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PUNJAB TIANJIN UNIVERSITY OF

TECHNOLOGY

ENGINE SERVICE AND TECHNIQUES

Lab Report

Submitted By: MUHAMMAD MUNEEB


Roll NO. 18au50
Department: Automobile (3rd semester)
Submitted to: Sir Ghilman Haider
Table of Contents
Training Guides:...................................................................................................... 4
Workshop Tools: ..................................................................................................... 4
Engine accessories ................................................................................................... 6
Engine disassembling .............................................................................................. 6
Engine valve train overhaul: .................................................................................. 8
Valve clearance adjustment.................................................................................... 9
FAULTS IN CAMSHAFT: .................................................................................... 9
Overhaul engine crankcase: ................................................................................... 9
Overhaul piston, connecting rod and cylinder: .................................................. 11
Taperness: .............................................................................................................. 11
Ovality: ................................................................................................................... 12
Scuffing:.................................................................................................................. 12
Scoring: ................................................................................................................... 12
Piston skirt damage: .............................................................................................. 13
Twisted connecting rod:........................................................................................ 14
Crankshaft overhaul: ............................................................................................ 15
Fatigue Failure: ..................................................................................................... 15
Failure due to Vibration: ...................................................................................... 15
Insufficient lubrication: ........................................................................................ 15
Water hammering: ................................................................................................ 15
Cracks ..................................................................................................................... 15
Note: ......................................................................................................................................... 16
Crankshaft static balancing: ................................................................................ 16
Crankshaft dynamic balancing:........................................................................... 16
Crankshaft Journal Diameter ........................................................................................................................................ 16
Standard Thrust Clearance: ................................................................................ 16
Overhaul engine cooling system ........................................................................... 17
Overhaul process: .................................................................................................. 17
Thermostat overhaul:............................................................................................ 17
Radiator service:.................................................................................................... 17
Overhaul engine lubrication system: ................................................................... 18
Problems in lubrication system:........................................................................... 18
Under lubrication: ................................................................................................. 18
Over lubrication: ................................................................................................... 19
Oil Rating: .............................................................................................................. 20
Engine over heat: ................................................................................................... 20
Slow engine warm up: ........................................................................................... 21
Cylinder head Warpage: ...................................................................................... 21
Difference in frictional and Antifriction bearing: .............................................. 22
Friction type bearings or Plain bearings: ........................................................... 22
Non-Friction type bearings or Rolling bearings: ............................................... 22
Noises in engine: .................................................................................................... 23
Hisses sound: .......................................................................................................... 23
Knocking: ............................................................................................................... 23
Hard metallic sound: ............................................................................................. 23
Rattle sound from engine: .................................................................................... 23
Volumetric efficiency: ........................................................................................... 23
Engine backfire: .................................................................................................... 24
Engine missing: ...................................................................................................... 24
Preignition in cylinder: ......................................................................................... 24
Detonation in cylinder: ......................................................................................... 25
Engine dieseling: .................................................................................................... 25
Turbulence: ............................................................................................................ 25
Swirl:....................................................................................................................... 25
Energy cells formation: ......................................................................................... 25
Air temperature and pressure effects: ................................................................ 26
Intercooler:............................................................................................................. 26
Faults of VVT-I: .................................................................................................... 26
Sensors used in 1NZ and their working: ............................................................. 26
Reassembling: ........................................................................................................ 27
Training Guides
 Be patriotic, hardworking and devoting to science and technology.
 Be punctual, diligent and sincere, equipped with spirit of team work.
 Sleepers and blouses are not allowed in the workshop.
 Proper behavior, good manners and respect all instructors.
 Take good care of public property, save water and electricity.
 Chasing and fighting is prohibited in workshop.
 Operating of equipment without permission is not allowed, and follow operating
instructions carefully.
 Follow the auto workshop management rules and regulations

Workshop Tools

 Socket set
 T rods set
 Spanner set
 Pliers
 Wrench
 Screw drivers
 Allen keys
 Oil filter spanner
 Ratchet
 Extension rods
 Universal joints
 Automotive stethoscope
 Flexible Magnet
 Filler gauge
 Micrometer
 Vernier caliper
 MultiMeter
 Hood light
 Funnel
 Screw pitch gauge
 Hammer
 Oil drain pan
 Creeper
 Torque wrench
 OBD2 Scanner
 Spark tester
 Drill
 vise
 heat gun
 piston ring compressor

Engine parameters
Engine accessories
 Engine head cover.
 Exhaust manifold.
 Intake manifold.
 Injector line set.
 Generator and belt.
 Chain cover.
 Timing chain.
 Ignition coil.
 Starter motor.
 Thermo state valve.
 Water pump.
 ECM (electronic control module).
 TP sensor.
 Steering pump
 Dip stick
 Fly wheel
 Fuel common rail

Engine disassembling
 DISCONNECT CABLE FROM NEGATIVE BATTERY TERMINAL
 DRAIN ENGINE OIL
 DRAIN ENGINE COOLANT
 REMOVE CYLINDER HEAD COVER
 REMOVE IGNITION COIL
 Remove spark plugs
 Remove fuel common rail
 Remove tappet cover
 Remove cam shaft housing
 Remove vvt-I from intake camshaft
 REMOVE WATER PUMP PULLEY
 REMOVE WATER PUMP
 REMOVE CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
 REMOVE CAMSHAFT TIMING OIL CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY
 REMOVE CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR
 REMOVE ENGINE MOUNTING BRACKET
 REMOVE VENTILATION HOSE
 REMOVE GENERATOR V BELT
 REMOVE GENERATOR
 Remove engine starter
 Remove power steering pump
 REMOVE VANE PUMP V BELT
 REMOVE ENGINE MOUNTING BRACKET
 REMOVE TIMING CHAIN COVER
 REMOVE OIL PUMP SEAL
 REMOVE CHAIN TENSIONER
 REMOVE CHAIN VIBRATION DAMPER
 REMOVE CHAIN
 Remove both camshafts from engine
 Remove engine head bolts
 Remove dip stick from engine
 Remove throttle body
 Remove intake manifold from engine
 Remove air compressor
 Remove exhaust manifold
 Remove oil filter
 Remove engine head
 Remove gasket from engine
 Remove valves mechanism from head
 Put engine horizontally
 Separate oil pan from engine
 Remove oil strainer
 Remove crank case bolts
 Open crankshaft bolts
 Open all piston big ends bolts
 Remove flywheel
 Remove crankshaft from engine
 Take out all pistons from cylinders
 Place all the parts in order
Engine valve train overhaul:

Parts of valve train

 Camshaft
 Valve lifter
 Spring guide
 Valve spring
 Valve

Over hauling process

The camshaft is an important and most basic component of the IC engine.


The camshaft has the lobes, journals and shaft bearings. Through the lobes the opening and
closing of valves takes place.
There are basically two cam shafts which are
used for opening and closing of valves. One for intake valves and one for the exhaust valve.
Component Standard Running
Valve head Intake 30.5 mm (1.20 in) 30 mm
diameter: Exhaust 25.5 mm (1.00 in 25.2 mm
Valve length: Intake 89.25 mm (3.5138 in) 89 mm
Exhaust 87.90 mm (3.4606 in) 88.3 mm
Valve stem Intake 4.970-4.985 mm 5 mm
diameter: Exhaust 4.965-4.980 mm 4.9 mm
Camshaft cam Intake 44.617-44.717 mm
height: Exhaust 44.666-44.766 mm
Valve spring free 45.05-45.15 mm 59.9 mm
length
Valve Lifter 30.96 mm 40 mm
diameter
Valve head margin Intake 1 mm 1.1 mm
thickness Exhaust 1 mm 1.3 mm
Valve clearance adjustment
Adjust valve clearance according to manufacturer.

Intake valve 0.15-0.25 mm (0.006-0.010 in)

Exhaust valve 0.25-0.35 mm (0.010-0.014 in)

FAULTS IN CAMSHAFT
The camshaft is made up of cast iron and the most basic part of cam shaft is its LOBES,
through the lobes the valves of system opens and closed.
Due to the continues motion the tip or face of
lobes become worn and tear, which badly effects the efficiency of engine. And sometimes
the bearing failure is the problem which disturbs the motion of shaft. There are some
solutions of problems.

Remedy:

The most basic problem is worn of lobes angles which badly effects the efficiency of an engine.
The lobes can be repair by made their angles at right position through grinding on the lathe
machine and by checking it through Vernier caliper.
And for the bearings the only solution is to replace with new one.

Journals Diameter Standard running


Intake First journal 34.449 to 34.456 mm 34.4 mm
second 22.949 to 22.965 mm 22.9 mm
journal
Exhaust First journal 34.449 to 34.456 mm 34.4 mm
Second 22.949 to 22.965 mm 22.9 mm
Journal

Overhaul engine crankcase:


Crankcase:

Crankcase is basically the crankshaft housing and it’s a closed component of engine so we can
reuse our blowby gasses through PCV.

How to find out if crankcase is faulty?

 Common signs of a faulty crankcase include oil leaks, excessively high idle, and a
decrease in engine performance, power, and acceleration.
 The main problem with crankcase is cracks. With many reasons sometimes crankcase gets
cracks.
 To fix those cracks firstly we must find out the cracks on crankcase. Most of the time
those cracks are visible and can be detected from gas or oil leakages.

How to fix cracks on crankcase?

 To fix cracks we need to know what material is being used for the crankcase and how big
the cracks are on crankcase.
 If cracks are too big then replacement is recommended
 If crack are not too big then we can repair it
 If crankcase is made of iron or steel then we can simply weld the cracks.

Aluminum crankcase repairment

 Use a degreaser and a wire brush to remove grease and dirt from the crankcase.
 Cut a piece of scrap aluminum to cover the hole.
 Heat the crankcase and the scrap aluminum patch.
 Solder the inside of the patch.
 Apply liquid sealant.
 Put water in the crankcase and allow it to set overnight.
Overhaul piston, connecting rod and cylinder:

Main problems occur in cylinder

 Taperness
 Ovality
 Scuffing
 Scoring
 Twist connecting rod
 Piston rings breakage or oil gap increased

Taperness
Cylinder Taper is caused by wear caused by friction and combustion cause the bore to be cone
shaped. it caused by pressure created by piston rings to the cylinder walls. In this situation
cylinder diameter from combustion chamber is increased than the diameter near BDC.

How to detect taperness?

 To detect taperness first measure dia of combustion chamber


 Then detect dia of cylinder from different points
 Compare the bore
 If dia of combustion chamber is more than dia blow it we can say cylinder is tapper

What to do if taperness is detected?

Honing is a low-velocity abrading process. Material removal is accomplished at lower cutting


speeds than in grinding. In results excellent size and geometry control can gained. The most
common application of honing is on internal cylindrical surfaces. But most of the time honing is
not recommended because it can reduce the thickness.
Put new sleeve in cylinder. If taperness is more than quarter inch, then new sleeve is
recommended.

Ovality
Cylinder ovality is usually caused by wear overtime in a piston engine. It normally happens
from the slight uneven pressure from left to right. As the piston moves up and down over many
cycles it can cause wear making the cylinder slightly oval shaped.

Disadvantage

Because of ovality piston rings can’t maintain seal and it can cause blowby.

How to fix?

To fix ovality honing is required. In this process some material is removed to make it round
shape.

Scuffing:
Due to less lubrication or overheating of the engine parts of engine tends to weld with each
other. But due to inertia engine keep running and walls of cylinder gets damaged this situation is
named as scuffing.

Scoring:
Scoring is a type of abrasive wear. If there is any carbon deposit in cylinder walls piston tends to
glued with cylinder wall at the point where carbon is deposit. But as engine on running position
it doesn’t stop but cause material removal and wears on cylinder walls.
Causes

 Under lubrication
 Engine overheats
 Carbon deposit

How to fix?

 Honing
 Change cylinder liner
 Clean carbon deposit

Piston skirt damage:


In this situation piston skirt gets scratched or damaged while running in cylinder.

Causes

 Under lubrication
 Engine over heat
 Un even burning of fuel

Remedy

In case of piston damage replacement is recommended as if we repair piston it can reduce


engine performance
Measurements:

Cylinder Diameter standard running


First cylinder Intake 42.173 to 42.717 mm 42.33 mm
exhaust 42.173 to 42.717 mm 42.37 mm
Second Intake 42.173 to 42.717 mm 42.4 mm
cylinder exhaust 42.173 to 42.717 mm 42.4mm
Third Intake 42.173 to 42.717 mm 42.4mm
cylinder exhaust 42.173 to 42.717 mm 42.4 mm

Twisted connecting rod:


Due to many reasons sometimes connecting rod gets twisted and engine cannot work properly.

Causes

 Under lubrication
 Engine over heat
 Water hammering in combustion chamber

Remedy

Connecting rod can be straightening but most of the time rod replacement is recommended.
Measurement of piston connecting rod
Term Standard Running
Length 140.8 mm 140 mm
Pin diameter 18 mm 18.01 mm
Big end diameter 43 mm 39.99 mm
Small end width 17.91 mm 18 mm
Connecting rod inside 17.965-17.985mm ------
diameter

Piston stroke 84.7mm


Piston stroke diameter 74.945-74.955mm
Piston pin outer diameter 18.001-18.004mm
Piston Ring Side Clearance

Item No Standard Running


Ring Side First 0.030-0.070mm 0.02 mm
clearance Second 0.020-0.060mm 0.01 mm
Oil 0.070-0.150mm 0.08 mm

Crankshaft overhaul:
To overhaul crankshaft firstly we need to know what problems can occur with crankshaft and
what are the reason behind them.

Common faults in crankshaft

Fatigue Failure:
Majority of steel crankshaft failure occurs because of fatigue failure, which may originate at the
change of cross-section such as at the lip of oil hole bored in the crankpin.

Failure due to Vibration:


If the engine is running with heavy vibration especially torsional vibration, it may lead to crack
in the crankpin and journal.

Insufficient lubrication:
If the lubrication of bearing in the crankshaft is starved, it may lead to wipe out of the bearing
and failure of the crankshaft.

Water hammering:
It may happen that there is hydraulic lock (water leakage) inside the liner and due to extreme
pressure, the crankshaft may slip or even bent (if safety valve of that unit is not working).

Cracks:
Cracks can develop at the fillet between the journal and the web.
How to fix?

 If crankshaft is broken, we can weld it and reuse it


 If crankshaft is deeply scratched, we can fill material in it and then after grinding process
we can use it again
 If crankshaft is out of balance it goes through static and dynamic balancing
Note: if crankshaft is broken or deeply scratched replacement is recommended because
repaired crankshaft can’t give better performance

Crankshaft static balancing:


Static balance is balance at rest. The crankshaft should remain at rest no matter what position it’s
in. and then they attach weights to balance it.

Crankshaft dynamic balancing:


In dynamic balancing crankshaft is attached with a rotating machine and that machine generate a
graph as per vibration and so then material is removed from crankshaft.
Crankshaft Journal Diameter
Number Diameter
0 45.998 – 46.000mm
1 45.996 – 45.998mm
2 45.994 – 45.996mm
3 45.992 – 45.994mm
4 45.990 - 45.992mm
5 45.988 - 45.990mm

Standard Thrust Clearance:


The standard thrust clearance is 0.09mm to 0.19mm.
The maximum thrust clearance is 0.30mm.
Overhaul engine cooling system
To overhaul engine cooling system, we firstly need to know its parts.
 Coolant (Antifreeze)
 Cooling fan.
 Cooling reservoir.
 Heater core.
 Hoses.
 Radiator.
 Thermostat.
 Water pump.

Overhaul process:
 If we see any problem in cooling system firstly, we will need to check if all wires are ok?
 Terminals are not broken and there is no other issue in electrical system.
 To overhaul water pump we need to remove scales of water and check if there any
rusting. After cleaning put it back.
 Check if there any hose leakage or any clump is loose. If yes fit it again

Thermostat overhaul:
 Check temperature range at what temperature thermostat valve opens.
 Take out thermostat from water body
 Boil water in pot and put thermostat valve and thermometer
 Check if valve open on mentioned temperature or not?
 If not replace thermostat valve.

Radiator service:
Drain the water and flush solution in the same way you drained the original coolant. For heavily
corroded or high mileage vehicles, consider removing the hoses from your radiator and heater
core and using a spray nozzle on a hose to inject high pressure water through the heater core,
engine block and radiator.
Overhaul engine lubrication system:
Parts of lubrication system.
 Oil sump
 Oil strainer
 Oil pump
 Pressure regulator valve
 Oil filter
 Bypass valve

Steps of lubrication system overhaul

 Drain engine oil from drain plug.


 Open bolts of oil sump and sperate in from crankcase.
 Open oil strainer bolts and take it out.
 Separate oil pump from engine and open it.
 Use oil filter SST to open oil filter and install new filter.
 Check in bypass valve working properly.
 Clean all the parts with wastage clothes.
 There will be a magnet in oil sump for metal particles clean it too.
 Install all the parts again.
 Change engine oil as per manufacture’s specification.

Problems in lubrication system


Under lubrication:
It is the situation when lubrication is not enough and engine parts start to wear because of less
lubrication.
Causes

 Oil slug
 Oil pump faulty
 Oil is less due to leakage
 Blockage in oil filter
 Blockage in oil passage
 Engine oil need to be changed

Remedy

 If there is any fault in lubrication system go for overhauling lubrication system.


 Change oil on time.

Over lubrication:
It is the situation when oil pressure is increased and Over lubrication of an engine can be very
harmful for the cylinder condition and can lead to high cylinder liner and piston ring wear, and
also breakage of the piston rings or they get stuck.

Causes

The possible causes of engine over lubrication are as:


 Oil level is much more than specification.
 Oil pump is not compatible with engine and producing more pressure.
 Bypass valve is not working properly.
 Thin engine oil can also be reason.
Remedy

 Keep oil level as per specification.


 Change engine oil
 Repair bypass valve

Oil Rating:
Oil rating is the rating set up by Society of Automobile Engineering and it is being used in entire
world. A specific oil will have high viscosity when cold and a lower viscosity at the engine's
operating temperature. ... The SAE designation for multi-grade oils includes two viscosity
grades e.g. 10W-40: 10W refers to the low-temperature viscosity ("Winter"), 40 refers to the
high-temperature viscosity ("Summer").

Engine over heat:


It is the situation when engine temperature increased from safe limit.

What problems can occur with engine over


heat?
Engine over heat can refer to many serious problems
 Increased resistance in engine parts and parts begin to wear
 Piston rings breakage
 Engine starts to seas
 Scuffing and scoring in cylinder

Causes
 Engine over heat causes can be many like
 Thermostat valve is not opening after water temperature increased
 Fan belt is Brocken
 Radiator is cracked
 Hose pipe is leaking
 Water scales in radiator
 Under lubrication can be also a reason

How to fix?

If your car is overheating, go for overhaul in lubrication and cooling system most of the time
problem will be there.

Slow engine warms up:


It is the situation when engine takes more time to reach its operating temperature.

Causes

Most of the time mechanic takes out thermostat valve from water body and says its useless but
that is why your car can face this problem because water is cooling the engine before it gets its
warning temperature.

How to fix?

Check in your car if you don’t find any thermostat then install it.

Cylinder head Warpage:


The most common cause of cylinder head cracking is overheating. ... This includes the cylinder
head, which is often at the center of the heat. This can cause the head gasket to fail.
Consequently, leading to cylinder head cracking as the components warp and pressure begins to
leak.
Difference in frictional and Antifriction bearing:
Friction type bearings or Plain bearings:
It is the simplest type of bearing having no rolling elements. The shaft generally rolls and slides
inside the hole(bearing). Plain surface contact exists between the shaft and the bearing. These
bearings are used in applications where the rpm or speed is very low and load is very high.
Continuous Lubrication is very important for this type of bearing.
Types- Bush type, Journal, Sleeve type, composite type.

Non-Friction type bearings or Rolling bearings:


These are the most common types of bearing in which the load is transmitted through rolling
elements present between the rings (outer and inner) of the bearing. The rolling element can
be spherical, cylindrical or in barrel shape. These bearings are used in applications with high
rpm and load. Since their contact surface is very minimal, friction is very low or negligible. Heat
generated in these bearings is quite low as compared to those of friction type (plain) bearings.
Types- Ball bearing, Roller bearing.
Noises in engine:
 Hisses sound
 Knocking
 Hard metallic noise
 Rattle noise
 Pupping noise

Hisses sound:
Vacuum leaks often produce an audible hissing noise created by air being drawn through the
failed hose. It can cause if head gasket is lack or warpage in cylinder head or cranks in engine
and leakage in hose pipe or radiator

Knocking:
It is hard metallic sound caused by loose or worn bearings also from detonation, ping and spark
knock.

Hard metallic sound:


It can be heard when bearing is faulty or metal directly getting scratched. It is a very serious
condition don’t ignore it.

Rattle sound from engine:


You usually hear this noise when accelerating the vehicle. Most people call this a pinging
or rattling sound. This noise is caused by an air/fuel mixture in the engine cylinder being ignited
prematurely by the heat of compression as the piston is moving up on the compression stroke.

Volumetric efficiency:
Volumetric efficiency in internal combustion engine is defined as the ratio of the mass density of
the air-fuel mixture drawn into the cylinder and amount of air fuel mixture that would take in
standard conditions.
It’s very important for better performance of engine and to increase it we mostly use turbo
charger and super charger.
Engine backfire:
Backfire is combustion or an explosion produced by a running internal combustion engine that
occurs in the air intake or exhaust system rather than inside the combustion chamber. Unburnt
fuel or hydrocarbons that are ignited in the exhaust system can produce loud sounds even if
flames are not present at the tailpipe. A visible flame may momentarily shoot out of the exhaust
pipe where the exhaust system is shortened.

Engine missing:
It is the situation when in power stroke air fuel mixture is not burnt and that cylinder doesn’t
produce power.

Causes

 Improper air fuel mixture


 Sparkplug or ignition system problem

Remedy

 Clean or replace spark plug


 Repair ignition system components
 Change fuel

Preignition in cylinder:
Pre ignition occur when the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder ignites before the spark plug fires.
Pre-ignition is initiated by an ignition source other than the spark, such as hot spots in the
combustion chamber, a spark plug that runs too hot for the application, or carbonaceous deposits
in the combustion chamber heated to incandescence by previous engine combustion events.
Detonation in cylinder:
detonation in engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in
the cylinder does not result from the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more
pockets of air/fuel mixture explode.
In result we see improper burning of air fuel mixture and it effect on produced power.

Engine dieseling:
Dieseling or engine run-on is a condition that can occur in engine where the engine keeps
running for a short period after being turned off, due to the engine kicking back upon shutdown,
drawing fuel through the carburetor, into the engine and igniting it without a spark.

Turbulence:
Turbulence is the way air fuel mixture moves inside a combustion chamber. If the turbulence of
charge is more, then the air and fuel move randomly inside the chamber.

Swirl:
Swirl is a turbulent motion of air fuel mixture, which is obtained from different piston head
design, combustion chamber types and air fuel injection methods.
Turbulent motion of charge inside a combustion chamber is necessary for compete breakdown
and mixing of fuel with air.

Energy cells formation:


When engine is running for a long time it deposits come content of unburnt HC particles but in
the next stroke piston swipe it. But in case there is some scuffing or scoring in cylinder. Unburnt
particles get stuck in these holes. In power stroke fuel burns and push the piston down but these
deposit particles keep burning even after exhaust stroke. It results when new fuel comes this
carbon deposit ignites the fuel without proper combustion and cause power loss.
Air temperature and pressure effects:
Air temperature effects on the quantity of oxygen going in cylinder. At low temperature more
oxygen comes with air but if air temperature is high then less quantity of oxygen comes with air.
Air pressure effects on quantity of air coming in cylinder. If pressure is increased, then more air
comes easily but if air pressure is less then less air comes in.

Intercooler:
An intercooler is an intake air cooling device used commonly on turbocharged and
supercharged engines. Intercooler cools the air compressed by the turbo/supercharger reducing
the temperature and increasing the density of the air supplied to the engine.

Faults of VVT-I:
 Cam position sensor faults
 Oil control valve fault
 Valve timing out
 Worn cam timing gear
 Low oil pressure
 Worn cam tensioner
 Selenide valve failure
 Sludge in lubrication
 Worn camshaft
 Carbon deposit on valve

Sensors used in 1NZ and their working:


 Mass airflow sensor (MAF).
 Camshaft position sensor (CMP).
 Oil pressure switch.
 Knock sensor (KS).
 Crankshaft position sensor (CKP) underneath the vehicle near the crankshaft pulley.
 Engine coolant temperature sensor (ECT).
 Throttle positions sensor (TP).
MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR:
Hotwire sensor (MAF) A hot wire mass airflow sensor determines the mass of air flowing into
the engine's air intake system. ... When air flows past the wire, the wire cools, decreasing its
resistance, which in turn allows more current to flow through the circuit, since the supply
voltage is a constant
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR
The functional objective for the crankshaft position sensor is to determine the position and/or
rotational speed (RPM) of the crank. Engine Control Units use the information transmitted by
the sensor to control parameters such as ignition timing and fuel injection timing.
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH:
Standard oil pressure sensors work by displaying a warning signal when the oil pressure falls
outside of the set range. Two important components to the oil pressure sensor include the
spring-loaded switch and a diaphragm. ... The pressure switch is mounted onto the side of an
engine block and wired to an oil gallery.
KNOCK SENSOR:
A working principle to piezoelectric elements involves the transmission of an electrical current
in response to detecting a change in pressure or vibration by these elements. The piezoelectric
element inside the knock sensor is tuned to detect the engine knock/detonation frequency.
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR:
The functional objective for the crankshaft position sensor is to determine the position and/or
rotational speed (RPM) of the crank. Engine Control Units use the information transmitted by
the sensor to control parameters such as ignition timing and fuel injection timing.
ENGINE COOLANT TEMPRATURE SENSOR:
The sensor works by measuring the temperature that's being given off by the thermostat and/or
the coolant itself. The temperature is then sent to the on-board control system.
THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR:
The ECU takes in this signal, and sends an appropriate signal to a throttle actuator, which
moves the throttle plate. The throttle position sensor works in a similar way. The potentiometer
wiper is connected to the butterfly valve spindle. ... As the pedal or throttle moves, so does the
magnet.

Reassembling:
Reassembling of engine is opposite of the assembling process.