
10. and advertising plans before we presenting our
11. ideas to the other groups. I really enjoyed it and
12. forgot it I was in an interview. Fortunately,
13. the interviewers must have thought I had a something
14. as they asked me back for a second interview, after
15. which I was offered to work with them.
b) My First Job
e.g My first job was delivering newspapers in a small city. My route
wasn’t very far from where I lived in, so it
1. was too easy to finish the job quickly every day. Having said
2.that, I don’t mean to imply that it was always been easy.
3. Delivering papers during the winter was especially challenging.
4. As it was dangerous to cycle on snowy ice roads, I have had to
5. walk through the deep snow – many of the subscribers didn’t
6. clear the snow from their garden paths. To make the matters
7. worse, cold winds would turn my face and fingers blue in a
8. matter of minutes. On Sundays, the papers were very thick; the
9. full bag it weighed heavily on my ten-year-old shoulder.
10. Collecting money every one week from my customers was a
11. chore I didn’t particularly enjoy. On the other hand, I usually
12. received a small tip from most of the people, and if I didn’t
13. collect the paper money, my boss wouldn’t have pay me at all.
14. The house I hated collecting from was one that had a large,
15. vicious dog there. Although its owner would be hold it by its
16. collar, I was always afraid when I looked at its pointed teeth.
17. This is something about my first job I’ll never forget.

17. Translate from Russian into English.


1) Он был уволен по сокращению штатов и теперь живет на пособие
по безработице. 2) Я не увиливаю от работы и готов делать все, что мне
предложат. 3) Тебе следует отпроситься с работы, чтобы встретить детей в
аэропорту. 4) Я подумываю о том, чтобы уйти с этой работы.
Маловероятно, что я смогу получить здесь повышение. 5) Что входит в
ваши служебные обязанности? – Работа с почтой и ответы на звонки
130

клиентов. 6) Эта работа требует высокой квалификации. Тебе придется


пройти специальные курсы. 7) Я считаю, что профессию нужно выбирать
по призванию. В противном случае трудно будет получить удовлетворение
от своей работы. 8) Рон – честный, умный, ответственный работник и,
несомненно, заслуживает повышения оклада. 9) Приехав в город, он
несколько месяцев перебивался случайными заработками, прежде чем
нашел постоянную работу. 10) В любом случае вы получите уведомление
об увольнении не позднее, чем за две недели. 11) У него есть все данные,
чтобы сделать блестящую карьеру в юриспруденции: ум, знания,
честолюбие, целеустремленность и энергия. 12) Не в моем характере
работать с 9 до 5. Я предпочитаю гибкий график.

READ AND DISCUSS


TEXT 1
Pre-Reading
A. Skim the headline to find the main topic of the text.
B. Discuss the jobs which are highly (top)-paid and low-paid in the
modern world.

Reading
Read through the text “How Much is Job Worth?” and do the exercises
that follow.

How Much is Job Worth?


One of the most difficult questions to answer is how much a job is worth.
We naturally expect that a doctor’s salary will be higher than a bus conductor’s
salary. But the question becomes much more difficult to answer when we
compare, for example, a miner with an engineer, or an unskilled man working in
an oil field with a teacher in a high school. What the doctor, the engineer and the
teacher have in common is that they have spent several years of their lives
studying in order to get the necessary training for their professions. We feel that
this training and these years, when they were studying instead of earning money,
should be rewarded. At the same time we recognize that the work of the miner
and the worker in an oil field is both hard and dangerous, and that they must be
highly paid for the risks that they take.
Another factor we must take into consideration is how socially useful a
man’s work is, regardless of the talents he may bring to it. Most people would
agree that looking after the sick or teaching children is more important than
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selling used cars or improving the taste of toothpaste. Yet it is almost certain that
the used-car salesman earns more than the nurse, and the research chemist earns
more than the schoolteacher.
Indeed, the whole question of rewards can be seen from two points of
view. You can argue that a man who does a job which brings him personal
satisfaction is already receiving part of his reward in the form of a so-called
“psychic wage”, and that it is the man with the uninteresting, repetitive job who
needs more money to make up for the monotony of his work. It is significant
that those jobs which are traditionally regarded as “vocations”, such as nursing
and teaching, for example, continue to be poorly paid, while others, such as
those in the world of sport or entertainment, carry financial rewards out of all
proportion to their social worth.
Although the amount of money that people earn is largely decided by
market forces, this should not prevent us from looking for some way to decide
what is the right pay for the job. A starting point for such an investigation would
be to try to decide the ratio which ought to exist between the highest and the
lowest pay. The picture is made more complicated by two factors’, firstly, by the
“social wage”, i.e. the welfare benefits which every citizen receives (such as pay
for vacations, pay for illness, etc.); and secondly, by the taxation system, which
is often used as a method of social justice by taxing high incomes at a very high
rate. Taking these two factors into account, most countries now regard a ratio of
7:1 as socially acceptable. If it is less, the highly-qualified people carrying heavy
responsibilities become disillusioned, and might even end up by moving to other
countries. If it is more, the gap between the rich and the poor will be so great
that it will lead to social tensions and ultimately to violence.
Post-Reading
A. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
1) иметь что-либо общее; 2) должен вознаграждаться; 3) принимать
во внимание/учитывать; 4) невзирая на (таланты); 5) ухаживать за
больными; 6) компенсировать что-либо; 7) далеко несоразмерно (их
социальной значимости); 8) высокие налоговые ставки (на большие
доходы); 9) пропасть между богатыми и бедными; 10) в конечном счете.
B. Speak about the factors which influence the amount of money that
people earn for their work.
C. Discuss the role of personal satisfaction one gets from his job and how
it is related to job reward.
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D. Why is the ratio of 7:1 regarded socially acceptable? What do you


think of it?
E. Make up 4 lists of job-titles which
1) require long years of training, e.g. surgeon, ….......................... .
2) are hard and/or dangerous, e.g. diver, ...................................… .
3) involve special talent or vocation, e.g. painter, …..................... .
4) are socially useful and/or in great demand, e.g. dustman, ......... .

 Do you think these people are adequately paid for their work?
 What are payment prospects in the career you have chosen to
follow?

TEXT 2
Pre-Reading
A. Which modern or historical leaders do you most or least admire? (e.g.
Napoleon, Lenin, Stalin, Winston Churchill, John F. Kennedy, John Lennon,
Margaret Thatcher, etc.) Why?
B. What makes a great leader? Write down a list of characteristics
essential for a successful leader. Compare your list with other students.
C. What is the difference between a ‘manager’ and a ‘leader’?

Reading
Read through the text “Follow the Leader” and do the tasks that follow.

Follow the Leader


The art of good management is getting people to work as a team.
When you are first put in charge of people, it can be difficult knowing
what line to take. Should you be friendly and approachable, and risk being seen
as a weak person with no authority? Or should you immediately distance
yourself from your former peers, leaving people in no doubt as to who is in
charge?
Being a boss isn’t just a matter of giving orders – certain essential skills
are also involved. These include motivating your staff; knowing how to delegate
tasks and make decisions; and projecting a confident, competent image to co-
workers. The art of good management is getting people to work as a team and
expressing your authority when necessary, without coming across as a modern-
day Boadicea.
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PUT YOUR POINT ACROSS


 Make sure that people know you’re the person in charge.
 Ensure colleagues are aware of your goals and those of your
organisation.
 Be clear about each team member’s role and tell people what’s
expected of them. Communication is the key to getting the results you want –
never assume staff will automatically know what you mean.
 Being able to motivate your staff is a key skill: people who are happy
with the way they are treated will give more to their job than those who feel that
they are neglected or overlooked. Keep staff briefed on how you see their
performance. Let them know if they get it wrong and recognise when they get it
right. If you encourage feedback you will not only benefit from others’ ideas but
be aware of your staff’s level of morale.
THE ART OF DELEGATION
 Many new bosses can find delegating difficult and hang on to too
many tasks without calling on their team’s help. Give up the old parts of your
job and try to focus instead on your new responsibilities.
 When you delegate, do it properly. Don’t keep looking over the other
person’s shoulder and don’t expect things to be done exactly as you would do
them. Accept that people have different ways of working and this is just an
expression of their personality.
 Don’t delegate a job just because it’s something you dislike or find
boring. A good manager delegates enjoyable tasks as well as the more routine
ones.
 Don’t just delegate the task itself – delegate the authority to do it. If
someone has to come back to you every time a decision needs to be made, then
you haven’t really delegated at all.
 The buck still stops with you, so try to delegate well and to the right
person. You must be certain that whoever you choose is both ready and willing
to take on the job.
YOUR PERSONAL IMAGE
 If you’re worried that you don’t carry enough personal authority, go
on an assertiveness training course to build up your confidence. Contact your
local council for details of courses in your area, or ring the Industrial Society on
01-262 2401.
 The way you dress can affect the way you’re seen by others. You can
adapt the dress code in your chosen field to suit your own style, but remember
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that if you want to be taken seriously you must look like you mean business (but
that doesn’t mean you have to wear a power suit.).
 Similarly, people will often judge you according to your behaviour,
especially the way you relate towards them. Give colleagues respect and you’ll
get some back.
 Look directly at people when you are addressing them. You will have
a stronger effect and make more of an impact.
 Be decisive. There’s nothing more frustrating than trying to cater for a
boss who doesn’t know what she wants. Vagueness smacks of a general lack of
confidence. Always keep your cool. A crisis separates the women from the girls
and people will remember how you reacted. Ask yourself, “What is the worst
thing that could happen and what could we do to put it right?” Get the situation
in perspective, call on expert advice if need be and don’t be an alarmist. Your
colleagues are relying on you for support.
 Be enthusiastic about your work and loyal about the company you
work for. Your team will look to you to set an example – apathy and a negative
attitude are highly contagious and destructive.
 Be an accessible boss. If your staff can’t get to you easily, you’ll miss
out too. How will you know, for example, if they have any grievances or
problems?
DO UNTO OTHERS . . .
 If you criticise someone’s work, make sure you also find something
positive to say. And don’t forget – it’s the act, not the person, you’re criticising.
 Get straight to the point and be clear about your objections. Allow the
other person to tell their side of the story. Don’t leave problems unresolved, as
that leads to confusion and bad feeling. Work together to find out what went
wrong and how you can put it right. Be positive and offer a solution; never harp
on one mistake.
 Inevitably there will be people you get on with better than others, but
try to treat everyone with equal respect and consideration and be seen to do so.
ASKING FOR HELP
 Learn to trust your instinct when making decisions. If you have
doubts, don’t be afraid of asking a more experienced or senior colleague for
advice. They’ll more than likely be flattered, and a different perspective could
be just what you need.
 Don’t hesitate to ask a junior member of staff to explain something –
this is not a weakness, but a strength. Bluffing at work is the equivalent of lying.
135

 Finally, remember where you came from, and never forget that you
were once in the other person’s shoes. Don’t get an inflated sense of importance
— nobody is indispensable, not even the boss!
Eleni Kyriacou
Post-Reading
A. Complete the following sentences from the text:
1) Being a boss isn’t just a matter of ..… ; 2) The art of good management
is ….. ; 3) Be clear about each team member’s ….. ; 4) A good manager
delegates ….. ; 5) The way you dress can ..… ; 6) Be enthusiastic about your
work and ..… ; 7) If you criticize someone’s work, ..… ; 8) Work together to
find out what ..… ; 9) If you have doubts, don’t be afraid of ..… .
B. Explain the following in English:
1) be (put) in charge of people; 2) be approachable/accessible; 3) be
neglected and overlooked; 4) encourage feedback; 5) take on the job; 6)
assertiveness training course; 7) make more of an impact; 8) Vagueness smacks
of a general lack of confidence; 9) get straight to the point; 10) Never harp on
one mistake; 11) Bluffing at work is the equivalent of lying; 12) Nobody is
indispensable.
C. Comment on the meaning of the two phrases:
1) As a modern-day Boadicea (historical allusion).
2) Do unto others as you would be done by (from the Bible).
D. Find in each paragraph at least 2 sentences which convey the key
ideas of the article. Compare your choice with other students.
E. Discuss the following:
1) What makes a bad boss? Draw up a profile of factors. 2) Are there
differences between men and women as leaders? 3) Are people who were
leaders at school more likely to be leaders later in life? 4) Do you think leaders
are born or made?
F. Write down a summary of the article.

TEXT 3
Pre-Reading
To make decisions about a job or career, you often have to choose
between personal goals and responsibilities to others. A choice based on one’s
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own need for fulfillment might be attractive but rather personal, aiming at
individual satisfaction. On the other hand, a career decision which is based on
following the traditions and needs of one’s family or community might be less
appealing but more socially important and useful.
A. Discuss the following:
1) Is it easy or difficult to choose a professional career?
What factors may influence this choice?
2) Sometimes people who have already entered a certain profession, give
it up and start something totally new.
Can you name any reasons for that?
B. Make sure you know the meaning of the phrases ‘O-levels’ and ‘A-
levels’ with respect to the UK secondary education.

Reading
Read through the text “Life at the Bottom: Hard-Up, Tired but Content”
and do the exercises that follow.

Life at the Bottom: Hard-Up, Tired but Content


To most people, changing jobs means stepping up the ladder: more
money, a higher position, travel perhaps, more perks, the next rung on the way
to a so-called better life. So why change?
Marian Thiel has been changing jobs ever since she first started working
at the age of 18 when she was a sales assistant in a fashion store in Bristol. She
had left school with three O-levels – Art, English, Needlework. By 1998, at the
age of 31, she was senior executive in charge of public relations at Chester
Barrie, a fashion menswear house in Crewe. She was on a salary of 13,400
pounds – plus perks. She had a secretary, a company car and first-class travel
expenses. She went to the hairdresser once a week (paid for, of course) and on
the strength of her job and prospects had got herself a three-bedroomed semi on
the river at Congleton.
“I used to have my nails painted just to look better”, she says now, almost
in disbelief, “and I used to take taxis everywhere so my hair didn’t get wet or
blown about. I was out every day for lunch or dinner with customers. I was out
of the office on business four days out of five, very often in London, France, or
Germany. If I went to Scotland, I flew – and there was always a chauffeur and a
car to meet me.”
About two years ago she gave it all up to become a nurse. Her pay during
her first year as a student State Registered Nurse at St. Stephen’s Hospital,
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London, was 250 pounds a month: 160 pounds went back to Cheshire to pay for
her mortgage. Suddenly she was living off 90 pounds a month – and no
expenses. “I used to walk along the streets of Westminster crying,” she says. “Of
course, it was my decision not to let the house go – just because you make a
break you don’t have to give up everything.”
She has now moved back to her house in Congleton in Cheshire, having
transferred to a local hospital for the last year of her training. The pay is a bit
better now – 360 pounds a month with overtime – but the hours are long and she
finds the work physically exhausting. There are certainly no trips to the
hairdresser, no spending sprees.
So why did she do if? What happened to the normal job pattern? She is
patently not someone who has just opted out of the rat-race. She admits she
loves the good life, and offered the chance of a job at 20,000 pounds tomorrow,
she would jump at it. “I could pick up and live again as though I had never been
poor,” she says. But, she goes on, she feels we all have a debt to society. “It’s
rather like the land,” she says. “The times we are living in now are very
materialistic, everyone’s on the make, everything’s got to be brighter and newer.
We’re all taking things out and never putting back. And what happens if you do
that to the land? You get barren soil. I certainly never wanted to be a nurse, but I
realized that I had to give instead of just take.”
Victoria Hainworth

Post-Reading
A. Find in the text the alternative words and phrases to express the
following:
1) profit, allowance, etc. given in addition to regular wages or salary; 2)
best accommodation in a train, airport, etc.; 3) a twin house; 4) to have lunch or
dinner in a café, bar, restaurant, etc.; 5) car driver; 6) to quit the job; 7) a bank
loan to buy a house or flat; 8) have 16 pounds a month for living; 9) ... she did
not want to lose the house ... ; 10) to spend too much; 11) unscrupulous and
undignified competition for social status; 12) concerned with making a profit,
gaining smth; 13) a short period, often enjoyable, of spending money much
more than is usual.
B. Pick up as many details from the text as you can to prove that Marian
was a well-off woman.
C. Discuss the following:
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1) What does the phrase ‘the normal job pattern’ imply? 2) How did
Marian’s life change when she started her training as a nurse? Collect the
evidence from the text. 3) What feeling dominates over her love of a good life?
4) What metaphor vividly illustrates Marian’s motive for changing her
occupation and, consequently, her lifestyle? 5) Can you approve of Marian’s
decision? Do you see it as a good or bad move? Supposing, you were in her
place, would you do a thing like that?

TEXT 4
Pre-Reading
Interviews may be carried out in one-to-one situation; or a group of
interviewers may interview a single candidate; or a single interviewer may
interview a group of candidates.

Discuss the following questions.


1) Which type of interview do you think is most common? Why?
2) What are, in your opinion, advantages and disadvantages of each type?
3) Which type of interview requires of an interviewer to be particularly
skilled to select the right candidate?
4) What is your idea of a successful (efficient) interview for both an
interviewer and an interviewee?

Reading
Read through the text “Your First Job Interview” and do the exercises
that follow.

Your First Job Interview


With unemployment so high, and often scores of applicants chasing every
job, you have to count yourself lucky to be called for an interview. If it’s your
first, you’re bound to be nervous. (In fact if you’re not nervous maybe your
attitude is wrong!) But don’t let the jitters side-track you from the main issue –
which is getting this job. The only way you can do that is by creating a good
impression on the person who is interviewing you. Here’s how:
Do
Find out as much as you can about the job beforehand. Ask the job centre
or employment agency for as much information as possible.
Jot down your qualifications and experience and think about how they
relate to the job. Why should the employer employ you and not somebody else?
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Choose your interview clothing with care; no one is going to employ you
if you look as though you’ve wandered out of a disco. Whether you like it or
not, appearance counts.
Make sure you know where the interview office is and how to get there.
Be on time, or better, a few minutes early.
Bring a pen; you will probably be asked to fill in an application form.
Answer all the questions as best as you can. And write neatly. The interviewer
will be looking at the application during the interview; he or she must be able to
read it.
Have a light meal to eat, and go to the toilet. If you don’t, you may well
be thinking about your inside during the interview.
Don’t
Ever walk into the interview chewing gum, sucking on a sweet or
smoking.
Forget to bring with you any school certificates, samples of your work or
letters of recommendation from your teachers or anyone else you might have
worked part-time for.
Have a drink beforehand to give you courage.
The interview
The interview is designed to find out more about you and to see if you are
suitable for the job. The interviewer will do this by asking you questions. The
way you answer will show what kind of person you are and if your education,
skills and experience match what they’re looking for.
Do
Make a real effort to answer every question the interviewer asks. Be clear
and concise. Never answer ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ or shrug.
Admit it if you do not know something about the more technical aspects
of the job. Stress that you are willing to learn.
Show some enthusiasm when the job is explained to you. Concentrate on
what the interviewer is saying, and if he or she asks if you have any questions,
have at least one ready to show that you’re interested and have done your
homework.
Sell yourself. This doesn’t mean exaggerating (you’ll just get caught out)
or making your experience or interests seem unimportant (if you sell yourself
short no one will employ you).
Ask questions at the close of the interview. For instance, about the pay,
hours, holidays, or if there is a training programme.
Don’t
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Forget to shake hands with the interviewer. Smoke or sit down until you
are invited to. Give the interviewer a hard time by giggling, yawning, rambling
on unnecessarily or appearing cocky or argumentative.
Ever stress poor aspects of yourself, like your problem of getting up in the
morning. Always show your best side: especially your keenness to work and
your sense of responsibility.
After the interview
Think about how you presented yourself: could you have done better? If
so, and if you do not get the job, you can be better prepared when you are next
called for an interview. Good luck!

Post-Reading
A. Mark these sentences as T (true) or F (false) according to the
information in the text.
1) Find out as much information as you can about the job and the
company.
2) Arrive early for the interview.
3) Make a list of reasons why you are suitable for the job.
4) Have something to eat before you go to the interview.
5) Go to the toilet before the interview.
6) Have a drink before the interview.
7) Take all your certificates and letters of recommendation with you.
8) Admit your ignorance if you don’t know about the technical aspects of
the job.
9) Show your best side only.
10) Shake hands with the interviewer.
11) Tell the interviewer about your shortcomings.
12) Ask about the pay you’ll get if you’re successful.
B. On the left are the words and phrases from the text. Study their
meanings in the context and match them with their equivalents on the right.
1) scores of a) nervousness
2) chasing b) over-confident
3) count yourself c) be found to be lying
4) the jitters d) a large number of
5) side-track e) making smth seem larger, better
6) issue f) running after
7) jot down g) consider yourself to be
8) concise h) be too modest
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9) exaggerating i) talking for too long


10) get caught out j) note down
11) sell yourself short k) distract
12) giggling l) giving much information in a few words
13) rambling on m) argument
14) cocky n) laughing in a silly way
C. Discuss these questions:
1) Do you think it is worth getting ready for a job interview beforehand?
Why? 2) In what way does your appearance count at the interview? 3) What
papers may prove to be very helpful if you bring them to the interview? 4) What
details in the text hint that good manners are welcome? 5) How do you
understand the phrase ‘Sell yourself’? 6) What should the candidate convince
the interviewer of, if he/she wants to get the job? 7) Which piece of advice do
you find most useful and least useful? Why? 8) How important are job
interviews in your country?

TEXT 5
Pre-Reading
Do people change during their working lives? If so, how?

Reading
A. Skim the article below and find the answer to the question above.

How to Select the Best Candidates – and Avoid the Worst

Investing thousands of pounds in the recruitment and training of each new


graduate recruit may be just the beginning. Choosing the wrong candidate may
leave an organisation paying for years to come.
Few companies will have escaped all of the following failures: people
who panic at the first sign of stress; those with long, impressive qualifications
who seem incapable of learning; hypochondriacs whose absentee record
becomes astonishing; and the unstable person later discovered to be a thief or
worse.
Less dramatic, but just as much a problem, is the person who simply does
not come up to expectations, who does not quite deliver; who never becomes a
high-flyer or even a steady performer; the employee with a fine future behind
them.
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The first point to bear in mind at the recruitment stage is that people don’t
change. Intelligence levels decline modestly, but change little over their working
life. The same is true of abilities, such as learning languages and handling
numbers.
Most people like to think that personality can change, particularly the
more negative features such as anxiety, low esteem, impulsiveness or a lack of
emotional warmth. But data collected over 50 years gives a clear message: still
stable after all these years. Extroverts become slightly less extroverted; the
acutely shy appear a little less so, but the fundamentals remain much the same.
Personal crises can affect the way we cope with things: we might take up or drop
drink, drugs, religion or relaxation techniques, which can have pretty dramatic
effects. Skills can be improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather different
rates. People can be groomed for a job. Just as politicians are carefully
repackaged through dress, hairstyle and speech specialists, so people can be sent
on training courses, diplomas or experimental weekends. But there is a cost to
all this which may be more than the price of the course. Better to select for what
you actually see rather than attempt to change it.
Adrian Furnham
From the Financial Times

B. Read the article again and do the exercises that follow.

Post-Reading
A. Explain the following in alternative English words:
1) hypochondriacs whose absentee record becomes astonishing
2) the person who does not come up to the expectation
3) a high-flyer
4) a steady performer
5) the employee with a fine future behind them
6) intelligence levels decline modestly
7) a clear message
8) pretty dramatic effects
9) be groomed for a job
10) carefully repackaged
B. Answer these questions:
1) What types of failures do companies experience? 2) What emotional
states can be referred to as personal crises? How can they affect the way we
cope with things? 3) What results has the over 50-year survey brought about? 4)
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What trouble may a company get into having chosen the wrong candidate? 5)
What advice does the article give to managers?
C. The best candidates as some employers suggest should be like this:
astute bright calm easy-going hard-working neurotic
honest sharp cooperative inventive enthusiastic
trustworthy efficient reliable cheerful outgoing
thoughtful punctual argumentative moody pushy
self-confident (assured) sensitive intelligent thrifty
Which of these characteristics are

 essential for a best candidate;


 good but not indispensable;
 totally unsuitable (undesirable) for good performance of a
prospective employee?
Explain your choice.

TEXT 6
Pre-Reading
1) What does the length of working hours may depend on?
2) Can long working hours be justified in any way?
3) How long do you think working hours should be from the viewpoint of
common sense?

Reading
Read the two texts below and do the exercises that follow.
A. The British are notorious for working the longest hours in Europe. For
many of us, long hours are a form of addiction. For some, it’s about proving
your dedication. For others, it is just part of the culture. But Britain’s long hours’
culture is not necessarily achieving a great deal; British companies are 25% less
productive than their continental counterparts.
When the BBC’s Money programme asked office staff at one large
company to try to keep their set hours for a week (some of them work up to 60
hours a week), they were unwilling to try. But management was keen to reduce
stress by improving the balance between employees’ home and work life, and
thought the experiment might be a good way to get everyone thinking about
their working hours and how they might be able to reduce them.
As the week progressed, staff found it hard to cope with the pressure of
leaving work undone. They felt they were letting people down and worried
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about the effect on the business. By the middle of the week, the pressure was
bringing some of them to breaking point. With the help of work/life specialist
Lynne Copp, the stressed workers were encouraged to try delegation,
reorganising priorities and making meetings more focused. Did the company
suffer? Despite some catching up the following week, the running of the
company as a whole did not seem to be greatly affected. In fact it had caused a
reappraisal of the whole attitude to staying late.
B. Having lived and worked in the Netherlands for nearly five years, I
know what a wonderfully comfortable place it is. There is full employment and
everyone goes home at 5:30 pm. But despite this enviable life style, an average
of 90,000 Dutch employees fail to turn up for work each year on the grounds of
suffering ‘overspannen’ (work-related stress) – a condition which allows them
to take a year off on full pay and then, if they are not cured, to enter into the
benefits system for the rest of their lives.
Worried about an upcoming merger? Teased or ignored by your
colleagues? Don’t like your desk? Faced with a long commute? Overworked?
Underworked? Feel like a break? Simply get a doctor to agree that you are under
a little stress, and a year off work on full pay can be yours.
So obsessed are the Dutch with the idea of stress that there is even a
ministry for its study and regulation. As far as it is concerned, stress is never
caused by weakness or incompetence: instead, it is a fact of modem life, caused
by a working environment that is less than perfect. It distributes leaflets
concerning the management of stress within the workplace, encourages
companies to set up “internal steering groups to define structures for stress
management” and says that the best solution is “listening and talking.” The
condition is, essentially no different from the ‘stress’ imagined by rich New
Yorkers, except that in the Netherlands it is employers and taxpayers who pick
up the bill.

Post-Reading
A. Find in the texts the English equivalents for the following:
1) склонность, пагубная привычка; 2) посвящать (жизнь, время кому-
либо, чему-либо); 3) партнер; лицо, страна, группа лиц, занимающих
аналогичное положение; 4) делающий что-либо с неохотой; 5) подвести
кого-либо, разочаровать; 6) критический момент, состояние; 7) наверстать
невыполненную работу; 8) на основании; по причине; под предлогом; 9)
система пенсий, пособий и других социальных выплат; 10) предстоящее
объединение, слияние (например, с другой компанией); 11) ежедневные
145

поездки на работу из пригорода в город и обратно; 12) руководящие


(пилотные) группы; 13) одержимый (мыслью, страхом и т.д.).
B. Use alternative words to say the same.
1) The British are notorious for; 2) to reduce stress; 3) As the week
progressed; 4) to cope with the pressure; 5) bringing some of them to breaking
point; 6) to try delegation, reorganizing priorities; 7) reappraisal of the whole
attitude; 8) full employment; 9) enviable lifestyle; 10) to take a year off on full
pay; 11) working environment; 12) the management of stress; 13) it is
employers and taxpayers who pick up the bill.
C. Answer these questions:
1) What does the phrase ‘long hours culture’ mean? 2) What did the
BBC’s Money program experiment aim at? 3) How did certain workers react
when they tried to keep to their hours? 4) What did the experiment result in? 5)
What enables the writer to say that the Dutch have an ‘enviable lifestyle’? 6)
Which fact from the Dutch employment law may seem out of the ordinary to
you? 7) How much are the Dutch concerned with the idea of stress? 8) Why
does the writer put the word ‘stress’ in the last sentence into inverted commas?
D. Write a paragraph of 60-80 words to summarise the ways in which,
according to the texts, work related stress is dealt with in Britain and the
Netherlands.

TEXT 7
Pre-Reading
A. Are there different kinds of lawyers in your country? If so, what are the
differences?
B. Can you describe the normal way lawyers become qualified to practise
law in your country?

Reading
Read through the text ‘Solicitor or Barrister?’ and do the exercises that
follow.

Solicitor or Barrister?
The solicitor is the first point of contact with the law for a client in the
UK. The solicitor listens carefully to the client, making sure their needs are
clearly understood and then explains the legal position and tenders advice. By
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contrast, barristers will only see the client in the company of a briefing solicitor.
The barrister is the specialist with particular skills in advocacy, a consultant who
will examine the case and decide what line to take in court. The barrister will be
reliant on the detailed brief prepared by the client’s solicitor. There are only a
few solicitors who are allowed to present cases in the higher courts. Many more
solicitors work in their litigation departments and spend much of their time
preparing briefs for counsel. Barristers are self-employed in the independent
Bar. Solicitors are normally salaried and may be offered a share in the profits of
the practice if they are successful.
The Bar is a small but influential independent body with just over 8,000
practising barristers in over 400 chambers in England and Wales. In addition,
there are about 2,000 barristers employed as in-house lawyers.
The Bar is an advocacy profession. The Bar’s right of audience in the
higher courts remains virtually unchallenged. The work divides equally between
civil and criminal law. There are over 70 specialist areas, including major ones
like chancery (mainly property and finance) and the commercial bar.
Judges in England and Wales have mostly been barristers of 10 years’
standing, then Queen’s Counsellors, and are appointed by the Lord Chancellor.
Judges cannot work as barristers once they are appointed. A barrister who is a
part-time judge is known as a Recorder. The Crown Prosecutor, who works for
the Director of Public Prosecutions, is responsible for prosecuting criminals
based on evidence presented by the police.
Solicitors do a variety of work – corporate and commercial, litigation,
property, private law, banking and project finance, employment law and
environmental law. There are about 66,000 practising solicitors in England and
Wales.
From Career Scope
Post- Reading
A. Mark these statements T (true) or F (false), according to the
information in the text. Find the part of the text that gives the correct
information.
1) If you have any kind of legal question the first person you consult is a
barrister. F
2) A barrister and a solicitor are both qualified lawyers in the UK.
3) ‘Preparing a brief for counsel’ means a solicitor writes a detailed
description of a case so as to inform the expert (the barrister) of all the
facts and main legal points.
4) A solicitor cannot speak in a higher court.
5) A barrister in the UK is an independent qualified lawyer.
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6) If you want to work for a law firm and receive a regular salary, you
should become a solicitor.
7) There are more solicitors than barristers.
8) Barristers often specialise in particular areas of the law, like property or
contracts.
9) A barrister may become a judge, but a solicitor cannot.
10) The law is the same in England as in Scotland but differs in Wales.
11) A Recorder is a part-time judge.
12) One of the roles of the police in the UK is to assemble sufficient
evidence for a criminal case to come to court.
B. Choose the best explanation for each of these words or phrases from
the text
1 tenders advice
a) offers advice b) bids for advice c) refuses advice
2 briefing solicitor
a) lawyer who works quickly b) lawyer who writes a letter c) lawyer who
prepares a case for court
3 advocacy
a) speaking or pleading in the court b) lawyers c) rich and famous people
4 line
a) queue b) time to allocate c) position
5 salaried
a) with postgraduate degrees b) receiving regular pay c) independent
6 practising
a) not very good yet b) in training c) professionally working
7 chambers
a) bedrooms b) barristers’ offices c) changing rooms
8 in-house
a) hoteliers b) employed by a company c) independent
9 right of audience
a) performing on stage b) tickets to observe c) allowed to speak in court
10 commercial bar
a) expensive drinks b) law of business c) trade and industry ban
C. Give the Russian equivalents for the following:
1) brief(s); 2) counsel; 3) litigation department; 4) self-employed barrister;
5) the Bar; 6) chancery; 7) of ten years’ standing; 8) Queen’s Counselor; 9) part-
time judge; 10) the Crown Prosecutor.
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D. Read the text below and complete the sentences which follow.

Attorney at Law
A person admitted to practise law in their respective state and authorised
to perform both civil and criminal legal functions for clients, including drafting
of legal documents, giving of legal advice, and representing such before courts,
administrative agencies, boards, etc.
Prosecutor
One who prosecutes another for a crime in the name of the government.
One who instigates the prosecution upon which an accused is arrested or who
prefers an accusation against the party whom they suspect to be guilty, as does a
district, county, or state’s attorney on behalf of the state, or a United States
Attorney for a federal district on behalf of the US government.
In Spain, the universities are in charge of the education of lawyers.
Anyone completing a law degree is entitled to be called a lawyer and may work
as a lawyer for a legal practice or in a company. However, to achieve public
office and work for the State Judiciary, as a notary or judge, for example,
graduate lawyers must compete for places through public examinations and then
attend judicial school for two years. They then may be appointed as civil
servants anywhere in the country.
1) In England and Wales, a ...solicitor..... prepares briefs but does not
represent the clients in court. This is done by a ................ In the US, both
functions are performed by an …….....……. .
2) In the US a ................... instigates a prosecution against someone
suspected of a crime. This can be done at district, county, state or federal level.
In England and Wales this is done by the ................ who works for the
Department of Public Prosecutions.
3) In England and Wales, a judge is appointed by the Lord Chancellor
from barristers who have worked successfully for over 10 years and who have
attained the status of ..................... .
In Spain, lawyers wishing to become judges have to attend ...................
for............... years.
E. Match the verbs and nouns. Use a dictionary if necessary.
1) instigate; 2) bring; 3) prefer; 4) prepare; 5) reach; 6) settle; 7) charge;
8) arrest; 9) defend; 10) infringe.
a) a client; b) a prosecution; c) a copyright; d) a suspect; e) a fee; f) out of
court; g) a verdict; h) a case; i) a brief; j) an accusation
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F. Complete the following sentences with appropriate phrases from E.


1) A prosecutor can ....prefer….. an accusation... or ................. a .............
against someone suspected of committing a crime.
2) In the UK, only the Crown Prosecution Service can .............. a .............
against someone on a criminal charge.
3) By copying my novel and selling it as your own, you have not
only .............. my .............. but also betrayed my trust as a friend.
4) The two sets of lawyers agreed not to go to trial but to ....... out
of ................. .
5) Some lawyers do not …...…... a ….......... if the client asks for very
simple advice.
6) The jury took three days to ................... a .................. .
7) All lawyers must ............ their ........... even if they doubt their
innocence.
8) As a solicitor in a large company, I spend a lot of time ....... for
barristers.
9) The police had sufficient evidence of his guilt to ….............
the .................. .
G. Match the different branches of the law with their possible
descriptions.
1) litigation a) treaties and cross-border agreements
2) corporate and commercial b) bringing lawsuits against others
3) family c) contracts and mergers
4) environmental d) rules applied to how a prosecution or civil
action is conducted
5) employment e) civil cases
6) private f) pleading a case in court on behalf of a client
7) advocacy g) divorce and marriage settlements
8) public international h) relating to creativity, published ideas and art
forms
9) intellectual property i) equal opportunities and fair pay
10) procedural law j) regarding industrial waste and pollution

H. Being a lawyer is regarded as one of the best professions in many


countries. Think about what the different areas of specialisation are, and which
you would choose, or have chosen, and why. Make notes under the headings:
choice of specialisation; number of years of training; income expectations;
150

responsibilities; kinds of clients; need for foreign languages; likely challenges


and opportunities. Add any other points that occur to you.
151

UNIT IV. HEALTHY LIFESTYLES


STARTING-UP
Is there anything more important than health? Hardly anyone
will doubt it. If your body suffers from any disorder your mind suffers
with the body, too. You can’t be good either at work or study. Aches
and pains lead to irritation, nervous breakdown, exhaustion and
apathy.
The old wisdom says that good health is not all we need in life,
but if we are in poor health, all other things aren’t worth much.
Discuss with other students:
A. What does ‘health’ mean to you? The following questions may be of
help.
Is health
 something to do with being physically fit?
 something to do with medicine?
 living to an old age?
 something quite different from illness or medicine (things we can do to
prevent illness and become healthier)?
B. Being healthy means different things to different people.
Compare you ideas with other students and make a list which may be
started as follows:
For me, being healthy is
 to be able to run for a bus without getting out of breath
 to have the ideal weight for my height
 feeling glad to be alive when I wake up in the morning
 eating the right foods, etc.

VOCABULARY FOCUS
1. How are you feeling?
Make sure you know all the words and phrases below.
Use a dictionary if needed.
 I feel breathless / dizzy / giddy / faint / feverish / sick / seedy / shivery.
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 I’ve got a cold / a cough / a headache / a sore throat / a stomach ache /


a temperature / a pain in the back / a rash on my chest / a bruise on my leg / a
black eye / a lump on my arm / painful joints / blisters / sunburn / a swollen
cheek / quinsy / indigestion / diarrhea.
 My foot is out of joint; I’ve sprained / dislocated my ankle; My nose is
clogged up; I’ve lost my appetite.

2. Study the meanings of the verbs below and pay attention to


their structure patterns.
 ache, e.g. My heart / ear / tooth, etc. aches. His body ached for a rest.
 hurt, e.g. The plaster won’t hurt you. My shoe hurts me a bit. My
hand still hurts a little.
 pain, e.g. My arm pains me a bit. It pains me to step on the left foot.
 cure, e.g. Nobody will cure Mark of laziness. Her grief soon cures.
What cannot be cured must be endured. (Proverb)
 heal, e.g. (also ~ up, ~ over) The ointment healed the wound. The
ulcer healed slowly. The sore healed up in a fortnight. Time heals most troubles.
 treat, e.g. Which doctor is treating you? How do you treat a case of
rheumatism? Tuberculosis can be treated with penicillin.

3. Supply the nouns and adjectives corresponding to the verbs


given above (e.g. pain – a pain – painful – painless) and make up
sentences of your own.
4. What do doctors do?
Make up sentences of your own using the following phrases:
examine you; take your temperature; listen to your chest; take your blood
pressure; feel your pulse; look in your ears, nose, throat; operate on you; put you
on a sick list; prescribe medicine (make out a prescription).

5. What doctor will you go to?


The words below may help you.
ear, nose and throat specialist / therapeutist / oculist / dentist cardiologist /
surgeon / neuropathologist / endocrinologist ur(in)ologist / psychiatrist
What doctor will you go to if you
 need to have a tooth filled / stopped / pulled out
 need to be operated on for appendicitis
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 have a sore eye


 suffer from insomnia
 have high blood pressure
 are hard of hearing
 have kidney trouble
 have a back problem
 have a heart murmur
 have a running nose
 have metabolic disorders
 have a vocal cords problem?

6. Here is a list of some diseases.


Pay attention to the word-building patterns:
a) ~ ache b) suffix ~ itis c) sore + noun
headache appendicitis sore throat
toothache bronchitis sore finger
heart-ache arthritis sore eye
stomach-ache tonsillitis sore lip
Can you add a few more items to the lists above?

7. Use the suffixes ~ness, ~ity, ~ment to form the equivalents of


the noun “disease” from the following words:
adj.: ill, sick, infirm verb: to ail
Make up your own sentences with these words.

8. Match these diseases with their symptoms.


1) flu a) wasting disease, affecting various parts of the body’s
tissues, esp. lungs;
2) pneumonia b) excessive bleeding; escape of blood (e.g. in the
brain);
3) rheumatism c) kinds of fever conveyed by mosquitoes;
4) chickenpox d) swelling and pain in a joint after an accident;
5) mumps e) a malignant tumor that tends to invade surrounding
tissue and spread to new body sites;
6) an ulcer f) acute inflammation of the tonsils and the surrounding
tissue;
7) a sprain g) dry cough, high fever, chest pain, rapid breathing;
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8) h(a)emorrhage h) swollen glands in front of ear, earache or pain on


eating;
9) cancer i) rash starting on body, slightly raised temperature;
10) tuberculosis j) burning pain in abdomen, pain or nausea after eating;
11) malaria k) headache, aching muscles, fever, cough, sneezing;
12) quinsy l) swollen, painful joints, stiffness, limited movement.

9. What medical problem might you have if ……………….


1) you wear shoes that rub? 8) you run unusually fast for a bus?
2) you eat too fast? 9) you eat food that is bad?
3) you smoke a lot? 10) a mosquito bites you?
4) you play football? 11) you get wet on a cold day?
5) you go skiing? 12) you think you’re ill all the time?
6) you stay too long in the sun?

10. When and what for can the following things be used?
cups a mustard plaster wheel-chair
drops an ointment plaster cast
a hot-water bottle scales anaesthetic
an injection a thermometer contact lenses
an inoculation/ a vaccination crutches glasses/ spectacles

11. Complete the following table:


noun adjective verb
.………………… breathless .…………………
…………………. faint ………………….
…………………. shivery ………………….
…………………. dislocated ………………….
ache .................... .………………… .…………………
treatment............. …………………. ………………….
.………………… swollen .…………………
…………………. painful (~less) ………………….

12. Fill the gaps with suitable words.


1. If you want to find out someone’s temperature, use a ............... .
2. Please don’t cough all over everyone! Don’t forget that a cold
is ..................... . As it is a virus, there is no .................... for it.
3. I hurt my wrist yesterday playing football and today it’s .......... .
4. I had to wait three-quarters of an hour in the doctor’s ............... .
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5. I went to the doctor about my insomnia and she prescribed


some .................... .
6. The main symptom of hay fever is that you keep ...................... .
7. It was quite a bad cut and it was bleeding a lot, so I put on a .... .
8. I think he’s broken his leg! Quick, someone call an ….............. .
9. If someone is seriously ill they may need to go to hospital to have
an ..................... .
10. I hate going to the dentist — I’ve got to have two ……......... done.
11. If you want to stay fit, don’t eat too much and take plenty
of ..................... .
12. Her mother sent her to bed because she had a …..................... .
13. He was ten kilos overweight and was advised to go on a ….... .
14. You’ve eaten too much, that’s why you have a pain in your ... .
15. Oh dear, I feel awful. I think I’m going to ............................. .

13. Choose the best alternative to fill each of the gaps.


1. If you want antibiotics, you’ll have to ask the doctor for a ….... .
medicine note prescription receipt recipe
2. She was in terrible pain, so the nurse gave her a(n) ................... .
injection scratch stab vaccine wound
3. If you’ve got measles, your skin is covered in ........................... .
blots dots freckles spots stains
4. Why not take up tennis? It’ll help you to keep fit and it’s a great …….
…... .
amusement game match play tournament
5. He didn’t feel like going to the party because he had a terrible
………… .
disease headache homesickness infection nostalgia.

DISCUSSION FOCUS
1. What might the doctor ask you?
a. What would you say if the doctor asked you the following questions?
1) What do you complain of?
2) Where do you feel (the) pain?
3) Have you ever had any operation?
4) How much alcohol do you drink?
5) Do you smoke? How many cigarettes a day?
6) Are you taking any medication?
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7) Are you allergic to anything (any antibiotics, etc.)?


8) Do you have any mental problems in your family?
9) When did you last have a medical check?
b. Work with a partner. Role-play a conversation between a doctor and a
patient. Think of other questions which may arise in this sort of dialogue. Use
the vocabulary of the previous exercises.

2. What does the doctor prescribe?


Read the sentences in A and B carefully. Say which doctor’s
advice in A will be good for the patients with their health problems in
B
A
a) Take one three times a day after meals.
b) Take a teaspoonful last thing at night.
c) Rub a little on before going to bed each night.
d) We’ll get the nurse to put a bandage on.
e) You’ll need to have some injections before you go.
f) I’ll ask the surgeon when he can fit you in for an operation.
g) You’ll have to have your leg put in plaster.
h) I think you should have total bed rest for a week.
B
1. Anne with bad sunburn.
2. Jo who’s broken her leg.
3. John who’s off to the Tropics.
4. Paul with flu.
5. Liz with a bad cough.
6. Sam who needs his appendix out.
7. Rose suffering from exhaustion.
8. Alf who’s sprained his wrist.

3. Every year scores of viruses attack people seasonally and the


most harmful of them are those of flu.
Discuss with your partner the following questions:
1) Do you happen to know the origin of the word ‘flu’?
2) Have you ever had flu?
3) Do you often catch flu?
4)What is the nature of flu?
5) What is your experience of being laid up with flu?
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6) How does it feel to be having flu?


7) Do you think it is possible to avoid flu? If yes, how?

4. Read the leaflet telling us what we should know about flu.


Do the tasks that follow.

You’ve got your own defence system here’s how to make it work
You’re feeling rotten – weak, shivery, with an aching head, back and
limbs. Your temperature’s up over 38°C (100°F). Probably you’re sweating a lot,
you’ve lost your appetite and you feel sick. You’ve got flu.
So what do you do?
There’s no quick cure. Flu – influenza – is caused by a virus. And viruses
can’t be killed with antibiotics. Only the body’s own defence system can get rid
of them. So for most of us there’s no point in seeing the doctor when we’ve got
flu. But while a bout of flu lasts, which may be anything from 24 hours to
several days,
here’s what you should do.
Stay indoors, keep warm, and keep away from other people as much as
possible so you don’t pass on the infection.
Have plenty of cool drinks – water, fruit drinks, milky drinks. About 2-3
litres a day.
If you feel shivery or feverish, with a temperature over 38°C (100°F) or
aches or pains, try taking soluble aspirin every 4 hours during the day. And rest
in bed if you can.
Try to have 3 light meals a day. But don’t force yourself to eat if you’ve
lost your appetite.
Flu vaccination
Flu vaccine is usually only given to people who are especially at risk
because of their health and to people who cannot miss work, like nurses,
doctors, firemen or policemen. These people may be offered flu vaccination
once a year, generally in the autumn before winter epidemics. But even
vaccination cannot give complete protection against flu.
Remember
Keep flu to yourself. Stay away from other people. Make sure
handkerchiefs and also plates, knives, forks etc., are always well washed.
Look after yourself by resting in bed and having lots of cool drinks.
There’s no need for the doctor unless the flu persists for more than a few
days or gets suddenly worse.
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But if you are elderly and in poor health, or if you suffer from a severe
chest condition like bronchitis or asthma, then flu can become a more serious
illness.
So remember:
 When there’s flu about, try to avoid crowded places and keep away
from anyone who’s got flu.
 If you think you’ve caught flu, get in touch with your doctor. Then he
can at least keep an eye on you.
 In the autumn, ask your doctor if he thinks you should be vaccinated
against flu.

5. Say if these statements are true or false according to the text.


1) With flu your temperature is normally very high.
2) Antibiotics can help you to get better from flu.
3) If you have flu, it’s essential to have substantial meals.
4) Flu is contagious – other people can catch it from you.
5) Flu is not a serious illness for anyone.
6) Having flu, stay indoors and keep warm.
7) To bring down the temperature, you may take a couple of aspirins.
8) If you’re sure you’ve got flu, you should immediately contact your
doctor.
9) People suffering from a severe chest condition should be very careful
about flu.
10) Vaccination against flu is of little use.
11) Flu usually lasts a few days.

6. Work in pairs. Imagine that a friend of yours may have flu.


Ask questions to find out if he/she has flu. Judging by the
answers, give him/her advice what to do.
7. There’s a popular belief that ‘we are what we eat’. People
who care about their health should pay special attention to what they
eat.
a. Before reading the text below discuss in class what food is good for our
body.
b. Skim the text and find out what materials are essential to keep our body
strong and healthy.
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Important materials in your food


Foods contain different materials that help your body stay strong and
healthy. One of the most important of these is proteins. They are absolutely
necessary if the body is to grow, or if it is to repair any injuries or damage to
itself. Some of the principal sources of protein are lean meats, fish, and dairy
products like milk and cheese.
The sugar and starches, known as carbohydrates, are substances that
everyone needs. They supply energy for the body. Potatoes, seed vegetables such
as corn or lima beans, and grain products like rice, spaghetti, bread, cake, and
cookies are some of the foods that are sources of carbohydrates.
Your body also needs other materials, called vitamins and minerals. These
two important substances help the body to make good use of the foods you eat
by making sure the proteins and carbohydrates do their jobs. They also help the
body to make body tissues such as bones, teeth, muscles, nerves, and blood. By
eating animal products like meat, eggs, and milk, and using plenty of fresh
vegetables and fresh fruits daily you can be sure of providing your body with the
vitamins and the minerals it needs.
William K. DURR
From Workbook for Images
c. Look up the words ‘proteins’ and ‘carbohydrates’ in a dictionary for
correct pronunciation and meaning.
d. Name the four beneficial functions of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals
and vitamins.
e. Make up a list of foods which supply our body with all the necessary
materials.

8. The important problem of healthy food is the right balance of


all necessary materials in our diet.
a. Discuss with your partner the value of a balanced diet. Agree or
disagree with the following statements. Skim the text below which will help you
with the arguments.
1) If we eat food with more calories than we need, we get fat.
2) It is better to eat regular meals than to wait for one big feast at the end
of the day.
3) We should try to reduce the amount of bread and potatoes we eat.
4) Fibre is an important part of a good diet.
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5) If other members of our family get fat quite easily, we probably will
too.
6) If we like eating sweet things, it’s probably a habit we learnt from our
parents.
7) Men are just as likely to get fatter as they grow older as women are.
8) It’s useless for most people to take vitamin pills.
9) People differ in the food they enjoy and also in the way food affects
them.
10) A bad diet can damage our health.
1
The average person swallows about half-a-ton of food a year – not
counting drink – and though the body is remarkably efficient at extracting just
what it needs from this huge mixture, it can only cope up to a point.
If you go on eating too much of some things and not enough of others,
you’ll eventually get out of condition and your health will suffer.
So think before you start eating. It may look good. It may taste good.
Fine! But how much good is it really doing you?
2
What you eat and the way it affects your body depend very much on the
kind of person you are. For one thing, the genes you inherit from your parents
can determine how your body-chemistry (metabolism) copes with particular
foods. The tendency to put on weight rather easily, for example, often runs in
families – which means that they have to take particular care.
And your parents may shape your future in another way. Your upbringing
shapes some basic attitudes to food – like whether you have a sweet tooth,
nibble between meals, take big mouthfuls or eat chips with everything.
Eating habits, good or bad, tend to get passed on.
And then there’s your lifestyle. How much you spend on food (time as
well as money), how much exercise you get - these can alter the balance
between food and fitness.
And finally, both your age and your sex may affect this balance. For
example, you’re more likely to put on weight as you get older, especially if
you’re a woman.
So, everybody’s different and the important thing is to know yourself.
Read on and see if you think you are striking the right balance.
3
Your food should balance your body’s need for –
NUTRIENTS (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water)
– the raw materials needed to build and repair the body-machine. ENERGY
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(calories) – to power the body-machine, all the thousands of different


mechanisms that keep you alive and active.
DIETARY FIBRE (a complex mixture of natural plant substances) – the
value of which we are just beginning to understand.
4
If you’re eating a fairly varied diet, it is just about impossible to go short
of proteins, vitamins or minerals. It is likely, too, that you have more than
enough fats and carbohydrates.
Take proteins for instance. On average, we eat about twice as much
protein as we need.
Vitamin pills aren’t likely to help either. A varied diet with plenty of fresh
fruit, vegetables and cereals along with some fish, eggs, meat and dairy products
will contain more than enough vitamins. Unless you have some special medical
reason, it is a waste of time and money to take vitamin pills.
As for minerals, there is no shortage in the average diet and it is useless to
have more than you need.
5
Just about everything you eat contains energy – measured as calories; the
higher the number of calories, the more energy. But don’t make the mistake of
thinking that eating extra energy-rich foods will make you more energetic. The
amount of energy in your daily diet should exactly balance the energy your
body-machine burns up. If you eat more than you use, the extra energy is stored
as body fat. And this is the big problem.
6
Over hundreds of thousands of years, man’s food came mainly from
plants.
He ate cereals (like wheat), pulses (like beans and peas), vegetables, fruit
and nuts. So our ancestors were used to eating the sort of food that contains a lot
of fibre.
In comparison with our ancestors, the sort of food we eat today contains
very little fibre. Our main foods are meat, eggs and dairy products, which
contain no fibre at all.
Lack of fibre seems to be connected with various disorders of the
digestive system. Some experts also believe that lack of fibre may even lead to
heart disease.
If you’re worried about your weight, eating more fibre may actually help
you to slim! Food with plenty of fibre like potatoes or bread can be satisfying
without giving you too many calories.
From The Health Education Council
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b. Comment on the following phrases:


1) … it can only cope up to a point … ; 2) … you’ll eventually get out of
condition … ; 3) … the tendency <…> often runs in families … ; 4) … have a
sweet tooth … ; 5) … nibble between meals … ; 6) . these can alter the balance
… ; 7) … you are striking the right balance … ; 8) … a fairly varied diet … ; 9)
… go short of proteins … ; 10) … extra energy is stored as body fat … ; 11) …
the digestive system … .
c. Write down an outline of the article.
d. Give a brief resume the article.

9. A great many people nowadays have become the advocates of


a vegetarian diet.
a. Discuss with your partners the following:
1) Can you explain the meaning of the word ‘vegetarian’? 2) Do you
guess how old the practice of vegetarianism is? 3) Do you know any famous
people who refused to eat flesh food? 4) What is your attitude to this sort of
diet? 5) Can you speak on the ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ of plant food?
b. Look through the text below and say if …

 there are any facts that support your ideas about vegetarians.
 there is new information for you (if yes, which?).
 all the arguments in favour of vegetarianism seem convincing to you.

Vegetarians
The word “vegetarian” was coined in about 1840 to mean people who
lived without killing for food, either for moral or health reasons, or both. But the
practice is much older than that. Greek philosophers recommended
vegetarianism and famous people who practised it in the past include Leonardo
da Vinci, Tolstoy and Voltaire, Milton, Newton and Bernard Shaw. Surely this
proves that mental activity does not depend on flesh foods. What are the
arguments that might stop us from eating meat?
Man’s body is more like those of fruit-eating animals (such as our
‘cousins’ the apes) than like those of flesh-eating animals. For millions of years
man must have lived on fruit, nuts and leaves and so developed a digestive
system. Perhaps the more we move away from this diet towards meat-eating, the
less likely we are to be healthy. Cancer, tuberculosis and heart disease are
certainly more common in meat-eating communities. Man may have started
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eating the flesh of animals during the Ice Age when most of the vegetation was
destroyed.
A diet of vegetables, fruit, grains and nuts together with a few dairy
products can give us all the vitamins and minerals we need. By eating meat we
are getting the basic food elements secondhand after they have been digested by
the animal. It is worth considering how wasteful meat-eaters are with land. A
meat-eater needs about three times as much land to support himself and his
animals as a vegetarian does. For every 45 kilos of dry food eaten by cattle only
1,8 – 7,3 kilos come back as food for us humans — an expensive method of
producing food.

10. A lot of people all over the world suffer from obesity, that is,
being far too fat. Quite many of them dream of, if not becoming slim
and graceful like stunning top models or smashing Hollywood stars,
then of at least being able to make out where their waists are.
There are dozens upon dozens of various slimming diets and other ways
of getting rid of overweight.
a. Discuss with your partners the following:
1) What are the reasons for becoming obese? 2) What is your impression
of stout/fat people? (You dislike them, are indifferent, tolerant, etc.) 3) Fat
people can be charming, charismatic, can’t they? Will you give an example of
that? 4) Do you think obesity has something to do only with our aesthetic
perception of a person and it is fairly harmless for health? Give your arguments.
b. Read the following ‘Ten Tips on How to Lose Weight’ and discuss it in
class. Look up in the dictionary the verbs ‘toss out’, ‘stock up on’, ‘cut down
on’; make sure you know what spices ‘cinnamon’ and ‘nutmeg’ are; comment on
the meaning of the word ‘tip’ in this very context.

TEN TIPS ON HOW TO LOSE WEIGHT


1. Don’t shop for groceries on an empty stomach. Make a list and stick to
it.
2. Never eat anything after dinner.
3. Eat desserts only on weekends — one way to limit problem foods
without depriving yourself altogether.
4. Toss out offending foods. Stock up on raw vegetables, fresh fruit, low-
calorie crackers, tomato juice, low-fat yogurt and cottage cheese.
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5. Learn to love water — six to eight glasses a day. Coffee and tea can
dehydrate you and give you caffeine jitters. Soft drinks have sugar.
6. When cooking, replace salt with spices and herbs.
7. Cut down on sugar. Switch to substitutes in coffee and tea; cook with
cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon and fruit juices.
8. Don’t weigh yourself every day — normal fluctuations may frustrate
you. Once a week is enough.
9. Reward yourself for your efforts — not just results – with something
other than food.
10. Start exercising – now!
From Reader’s Digest
c. Answer the following questions:

1) Do you think that ‘offending foods’ is the same as ‘problem foods’? 2)


Which of these tips seem most reasonable to you? 3) Can you describe this diet
as severe or bland? 4) Do you think this diet will suit those who don’t want to
put on weight or just wish to be healthy?

11. Modern life is hard on us. There are lots of little things to
make us feel tense and irritable. Tension leads to stress and stress
leads to … what?
Doctors think that stress, the pressure we all live with every day, makes us
ill. It gives us headaches and bad stomachs. But that’s not all. Many serious
diseases are related to stress. Doctors have found that the two ‘modern killers’ –
heart disease and cancer – are more common in people who find it difficult to
relax.
a. Discuss with your partner the following:
1) What is stress? What are its symptoms? 2) What kinds of things cause
stress (e.g. cold, hunger, fear, etc.)? 3) How does stress affect you or people like
you? 4) How can people cope with stress?
b. Which of these situations would you find most stressful?
1) divorce; 2) going on a business trip; 3) moving house; 4) moving to
another country; 5) losing your job; 6) a personality clash with your boss; 7) an
annual health check-up; 8) being the victim of a robbery.
c. Give your opinion of the following ways to reduce stress:

 taking tranquillizers
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 smoking
 drinking alcohol
 taking drugs (narcotics)
 doing exercises (sports)
 taking up a hobby
 entertaining, having fun
d. Discuss how sports help us cope with stress.

 What sport do you do? Why?


 Which sport do you prefer to watch (on TV, at a stadium, in a
swimming pool / gym, etc.)?
 What do you think of aerobics? Is it a way of keeping fit?
 What is the difference between professional and amateur sport? Which
of them is more helpful in getting fun (relaxing)?
e. Speak about your hobby/ies and how it/they help reduce stress.
f. Speak about a beneficial effect of such entertainments as
theatre Why are people attracted by the theatre?
What kind of theatre do you personally like?
Tell the class about the performance you’ve enjoyed lately
cinema Where can you nowadays see a film you like?
What is exiting about watching a film?
How can you see a film made many years ago?
What are the advantages of video films?
music What is your favourite music?
Do you think dancing and singing can be a relaxing and
enjoyable experience? Why?
Do you play any musical instrument? If not, what musical
instrument would you like to learn to play?
Have you ever enjoyed music performed by amateurs?
g. Read Texts A and B and discuss the stress problem.
A
People usually think of ‘stress’ as something the world inflicts on them.
Worry and hassle are blamed for all kinds of ailments, from asthma to
headaches, from high blood pressure to stomach ulcers. And we often blame
other people for making us feel bad: when we call someone a ‘pain in the neck’,
we are describing the physical and psychological effect they have on us.
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But although it is tempting to regard stress as some nasty germ attacking


us from outside, the truth is that we are largely responsible for what stress does
to our bodies. Once we make ourselves aware of how our bodies respond to
worry, fear, anger and fatigue (all of which are forms of stress), we can start
learning to relax.
B
Recently, scientists in America did a very strange experiment with rats.
They built a modern city for them. The rats lived in apartment blocks. They had
the noise of traffic, music, other rats all day and all night. They were given
alcohol. They were taken out of their ‘flats’ every day and put in an ‘office’. Of
course they didn’t have to work or go to school but otherwise they lived just like
we do.
Very soon they began to behave just like us, too. Some rats started to
destroy their ‘homes’, just like the ‘hooligans’ who break windows for no
reason. Some rats started to drink too much. Other rats got unhappy and
depressed. And the rats began to fight each other. Then they started to develop
diseases that rats don’t normally get: cancer, heart disease, etc.
Of course you can say that it isn’t natural for rats to live in blocks of flats.
But then, is it natural for us to live the way we do in the modern world? It
certainly isn’t good for us. It makes us tense and irritable, and depresses us.
h. Answer the following questions:
1) What meanings does the phrase ‘pain in the neck’ have? (A) 2) What is
referred to as ‘nasty germ’ and why? (A) 3) What are the two main ideas in Text
A? 4) What did the American scientists aim at experimenting with rats? (B) 5)
What was striking about the results of the experiment? (B) 6) What conclusion
can you draw from the content of Text B?

12. ‘Keep fit’ seems to have become a motto of our time. People
rush to sport clubs, fitness centers, gyms, tennis courts, swimming
pools, sports grounds and jog, run, jump, swim… An athletic-looking
figure with a slim waist and bulging muscles is an idol for millions,
many of whom are typical ‘couch potatoes’ having no willpower to
move a finger to change their lifestyle.
Exercising your body may be rather expensive in terms of time, effort and
material things like club fees, equipment and special outfits. Meanwhile, there
exist alternative ways of achieving this aim.
a. Work in pairs or small groups. Explain the meaning of the phrases
‘couch potato’ and ‘junk food’.
167

b. How do you rate the following suggestions as ways of ensuring


physical fitness? Rank them starting with those you consider to be most
effective. Be prepared to justify your choice by explaining how the suggestions
may or may not help you.
grow your own vegetables stop smoking
move to the countryside sell your TV
buy an exercise bike walk to work
take vitamin pills refuse to use lifts
avoid ‘junk’ food avoid alcoholic beverages
Do you consider selling your TV to be an effective way of keeping fit?
c.Yet, there exists certain scepticism concerning this overwhelming
obsession with you body being beautiful. Those who challenge this crazy fad,
remark ironically: “Exercising makes people think that they can live for ever. It
puts off the moment of realization that we are mortal. If you don’t stay still long
enough you don’t have to think about such things. Coming to terms with oneself,
finding out who one is and where one is going, come from within, not from
running round a park with 2,000 other people.”
Do you share this viewpoint?
d. Read the following advice and discuss it with your partners: “It’s high
time you hung up your trainers and exercised your mind and not your body.”

 What message does it convey to you?


 Who might it be given to?
 Does this bit of advice make sense? Why?

PRACTISING VOCABULARY
1. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying
attention to the underlined parts and make up 6 sentences of your own
with any of these phrases.
1) My head is swimming. I’m going to faint. 2) My leg has gone dead. I
want to stretch it but I can’t. 3) It’s not a serious injury, it’s only a scratch. 4)
You may get blood poisoning if you don’t keep the wound clean. 5) His sight is
poor, and besides he is colour-blind. 6) An epidemic is an infectious disease
caused by germs. 7) This is a severe case of acute appendicitis. 8) Her uncle died
of brain haemorrhage. 9) Let me see your tongue… Yes, it is a little furred. 10)
What’s the matter with Paul? – He’s gone down with bronchitis. 11) I should say
you are generally run down. 12) Millions of people now are addicted to
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tranquillizers prescribed by doctors. 13) I think there is nothing the matter with
you, it’s just shattered nerves. 14) The brain normally suffers damage after 4 or
5 minutes without oxygen. 15) A board of doctors will be called to diagnose the
case. 16) He came round after 15 minutes of being unconscious. 17) Mark spent
three weeks in hospital. They treated him for ulcer. 18) Jason played football in
the afternoon and now his left ankle is out of joint.

2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each


sentence.
a) There were ten people waiting in the doctor’s office/surgery/ward.
b) After I ate the shellfish I experienced/fell/happened ill.
c) George’s cut arm took over a week to cure/heal/look after.
d) David fell down the steps and twisted his ankle/heel/toe.
e) Everyone admired Lucy because she was tall and skinny/slim/thin.
f) I’ve been digging the garden and now my back aches/pains/injures.
g) Whenever I travel by boat I start feeling hurt/sick/sore.
h) The doctor can’t say what is wrong with you until she
examines/cures/recovers you.
i) Use this thermometer and take his fever/heat/temperature.
j) I seem to have caught/infected/taken a cold.

3. Read the texts below. Use the words given in italics after the
texts to form a word that fits in the space and give your summary of
the texts.
A
A Visit to the Doctor’s
Jim decided to visit the doctor after his trip to the jungle. He was normally
a tall (1) ...muscular... person, but over the past month he had lost a lot of
(2) .................. He had also noticed that his ankles and knees had become rather
(3) ................... . He thought that he might have eaten or drunk something
(4) ............... or caught some kind of (5) ............. disease. The doctor took some
blood for tests and told Jim to go back a week later. This time the doctor had an
optimistic (6) …......... on her face, and Jim felt quite (7) .............. ‘Don’t worry,’
said the doctor, ‘it’s nothing serious. You haven’t caught an (8) …............
disease, or anything terrible like that. It’s a simple virus, and you will need some
(9) ……........ Take these tablets twice a day for two weeks, and you’ll make a
full (10) ………… .

(1) muscle (2) weigh (3) pain (4) poison (5) infect
(6) express (7) heart (8) cure (9) treat (10) recover
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B
The Benefits of Exercise
Working full-time can be a very (1) …........... experience for most people;
long hours and the pressure to be (2) …............. in a (3) …......... society both
contribute to the build-up of anxiety. If you’re feeling (4) …............ , there’s no
better way to relax than to exercise. However, many people return from work
too (5) ...........….. to move. People are criticized for being lazy and (6)
…............... , and for watching too much television which is not (7) ….............
to our health. Taking regular exercises can be both relaxing and (8) ..........…..
and people who feel healthy often also feel more (9) …........... . You don’t need
to be especially (10) ….......... to take up a sport; simply choose one that is (11)
…......... to you character.
(1) stress (2) success (3) compete (4) nerve (5) exhaust
(6) active (7) benefit (8) pleasure (9) confidence
(10) energy (11) suit
C
The Power of the Mind
Scientists have recently become interested in strange (1) ………....
powers. A professor at Edinburgh University is leading an (2) …….... into the
most (3) ……... aspect of the brain’s (4) ……... He has chosen a controversial
and (5) ………..... subject – telepathy. Direct mind-to-mind (6) ………….. is
when one person knows what another is thinking. Many people have doubts that
this is really a (7) ………... subject, and the professor’s work has only recently
received (8) …….... . He believes that telepathy is a (9) …….... talent, but that
some people are more (10) ……... than others. However, most people still
believe that it involves some kind of (11) ……….. or trickery.

(1) psychology (2) investigate (3) mystery (4) able


(5) surprise (6) communicate (7) science (8) recognize
(9) nature (10) sense (11) honesty
D
Hypochondriacs
There are people who spend years suffering from an (1) …….... which
doctors are not usually (2) …….. towards. Hypochondria is a (3) ……... term
which describes a highly (4) …..... level of worry about your health. Sufferers
regularly visit their doctors with (5) ………... of serious symptoms which
doctors cannot explain. Hypochondriacs are always (6) ……... about their health
and often imagine that they are suffering from (7) ………... or (8) …….....
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diseases. They waste the (9) ……..... time of doctors when really they are
perfectly (10) ………... Sufferers can be taught to control their (11) ……....
through relaxation techniques.
(1) ill (2) sympathy (3) medicine (4) normal (5) complain
(6) pessimism (7) danger (8) curable (9) value (10) health
(11) anxious
E
Snoring
In Britain alone, over 3 million people snore (1) ……….. enough to
disrupt their partner’s sleep. In some cases, snoring makes (2) …….... difficult,
causing oxygen (3) …..…….. to the brain and heart and thus waking the person
up suddenly. It is known to ruin the lives of many people (4) …..….. who are (5)
………... to sleep properly. The causes are (6) ….…...., but the most common
are fat collecting around the upper throat, or blockage of the nasal passage. In
(7) ………..., some people decide to have an (8) ….... . Although this (9) ….
…... is extremely (10) ……....., it has been shown that it can often (11) …….…..
solve the snorer’s problem.
(1) loud (2) breath (3) starve (4) globe (5) able
(6) vary (7) desperate (8) operate (9) opt (10) pleasant
(11) success

4. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each
word once only.
cheek knees neck throat waist
chin lips nose thumb wrist
a) After speaking for two hours, the lecturer had a sore ................ .
b) Terry was on his hands and ............., looking for the fallen coin.
c) Paul gave his aunt an affectionate kiss on the ............................ .
d) There was such a terrible smell that I had to hold my ............... .
e) Stan is deaf, but he can understand people by reading their ...... .
f) I never wear a watch because I don’t like the weight on my …. .
g) One of the boxers punched the other on the ........... and knocked him
out.
h) When Diana was a baby, she used to suck her .......................... .
i) I’ve lost a lot of weight, especially around the ........................... .
j) Norma wears a heart on a gold chain around her ....................... .

5. Read the texts below and decide which word A, B, C or D best


fits each space. Give your summary of the texts.
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A
Stress
Stress is important. We all need a certain ….amount.... of it in order to (1)
…….... fulfilling lives. However, if we have too much of it, it can have the
opposite (2) …….... Some people can tolerate greater (3) ………... of stress than
others, but most of us will (4) ……….. at some time in our lives. It is (5)
………..... a good idea to learn a few stress management techniques. Identifying
the (6) ……….. of the problem we have, so that we can (7) …….... it more
effectively, is one of the first (8) ………... towards reducing stress. The second
is talking to a person you can trust, who will listen and, if necessary, (9) …….....
you some positive advice. Not only are smoking and drinking (10) ………... to
our health, they actually increase stress (11) ………..... than reduce it. So, next
time you want to relax, (12) ………….. of reaching for a glass of wine or a
cigarette, have a warm bath or go for a walk. Walking has more than health
benefits, it helps you think more (13) ……….... too. Pets have a calming
influence on us, unless they make noise which irritates us. In fact, unwanted
noises should be (14) ……….. as far as possible. On the other hand, laughter is
one of the best ways to (15) ……….... yourself feel considerably better.
e.g. A) number B) bulk C) amount D) load
1 A) guide B) lead C) carry D) spend
2 A) influence B) solution C) answer D) effect
3 A) levels B) platforms C) grades D) scales
4 A) undergo B) suffer C) tolerate D) torture
5 A) therefore B) so C) however D) nevertheless
6 A) purpose B) occurrence C) cause D) reason
7 A) rather B) solve C) do D) cope
8 A) movements B) methods C) ways D) steps
9 A) give B) provide C) supply D) hand
10 A) negative B) destructive C) harmful D) hurtful
11 A) more B) rather C) as D) quite
12 A) ahead B) other C) because D) instead
13 A) clearly B) well C) skillfully D) cleanly
14 A) subtracted B) avoided C) limited D) transported
15 A) succeed B) have C) do D) make
B
Alternative Therapy
Creative therapy is now regarded ……as…..... a worthy alternative to the
more conventional forms of treatment such as psychoanalysis. Art, music and
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dance are some of the forms of therapy now (1) ……….... . These therapies are
thought to be (2) ……..... in relieving stress, depression and even emotional
problems (3) ……….... by tensions in relationships. Art therapy (4) …….........
painting, sculpture and modelling as a(n) (5) ……….... of expressing one’s
hidden feelings. The good news is that no particular talent is needed; once you
have (6) ………...your “work of art” (7) ………..... is the opportunity to talk it
through with a therapist. Those who (8) ………... it difficult to immediately start
up a conversation find this (9) ............... of therapy useful. Music therapy
involves singing or the playing of a musical instrument, (10) ……….... sound to
bring hidden emotions to the (11) .................. Again, no (12) …………. skill is
required; you don’t have to be Pavarotti to benefit (13) ................. this type of
therapy. This technique is often used to promote self-confidence in the
physically or mentally disabled. And for those among you who (14) ……….......
too much time in intellectual pursuits, dance therapy may prove (15) …....….... .
It encourages spontaneity and helps the deep thinker become more bodily aware.
e.g. A) as B) like C) by D) to
1 A) visible B) available C) handy D) ready
2 A) likely B) capable C) possible D) effective
3 A) directed B) caused C) occurred D) happened
4 A) contains B) has C) involves D) needs
5 A) means B) attempt C) type D) effort
6 A) completed B) worked C) been D) added
7 A) it B) there C) that D) here
8 A) have B) make C) seem D) find
9 A) condition B) shape C) pattern D) form
10 A) consisting B) having C) using D) trying
11 A) surface B) top C) front D) side
12 A) strange B) typical C) peculiar D) from
13 A) in B) by C) of D) from
14 A) have B) spend C) use D) spare
15 A) invaluable B) priceless C) precious D) worthy
C
Anorexia
Anorexia is a comparatively new illness and seems to be ....linked.... to
the society we live in which increasingly (1) ........... us on our appearance. The
media encourages us to try to be (2) ............. and beautiful. Falling short of these
criteria can put enormous (3) ............ on the majority of us who are less than (4)
.............. . Each year there are estimated to be at (5) .............. 2,000 new cases of
anorexia. About one sufferer in ten is male, but most anorexics are females in
173

their teens and twenties who suffer (6) ............... a distorted self image, feeling
fat and ugly, (7) ............... slim and attractive they may appear to others. Though
constantly hungry, anorexics attempt to gain (8) .................. of their lives by
(9) ................. to eat. The problem commonly (10) .............. in teenage years,
when responsibilities increase. In (11) ............ cases, it can (12) .............
anaemia, heart and kidney problems and, in almost a fifth of the cases, death by
starvation or secondary infection. Treatment (13) .................. encouraging
patients to (14) ................. weight by providing counselling and therapy which,
in essence, guides the sufferers (15) ................ a normal life.
e.g. A) resulted B) linked C) caused D) developed
1 A) watches B) judges C) measures D) criticises
2 A) narrow B) slight C) light D) slim
3 A) pressure B) tension C) weight D) force
4 A) exact B) perfect C) excellent D) good
5 A) minimum B) less C) least D) more
6 A) by B) from C) of D) for
7 A) whether B) either C) moreoverD) however
8 A) control B) direction C) power D) authority
9 A) forbidding B) refusing C) rejecting D) denying
10 A) develops B) delivers C) turns D) takes
11 A) enlarged B) extended C) prolonged D) expanded
12 A) lead B) catch C) cause D) give
13 A) considers B) involves C) concerns D) deals
14 A) put B) win C) earn D) regain
15 A) in B) from C) at D) towards
D
A Disastrous Holiday
The day Gerald arrived at the Almara Beach Hotel, he fell …down…...
the stairs. The manager called a/an (1) …..…, but fortunately Gerald’s leg was
only badly (2) ……....., and not broken. The doctor (3) ……....... swimming as
further (4) ………..... but gave Gerald a/an (5) …...…..... for some tablets in
case his leg became (6) ................ The next day Gerald sunbathed by the pool,
and then took a deep (7) …..…..... and dived into the water. There was not very
much water in the pool, and he (8) ……..... one of his arms when he hit the
bottom. This time he complained to the hotel manager, who sent a special meal
to Gerald’s room. Later that night, Gerald was (9) ……........ from a (10)
……..... back, the injuries to his arm and leg, and also had a terrible (11)
……...... He had a high (12) …........... and felt terrible. Luckily he had the
tablets the doctor had given him to (13) ............... the pain. As he reached for
174

them, he fell out of bed and broke his (14) ……….... . He spent the rest of his
holiday in bed.
e.g. A) down B) to C) with D) for
1 A) stretcher B) prescription C) ambulance D) emergency
2 A) sick B) bruised C) hurt D) infected
3 A) went B) prevented C) said D) recommended
4 A) medicine B) cure C) drugs D) treatment
5 A) recipe B) paper C) prescription D) order
6 A) painful B) pained C) painless D) pain
7 A) end B) breath C) mouthful D) water
8 A) hurt B) injury C) ached D) sore
9 A) ill B) injured C) suffering D) damaged
10 A) sunny B) sunburnt C) sunshine D) grilled
11 A) agony B) hurt C) heat D) stomachache
12 A) pain B) temperature C) ache D) degree
13 A) hold B) check C) rid D) reduce
14 A) waist B) lip C) wrist D) throat

6. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each


sentence.
a) Martin hasn’t quite .................. his illness yet.
A) recovered B) got over C) looked after D) suffered
b) Pauline ............... birth to a baby girl yesterday afternoon.
A) was B) put C) had D) gave
c) Your leg isn’t broken but it is badly .................. .
A) fractured B) bruised C) bandaged D) bent
d) Several angry drivers shook their ........... at me as I drove away.
A) fists B) arms C) hands D) elbows
e) That was a bad fall! Have you .................... yourself?
A) harmed B) damaged C) wounded D)hurt
f) Each time I sneezed, everyone said,’................... you!’
A) Cough B) Bless C) Cold D) Thank
g) Stop making that noise! You’re getting on my .................. !
A) muscles B) brains C) nerves D) blood
h) As the little boy cried, large ............... rolled down his cheeks.
A) drips B) tears C) puddles D) streams
i) I had a severe toothache and half my face was badly ................. .
A) swollen B) rounded C) exploded D) injured
j) I’ve got a headache, and I don’t feel very ................... .
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A) healthy B) fit C) sane D) well

7. Complete each sentence with one suitable word.


a) I am afraid she is suffering .................. an incurable disease.
b) I was .................... agony all night with earache.
c) I think you’ve put ..................... a lot of weight lately.
d) The effect of this drug will slowly wear ....................... .
e) You really get .................... my nerves sometimes!
f) After Jack fainted it was several minutes before he .......... round.
g) Is Coral being operated ..................... tomorrow?
h) Harry went .................... with flu during his holiday.
i) Peter was treated .................... minor injuries and shock.
j) Don’t worry. I’ll take care ................... you myself.

8. Replace the words underlined in each sentence with one of the


words from the list. Use each word once only.
agony body breath look stomachache
beard brains heart spine tongue
a) Janet fell from her horse and injured her backbone. ....................
b) I had a very bad toothache, and was in great pain all night. ........
c) The police discovered the dead person buried in the garden. ......
d) One thing you can say about Ann, she has certainly got
intelligence. ..................
e) They have a new house right in the centre of the countryside. ....
f) Italian is actually Mary’s native language. ...................................
g) Before I dived in the water, I took a deep mouthful of air. .........
h) After dinner, Jack had a pain from eating too much. ...................
i) Shirley had a strange expression on her face. ...............................
j) David managed to grow a lot of hair on his face. .........................

9. Match each sentence a) to j) with a sentence from 1) to 10)


which has the same meaning.
a) Henry’s heart was in the right place. ............................................
b) Paul held his tongue. ....................................................................
c) Richard jawed away for at least an hour. .....................................
d) Dave had a lot of cheek to talk like that. ……………....…….....
e) Keith couldn’t stomach his new boss. ..........................................
f) Harry backed his boss. ..................................................................
g) William kept poking his nose in. ………………........……….....
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h) Graham thumbed a lift to work. ……………….....…………......


i) Charles put his foot in it. ...............................................................
j) Jack’s heart ached to be where he belonged. ………....……........
1) He talked.
2) He supported him.
3) He said the wrong thing.
4) He was kind.
5) He was rather rude.
6) He didn’t say anything.
7) He interfered in other people’s business.
8) He hitch hiked.
9) He missed home.
10) He didn’t like him.

10. Complete each sentence a) to j) with one of the endings 1) to


10). Use each ending once only.
a) I think we should send for an ambulance …………….....…........
b) Some people go jogging every morning ……………………......
c) It would be a good idea for you to go to the dentist’s ..................
d) The doctor gave Andy an injection …………………....……......
e) I’m going into hospital tomorrow ................................................
f) We took the cat to the vet ………………....……………….........
g) Susan took two aspirins ...............................................................
h) Nobody could find a stretcher .....................................................
i) The doctor gave Helen a prescription ……………………...........
j) I bought some special cream ........................................................

1) .................................... to have that bad tooth of yours taken out.


2) .................. to check whether it had recovered from its accident.
3) ................................................ to take old Mrs Jones to hospital.
4) .......................................... to put on my sunburnt arms and legs.
5) ........................................................... to get rid of her headache.
6) ........................................ to reduce the pain and help him sleep.
7) ............................................................... to take to the chemist’s.
8) .............................................. to keep fit, or to lose some weight.
9) ............................... to carry the injured man out of the building.
10) ……………..................…..... to have an operation on my foot.
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11. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits
each space. Use only one word in each space.
A
Vegetables
We are frequently told these days that we should eat more vegetables
(1) ......as........ part of a healthy diet. However, a large (2) .............. of people are
still not taking this advice. One of the reasons could be that they (3) .......... bad
memories of the few vegetables they were forced to eat by (4) .......... parents
when they were children. (5) ................ the other hand, potatoes are one (6)
…............. of vegetables which we are familiar (7) ……........ although we do
not perhaps think of them (8) .............. healthy food to eat. Of course, chips are
not very good for us (9) ……........ of their high fat content, but potatoes can (10)
.............. cooked in many other interesting ways which do not harm our health.
(11) .............. vegetables which we will almost certainly (12) ……........ eaten
are carrots, turnips and parsnips. Carrots can be eaten raw, while parsnips can be
prepared (13) ............. potatoes, and baby turnips are crisp and as sweet as
apples when cooked. Alternatively, there are many different vegetables in the
shops, (14) …........ as celeriac*, kohlrabi and salsify**. These may (15) ...........
strange to us at the moment, but they are as easy to cook as (16) …......... of the
other vegetables mentioned and make a delicious change.

*celeriac: a vegetable that is a type of celery with an edible root that


looks like an irregularly shaped turnip and is eaten cooked or raw. Cf.
(корневой) сельдерей.
**salsify: a European composite plant that has leaves resembling grass,
purple flowers, and a long edible root. Cf. козлобородник.

B
The Brain
Contrary to popular belief, it is not true (1) .................. we use only 10
percent of our brain power; it is (2) .................. of the myths of modern times.
The brain controls all of our bodily functions as (3) .................. as carrying out
the most complicated processes (4) .................. thought and imagination. There
must (5) , ..................., be some spare capacity built into the system because
brain cells – unlike most of the body’s other cells - are not (6) ............. to divide
and therefore are incapable (7) ............. replacing themselves (8) ..................
they die.
It is possible to increase the abilities of our brain. We do (9) ...................
when we learn to read, (10) ................. example. Current research shows that the
learning process creates new connections (11) ................. brain cells
178

(12) ................. increases our mental powers. But scientists are unable to say
exactly how (13) ................. of our brains we don’t use. Despite a lot of
research, the brain is still the (14) ................. mysterious organ in the body and it
will be many years (15) ................. enough information can be gathered to
explain all (16) ................ functions.
C
Choose Your Sport Carefully
Regular exercise such as jogging or swimming is good (1) ................. the
heart. It can also give you more energy to enjoy life. As a (2) ................. of
regular exercise, your body gets better (3) ................. using oxygen. It becomes
easier for your heart to pump blood (4) ................. your body. After a while, the
heart doesn’t (5) ................. to work quite as hard. Exercise is often thought to
be an easy (6) ................. of losing weight. But in (7) ................., exercise tends
to increase your appetite. Many people discover they lose (8) ................. weight
with exercise alone. (9) ................ diet and exercise are needed to achieve this.
Some people exercise because they think it will help them to live longer. If that
is your reason for exercising, then you (10) ................ avoid short, intensive
exercise. Squash, for example, (11) ................ is a fast game, may be harmful
(12) ................ you’re unfit or middle-aged. Other sports can be dangerous
(13) ................ . Although both rugby and football are popular sports, a rugby
player is three (14) ................ more likely to be injured than a tennis player. It is
advisable, (15) ................ , to choose a sport that suits you and not one that is
going to harm you.
D
Can We Live Longer?
There has been a trend towards healthier living in the (1) ................. two
or three decades. However, there is still a lot of debate about (2) ..................
style of life is the (3) .................. likely to help you live longer. Many people
believe that staying fit and (4) ................ regular exercise can lead to a long life.
It’s true that the healthier we are, the better we feel, but (5) ................. this lead
to a longer life? Some people would like to think (6) ................ but there is no
real proof that exercise is the answer. Obviously, abusing our bodies can lead to
disaster. Drinking, smoking or leading a stressful life can shorten our lives
dramatically. But even (7) ................. some people live to excess, something
appears to protect them. Could it be the genetic make-up they inherited
(8) ............... their parents? A particularly strong gene could help people combat
illness. On the other hand, if we are unlucky (9) ............... to have inherited a
weak gene, then there is little to (10) ............... done. Even if this is the (11)
................., then a balanced diet could be a help, if not a cure. It has (12)
................ proven that diet can help a variety of illnesses – from cancer to
179

rheumatism – and even if we don’t suffer (13) ................. these illnesses, a


healthy diet can surely enhance the quality of our lives. There is no certainty that
(14) ............... of these things will prolong our lives but even if we are unlucky
in our genetic make-up, (15) ............... can be no harm in giving our bodies the
best, even if nature doesn’t.

12. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word(s) from the list
below. Their synonyms are given in brackets.
process average consume vital
resist individual ingredient overcome

1. It is wise to ........... fruit and vegetables as part of your daily diet. (eat)
2. He couldn’t ............... his fear of flying so he travelled by boat. (defeat)
3. Certain vitamins help the body to .......... disease. (fight against)
4. Let’s cooperate instead of each making ............... decisions. (separate)
5. The ............. of making cheese takes a couple of weeks. (series of
actions)
6. The fingerprints found at the scene of the crime were ................... clues
in the murder case. (essential)
7. Your ............... intake of wine should not be more that two glasses per
day. (normal)
8. Flour is a necessary ................ for making a cake. (component)

13. Read the text carefully. Some of the lines are correct and
some have a word which should not be there. Find this word.
A
The Dangers of the Sun
e. g. Holiday beaches are as like huge barbecues where
1 people lie like burgers on a grill. Many people do not realize
2 that the dangers of baking themselves in the sun. By
3 following on some sensible advice, holidaymakers can to
4 achieve a perfect tan, yet avoid such a dangers as sunburn
5 and even skin cancer. The sun is at its strongest between 11 am
6 and 3 pm, so that sit in the shade at this time. Babies
7 should have be kept out of direct sun, and children they
8 should wear sunblock and a hat. Remember to reapply sun
9 cream regularly, in particularly after the swimming.
10 Sunglasses are not just a fashion accessory. They provide
11 vital protection as from the sun’s rays. Never wear
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12 sunglasses with much cheap lenses: they do more harm


13 than good. Summer is a great season, but be sensible!

B
Exam Worries
1. There’s a teaching exam I want to take next
2. year but I'm very cautious about applying it.
3. In the first place, the pass rate isn't high up;
4. in fact, only a fifty percent of candidates actually
5. pass. Secondly, it's very expensive to do the
6. course and exam. It costs at £1,500 and
7. you need to take three months off the work.
8. Thirdly, it’s quite so stressful. Before you can
9. sit the final practical and written exams you
10. must have been written ten compositions and
11. have had ten lessons observed which are
12. being considered to have been of a high enough
13. of standard. In addition to all these points,
14. I want to make certain I have enough of the
15. right kind of teaching experience to pass through
16. before I attempt the exam. It’s lots of much
17. money to waste if you’re not all sure of passing.

14. Translate from Russian into English using your active


vocabulary.
1) Это лекарство от бронхита собьет вашу температуру. 2) Я
чувствую себя неважно, меня лихорадит, все тело ноет. 3) Врач говорит,
что у меня 20 кг лишнего веса и мне нужно соблюдать диету. 4) У вас
общее переутомление и вы нуждаетесь в хорошем отдыхе. 5) Есть ли у вас
какие-нибудь капли от насморка? 6) Она жалуется на сильные головные
боли и бессонницу. 7) Врач выписал мне рецепт и дал бюллетень. Я
направляюсь в аптеку за лекарством. 8) Этот зуб совсем испорчен. Боюсь,
его придется удалить. 9) От каких болезней вам делали прививки? 10) Мне
делали рентген грудной клетки два года назад, когда я проходил
медицинское обследование. 11) Некоторые люди не могут сами справиться
со стрессом и нуждаются в медицинском лечении. 12) Здоровая диета
предполагает правильное соотношение всех необходимых элементов:
белков, углеводов, минеральных веществ и витаминов. 13) Употребление
транквилизаторов для преодоления стресса ведет к зависимости от них и, в
конечном итоге, разрушает здоровье. 14) Культ красивого тела и хорошей
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физической формы превратился у многих людей в идею-фикс


(наваждение). 15) Ее отец перенес тяжелую онкологическую операцию, но,
к счастью, поправился и сейчас чувствует себя неплохо. 16) Вечером у
бабушки случился сердечный приступ и скорая помощь забрала ее в
больницу. 17) Ребенка тошнит, поднялась температура. Боюсь, что у него
пищевое отравление. 18) Общеизвестно, что легче предупредить болезнь,
чем вылечить.

READ AND DISCUSS


TEXT 1
Pre-Reading
A. Skim the title of the text below to find out what it is about.
B. Do you have any idea about the opposition of ‘medical science’ vs
‘natural healing’?
C. What do you know about alternative therapies, e.g. homeopathy,
acupuncture, osteopathy, etc.?

Reading
Read through the text ‘Self-Care Has Come of Age – Again!’ and do the
exercises that follow.

SELF-CARE HAS COME OF AGE – AGAIN!


Some 40-50 years ago, there was general belief that “scientific medicine”
would in short order obliterate just about all disease. Optimism continued to
mount as new antibiotics and tranquilizers were discovered, new surgical
procedures devised and perfected. For a while it seemed that if we could all live
just a few more years, new discoveries might make us immune to death itself.
Looking back, we can see that the party mood began to sour about 20 or
25 years ago.
It was not just an innocent burst of enthusiasm. Real harm was done.
Drugs, we all learned, sometimes had “side effects”. Needless X-rays were
thought to promote cancer.
But that is only half of the new perspective. The other half has this to say:
even when done correctly, the medical approach to disease is incomplete.
Wonderful, yes. But not quite the whole answer.
What it ignores is the dimension of natural healing: strengthening the
body’s immune system through nutritional and other natural means; physical
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therapies; stress reduction; diet improvement; and lifestyle change. To ignore


these factors is to forgo, perhaps, a much more conservative, perhaps even more
effective treatment. And even when extensive medical intervention is required,
we now know, the battle against disease cannot be won by medicine alone.
Unless the body has sufficient vitality to recover from the trauma of
intervention, and then reestablish a state of health that will prevent the return of
disease, medicine may be for naught.
Some people reacting against what they see as overdoctoring have
rejected the technological approach almost completely. They have returned, in
effect, to the 19th century, relying on herbs, untested diets and unscientific
procedures to treat all illness.
But there is no need to reject all of modern medicine because of its
occasional excesses. Nor is total rejection very smart. Today, we are in the
unique position of being able to take advantage of the best technological medical
care and the best natural healing techniques.
By using both approaches, as dictated by good sense, we can literally
enjoy the best of two worlds.

NB: naught or nought (noun)


1. zero: the number zero. U.K. term nought
2. nothing: nothing at all (archaic or literary)
Their efforts were all for naught

Post-Reading
A. Match the phrases from the text with their explanations on the right.
1) obliterate ..... all disease a) having high value as food
2) optimism continued to mount b) nothing
3) make us immune to death c) do without; give up
4) promote cancer d) remove all signs of; destroy
5) nutritional ..... means e) capacity to endure and perform functions
6) forgo ..... more effective f) free, secure
treatment
7) sufficient vitality g) become greater in amount
8) medicine may be for naught h) contribute to the progress or growth of
B. Use alternative ways of expressing the following:
1) … the party mood began to sour …
2) … drugs ..... had ‘side effects’ …
3) … the dimension of natural healing …
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4) … to recover from the trauma of intervention …


5) … what they see as overdoctoring …
6) … because of its occasional excesses …

C. Discuss with your partners the following:


1) What made people so hopeful about medical science half a century
ago? 2) What has appeared to be wrong with medicine? 3) How do the ways of
natural healing come in here? 4) Which approach to caring about our health
seems to be most reasonable nowadays? 5) How does the main idea of the text
correlate with the title? What does the word ‘self-care’ imply?

D. Scan the text ‘Medicine’s Unsolved Mysteries’ and


1) give the English equivalents from the text for the following:

 тонкости биохимических процессов


 трансплантация органов
 химические лекарства и препараты
 болезни, с которыми наука справилась (искоренила)
 наши индивидуальные потребности не принимаются в расчет
 излечивать любое повреждение нашего организма
 не заболеть (предотвратить болезнь).

2) point out the ideas it has in common with the text above;
3) speak on the new information you have found here.

MEDICINE’S UNSOLVED MYSTERIES


Modern medical science has solved many of life’s mysteries. We can now
understand the finest biochemical details of how our bodies work; isolate the
germs which cause infectious diseases and even transplant organs from one
person to another. Yet many people are unhappy with the direction of modern
medicine and are turning to alternatives such as acupuncture, homeopathy and
osteopathy. Why is this happening – and what do these alternative therapies
offer?
Firstly, synthetic drugs and medicines often have side-effects worse than
illness they treat; surgery can be extremely painful and weaken the body even
further. Secondly, new problems such as heart disease and cancer have arisen to
replace the diseases that science has banished; it is no longer possible to believe
that science one day will eliminate all illness. Perhaps even more important is
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that people do not respond well to being treated as machines. The raw material
of science is objective data and statistics. Patients are treated as if they are – or
should be – identical and their individual needs are ignored. In a wider sense,
our responsibility for our health is weakened Science has demonstrated that the
body has systems to maintain health and heal any damage. Yet Western medicine
replaces the body’s natural systems with increasing technology and chemical
drugs.
How then do alternative therapies approach health and disease?
Naturopathy regards diet as the key to health; osteopathy stresses correct
position and movement of bones and muscles; acupuncture and homeopathy
concentrate on the flow of energy itself. Most of these therapies do not argue
with surgery when absolutely necessary; but they stress that prevention is better
than cure and that our health is our individual responsibility. If we pay attention
to a natural diet, exercise and relaxation, we can avoid ill-health or correct
disturbances before they become serious.
Dr Richard Clark
From Current
TEXT 2
Pre-Reading
A. Name some foods which you think are healthy. What in your opinion
can we do to help us live longer?
B. Try to guess if the statements below correspond to the text.
1) There is a low level of fat in the Greek diet. 2) The Greeks are not in
favour of smoking. 3) Wine should be drunk in moderate amounts. 4) Experts
are certain that olive oil is a secret to a long healthy life.

Reading
Read through the text “Eat Greek and Live Longer” and do the exercises
that follow.

Eat Greek and Live Longer


If you want to live to a healthy old age and eat well along the way, then
perhaps you should move to the Greek mainland or Crete. These are the areas of
Europe whose population live longest, thanks to their varied diet. There seems to
be similarities between the Greek mainland and Cretan traditional diets that may
offer scientists a clue as to their beneficial effects.
But although these people are healthy and live longer, this surprises some
experts. A study of several villages on Crete and the Greek mainland showed
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that fat made up 40 per cent of the average person’s calories, well over what
most experts consider to be healthy. But most of this fat comes from cheese and
yoghurt and very little from butter or milk. This could be the factor which makes
the difference.
Researchers cannot yet explain why, though all of these products are
produced by cows, they should have such different effects on people. It is
possible that a chemical change could take place during the process of making
cheese and yoghurt. A Greek professor who worked on the study believes it may
have something to do with lactose, which is the protein found in milk.
Whether it’s lactose or not, national patterns in other parts of Europe
appear to confirm this theory. For example, Finns have one of Europe’s highest
rates of heart disease, and it could be because they consume four times more
milk and butter than the Greeks do. Another puzzle has come out of the study.
This concerns tobacco. Many of the people studied, who are in their eighties, are
smokers. Tobacco is a big risk factor for heart disease as well as cancer.
But it appears that their diet is so good that it can even overcome the
dangers of smoking. This kind of diet could account for the surprising health of
one of the study’s subjects, an 82-year-old Greek carpenter. He has enjoyed food
and wine all his life and has never dieted or taken special exercise. He starts the
day with bread and milk. At midday he eats a large lunch with lots of vegetables
and feta cheese. He eats all kinds of meat but mostly chicken. Everything is
cooked in olive oil, and he also puts it on just about everything: salads,
vegetables and cheese.
He says he hardly ever eats butter and his favourite dessert is full-fat
natural yoghurt with walnuts, honey and fruit. There is a high level of chemicals
which resist poisons in this kind of diet and it could be the chemicals that limit
the effects of smoking. The resistant chemicals and many vitamins that are
found in fruit and vegetables have been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease
and other illnesses.
The study also suggests that wine is an important part of the Greek
formula, but only at certain times and in certain amounts. The people who were
studied drank wine regularly, but in moderate amounts and always with meals.
This backs up a recent study, this time done in Italy. Men who drank between
meals had a higher death rate than those who only drank when they were having
a meal. In women there was an even greater difference.
Or could the secret be in olive oil? All the people studied consumed large
amounts of olive oil, although experts are still not certain it could be the oil
which helps them live longer. A final part of this mystery could be a vital fatty
acid, which according to research can prevent heart disease. Cretans consume 68
per cent more of this acid than the average European. Walnuts contain a great
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deal of this acid, and these are eaten in large quantities by Cretans and rural
Greeks.
But the search for a single magic ingredient may not be the answer. It may
be that it is the whole diet that helps people to stay healthy and live longer, not
just one of its individual parts.

Post-Reading
A. Explain in English the following:
1) Crete and the Greek mainland; rural Greeks ... ; 2) ... well over what
most experts consider ... ; 3) Another puzzle has come out of the study ... ;4)
This kind of diet could account for the surprising health ... ; 5) ... full-fat natural
yoghurt ... ; 6) ... chemicals which resist poisons ... ; 7) ... moderate amounts ... ;
8) This backs up a recent study ... ; 9) ... to overcome the danger of smoking … ;
10) ...a clue as to their beneficial effects ... ; 11) … one of the study’s subjects …
.
B. Discuss these questions:
1) What surprised some experts so much in the diet of the people on Crete
and the Creek mainland?
2) Where does most of this fat come from?
3) What does the example with Finns testify to?
4) What puzzle concerns tobacco?
5) Wine is an important part of the Greek formula, isn’t it?
6) How important is olive oil considered to be?
7) What other substances are thought to be responsible for the beneficial
effect of the Greek diet?
8) Have the experts come to a definite conclusion about why the Greeks
live to a healthy old age?
9) What do you think about what you have read?
C. Skim the text ‘Healthier Milk’ and say what problem is dealt with in it.

HEALTHIER MILK
Various studies have shown that there seems to be a link between high-
saturated fat diets and heart disease. Saturated fat is usually of animal origin.
Doctors think that eating a lot of animal products, like milk, butter and cheese,
increases the level of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance
which circulates in the blood and, over a long time, can become deposited on the
inside of the blood vessels, causing heart disease.
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Researchers in Scotland have found a way to help people who like dairy
products but need to keep their blood cholesterol level down. They have shown
that if a cow is given oats instead of barley to supplement her standard diet, she
produces milk which is lower in saturated fat. The amount of saturated fat in the
milk drops by as much as 20 per cent when cows are fed on oats. Of course
dairy farmers are not likely to change their methods overnight although oats are
not expensive. There is no incentive for farmers to change their cattle feeding
programmes — and at the moment there wouldn’t be enough oats to feed all the
existing dairy herds.
Flora Smeaton

D. Read the text again for details and give a short summary. Try to use
the following words and phrases:
1) high-saturated fat diet; 2) the level of cholesterol in the blood; 3) a fat-
like substance; 4) dairy products; 5) to feed cows on oats/barley; 6) no incentive
for farmers; 7) change their methods overnight.

TEXT 3
Pre-Reading
A. Think of the answers to the following questions:
1) What different kinds of music there exist? 2) On what occasions and in
what situations do people listen to or hear music? 3) What reasons, apart from
simple enjoyment, do people have for listening to music? 4) Are there different
times or reasons for listening to particular kinds of music?
B. Speak about your musical tastes.

Reading
Read the interview with a doctor who has investigated the effects of
music. Note down any information you find surprising or interesting.

EFFECT OF MUSIC ON THE HUMAN SYSTEM


P = Presenter; R = Dr Ryman
P Have you ever wondered what effect music has on the human system?
It’s almost impossible to avoid listening to it whether you choose to or not. It
fills shopping streets all over the world, escapes from other people’s personal
stereos on buses and trains, and it’s all we ever hear on ninety per cent of the
world’s radio stations. I suppose people have always thought that musical tastes
188

are subjective, that different people just happen to like or dislike different kinds.
This idea is now being challenged, however, by research which has shown that
music can affect us whether we actually like what we hear or not. For instance,
some types of music may help us to relax, whereas others may provoke violent
reactions. We have in our studio this evening Dr Jonathan Ryman, a
psychologist who has studied the effects of music on hospital patients. Dr
Ryman, can you tell us how you first became interested in this subject?
R Well, by accident really. Two things happened to me within a short
space of time that made me curious. The first was when I was at my own
doctor’s – I’d gone to get my blood pressure checked – and in the waiting room
there was soft background music – Bach I think it was. Within a few minutes I
felt completely relaxed and happy. I can remember wondering what the music
was.
P Did you suspect even then that it was the music that was making you
feel relaxed?
R No, not really. I just found it very pleasant. Only a week or two later I
was at the dentist’s – I had to have a tooth filled. I’ve always hated dentists and I
was very nervous. Anyway, I was sitting in the chair waiting for the drill, when
this wonderful Indian music started playing. It was just incredible – in just a few
seconds my feelings of anxiety had disappeared – I unclenched my hands and
relaxed my body and actually felt myself smiling.
P So where did you go from there?
R Well, I decided to find out if any research had been done in this area,
and I discovered that doctors in various countries had actually been using music
for healing purposes for some time.
P How exactly is music used?
R Well, just to give you one example, at the hospital where I work, we
now use music to help long-stay patients. Experimenting with different kinds of
music, we have found that certain sounds have the power to change moods and
emotional states for the better. Our patients often come to us shattered, angry
and full of pain, both physical and emotional. They have had their lives reduced
to a hospital bed and a locker. So we work to bring peace to both their body and
mind.
P Can you give us any more examples?
R Well, yes. At a medical centre in Los Angeles, doctors have found that
twenty minutes of gentle harp music is often more effective than tranquillizers
or sleeping pills. At this hospital, music is also played to patients before major
operations, and is used to treat severe back pain.
P What about Australia? What’s been going on there?
189

R Australia’s particularly interesting. A psychiatrist, Dr John Diamond,


has been carrying out intensive research into the exact process by which music
can alter states of mind. He has come to the conclusion that the effect of music
depends on the intention of the composer. So, if a composer had loving thoughts
at the time, then the music would heal. If his thoughts were angry, it would have
the opposite effect.
P That’s incredible! Does Dr Diamond have anything else to say?
R I ought to say at this stage that I personally don’t go along with
everything Dr Diamond says. In some cases the evidence for his claims is quite
flimsy. Anyway, he claims that all music can be divided into three types. The
first, low-energy music, makes you feel bad. A high proportion of rock music is
in this category. Dr Diamond has found that rock music turns people’s morality
upside down, and makes them feel hate instead of love. The next category is
high-energy music. This makes you feel better, because it helps to normalize the
heart beat. Bach is exceptionally high energy, as is the sitar player Ravi Shankar.
P This ties in perfectly with your own experience, doesn’t it?
R Absolutely. And the third category is what Dr Diamond has called
‘prayerful music’, which he claims has the most healing effect of all. Most early
classical music falls into this category.
P Can I just take you back to something you said a moment ago? You
said that rock music didn’t have a healing effect. That seems very strange to
someone of my generation who was brought up on rock music. I mean, if it’s
bad for people, how do you explain its worldwide popularity?
R That’s a very good question – and it’s something that’s been worrying
me for some time. I have to say that in my own work I have not found rock
music to be healing or harmful but, according to one of my colleagues, who has
been studying this for six years, rock music acts like a drug. As the body
becomes addicted to the beat, a tolerance develops. Before long, the volume has
to be turned up to achieve the same level of stimulation. My colleague is so
concerned that he’s written a report. Let me just quote the conclusion. It says:
‘People think that rock music is harmless, but it’s not. It affects every cell in the
body – to its detriment.’
P Dr Ryman, we have to leave it there for today. Thank you very much.

Post-Reading
A. Say the following in alternative words.
1) … impossible to avoid listening to it (music); 2) This idea is now being
challenged; 3) … music can affect us … ; 4) … music can help us to relax … ;
5) … may provoke violent reactions … ; 6) It was just incredible … ; 7) … my
190

feeling of anxiety … ; 8) I (un)clenched my hands … ; 9) Our patients come to


us shattered … ; 10) … bring peace to both their body and mind … ; 11) …
turns people’s morality upside down … ; 12) … it affects every cell of the body
– to its detriment.
B. Find in the text the equivalents for the following:
1) by chance; 2) very quickly; 3) change states of mind; 4) I don’t agree
with; 5) unconvincing evidence; 6) can be categorized as; 7) This coordinates
with your own experience; 8) popularity throughout the world; 9) become
dependent on; 10) soon.
C. Give the English for the following:
1) измерить кровяное давление; 2) приемный покой; 3)
запломбировать зуб; 4) чувство беспокойства, страха; 5) в лечебных целях;
6) пациенты, находящиеся в больнице длительное время; 7) быть
прикованным к больничной койке; 8) успокоительные и снотворные
средства; 9) сильная боль в спине; 10) биение сердца.
D. Choose the answer which you think fits best.
1) Researchers have found that people are ..................................... .
a) affected only by music they like
b) affected only by music the dislike
c) affected by music they both like and dislike
d) unaffected by music whether they like it or not
2) In the waiting room there was soft background music and Dr
Ryman .......................... .
a) felt like going to sleep
b) felt completely relaxed and happy
c) was wondering what was going around
d) understood that the music was making him feel relaxed
3) According to Dr John Diamond the effect of music depends on .... .
a) a physical and emotional state of a person
b) the intention of the composer
c) the volume of the sound
d) the musical instrument used
4) The most healing effect of all is produced by ............................ .
a) rock music
b) Indian folk music
c) orchestra music
d) early classical music
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5) In his research Dr Ryman has found that ................................... .


a) rock music is neither healing nor harmful
b) rock music acts like a drug
c) it affects every cell in the body
d) it develops the addiction of the body to the beat

E. Discuss these questions:


1) What are the examples of a comforting effect of music on patients?
2) What encouraged Dr Ryman to start his research?
3) How does Dr Diamond classify music according to its effect on
people?
4) What has the latest research of the effect of rock music shown?
5) Which conclusions of the researchers seem convincing to you and
which seem flimsy enough?
6) How are you affected by the kinds of music mentioned in the interview:
Bach, Indian music, harp music, rock music, early classical music?

TEXT 4
Pre-Reading
A. Discuss with other students your experience of taking exams.
1) What is the most difficult thing about getting ready for an exam? 2)
Can you describe your mental and emotional state on the eve of an exam? 3) Do
you know any tricks to pass an exam successfully? Have you ever used any of
them?
B. Before reading the article, find out the meaning of the following words:
pasty, alertness, dip, pep up, (in) sync, adverse(ly)

Reading
Read the article “Exam Fitness” and do the exercises that follow.

EXAM FITNESS
Research has shown that success in exams depends on physical as well as
intellectual fitness, and while there is no substitute for studying, keeping
yourself in good physical shape will help you to make the most of what you’ve
learned. The following advice will enable you to perform at your best at exam
time.
Exercise
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Many people believe that there are two kinds of student: the fit, sun
tanned type with bulging muscles and a low IQ, and the weak, pasty academics,
who wear thick glasses and pass all their exams. The implication is that students
are either intellectual or physical, which is not in fact the case. Recent studies
have found that students who take regular exercise generally do better at school
than those who don’t. For example, twenty minutes of aerobic exercise will
immediately bring about:
 an improved performance in IQ tests
 a reduction in stress
 improved levels of alertness and concentration
 faster, clearer, more creative thinking
 an improvement in your memory.
So, try to do some aerobic exercise at least three times a week. But
remember, as exercise peps you up, it’s better not to do it near bedtime. It could
cause insomnia. And on the exam day, exercise before your exam starts
preferably outdoors.
Body Clocks and Sleep
Our bodies and minds are programmed to run to a particular schedule and
our mental and physical abilities change dramatically during a day. For example,
concentration, memory and the ability to work with our hands, all reach a peak
in the afternoon, and fall to a low in the middle of the night. Our body clocks are
set and kept in sync by daylight which also keeps us alert. Confusing your body
clock will make you less alert and less effective. Lack of sleep will not stop a
surgeon from operating successfully or a pilot from landing a jet, but it will
affect a student’s ability to read a book and remember things well.

Some Points to Remember:


 If you have to get someone to wake you up every morning, you are
not getting enough sleep.
 You should sleep at regular times so as not to confuse your body
clock.
 You must get enough daylight. Study in a well-lit room, preferably
near a window.
 The best times to study are between 9.00 and 12.00 noon, and then
late afternoon between 4.00 and 6.00.
 The worst times are after lunch, because your body clock goes into a
dip between 1.00 p.m. and 3.00 p.m., and also late at night. You may
think you are more creative after 11.00 p.m., but remember that most
exams take place during the day. Studying late at night will disrupt
your body clock.
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 A short nap during the afternoon will help you study and could result
in an improved performance – just make sure you don’t fall asleep
during your exam.
Final Points
 Don’t study more than four or five hours a day on top of your school
or other work.
 Whatever you tell yourself or other people, studying with the TV or
radio on adversely affects your ability to absorb what you’re trying to
learn. The same goes for any background music which competes for
your attention. Choose music you find pleasant, not incredible. Study
with a friend – it helps you to feel you aren’t suffering alone.
Dr Aric Sigman
Post-Reading
A. Find in the text the equivalents for the following:
1) like soft, moist mass; 2) a state of being lively, watchful, fully awake;
3) fill with spirit and energy; 4) sleeping disorder; 5) a drop or sinking to a lower
level; 6) break up, split; 7) sleep during the day, after lunch; 8) unfavourably
B. Give the English for:
1) хорошая физическая форма; 2) на воздухе; 3) достичь наивысшей
точки (пика); 4) вывести из строя (биологические) часы; 5) улучшить
выполнение (задания, работы, обязанностей и т.д.); 6) сверх (программы,
домашнего задания и т.д.); 7) то же самое относится и к (спорту, музыке и
т.д.); 8) способность воспринять, усвоить что-либо
C. Explain in English:
1) to make the most of smth; 2) to perform at one’s best; 3) abilities
change dramatically; 4) fall to a low; 5) a well-lit room; 6) background music; 7)
a level of alertness; 8) confuse your body clock.
D. Which sentence best summarizes the point Dr. Sigman is making?
1) He provides advice about how to prepare yourself mentally for
examinations. 2) He helps students prepare mentally and physically for
examinations. 3) He says that physical exercise is more likely to bring about
examination success than studying and revising.
E. Discuss in class the following:
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1) Does the author mention any of the techniques for preparing for the
exams that you thought of before reading the article? 2) Why do you think some
people associate physical fitness with lack of intelligence? 3) What are the
results of recent studies? 4) What does aerobic exercise bring about? 5) What do
you know about a body clock? 6) How can you get enough sleep? 7) What is
important to know about the working environment when you sit for your exam?
8) Why does the author suggest that students play pleasant, not incredible
music?

TEXT 5
Pre-Reading
Discuss with your partners:
1) What is a “grocery list”? 2) How helpful is it? 3) Do you always write
down a grocery list when you go shopping or do you do it on some special
occasions?

Reading
Read through the text “Grocery List” and do the exercises that follow.

GROCERY LIST
1doz eggs
1 lb butter
(I remember when we were first married, how Bob loved my omelets)
1 gal milk
1 1g box Whoopie Wheetsies
(I wish the kids wouldn’t believe all that junk on television. They keep
begging me to get them this, get them that)
1 bottle Kalm-Tabs (for stress)
1 six-pack Macho beer
(which will be gone by the end of Sunday’s football game. Bob’ll be
dozing in front of the TV, wearing that old undershirt)
I head lettuce
2 tomatoes
2 1bs hamburger
(I remember when Bob said, “steak and caviar, baby – marry me and
it’ll be steak and caviar all the way!” And now he can barely afford
hamburgers)
1 pkg Sweetums disposable diapers
3 jars Bitsie-Bites baby food
195

(Maybe if he hadn’t three kids in three years, maybe then)


1 box Storm detergent
1 floor mop
(or maybe if Bob had let me keep my job instead of being a broken-
down housewife, I could have had a career)
1 Calorie-Counter’s Meals for One
1 doz cans LO-LO Kola
(I don’t know why I try to lose weight. I’ll bet she would be eating all
the time if her husband was seeing another woman)
1 bunch asparagus
(I bet they think I don’t even know about their affair! Well, if they
think I’m going to let them get away with it)
1 box rat poison
(damn them!)
Gina Holdane
from Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine

Post-Reading
A. Explain what the following clipped words stand for:
doz, lb, gal, lg, pkg

B. Express in alternative words the following:


1) that junk on television; 2) 1 six-pack Macho beer; 3) 1 head lettuce; 4)
it’ll be steak and caviar all the way; 5) he can barely afford hamburger; 6) a
broken-down housewife; 7) I’ll bet; 8) let them get away with it.

C. Give the Russian for:


1) … they keep begging me; 2) … Bob’ll be dozing in front of the TV; 3)
disposable diapers; 4) Storm detergent; 5) a floor mop; 6) rat poison; 7) 1 bunch
asparagus; 8) … damn them!

D. Comment on the words from the text “Grocery List” given in brackets:
1) The woman did not write them down, did she? What thoughts do these
words convey? 2) What words from the text show the woman’s attitude to TV
commercials? 3) What can you say about her husband’s usual way of spending
Sundays? 4) Which words hint at the financial position of the family? 5) Do you
guess what the woman regrets? 6) What makes the woman try to lose weight? 7)
Who is meant by ‘she’ in the phrase: “I’ll bet she would be eating all the
196

time…”? 8) What is the implication of the phrase ‘… they think I don’t even
know about their affair!’? 9) Who is the rat poison meant for? 10) Who is the
phrase ‘damn them!’ addressed to? 11) What creates the effect of humorous
ambiguity at the end of the text?

E. Make up a life story of the woman as you see it from her remarks
coupled with the items of the grocery list.

TEXT 6
Pre-Reading
A. Discuss with other students which of the following is more probable.
People suffer from stress because …
1) modern life is full of worries;
2) other people inflict it on them;
3) they do not know how to relax;
4) they have no time to relax.

B. Speak about the ways you cope with stresses and strains caused by
your study or work.

Reading
Read through the text “Stress and Stress Management” and do the
exercises that follow.

Stress and Stress Management


A
‘My name’s Patricia and I’m a university lecturer. I chose this profession
because I wanted to do something rewarding: something that gave me
satisfaction. Ten years ago, when I started in this job, I had lots to do, but I
enjoyed it: preparing and giving lectures, discussing students’ work with them
and marking it. I felt stretched: I had the feeling that work could sometimes be
difficult, but that it was stimulating, it interested me and made me feel good. It
was certainly challenging: difficult, but in an interesting and enjoyable way.’
B
‘In the last few years there has been more and more administrative work,
with no time for reading or research. I felt pressure building up. I began to feel
overwhelmed by work: I felt as if I wasn’t able to do it. I was under stress; very
worried about my work. I became ill, and I’m sure this was caused by stress: it
was stress-induced.
197

Luckily, I was able to deal with the stresses and strains (pressures) of my
job by starting to work part-time. I was luckier than one of my colleagues, who
became so stressed out because of overwork that he had a nervous breakdown;
he was so worried about work that he couldn’t sleep or work, and had to give up.
He’s completely burned out, so stressed and tired by his work that he will never
be able to work again. Burnout is an increasingly common problem among my
colleagues.’
C
‘Many people want to get away from the rat race or the treadmill, the
feeling that work is too competitive, and are looking for lifestyles that are less
stressful or completely unstressful, more relaxed ways of living, perhaps in the
country. Some people work from home to be near their family and have a better
quality of life, such as more quality time with their children: not just preparing
meals for them and taking them to school, etc.
Choosing to live and work in a less stressful way is downshifting or
rebalancing, and people who do this are downshifters.’

Post-Reading
A. Say the following in alternative words.
1) to do smth rewarding; 2) I felt stretched; 3) work could be <…>
stimulating; 4) it (work) was certainly challenging; 5) I felt pressure building up;
6) to feel overwhelmed by work; 7) I was under stress; 8) to work part-time; 9)
to become stressed out; 10) because of overwork.
B. Replace the following with the equivalents from the text.
1) the collapse of one’s (esp. mental) health; 2) to abandon an attempt to
do smth; 3) to use up all one’s energy or ruin one’s health, esp. working too hard
over a period of time; 4) a way of life in which everybody competes fiercely to
be more successful than anybody else; 5) tiring or boring routine work; 6) the
way in which an individual or a group lives; 7) to freelance from home rather
than to work in an office; 8) the standard of something when compared to other
things like it; how good or bad smth is; 9) to change to a different job or way of
life, so that you have less money and responsibility but more satisfaction and
happiness.
C. Answer the following questions:
1) How did Patricia feel about her job at the beginning of her career?
What made her job enjoyable? 2) What brought about the undesirable change in
198

her attitude to work? 3) What helped Patricia to deal with the stress? 4) What is
a common problem among many of her colleagues? 5) What makes people
choose to become downshifters?
D. Skim the article “Shift Down a Gear to Find a Sweeter Lifestyle” and
speak about the information it adds to the text above.

Shift Down a Gear to Find a Sweeter Lifestyle


Your work has taken over your life, you are suffering from stress and sick
of running to stay in the same place. Solution? Exchange cash for quality time.
If you feel bored, frustrated and trapped in your job, you are a likely
candidate for not just a job change but a ‘downshift’. This trend from the US,
where it is practised by ten per cent of the working population, has arrived in
Britain.
A better word for downshifting would be ‘rebalancing’, suggests Judy
Jones, co-author of Getting A Life: The Downshifter’s Guide to Happier,
Simpler Living, a recent guide to a simpler life. ‘Trading part of your income for
more time is about redefining yourself and your idea of success,’ she maintains.
But how do you achieve one aspect of the downshifter’s dream – financial
independence? First, try living on less money. Ms Jones suggests you don’t use
money to keep the treadmill turning. In her case, she found a third of her income
was her ‘rat race membership fee’, spent on work-related activities like eating
fast foods, taking holidays to get away from it all and having massages to relieve
stress.
Downshifting doesn’t necessarily mean changing your job, but taking
steps to stop your work taking over your life. It can involve flexible working,
job sharing, school term-time working, or cutting down to fewer days at work.
All of these things can lead to a better quality of life.

E. Explain the meaning of the following phrases:


1) Trading part of your income for more time is about redefining yourself
and your idea of success. 2) … you don’t use money to keep the treadmill
turning. 3) … rat race membership fee.
F. Discuss these questions:
1) Downshifting means getting less money for one’s work. How do you
like it? 2) What are the ways of keeping up one’s financial independence? 3)
How do you think it’s possible to live comfortably enough on less money? 4)
What is your idea of ‘a quality life’?
199

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201

Учебное издание

Составитель Вертаева Людмила Владимировна

Improve Your Speaking Skills in English

Учебно-методическое пособие
по устной практике английского языка
Часть 2
2-е издание, исправленное и переработанное

Ответственный за выпуск Л.М.Лещева.


Технический редактор Т.С.Баранова.
Художник обложки О.А.Стасевич.
Компьютерная верстка Н.Н.Кротковой.

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