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and connect it to the flange of any one of hoppers.

So that pressurization of ESP internals can be done through this


arrangement.
 Mount a ‘U’ tube manometer on a tapping provided on the hopper adjacent to
the pressurization equipment as shown in Fig. No. 1.
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 Once all known openings are close. Pressurise the ESP by fan and motor arrangement such that the constant
pressure differential is maintained in ‘U’ tube manometer mounted on the hopper (least count 1mm).
 Observe the volume of air being pumped in, for constant pressure difference by the pressure drop across the
Venturi-meter.
Repeat the test for number of readings of different pressure and note down the corresponding pressure
differentials across the Venturi-meter.

5.1 THEORY
When stable conditions are established, the mass flow rate of air through the fan, Venturi-meter and the
precipitator must be constant.

The flow rate of air for the fan is

mf = Q

Where

Q = Volumetric flow of air in m3/hour

 = the density of air at test conditions in kg/m3

The mass flow rate through the venture can be written as function of the pressure differential and co-efficient
of discharge for the Venturi.

=  x k vent x
where

k vent = Co-efficient of discharge for Venturi-meter

t = The density of air


p vent = The pressure differential across Venturi in mmWc.
The mass leakage of air through Electrostatic Precipitator can be expressed as
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M filter = 2 x

Where,
K filter = A constant to be determined.
Ps filter = Static pressure of air inside Electrostatic Precipitator (Pressure differential as observed in ‘U’ tube
manometer).
2 = The density of air at Electrostatic Precipitator condition.

1 x k vent x = 2 x k filter x
for practical purpose 1 can be taken as 2

Therefore, K filter = K vent x . . . . . . . . . (1)

And the leakage can be expressed as

Q leakage = K filter x . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)

Where

 filter = The density of gas at the operating conditions.

Ps filter = The actual static over pressure in Electrostatic Precipitator.

The tests are conducted for different Ps filter (mmWc) conditions viz. 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mm of WC by
suitably varying the damper control of the fan. Calculate K filter from the known values of equation (1). It may
be inferred that K filter is a constant.

5.2 SAMPLE CALCULATION

Q Leakage = K filter x
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K filter = K vent x
Where,
Ps filter = Actual static pressure in ESP
 filter = Density of gas at operating condition (0.874 kg/m3)
K vent = Venturi meter constant (0.143)
∆P = Pressure difference measured across venturi meter
Ps filter = ESP static pressure measured in U – tube manometer

EG:

o of ESP s per boiler = 2.


 The design gas flow of the ESP is 121 m3/s and
 The air in leakage allowed is 1 % i.e. 1.21 m3/s.
 Leakage per ESP = 0.605 m/sec
 A Kvent of 0.143 is considered for the venturimeter used.

The readings taken in both the passes are tabulated below.

PASS - A

Ps filter in ∆P Vent in mmWC K filter = K vent √∆P/Ps fil


mmWC
300 25 0.041
250 21 0.041
200 17 0.042
150 12.5 0.041
100 8.5 0.042
K filter (Average) 0.0414

PASS - B

Ps filter in mmWc ∆P Vent in mmWc K filter = K vent √∆P/Ps filter


100 3.5 0.027
150 5.5 0.027
200 8.0 0.029
250 9.0 0.027
300 11.5 0.028
K filter (Average) 0.0276
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Q leakage for Pass – A = 0.414 x √ 180 / 0.874 = 0.594 m3/s


Q leakage for Pass – A = 0.276 x √ 180 / 0.874 = 0.396 m3/s

Total leakage in ESP = Q leak Pass – A + Q leak Pass – B

= 0.594 + 0.396 = 0.990 m3/s

Thus the air in leakage is less than the guaranteed value of 1.21 m3/s.