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УЧЕБНИК

ДЛЯ ВУЗОВ

И.А. НОВИКОВА
Т.А. БЫЛЯ
Е.Э. КОЖАРСКАЯ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
ДЛЯ ХУДОЖНИКОВ
И ИСКУССТВОВЕДОВ

Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением


по специальностям педагогического образования
в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов высших учебных заведений,
обучающихся по педагогическим специальностям
(ГСЭ.Ф.01 — «Иностранный язык»)

Москва
ГУМАНИТАРНА
ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКИЕ
ЦЕНТР

О бпало с
2008

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УДК 8 1 1 .1 1 1 (0 7 5 .8 )
ББК 81.2А н гл-923
Н 73

Новикова И.А.
Н 73 А н гл и й ск и й я зы к . П р ак ти ч еск и й курс для х у д о ж н и к о в и
и ск усств оведов : уч еб. п особи е для студен тов в узов , о б уч а ю ­
щ и хся по пед. спец иальн остям (ГС Э .Ф .01 — «И ностр. язы к ») /
И .А . Н овикова, Т.А . Быля, Е.Э. К ож арская. — М. : Гуманитар,
изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2008. — 240 с. — (Учебник для вузов).
ГЗВМ 9 7 8 -5-691-01651-6.
А гентство С1Р РГ Б.

Учебное пособие написано на основе методических принципов обучения иностран­


ным языкам и расчитано на развитие навыков устной и письменной речи в результате
овладения речевыми образцами, содержащими логические и грамматические явления.
М атериалы пособия предназначены для обсуждения и анализа художественных
произведений живописи, дан подробный глоссарий специальных терминов.
Пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по специальности «Изобра­
зительное искусство».
УДК 811.111 (075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923
© Новикова И .А ., Бы ля Т.А., К ож арская Е.Э., 2008
© ООО «Гуманитарный издательский центр ВЛАДОС», 2008
© Оформление. ООО «Гуманитарный издательский центр
ЕЗВМ 978-5-691-01651-6 ВЛАДОС», 2008

Учебное издание

Новикова Ирина Александровна, Быля Татьяна Александровна


Кожарская Елена Эдуардовна

АНГЛИ ЙСКИ Й Я ЗЫ К
Практический курс для художников и искусствоведов

Зав. редакцией JI.P. Новоселова; редактор И.В. Коровкина


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Л ицензия ИД № 03185 от 10.11.2000.


Санитарно-эпидемиологическое заключение № 77.99.60.953.Д .009475.08.07 от 10.08.2007 г.
Сдано в набор 13.01.07. Подписано в печать 13.04.07. Формат 60x88/16.
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Preface
Предисловие
Д анн ое учебное пособие п р ед н азн ач ен о д л я сту д ен ­
тов в ы сш и х учеб н ы х завед ен и й , о б у ч аю щ и х ся по к у р су
ГСЭ.Ф .01 «И ностранный язы к » , а такж е по специальности
0 3 0 8 0 0 — «И зобразительное искусство», и м ею щ их хоро­
ш ую подготовку по ан гли й ском у я зы к у в объеме средней
ш колы . Оно рассчитано на дальнейш ее разви ти е н авы ков
устной и письменной речи в результате овладения речевы ми
образцам и, содерж ащ им и новые лексические и грам м ати че­
ские явлен и я.
Учебное пособие написано на основе м етодических п р и н ­
ципов обучения иностранны м я зы к а м , которы е в течение
многих лет разрабаты вались теоретически и закр еп л ял и сь
на п р ак ти ч еск и х з а н я т и я х в М осковском педагогическом
институте под руководством известного ли н гви ста и м етоди­
ста профессора В.Д. А раки н а.
Пособие состоит из Основного к урса (E ssen tial Course)
и П р и л ож ен и я (A ppendix). Всего дано 7 уроков, к аж д ы й из
которы х д ели тся н а две ч асти , дополняю щ ие друг друга.
Т ексты , н а которы х строится работа в первой части , в з я ­
ты из произведений ан гл и й ск и х и ам ер и к а н ск и х авторов
X X века с больш им и сокращ ен и ям и .
З а текстом следует ком м ен тари й , глоссарий в ан гл и й ­
ском и русском варианте, список речевы х образцов (Speech

3
P a tte rn s and W ord C om binations) и лексически е п ояснен ия
(E ssential V ocabulary).
С пециальны е ф онетические и морф ологические у п р а ж ­
н ени я способствуют лучш ем у усвоению звукового ряд а ан г­
лийского я зы к а .
У п раж н ен и я на предлоги и ар ти кл и способствуют систе­
м ати зац и и употребления данн ы х язы к о вы х знаков.
В торая ч асть у р о к а п р ед н азн ач ен а д л я о б су ж д ен и я
и ан ал и за худож ественны х произведений и тенденции р а з­
ви ти я ж ивописи. Т акие обсуж дения н ачин аю тся, к а к п р а­
вило, в виде диалогов и переходят постепенно в дискуссии,
что способствует развитию навы ков устной речи.
В разделе П ри л ож ен и я (A ppendix) дан очень подробный
глоссарий всех худ ож ествен н ы х терм инов, затем следует
грам м ати ческий сп равочник, в конце раздела напечатано
несколько коротки х рассказов из ж и зн и худож ников.

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UNIT

ONE
TEXT

from "A THING OF BEAUTY"


b y A. CRO N IN
ARCHIBALD JOSEPH CRONIN was born in 1896. In 1919 he graduated from
Glasgow University where he took a medical course. After that he practiced medicine
for over ten years and gained a lot of experience of life. Though Cronin was an excellent
doctor, he hoped some time to take up a literary career. The opportunity to write came
when his medical practice was interrupted by illness. His first novel came out in 1931.
It was followed by a number of other novels.
“A Thing of Beauty”* was published in 1955. It is a story of Stephen Desmonde, the
son of a clergyman who wanted him to follow in his steps. But Stephen was fond of paint­
ing and devoted his life to art. Against his father’s will he left England to study painting
in France. He became an artist and and created several masterpieces. The extract given
below is taken from the last chapter of the novel.

On an A p ril afte rn o o n in th e y ear 1937 a m an, to be exact,


an elderly clergym an, and a boy descended fro m a bus a t th e
n o rth end of V auxhall B ridge, and soon th e y w ere b o th inside
th e T ate G allery. Few people w ere about. They m ade th e ir way
th ro u g h th e c e n tra l g allery , p a st th e glow ing T u rn e rs and s il­
v ery W h istle rs, th e S arg en ts, C onstables and G ainsboroughs,
and fin a lly s a t dow n in a room , f r e tte d by su n sh in e ,o n th e
w est side. U pon th e w all, d ire c tly opposite, ex q u isitely fram ed
and h u n g , w ere th re e p a in tin g s.
A t th e se , sile n tly , th e boy as in d u ty b o u n d , h is eld er
w ith rem ote and m e d itativ e vision, gazed. P re se n tly , w ith o u t
rem oving his eyes, B e rtra m spoke.
“ S tephen, you are s e ttlin g down q u ite well a t school?”
“Q uite well, th a n k you, s ir .”
“You like it th e re ?”
“I t ’s n o t a t all bad, s ir ”
“Of course, th e f ir s t y e a r is alw ays d iffic u lt. B u t a f te r ­
w ards y o u ’ll g et in to th e sw ing of th in g s. Y ou’ve m ade some
frie n d s, I hope?”
“Yes, sir.
“G ood.”
* “A Thing of B eauty” в русском переводе роман называется “П ам ятник Крестоносцу”.

6
“W e expect fin e th in g s of you, m y boy. You m u st stick in
and do c re d it to y o u r nam e. A re th e lessons com ing alo n g ?”
“P r e tty fa ir, I th in k , sir. W e had a te s t before we broke up
fo r th e h o lid ay s” .
“How did th a t come o u t? ”
“I did all rig h t in E nglish and a rith m e tic .”
A shadow crossed B e rtra m ’s m ind, he scarcely could b rin g
him self to ask th e qu estio n .
“Do th e y give you d ra w in g ? ”
“Yes, sir. B ut I did badly in th a t. It seems I can ’t draw a t a ll.”
U nconsciously, B e rtra m gave o u t a little sig h of re lie f,
glanced to w ard s his g ran d so n , who co n tin u ed — “b u t M other
said I m u s t te ll you I g o t fu ll m a rk s fo r S c rip tu re k n o w l­
ed g e.”
“W ell done... well d o n e,” B e rtra m m u rm u red . W ho could
tell?
P e rh a p s even a t th is la te h o u r th e g re a t hope of his life
m ig h t be fu lfille d , if th e good Lord w ould only le t him su rv iv e
to realize it.
He laid his blue-veined fin g e rs on th e bo y ’s h an d and p a t­
te d it approvingly.
A p a rty of school-girls en tered th e room , u n d e r th e escort
of th e ir m istress. T here w ere about a dozen of th em , th e m is­
tre s s , in re s tra in e d tw eeds and flat-h eeled shoes, was pale and
ea rn e st, bareheaded, bespectacled, and c arrie d a little sh eat of
n otes, to w hich, as th e guide co n d u ctin g th e to u r, she re fe rre d
fro m tim e to tim e. E x actly opposite B e rtra m and S tephen, b u t
w ith o u t ta k in g any notice of th em , she drew up.
“A n d now , g i r l s ,” she a n n o u n c e d , “we com e to th e
D esm ondes, th re e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e p a in tin g s p u rc h a s e d in
1930. The f ir s t, e n title d C ircus, d istin g u ish e d by a m arvelous
sense of colour and com position, is of th e a r t i s t ’s early F rench
period. N ote in p a rtic u la r th e g ro u p in g of th e clowns in th e
fo reg ro u n d and th e m an n er in w hich a sense of m ovem ent is
given to th e fig u re of th e young w om an on th e bicycle.
“The second p a in tin g , T h e B lu e W r a p p e r , w hich I am
su re you have seen rep ro d u ced m any tim es, is a p o r tr a it of
th e a r t i s t ’s w ife. H ere you w ill fin d th e freedom of a rra n g e ­
m en ts and u n c o n v e n tio n a lity of d esig n w hich c h a ra c te riz e d
all D esm onde’s w ork. A s you see, th e su b ject is n e ith e r p r e t­
ty no r young, y et by su b tle colouring and a rh y th m ic flow of
sim ple lin es, an e x tra o rd in a ry fe e lin g of b e a u ty is c re a te d .
O bserve, too, th a t th ro u g h th e w indow a t w hich she sits, th e re

7
is an e x q u isite ly su g g ested v is ta of th e s tre e t o u tsid e , w ith
some poor ch ild ren engaged in a gam e of ball. T his, in c id en ­
ta lly , was th e su b ject of a n o th e r w ell-know n D esm onde know n
as C hildren a t P la y , w hich m ay be seen in th e L uxem bourg,
P a ris . “The th ir d , and la rg e s t p a in tin g , w as th e la s t w ork
accom plished by th e a r tis t and is considered to be his fin e st. It
is, as you see, a larg e com position of th e e s tu a ry of th e Tham es,
show ing all th e crow ded, tu rb u le n t m ovem ent of th e r iv e r .”
She began here to co n su lt h e r notes.
“O bserve, g irls, th a t it is no m ere p ic to rial re p re se n ta tio n .
N ote th e sk illfu l d efo rm atio n s, th e au d acity and su b tle ty of
th e co lo u rin g , th e e x p ressiv e d iv id ed to n e s, th e p ro je c tio n
upon th e canvas of an in te rio r d ra m a of th e s p irit. See also
how th e lig h t seem s to em anate fro m th e canvas, gleam ing and
v ib ra n t, a lu m in o sity th a t gives g re a t in te n s ity to th e w ork. In
a w ay it is rem in iscen t of th e rad ian ce of expression fo u n d in
th e g re a t p a in tin g s of R ubens. D esm onde w as n o t a lto g e th e r
a re v o lu tio n a ry p a in te r. J u s t as th e Im p ressio n ists drew from
T u rn e r, he drew , in his early y ears fro m M anet, D egas, and
M onet. T here are som e, indeed, who have contended recen tly
th a t th e S panish period of his a r t stem s fro m th e p a in te r Goya.
B u t alth o u g h he stu d ie d th e m a ste rs, he w ent beyond them .
He knew how to recognize b e a u ty in all its fo rm s, and his con­
science forced him to re je c t any tech n iq u e b u t his own. He was
in every sense of th e w ord an in d iv id u a list whose w ork, even
w hen m ost specialized, seem ed to cover th e whole span of life,
a g re a t o rig in al a r tis t who, re s is tin g every te m p ta tio n to be
re p e titio u s, opened up a new era of expression. W hen we look
a t these w orks we know he has n o t lived in v a in .”
H ere th e m istre ss discarded h e r notes and becam e hu m an
again.
Looking aro u n d h e r pupils she asked brisk ly :
“A ny q u estio n s, class?”
One of th e g irls, who stood close to th e te ach er, spoke up,
in th e m an n er of a fa v o u rite pupil.
“Is he dead, M iss?”
“Yes, D oris. He died as q u ite a young m an, ra th e r tr a g i­
cally, and alm ost u n reco g n ized .”
“B ut, M iss, d id n ’t you ju s t tell us he was a g re a t p a in te r? ”
“Yes, D oris, b u t like so m any o th e rs he had to die to become
g re a t.
D on’t you rem em ber w h at I to ld you ab o u t R e m b ra n d t’s
p o v erty , and H als, b u rie d in a p a u p e r’s g rav e, and G auguin,

8
who could scarcely sell a single p ic tu re w hen he w as penniless,
and V an G ogh...”
“Y es, M iss... people d id n ’t u n d e rs ta n d , w ere m ista k e n
about th e m .”
“W e can all m ake m istakes, dear... G ladys, do stop s n iff­
in g .”
“P lease, M iss, I have a cold.”
“T hen use y o u r h a n d k e rc h ie f... as I w as say in g , D oris,
E ngland m ay have erred over S tephen D esm onde, b u t she has
m ade up fo r it handsom ely. H ere are th e se p a in tin g s in th e
T ate fo r all of us to adm ire. Now come along, follow me, d o n ’t
lag b ehind, g irls, and w e’ll ta k e th e S a rg e n ts .”

G LO SSA R Y
1. descend спускаться
2. make one’s way направляться
3. fre tte d обеспокоенный
4. duty bound обязанный
5. settle down успокаиваться, обустроиться
6. m editative созерцательный, задумчивый
7. do credit делать честь кому-либо
8. unconsciously бессознательно
9. Scripture knowledge знание Библии
10. restrained сдержанный
11. bespectacled в очках
12. refer ссылаться
13. unconventionality нетрадиционность
14. exquisitely suggested vista великолепный вид, перспектива
для картины
15. accomplished picture великолепно написанная
картина
16. estuary устье реки
17. audacity смелость
18. subtlety тонкость, острота
19. em anate исходить из, происходить от......
20. lum inocity яркость света
21. rem iniscent напоминающий
22. radiance свечение
23. contended утверждать
24. conscience совесть
25. discarded отказываться, отбрасывать как
26. err ошибаться
27. handsomely щедро

9
COM M ENTARY

1. Tate Gallery — also T ate, in fo rm al — an a r t g allery in SW


London know n especially its en co u rag em en t of m odern
a rt.
2. Turner, Josef Mallord William (1 7 7 5 — 1851) an E n g lish
lan d scap e p a in te r who u sed la rg e a re a s of lig h t an d
colour to express th e effects of th e forces of n a tu re , as
in his fam ous p a in tin g The F ig h tin g Tem eraie
3. Whistler, James Ab-bott Me Neill (1 8 3 4 — 1903) an
A m erican a r ti s t m o st fam o u s fo r a p ic tu re know n as
“W h is tle r’s M o th er” .
4. Sargent John Singer (1 8 5 6 — 1925) an A m erican a r tis ts
who is rem em bered especially fo r his p a in tin g of people.
5. Constable, John (1776 — 1837) an E nglish p a in te r know n
esp. fo r his p a in tin g s and d raw in g s of S uffolk scenery.
6. Gainsborough, Thomas (1 7 2 7 — 1788) an E n g lish a r tis t
b est know n fo r his p o rtra its and landscape p a in tin g s. He
was involved in th e estab lish m en t of th e R oyal A cadem y
in London.
7. Rubens, Peter Paul (1577— 1640) a F lam ish a r tis t re g a rd ­
ed as one of th e g re a te st, responsible fo r over 2000 p a in t­
ings.
8. Manet, Edouard (1 8 3 2 — 1883) a F re n c h p a in te r who
g re a tly influenced th e im p ressio n ists. Some of his m ost
well-know n w orks are T h e B alcon y and T h e Fife P layer.
9. Monet, Claude (1 8 4 0 — 1926) a F ren ch p a in te r who w as
involved in s ta r tin g im pressionism , b est know n fo r his
p ic tu re s of th e co u n try sid e in w hich he was concerned to
show th e effects of lig h t.
10. Degas, Edgar (1834— 1917) a F rench Im p ressio n ist a r tis t,
fam ous p a rtic u la rly fo r his p a in tin g s of wom en dancing,
of cafe life, and of racin g scenes.
11. Goya, Francisco de (1746— 1828) a S panish a r tis t, consid­
ered to be th e g re a te s t of his tim e, m any of whose w orks
are p a in tin g s of people, esp. th e royal fam ilies of S pain
12. Rembrandt, in full, Rembrandt Harmensz (1606 — 1669)
a D u tc h p a in te r an d g ra p h ic a r t i s t ; p ro d u c e d o v er
3.000 w orks.
13. Gauguin, Paul (1848— 1903) a F rench p a in te r W ho w ent
to live in T ah iti, w here he p a in te d scenes w hich showed
his in te re s t in th e life of th e people th e re , u sin g p u re ,
b rig h t colours.

10
14. van Gogh, Vincent (1853— 1890) a D utch postim pression­
ist p a in te r whose m ost fam ous w ork was Dane in th e last
m onths of his lif e . H is paintings are m ainly in b rig h t colours
w ith m any sm all lines of p ain t in sw irling p a tte rn s.

SPEECH P A TT E R N S
1. N ote in particular th e g ro u p in g of th e clowns.
N ote the sk ilfu l deforem ations, the audecity...
2. Observe th at th ro u g h th e w indow th e re is ....O bserve,
g irls, th a t it is no m ere p ic to rial re p re se n ta tio n ...
3. See, g ir ls , As you see, the subject is n eith er p re tty
nor young.
See also how the light seems to em inate from the canvas...
4. The g irl is neither pretty nor young.
The le ctu re is neither in terestin g nor im p o rta n t...

PH RASE S A N D W O RD C O M B IN A T O N S
1. exquisitely fram ed изы сканно обрамленный
2. get into the swing of things оказаться в ритме событий
3. rep resen tativ e p ain tin g характерны е картины
4. sense of colour (composi­ чувство цвета (композиции,
tion, proportion, movement) пропорции, движ ения)
5. the freedom of arrangements зд. свобода композиции
6. unconventionality of design нетрадиционность рисунока
7. ex tra o rd in ary feeling необычайное чувство красоты
of beau ty
8. subtle colouring тонкие цветовые соотношения
9. a rh y th m ic flow ритмичное течение простых
of sim ple lines линий
10. to accom plish a work заверш ить произведение
of a rt искусства
11. p ictorial rep resen tatio n живописное изображ ение
12. sk ilfu l deform ation ум елая деформация
13. audacity смелость
14. in terio r dram a of the spirit внутренняя драма духа
15. em anate from th e canvas исходить от полотна
16. gleam ing and v ib ran t мерцаю щ ая и трепещ ущ ая
lum inocity вибрирую щ ая яркость света
17. radiance of expression сияние выразительности

11
E S S E N T IA L V O C A B U L A R Y

art — noun
1 1. beautiful objects
2. painting, draw ing etc
3.film , th eatre etc
4. special skills
paintings, drawings, and sculptures th a t are created
to be beautiful or to express ideas:
Do you like modern art?
the art of ancient Mexico
something th at people feel has value because it is beautiful
or expresses ideas:
A re these films art or entertainm ent?
the activity of painting, drawing, or creating sculptures:
She devotes her spare time to her art.
2 painting, drawing, and sculptures as subjects you study:
He studied A r t and Design at university.
3 arts [plural] subjects of study th a t are not scientific, such as
history, lite ratu re, and languages:
the Faculty of A rts
an arts g rad u ate/degree/subject
the decorative/graphic arts
4 the arts activities such as art, music, film , th eatre,
and dance, considered together
5 [c. usually sing u lar] an ac tiv ity th a t needs special skills or
knowledge:
Bringing out the best in your students is an art.
a rt of doing something:
I have now mastered the art of letter-writing.
a rt deco or A rt Deco noun [u.]
a style of a rt, decoration, and architecture w ith simple strong
lines th a t was especially popular in the 1920s and 1930s in
Europe and the US
paint — verb
1 to p u t paint onto som ething, to change its colour:
She was pain tin g her nails.
They followed the white arrows pain ted on the road.
Wash the walls before you start to paint.
2 to create a picture of som ething using paints:
I painted a view of the lake.
He started pain tin g professionally at an early age.

12
3 to describe someone or som ething in a particular way:
The film tries to pain t an accurate picture of w hat life is really
like for these people,
pa in t the town red informal
paint — noun
1 a coloured liquid th a t you put on a surface to change its colour
or th a t you use for m aking a picture:
Hand me th at tin of pain t, please.
a coat of p ain t (=a layer of paint on a surface): You need to
apply two coats of paint.
dried paint on wood or another surface:
The pain t was peeling off the doors.
2 paints [plural] noun a set of small blocks or tubes containing
paint of d ifferen t colours th a t you use for m aking pictures:
a box of pain ts
paintbrush [noun] a brush used for p u ttin g paint on a surface or
for m aking a picture w ith paints
painter — noun
1 an a rtis t who paints pictures:
The gallery is showing the work of abstract painters.
2 someone whose job is to paint walls, doors etc. or the outside of
houses and other buildings: a house painter
painting — noun
1 a picture made using paint: a painting by Picasso
2 the activity of using paint to create a picture:
A fter retirement he took up pain tin g and photography.
3 the activ ity of using paint to cover som ething such as a wall,
door, or piece of fu rn itu re:
He does jobs for me like pain tin g and decorating.
draw — verb (p ast tense — drew; past participle — drawn)
create picture
to create a picture by m aking lines w ith a pen or pencil:
Someone had drawn a map of the Island.
draw with: The kids had drawn on the pavement with chalk.
to be able to make pictures in this way:
I can’t draw at all. Can you draw faces?
draw a line/distinction/boundary:
The law draws a distinction between children and adults.
draw a parallel/analogy/com parison:
The writer drew parallels between the two societies.
to get a p articu lar reaction from people:
drawing — noun.
1 a picture th a t someone has drawn:
draw ing of: The children did drawings of themselves.

13
2 the activity or skill of m aking pictures w ith a pen or pencil:
I ’m not very good at drawing,
portrait — noun.
1 [c] a painting, drawing, or photograph of someone,
especially of th e ir face only
2 a description of someone or som ething, for example in a book:
p o rtra it of: a p o rtra it of life under communism
portraiture — noun
form al, the a rt of m aking p o rtraits of people
portray — verb
1 to show or describe someone or som ething in a particu lar way:
p o rtray someone as som ething:
Opponents portray the president as weak and ineffectual.
portray someone in a good/bad light (make them seem good or
bad): The newspapers want to p o rtra y the project in the worst
possible light.
to show som ething by featu rin g it in a film , book, play etc.: The
book po rtra ys Caribbean society against a background of the
French Revolution.
2 if an actor portrays a person, they play the p art of th a t person in
a film , play etc.
M. Grant usually portayed a typicl English gentelman full of
understatement.
picture — noun
1 a draw ing, painting, or photograph:
I noticed a picture on the dining-room wall,
a children’s book with bright colourful pictures
picture of:
She showed me a picture of the house where she was born,
a picture of a peaceful country scene
draw /p ain t a picture:
She asked children to draw pictures of their family.
take a picture (to produce a photograph using a camera):
I'll stand over here, and you can take the picture.
an image on a television, video, or com puter screen:
Some viewers are suffering from poor pictu re quality on all
channels.
an image in your mind:
I have such happy pictures in my mind of those times.
a m ental picture: She had a mental picture of Samuel's face.
2 a description or idea of w hat someone or som ething is like:
picture of:
M y friends had a rather distorted picture of my life.
paint a picture (of something) (give a description of something):
The report pain ts a rather gloom y picture.

14
3 a situation:
The picture has changed a lot in the last couple of weeks.
The general picture was one of neglect and decline.
4 no longer in volved in som ething:
I could have asked Shane to help, but he was out of the picture by
then.
put someone in the picture inform al
to give someone the inform ation they need to understand:
M ike here can p u t you in the pictu re about how we run the
office.

15
ACTIVITIES
1. Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation
of the following words. Mark the main stressed syllabse in each
of these words.
a rith m e tic , u n co n scio u sly , b areh ea d ed , b esp ectacled ,
fo re g ro u n d , e x tra o rd in a ry , in c id e n ta lly , rh y th m ic ,
rad ian ce, au d acity , su b tle ty , lu m in o sity .
2. Analyze the structure of the following words: marvellous
arrangement, deformation, representative
E xam p le: unconventionality
un — n eg ativ e p re fix
convent — ro o t
ion — n o u n —fo rm in g s u ffix
al — ad jectiv e—fo rm in g s u ffix
ity — n o u n —fo rm in g s u ffix
3. Complete each sentence with the correct form
of the underlined word.
form m arvel
W earin g shoes th a t are It has been an absolutely
too tig h t w i l l y o u r feet. show.

c. a rra n g e d. p r e s e n t
She was busy a t th a t m om ent She decorated th e room
th e flow ers in th e vase. to look m o r e .........
4. Pick out from the text some adjectives and give their comparative
and superlative degrees.
E xam p le: poor — p o o rer — th e poorest
m arvellous — m ore m arvellous — th e m ost m arvellous
5. What do the underlined words in the following sentences mean?
1. The people m ade th e ir w ay th ro u g h th e c e n tra l g allery ,
p a s t th e glow ing T u r n e rs , and silv e ry W h is tle r s , th e
S arg en ts. C onstables and G ain sb o ro u g h s.
2. He b o u g h t six e tc h in g s — a P a lm e r, a D a u b in g y ,
a L e g ro s , a H o lla r, a S tra n g and an A p p ian . N one of
th em v ery expensive.
3. A nd now, g irls, we come to th e D esm ondes, p u r­
chased in 1930.

16
6 . Finish the sentences using the following patterns.

1. N ote in p a r t i c u l a r .................................
N ote th e s k i l f u l ....................................
2. O bserve t h a t ...........................................
O bserve, d ear frie n d s, t h a t ...........................................
3. See, g i r l s , .............
4. A s you s e e , ..............................................
5. See also how ...........................................................
6. T h e is n e ith e r p re tty , b o rin g , lovely / n o r com ­
m on, n e u t r a l .......................
7. Translate into English the sentences containing the patterns.
1. О братите, в частности, вни м ани е н а то, к а к х у д о ж ­
н и к наносит краску.
2. Обратите вним ание на смелость, с которой худ ож н и к
рисует закат.
3. Зам етьте, к а к сильно и зм ен ился стиль зрелого х уд ож ­
н и ка.
4. Зам етьте, что в и н ста л яц и и использую тся срезан ны е
ц веты , (c u t), к у с к и саж и (lu m p s of so o t), к о н ск и й
волос (horse h a ir) и м ногие другие сухие м атер и ал ы
5. К ак ви д и те, соврем енное д ви ж ен и е аван гарди стов
равивается вне конф ронтации с импрессионизмом .
6. П осмотрите, к а к быстро худ ож н и к поддался опасной
п ривы чке и м и ти рован и я карти н .
7. К арти н а не русская и не ан гл и й ская, и только тщ а ­
тельное обследование м ож ет сказать вам.
8. М узей был не современны й, не стари н ны й, но и н те­
ресны й.
8 . Work in pairs. Act out dialogues.

a) You are a painter and your friend is not knowledgeable in art.

b) You are two arts graduates discussing the modern exhibition.

9. Write down from the text the sentences containing the phras­
es and word combinations and translate them into Russian.

10 Write 10 sentences incorporating the following word combina­


tions.
1. ex q u isitely fram ed
2. g et in to th e sw ing of th in g s
3. re p re se n ta tiv e p a in tin g

17
4. sense of colour /co m p o sitio n , p ro p o rtio n , m o v em en t/
5. th e freedom of a rra n g e m e n ts
6. u n co n v en tio n ality of design
7. e x tra o rd in a ry feeling of b eau ty
8. su b tle colouring
9. a rh y th m ic flow of sim ple lines
10. p ic to ria l re p re se n ta tio n

11 Describe your favourite picture using the following phrases


and word combinations:
1. to accom plish a w ork of a r t
2. p ic to rial re p re se n ta tio n
3. sk illfu ll d efo rm atio n
4. au d acity and su b ltle ty of th e colouring
5. in te rio r d ram a of th e s p irit
6. em anate fro m th e canvas
7. gleam ing and v ib ra n t lu m in o city
8. rad ian ce of expression

12 Work in pairs. Act out dialogues using the following phrases


and word combinations
A.

1. ex q u isitely fram ed
2. g et in to th e sw ing of th in g s
3. re p re se n ta tiv e p a in tin g
4. sense of co lo u r /c o m p o sitio n , p ro p o rtio n , m o v e m e n t/
5. th e freedom of a rra n g e m e n ts
B.

1. to accom plish a w ork of a r t


2. p ic to rial re p re se n ta tio n
3. sk ilfu ll d efo rm atio n
4. au d acity and su b ltle ty of th e colouring
5. in te rio r d ram a of th e s p irit

13 Translate the following sentences into English using the word


combinations and phrases.
1. М олодая д еву ш к а обладала необы чайны м чувством
пропорции.
2. П осетителей п оразило и зы скан н ое обрам ление к а р ­
тины .

18
3. К ар ти н а о тр а ж а л а внутренню ю драм у д уха х у д о ж ­
н и к а.
4. К арти н а бы ла полностью готова но худ ож н и к все еще
не ставил свою подпись.
5. Н а м еня произвело больш ое впечатление ж ивописное
изображ ение природы .
6. М еня п орази ли тон ки е цветовы е соотнош ения этой
акварел и .
7. У него было прекрасное чувство цвета.
8. И н стал л яц и я к а к вид искусства предполагает свобо­
ду аран ж и ровк и .
9. Творчество Эль Греко х арактери зуется н етрадиц ион ­
ной манерой ри сунка.
1 0 . Х удож ни к провел несколько лет в Европе, и ему было
трудно войти в курс событий.

13 Are these statements true or false?


1. A n eld erly clerg y m an and a boy soon w ere in sid e th e
T ate G allery.
2. The boy h a s n ’t m ade any frie n d s.
3. The boy and th e clerg y m an h ad th e G allery to th e m ­
selves.
4. The m istress b ro u g h t th e schoolgirls to th e D esm ondes.
5. D esm onde was n o t a lto g e th e r a re v o lu tio n a ry .
6. He d id n ’t know how to re c o g n iz e b e a u ty in all its
fo rm s
7. D esm onde drew in his early y ears fro m M anet, D egas
and M onet.
8. He died r a th e r tra g ic a lly b u t recognized.

14 Finish the sentences with the text wording.


1. “A nd now , g ir l s ,” she an n o u n c e d , “we com e to th e
D e sm o n d e s,................................................................................
2. H ere you w ill fin d th e freed o m of a rra n g e m e n ts and

3. The th ird and la rg e st p a in tin g was th e la st w ork accom ­


plished .........................
4. He knew how to recognize b e a u ty in all its fo rm s and

5. He was in every sense of th e w o r d ................


6. W hen we look a t th ese w orks we k n o w ................
15. Match the words on the left with the words on the right.

1. ex q u isitely a a r tis t
2. su b tle ty b of expression
3 . span c d efo rm atio n
4. re sistin g d d ram a of th e s p irit
5. recognize e re p re se n ta tio n
6. in te rio r f b eau ty
7. sk ilfu l g of life
8. p ic to rial h te m p ta tio n
9. o rig in al i fram ed
10. radience j of th e colouring
B. Write 10 sentences incorporting the above word combina­
tions.

16 Explain what the author meant by.


1. a shadow crossed B e rtra m ’s m ind
2. a sense of m ovem ent is given to th e fig u re of th e young
w om an....
3. th e lig h t seem s to em anate fro m th e canvas.
4. ju s t as th e Im p ressio n ists drew fro m T u rn er.
5. b u t a lth o u g h he stu d ie d th e m a ste rs, he w ent beyond
th e m ...
6. W e know he has n o t lived in vain.
7 h ere th e m istre ss d iscard ed h e r n o tes and becam e
h u m an again.
8. E ngland m ay have e rre d over D esm onde...

17 Answer the following questions.


1. W ho came to th e T ate G allery on an A p ril a fte rn o o n in
1937?
2. W hose p ic tu re s did th e y pass by w hen th e y m ade th e ir
w ay th ro u g h th e c e n tra l G allery? Do th ese nam es sound
fa m ilia r to you?
3. “It seem s I c a n ’t d raw a t a ll.” said th e boy. W as th e
clerg y m an h ap p y o r d isa p p o in te d to h e a r th e b o y ’s
answ er?
4. The p a rty of school-girls en tered th e room . W ere th e y
on th e ir own, or w as th e re anybody to a tte n d to them ?
5. W h a t p a in te r did she s ta r t w ith to co n d u ct h e r to u r?
W hy?

20
6. W h a t effects did D esm onde achieve in th e p a in tin g The
Blue W rap p er?
7. W h a t d id th e m istre s s say a b o u t D esm onde’s p a in t­
ings?
8. W hich p a in te rs did he draw fro m in his early years?
9. Did he stic k to th e m a sters ( w h a t m a ste r s) or did he go
beyond them ?
10. W h a t did th e m istre ss say ab o u t m any w o rld -fam o u s
a rtis ts ?
11. In th e m is tr e s s ’s o p in io n , how d id E n g la n d t r e a t
D esm onde?

21
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative
examples into Russian.

1. In th is u n fo rg e tta b le S u ffo lk landscape th e re is th e


m agic of th e a r tist’s fa v o u rite a u tu m n . 2. C o n stab le’s r e li­
gious fe e lin g s fo u n d im m ed iate release in p ain tin g. 3. The
work of art is th u s th e outcom e of know ledge and em otion a t
one and th e sam e tim e o rganized by the artist in to th e im age.
4. The v ario u s avant-garde m ovem ents of contem porary a r t
arose o u t of c o n fro n ta tio n w ith im pressionism . 5. Picasso v is ­
itin g an ex h ib itio n of im p ressio n ist w orks looked a t th e p a in t­
in g s and exclaim ed: “H ere we can see th a t i t is ra in in g , we
can see th e sun is sh in in g , b u t now here can we see p a in tin g ”
6. Gauguin exotic painting m ean t th e possession of a m y s te ri­
ous im age w hich had em anated fro m th e e a rth . 7. The cubists
blam e th e im pressionists fo r th e ir lack of rig o u r and sty listic
coherence, and especially fo r th e ir episodic c h a ra c te r of th e ir
painting. 8. In R eynolds’s day society portraiture had become
a m onotonous re p e titio n of th e sam e them e. 9 .In th e cen tre of
th e room , clam ped to an u p rig h t easel, stood th e fu ll-len gth
portrait of a young m an, and in fro n t of it, some d istan ce aw ay
w as s ittin g th e a r tis t him self. 10. W h en H u g h ie cam e in he
fo u n d T rev o r p u ttin g th e fin ish in g tou ch es to a w o n d erfu l
life-size picture of a b eg g ar-m an . 11. It was a little shop of
prints and drawings in th e w indow , and th e re was som ething
in th e w ay th a t th e y w ere a rra n g e d th a t drew his atten tion .

2. Fill in the gaps with the words and word combinations of the
essential vocabulary.
/to make a good picture / contemporary art/ pictures / a drawing/
piece of paint / paint/ modern painting / by means of painting/ the paint­
ing / his painting / art student / smears of pain /

1. A s you can see th e v ario u s av an -g u ard e m ovem ents of


....................................... arouse o u t of c o n fru n ta tio n w ith
im pressioninsm .
2. I h a te it, dull u g l y .................................
3. He w as d ru n k w ith colour and did n o t know w h e th e r
.........................was good or bad.
4. He was convinced th a t it was no m ore e a s y ......................
th a n it was to fin d a diam ond or a pearl.

22
5. W ith th ese w ords he tu rn e d to his own canvas, began to
hum and ap p ly .......................
6. S tric k la n d ’s ............................seen fo r th e firs tim e w ould
fin d th e m ind m ore p re p a re d fo r th e m , and y et h is
in flu en ce has so enorm ously affected .
7. I th in k ............................................... y o u ’re tr y in g to say
so m eth in g , b u t am n o t su re th a t th e b est w ay of saying
it i s .................................
8. W h en t h e ................. cam e th e re w as on th e
tab le th a t had a s lig h t resem blance to th e vase.
9. The old m an p ro u d ly displayed th e v a r ie g a te d .................
on his silk d ressin g gown.
10 ........................................ was h u n g in an inconspicuous place
w here it could n o t excite any noticeable com m ents.
3. Word sets: arts. Underline the odd word in each set.
1. oil, w ater, colour, d raw in g , gloves.
2. b ru sh , canvas, s itte r , p ic tu re , pallete.
3. a r t g allery , m useum , b o u tiq u e, ex h ib itio n , b ien n ial
4. p a in t,d ra w , design, sk etch , consider
5. c la ssic ism , ro m a n tis is m , so cialism , im p re s sio n is m ,
realism .
4. Match the two halves of the sentences.
/for that reason the world shall never see my portrait of Dorian Grey/
/the abstract sense of beauty,/ but should put nothing of his
own life into them/ but rather a story to be told./ that the final
picture has the desired paint quality/
/the two faces of the same historical situation/ to view many
paintings/
/it were meant to be a form of autobiography

1. A n a r tis t should create b e a u tifu l t h i n g s ............................


2. W e live in an age w hen m en tr e a t a r t as i f ......................
3. W e have lo s t.............................................................
4. Some day I w ill show th e w orld w h at it is ;..................and
5 Each fre sh s itte r was n o t ju s t a physical fa c t to be re c o rd ­
e d ,.............................................
6. Use su n icen t p a in t to produce a fu ll, norm al p a in t co a t­
in g so ......................................
7. The b est w ay to g ain b e tte r u n d e rsta n d in g or g re a te r
enjoym ent of a r t is ..........................................
8. Picasso has realized th a t Cezanne and Van Gogh a r e ......

23
5 . Make a list of some adjectives the author uses describing
the pictures. Work in pairs. Act out dialogues using the above
adjectives.
1.Two young v is itro rs are v is itin g th e p o r tra it g allery fo r
th e f ir s t tim e.
2. Two v ery c ritic a l p a in te rs who do n o t like a b s tra c t p a in t­
in g .......
6 . Complete the following sentences with appropriate words from
the box
Pictures in the vague / real orginal pictures / breathed this
particular ambition / of the orginal artist / to have “pictures” /
splendid chalk drawing / the prints in the box /_____________
1. He liked th e com fortable shape of th e shop, th e w ay th a t
th e lig h t fro m a lam p-post fell on ......................................
of a g entlem an.
2. He stood idly tu rn in g o v e r ................................................
3. A n o th e r of h is am b itio n s w as one day to have “p ic ­
tu r e s ’.
4 .................................................... so v ag u e and so im possible
th a t he n e v e r...................................................to anybody, and
fo r him self had scarecely fo rm u lated .
5. He only knew th a t th e y w e r e ..............................
6. P ic tu re s touched, them selves, by h a n d ............................
7. None of y o u r copies......
B. Translate the sentences into Rusian.

7. Do the library research and write an essay on one of the given topics.

1. My fa v o u rite genre of p a in tin g .


2. A pplied a r t and its role in th e life of m an.
3. W hy do I w an t to be a p a in te r?
4. My fa v o u rite E nglish p a in te r.
8. Choose the right article.
Im p o r ta n c e o f g ro u n d s. F r o m p u rely a rtis tic view ­
p o in t, g ro u n d on w hich oil or te m p e ra p a in tin g is
ex ecu ted or ........ w all w hich p ro v id es b ac k g ro u n d fo r
m u ral p a in tin g is j u s t ............. blank area upon w h ic h .
a r tis t p ro jects his ideas.
F o r th is reaso n , ........ g ro u n d and its su p p o rt are lik ely
to be considered as th e elem ents fu r th e s t rem oved f r o m .......
creativ e p a rt of p a in tin g ; in fa c t, in m any in stan ces th e y are

24
ta k e n fo r g ra n te d to s u c h e x te n t th a t th e co n sid eratio n s
w hich govern th e ir tech n ical re q u ire m e n ts are ig n o red or a t
least n o t given su ffic ie n t th o u g h t.
9. Choose the right preposition from the box.
for, into, in, for, at, for, of, out, by, in, of, in, in, of,
to, of, on
1. I t w as t i m e p a in tin g , b u t I s a n k m elancholy
and decided to stop.
2. A larg e room w a s fa c t a stu d io w here I w o rk e d .......
m ore th a n fo u r h o u r s a s tre tc h .
3 .......... a w hile I b ro k e m y g e n e ra l ru le .......... w o rk in g
because th e p ic tu re w a s of balance.
4. The th ird p a in tin g was th e la st w ork a c c o m p lish e d .......
th e a r tis t.
5. N o t e p a rtic u la r th e g r o u p in g th e c lo w n s .......
th e fo re g ro u n d and th e m a n n e r ......... w hich a sensne
m ovem ent is g iv e n ........ th e f i g u r e .......... th e young
w om an th e bicycle.
10 Translate the sentences into English using the essential vocabulary.
1. И скусство и н стал л яц и и очень трудно описать.
2. В ся хи трость за к л ю ч а е т с я в том , чтобы п о к а за ть
искусство и скры ть худ ож н и ка.
3. Красота произведения искусства долж н а ощ ущ аться.
4. Х удож н и к стоял и наблю дал игру красок н а воде.
5. К расота п р и вл екал а его неустанно.
6. К онстебль исследовал полностью безграничны е воз­
мож ности своего искусства.
7. Выбор к арти н д л я вы ставки был восхитительны м .
8. В ы ставка английского искусства состояла из портрет­
ной и п ейзаж н ой ж ивописи 18-го столетия.
9. Ц вет д л я х у д о ж н и ка я в л яется единственны м сп еци ­
ф ическим средством.
10. Мне захотелось чего-нибудь другого, и я п окраси л а
ком нату в зелены й цвет.

25
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
JOHN CONSTABLE

BEFORE YO U READ

Discuss these questions.


1. In your opinion in which genres did the famous English painters
distinguish themselves most of all?
2. If you had a chance to spend some tim e as an apprentice painter,
which country would you prefer, England or France? Give your
reasons.

R E A D IN G T A S K S

Understanding main points


1. How do you understand the word combination “fundam ental a r t­
ists”, and w hat are they expected to accomplish?
2. Do you agree w ith the statem ent th a t “the function of a rt is to
represent man, since by its n ature a rt was ‘the work of m an’.
3. W as it only C onstable’s a rt th a t was influenced by Italian ,
Flemish and Dutch traditions?
4. W hy may one rig h tly say th a t it is in the a rt of Constable th a t the
‘picturesque’ retu rn s to its original sources?
B How the text is organized
These phrases summarize the main idea of each paragraph.
Match each with the correct papragraph.
a) Constable’s devotion to landscape painting
b) Italian, Flem ish and Dutch trad itio n s’ influence
c) analytical study of n atu re throughout his life.
d) a concept of n atu ral beauty
e) Constable, a m aster of landscape art.

LANDSCAPE PAINTING
N in e te e n th c e n tu ry a r t c a n n o t be fu lly u n d e rs to o d o r
a p p re c ia te d u n less acco u n t is ta k e n of c e rta in fu n d a m e n ta l
a rtis ts , C onstable am ong th em . Besides being th e chief expo­

26
n e n t of th e type of p a in tin g know n as “p ic tu re sq u e ”, he was
resp o n sib le fo r rem o v in g th e deeply ro o ted p reju d ice w hich
in siste d th a t th e fu n c tio n of a r t was to re p re se n t m an, since by
its n a tu re a r t was “th e w ork of m an ” . C onstable chose in ste a d
to devote h im self to landscape p a in tin g , alm ost to th e ex clu ­
sion of all o th e r form s of a r t, and it was in landscape th a t he
so u g h t th e values of m an.
E nglish landscape p a in tin g of th e period im m ediately p re ­
ceding C onstable was n o t th e b est basis fo r th e developm ent
of his a rt. The a rtis tic b ack g ro u n d a g a in st w hich C onstable’s
a r t cam e to m a tu rity was th a t of e ig h te e n th -c e n tu ry E ngland:
in flu en ced by Ita lia n , Flem ish and D utch tra d itio n s and m od­
elling itse lf on S alv a to r R osa fo r d ram a tic landscape, Claude
fo r an idyllic view of n a tu re , P o u ssin fo r a classical and ‘su b ­
lim e’ view , and to a c e rta in e x te n t also on th e Ita lia n scenic
p a in tin g s of C analetto.
In his ap p ro ach to n a tu ra l re a lity C onstable w as n o t so
m uch concerned to achieve know ledge th ro u g h n a tu re as to
discover and get to know n a tu re itse lf, fo r w h at it is and w hat
it can give and teach. This hum ble a ttitu d e caused him to m ake
a close and an aly tical stu d y of n a tu re th ro u g h o u t his life.
From a close o b serv atio n of c e rta in landscape p a in tin g s,
com posed of b arely sk etch e d -in irre g u la r elem en ts of g re a t
liveliness and v a rie ty , and from a stu d y of th e Ita lia n school
(especially T itian ) a f u r th e r categ o ry , th e p ic tu re sq u e , was
d eterm in ed to play a pre-em inent p a rt in th e h isto ry of E nglish
p a in tin g . T his categ o ry was m ainly fou n d ed on a concept of
n a tu ra l “b e a u ty ” as it had already been celebrated in th e a r t of
th e p a st (by V enetian and baroque p ain tin g ) and was to become
a vehicle and source of in sp ira tio n fo r new visual concepts.
It is und o u b ted ly fro m th e concept of “p ic tu re sq u e ” th a t
landscape p a in tin g in general cam e in to being, th e p ictu resq u e
a ctin g as a projection on to n a tu re of th e idea of th e b e a u tifu l.
A nd as Constable was a m a ste r of landscape a rt, his is especial­
ly a p ictu resq u e form of p ain tin g ; alth o u g h in th is p ictu resq u e
a r t he never p erm its him self any indulgence in decorativeness
or in a rb itra ry and d ile tta n tis h effects, and avoids th e sty listic
ex ag g eratio n s to w hich such a concept of a r t m ig h t easily lead.
H is p a in tin g was of an ex trem e m oral rig o u r, holding firm ly to
act, and e n tire ly devoted to th e stu d y of tr u th and n a tu re . One
m ay th e re fo re rig h tly say th a t it is in th e a r t of Constable th a t
th e p ictu resq u e re tu rn s to its o rig in al sources, to T itian and
V enetian scenic p ain tin g : in o th e r w ords, it becomes p icto rial.

27
Arrange the jumbled text.
1. T h eir collections can be seen to d a y in m u seu m s, and
c o u n try houses, palaces and castles w hich are open to
th e p u b lic. D u rin g th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry th e s ta te
its e lf becam e a collector. T here are m useum s and p ic­
tu re g alleries in m ost cities.
2. A r t g a lle rie s in London w hich house p e rm a n e n t col­
le c tio n s in c lu d e th e N a tio n a l g a lle ry , th e a d jo in in g
N atio n al P o r tr a it G allery, and th e T ate G allery, w hich
is th e n a tio n ’s g allery of B ritish A rt and th e N atio n al
m useum of m odern a rt.
3. I t is claim ed th a t th e London g a lle rie s and m useum s
hold a ric h e r v a rie ty of w orks of a r t th a n any o th e r city
in th e w orld. E n try to n early all of th em is free.
4. The E n g lish have alw ays been g re a t a r t collectors. In
th e e ig h teen th and n in e te e n th cen tu ries th e aristo cracy ,
co u n try gentlem en and rich m e rch an ts filled th e ir h o u s­
es w ith valu-able p a in tin g s , f u r n itu r e and o rn a m e n ts
w hich th e y b ro u g h t back from th e ir tra v e ls abroad.
Answer the following questions.
1. Were there many great art collectors in Russia in the XIX century?
2. W hat a rt galleries are to be found in Moscow?
3. Is the en try to the a rt galleries free in Moscow?
4. W hich a rt museums do you usually visit?
5. W hat kind of a rt gallery is the Tate Gallery?
6. W hat role did I.M amontov and C.Schukin play in collecting
modern pictures?
7. W hy is the Moscow A rt museum called the Tretjakov gallery?
7. How did the contem porary European pictures get to Russia?
8. W hat do you know about the R ussian group “M ir Iskusstv”?
9. Have you ever visited stately homes* in the suburbs of Moscow
where R ussian painters spent much time?
10. Is it w orth while keeping stately homes in the state of good
preservation? If yes, why? If now, why?

* S ta te ly hom e — a la rg e house th a t has an in te re s tin g h is to ry and belongs to an


im p o rta n t fam ily

28
UNIT

TWO
TEXT

from "DEPTHS OF GLORY"


b y I. STONE
U.S. author Irving Stone was born on July 14, 1903, in San Francisco, California.
After graduating from high school, Stone took a variety of odd jobs to work his way
through the University of California. He majored in political science, graduating with hon­
ors in 1923. Like many American intellectuals of the period, he spent some time in Paris,
where he chanced to see an exhibit of van Gogh’s paintings that forever changed his direc­
tion. He immediately embarked on extensive research into the life of the nineteenth-century
Impressionist painter and later he researched the life of another prominent artist - Camille
Pissarro. The extract below is taken from his novel “Depths of Glory” devoted to Pissarro’s life.

The opening of th e o fficial Salon on A p ril 30, 1863, was


a tte n d e d by several th o u sa n d P a risia n s in te re s te d in a r t e x h i­
b itio n s. The ju ry gave a prize to th e p ic tu re called T h e P earl
a n d th e W a v e , a young w om an v o lu p tu o u sly ex tended on th e
bank receiving th e em braces of th e caressin g w aves. C orot and
M illet w ere described by th e ju d g e s as “fo re m o s t” . G u stav e
C ourbet was in fu ria te d because he had been described as “fa d ­
in g and p assin g aw ay” . P o r tr a it o f th e E m p e ro r was ju d g ed
“th e m ost im p o rta n t w ork of th e e x h ib it” .
L e F ig a r o ’s c ritic was d isa p p o in te d w ith th e Salon. He
w rote: “It is an h o n est and p ru d e n t F rench school. The g eneral
effect is sleepy” .
The tw o weeks preceding th e “Salon des R efu ses” d rag g ed
u n m ercifu lly . W hen, a couple of days p rio r to th e opening, th e
E m peror announced th a t he and his E m press w ould a tte n d th e
show ing of th e u n w an ted a rtis ts , a shock wave w ent th ro u g h
P a ris. E veryone who h ad been a t th e opening of th e o fficial
S alon w ould have to a tte n d th is second Salon to see and be
seen by th e ir M ajesties. I t was expected th a t th e re w ould be
an enorm ous crow d.
“W e ’ll have a g re a t su ccess,” cried C laude M onet.
Cam ille P issa rro responded, “You see, to be rejected is no t
th e sam e as being ig n o re d .”
On th e day of th e opening he and his colleagues assem bled
in th e passagew ay betw een P alais de 1’In d u s trie and th e adjoin-

30
in g b u ild in g sh o rtly before th e opening h o u r. They fo u n d th e
ex h ib it as lu x u rio u sly m o u n ted as th a t of th e official Salon.
A n tiq u e ta p e s trie s h u n g in th e doorw ays. The benches w ere
m ade com fortable w ith red velvet cushions. The sk y lig h ts w ere
covered w ith w hite co tto n screens to cu t th e g lare. T here was a
long series of display room s. A ll like th e o fficial Salon... except
fo r th e p ic tu re s. The b rig h tn e ss of th e ir color, th e mood, th e
a u th e n tic ity of th e fig u re s and th e presence of fre sh a ir. The
feelin g of y o u th , of g aiety. Of in n o v atio n .
In th e two areas term ed “th e place of dishonor” were Edouard
M anet’s Luncheon on th e Grass, two gentlem en fu lly clothed in
v ests, jackets and crav ats, and two women en tirely naked, s it­
tin g and g ath erin g flow ers, beside them th e picnic basket and
its lux u rio u s contents overflow ing in to th e foreground. Jam es
M cNeill W h istle r’s The W h ite Girl presented a copper-haired
young lady dressed in w hite, stan d in g in fro n t of an all-w hite
c u rta in , a m assing of w hite on w hite, tellin g no sto ry as did th e
pictu res of th e tim e. They were th e two m ost original canvases
in th e exhibition. N othing sim ilar had ever been painted.
C am ille’s th re e p ic tu re s w ere a s h o rt d ista n ce aw ay. On
th e opposite w all w ere scenes by C laude M onet and th e oils by
P au l C ezanne. The succeeding room s re p re se n te d a h u n d re d
o th e r a rtis ts . M any m ig h t be th o u g h t dull b u t th e y w ere re a ­
sonably safe fro m rid icu le.
T here w ere biblical and m ilita ry subjects; classical m y th s,
G reek and R om an them es.
The ex h ib it conveyed an atm osphere of y o u th , d e te rm in a ­
tio n , even th e exotic odor of fa n a tic ism . T here was an equally
c h arg ed ex p ectan cy on th e faces of th e p a in te rs , th e a le rt,
co iled -sp rin g sta n c e of th e ir fig u re s g iv in g th e e x h ib itio n
room s a feeling of buoyancy.
F or a long tim e a fte r th e noon-hour opening th e a rtis ts were
largely alone. Em ile Zola, C ezanne’s schoolboy frien d , m ade a
to u r of th e exhibition, ta k in g notes. He aspired to be an a rt critic
and to place th e article in an im p o rta n t jo u rn al. He observed:
The walls are covered w ith a m ixtu re of th e excellent and
execrable. R ep resen ta tives of th e historical school cheek by
jow l w ith you th fu l fan atics of realism . Colorless m ed io crity
n ext to blatant origin ality. N o th in g has been left out, not even
medieval subjects. Superficially it is an incoherent jumble, but
there is tru th and sincerity enough about the landscapes and
m ost of the p o r tr a its to give it a h ealth y atm osphere of yo u th ­
ful passion and vigor.

31
The early v isito rs stood in fro n t of Luncheon on th e G rass
and The W h ite G ir l, say in g n o th in g , th e ir faces m asks of
do u b t and co n fu sio n . It was n o t u n til th re e o ’clock th a t th e
people began to p o u r in. W hen his M ajesty a rriv e d , th e crow d
grew dense. T here w as an in c re a sin g c ru sh of h u n d re d s of
view ers before th e M anet and th e W h istle r, p u sh in g , elbow ­
in g , everyone w an tin g to g et closer. It grew in c re asin g ly hot;
th e d u st fro m th e e a rth e n flo o r cogged C am ille’s n o strils. He
was cap tiv ated by th e om inous silence. Then it s ta rte d : g ru n ts ,
expletives, ro a rs of la u g h te r filled th e ex h ib itio n hall. It was
loudest before M an et’s Luncheon on th e Grass.
“The p a in te r is m ad. ... H e ’s im m oral! ... W e ’re b ein g
m ade fools of. I t should be c u t in to sh red s. No w onder it w as
reje cted . ...”
The o u tb u rs t in fro n t of The W h ite Girl was n o t because
she w as obscene, fo r th e y o u n g w om an w as fu lly clo th ed .
T here was deeper, om inous note in th e rid icu le and irre v e re n t
d isp arag em en t. F ear. N ot th e fe a r of th e ir exposure to im m o­
ra lity , b u t a challenge to e v e ry th in g th e y knew and accepted
in p a in tin g . If M anet and W h istle r w ere r ig h t, th e public had
been w rong. I t was frig h te n in g to know th a t th e w orld had
passed th em by and th e ir ta s te was ju n k ed .
The abuse filled th e hall m ore densely th a n th e d u st, th e
la u g h te r was h y ste ric a l in an a tte m p t to d erid e th e new a r t
in to oblivion. The rib ald d erisio n w hich engulfed Luncheon on
th e G rass and The W h ite Girl sw ept over th e e n tire “Salon of
In fam y ” , as it began to be called, leaving th e p a in te rs b ru ised ,
bew ildered, sh rin k in g inside them selves.
Cam ille h eard his p a in tin g s called “stillsc a p e s” .
W hen Cam ille reached hom e, he fo u n d J u lie eagerly a w a it­
in g him .
“Tell me w h at h ap p en ed ?”
“N o th in g happened. W e w ere laughed o u t of c o u r t.”
“A ll of y o u ?”
“Those of us th e y th o u g h t w o rth y of d e se c ra tio n .”
She picked Lucien up fro m his crib, fitte d h e rse lf and th e
boy in to his arm s. The w arm feelin g of th e child, th e sen sa­
tio n of th e life he and J u lie had created , set his pulse b eatin g
fa s te r. He sm iled a t h er, a fa in t sm ile.
“A s I told Cezanne, do n o t a tte m p t to convince y o u r con­
tem poraries. The n ex t gen eratio n will u n d erstan d you. W e have
only to su rv iv e .”

32
G LO SSARY
1. ju ry жюри (по присуждению наград)
2. scene сцен(к)а, картин(к)а, пейзаж
3. oil картина маслом; масляная краска
4. dull скучный, монотонный, тусклый
5. exotic экзотический
6. aspire стремиться
7. captivate пленять, очаровывать, увлекать
8. medieval средневековый
9. dense плотный, густой, частый
10. ominous зловещий
11. tap estry гобелен
12. challenge вызов
13. infam y позор, бесчестие
14. deride высмеивать
15. contem porary современный
16. execrable отталкивающий
17. expletive бранное слово
18. ridicule насмешка, высмеивать
19. disparagem ent недооценка, пренебрежительное отношение
20. oblivion забвение
21. desecration осквернение

COM M ENTARY

1. the Salon official ex h ib itio n of a r t sponsored by th e F ren ch


g o v ern m e n t. I t o rig in a te d in 1667 w hen Louis XIV in
P a ris sponsored an e x h ib it of th e w orks of th e m em bers
of th e R oyal A cadem y of P a in tin g and S cu lp tu re. D u rin g
th e F rench R ev o lu tio n th e Salon was opened to all F ren ch
a r tis ts , alth o u g h th e academ icians co n tin u ed to co n tro l
m ost of th e ex h ib itio n s held in th e 19th cen tu ry .
2. Corot, Camille (1 7 9 6 -1 8 7 5 ) a F rench p a in te r, fam ous m a in ­
ly fo r his ex q u isite landscapes.
3. Millet, Jean-Francois (1 6 4 2 -1 6 7 9 ) a F ren ch p a in te r whose
landscapes m ade him one of th e m ost in flu e n tia l follow ­
ers of N icolas P o u ssin in 1 7 th -c e n tu ry F rance.
4. Courbet, Gustave (1 8 1 9 -1 8 7 7 ) a F ren ch p a in te r, fam ous
fo r his re a listic m an n er and p o rtra its of o rd in a ry people
and scenes of com m on life.
5. Le Figaro a daily new spaper published in P a ris.
6. Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Refused) an a r t e x h ib i­
tio n held in 1863 in P a ris by com m and of N apoleon III

33
fo r th o se a r tis ts w hose w orks had been re fu se d by th e
ju ry of th e o fficial Salon.
7. Pissarro, Camille (1 8 3 0 -1 9 0 3 ) a F ren ch Im p ressio n ist la n d ­
scape p a in te r.
8. Palais de rindustrie Дворец пром ы ш ленности.
9. Luncheon on the Grass th e b est know n p ic tu re by E douard
M anet.
10. The White Girl a p ic tu re by Jam es W h istle r.
11. Zola, Emile a F rench w rite r of th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry

SPEECH P A T T E R N S
1. It was expected th at th e re w ould be an enorm ous
crow d.

2. They found th e ex h ib it lu x u rio u sly m ounted.

3. No wonder it was rejected .

4. It was not u n til three o’clock th at th e people began to


p o u r in.

5. You see, to be rejected is not the sam e as being


ignored.

PH RASES A N D W O RD C O M B IN A T IO N S
1. general effect общее впечатление
2. a u th e n tic ity of th e fig u res достоверность фигур
3. presence of fre sh air наличие воздуха
4. feeling of innovation ощ ущ ение новизны
5. atm osphere of youth атмосфера юности
6. a feeling of buoyancy ощ ущ ение энергии
7. tr u th and sin cerity правда и искренность
8. b rig h tn ess of colour яркость цвета
9. colorless m ediocrity бесцветная посредственность
10. b la ta n t o rig in ality очевидная оригинальность
11. h ealth y atm osphere здоровая атмосфера
12. y o u th fu l passion ю ная страсть
13. a challenge to ev ery thing вызов всему
14. n o th in g sim ilar ничего подобного
15. exotic odor of fan aticism экзотический аромат ф анатизм а
16. w arm feeling теплое чувство
17. sensation of life ощ ущ ение ж изни

34
E S S E N T IA L V O C A B U L A R Y

exhibit — verb
1. to p u t som ething in terestin g in a museum or other public place
so th a t people can go and look at it:
His work has been exhibited regu larly a t the W alker A r t
Gallery in Liverpool. Where are you going to exhibit next?
2 . to show a particular feeling, quality, ability, or form of behav­
iour:
She’s beginning to exhibit sym ptom s of stress.
Some materials m ay exhibit the characteristics of both a liquid
and a solid.
exhibition — noun
1. a public show where a rt or other in terestin g things are put so
th a t people can go and look at them:
exhibition of: an exhibition of pain tin gs by Henri M atisse the
World Trade exhibition
an exhibition hall/center/ space
on exhibition (=being shown to the public): On exhibition are
costumes from all over the world.
luxury — noun
1. som ething expensive th a t you enjoy but do not really need:
She likes to have a few luxuries like fresh flowers.
I ’m afraid th at buying a Picasso is a luxury we can’t afford.
Painting a nude was a luxury th a t he guarded jealously.
2 . a situation in which you are very com fortable, w ith the best and
most expensive things around you:
had never lived a life of absolute luxury.
W histler looked forward to a weekend in the luxury of one of
New York’s prem ier hotels.
luxurious — adj
very expensive and com fortable: a luxurious hotel / home / bed­
room
luxuriously — adv
The studio was luxuriously furnished.
create — verb
1. to make som ething new or original th a t did not exist before:
How do I create a new file?
Rem brandt, Dutch p a in te r and graph ic a rtist cre a ted /p ro ­
duced over 3.000 works.
In the last week, 170 new jobs have been created.
He told me the story of how God created the world.
to cause a situation, feeling, or problem to exist:
Soft music creates a relaxing atmosphere.

35
His comments have created a lot of confusion.
The choreographers had to create a whole new ballet.
create an impression (=make someone think about you in a p ar­
ticu lar way):
I really wanted to create a good impression at the start of the
exhibition.
represent — verb
1. to speak or act officially for another person, group, or organiza­
tion:
Am bassador A lb righ t will presen t the United S ta tes a t the
opening ceremony of the exhibition.
2 . to express the views and opinions of a group of people:
I have met a painter who claims to represent Pop-art.
3. to be a sign or symbol of something:
The colour red commonly represents danger.
4. to be a picture or image of som ething:
The picture represents Jefferson as a young man.
5. to describe someone or som ething in a p articu lar way, especially
when this influences other people’s opinions:
His pictures have been criticized for the negative way in which
they represent women.
rep resen t som eone/som ething as som ething: The film repre­
sented D a lfs life as a surprising adventure.
be represented
if a p a rtic u la r group, organization etc. is represented some­
where, someone from th a t group is there;
be well/poorly represented: Works by younger artists are well
represented in the show.
representation — noun
1. a sign, symbol, or picture of something:
The dove in the picture is a representation of peace.
2 . a person or group th a t speaks, acts, or is presented for another
person, group, or organization:
France had no representation at the peace talks.
sensation— noun
1. a physical feeling: a tingling sensation
2 . a feeling, especially a strange one, caused by a particu lar experi­
ence:
He had the erie sensation th a t he was being watched.
an event th a t causes a lot of excitem ent and interest:
The show caused a sensation when it was first performed.
sensational — adj
1. very exciting and surprising:
The artists are still celebrating their sensational success at the
exhibition.

36
2 . a sensational way of describing people; som ething makes it seem
more exciting or shocking than it really is:
There has been much sensational reporting of the performance
in the tabloid press.
3. very attractiv e, im pressive, or good:
Your drawing was sensational!
You look absolutely sensational in th at dress!
The figure of the lady on horseback in the foreground of the
picture looked absolutely sensational.

37
ACTIVITIES

1 Consult the dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the fol­


lowing words. Mark the main stressed syllabse in each of these
words.
V o lu p tu o u sly , m ed io crity , a u th e n tic ity , lu d ic ro u s, r id i­
cule, v ig o r, buoyancy, execrable, d isp arag em en t
2. Analyze the structure of the following words.
Exam ple: im m o rality
im - p re fix
m or - ro o t
al - ad jectiv e-fo rm in g s u ffix
ity - n o u n -fo rm in g s u ffix
u n m e rc ifu lly , d ish o n o r, colourlessness, in fu ria te , in s in ­
c e rity
3. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the underlined
word.
m ercy honor
W hy is he so cruel and ... ? H is ... b e h a v io u r sh o ck ed
everyone.
colour fu ry
H er ... p ic tu re s im pressed She was so ... th a t she
us g re a tly . co u ld n ’t u tte r a w ord.
4. Pick out from the text several nouns ending in -ion, -су, -ness,
-ity, -ism.

5. Finish the sentences using the following patterns.

1. I t was expected th a t ...


2. W e fo u n d th e p ic tu re carefu lly ...
3. No w onder, ...
4. It was n o t u n til five o ’clock th a t ...
5. You see, sc u lp tu re is n o t th e sam e as ...
6. Translate into English the sentences containing the patterns.
1. О ж идалось, что вы ставка будет иметь больш ой успех.
2. М олодые х у д о ж н и к и об н ар у ж и л и , что их к ар ти н ы
повеш ены в последнем зале.
3. Н еудивительно, что его карти н ы о казали сь в лучш их
м узеях Европы .
4. И только после смерти х у д о ж н и к а его полотна приоб­
рели мировую известность.
5. Видите ли, п ей заж — это не то, что портрет. Т ехн и ка
разная!
7. Write down from the text the sentences containing phrases and
word combinations. Translate them into Russian.

8. Write 10 sentences incorporating the following word combinations:

1. general effect
2. a u th e n tic ity of th e fig u re s
3. presence of fre sh a ir
4. feelin g of in n o v atio n
5. atm o sp h ere of y o u th
6. a feelin g of buoyancy
7. tr u t h and sin c e rity
8. b rig h tn e ss of colour
9. colorless m ed io crity
10. b la ta n t o rig in a lity
9. Describe your favourite picture using the following phrases and
word combinations:
1. h e a lth y atm o sp h ere
2. y o u th fu l passion
3. a challenge to ev e ry th in g
4. n o th in g sim ila r
5. exotic odor of fa n a tic ism
6. w arm feeling
7. sen satio n of life
10. Work in pairs. Act out dialogues using the following phrases
and word combinations:
A.
1. general effect
2. presence of fre sh a ir/fe e lin g of in n o v atio n /b u o y an cy
4. b rig h tn e ss of colour
5. b la ta n t o rig in a lity
B.
1. h e a lth y atm o sp h ere
2. y o u th fu l p a ssio n /v ig o r
3. a challenge to ev e ry th in g
4. n o th in g sim ila r
5. sen satio n of life

39
11. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English

1. Общее впечатление, которое производят его а к в ар е­


ли , весьма благоприятное.
2. К артины Ван-Гога отличаю тся особой яркостью цвета.
3. О ригинальность его полотен очевидна.
4. Х удож ественная м анера Д али расценивалась к р и т и ­
к ам и к а к вы зов всему, что было до него.
5. Н ичего подобного мир искусства ещ ё не видел.
6. Н аличие воздуха и света в полотнах импрессионистов
яв л яется их главны м принципом .
7. П равда и искренн ость — вот что свойственно в ел и ­
ки м произведениям искусства.
8. П ей заж и Моне пронизаны ощ ущ ением ж и зн и .
9. Ю ная страсть, и сх о д ящ ая от карти н этого молодого
ж и воп и сца, вы зы вает теплое чувство.
10. Б е с ц в е т н а я п осредствен н ость н ек о то р ы х п олотен
этой вы ставки удивляет.
12. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.
1. The opening of th e o fficial Salon on A p ril 28, 1843, was
a tte n d e d by alm ost no one.
2. The ju ry gave a p rize to M an et’s p ic tu re .
3. The E m peror announced th a t n e ith e r he n o r his E m press
w ould a tte n d th e Salon des R efuses.
4. Jam es W h is tle r’s p ic tu re “T h e B la ck L a d y ” p resen ted
a g rey -h aired old w om an dressed in black, sta n d in g in
fro n t of an all-black c u rta in .
5. T here w ere no G reek and R om an them es a t th e e x h ib i­
tio n .
6. T he e a rly v is ito r s sto o d in f r o n t of M a n e t’s an d
W h is tle r’s p a in tin g s saying n o th in g .
7. W hen H is M ajesty a rriv e d , th e re was nobody aro u n d .
8. The o u tb u rs t in fro n t of “T h e W h ite G irl” was because
it w as obscene.
9. The E x h ib itio n began to be called th e Salon of Infam y.
10. P isa rro th o u g h t it im p o rta n t to convince his contem po­
ra rie s because th e n e x t g en eratio n w ould nev er u n d e r­
sta n d him and his frie n d s.
13 Finish the sentences with the text wording:
1. The opening of th e official Salon was a tte n d e d by ...
2. P o r tr a it o f th e E m p e ro r was judged ...

40
3. Cam ille P is a rro and his colleagues fo u n d th e ex h ib it ...
4. The sk y lig h ts w ere covered w ith ...
5. M an et’s and W h is tle r’s p ic tu re s w ere placed in th e tw o
areas te rm ed ...
6. N o th in g sim ila r ...
7. On th e opposite wall w ere ...
8. The ex h ib it conveyed ...
9. Em ile Zola asp ired to be ...
10. W hen Cam ille reached hom e, he fo u n d ...
14 Word partnership.
A. Match the left with the right.

1. classical a. c ritic
2. a rt b. odor
3. set c. y o u th
4. places of d. passion
5. om inous e. fre sh a ir
6. feelin g of f. m y th s
7. y o u th fu l g- in n o v atio n
8. atm o sp h ere of h. d ish o n o u r
9. exotic i. th e tone
10. presence of j. silence
B. Write 10 sentences incorporating the above word combinations.

15 Explain what the author meant by:

1) The g en eral effect is sleepy.


2) A shock wave w ent th ro u g h P a ris.
3) S u p erficially it is an in c o h eren t jum ble.
4) R e p re se n ta tiv e s of th e h isto ric a l school cheek by jowl
w ith y o u th fu l fa n a tic s of realism .
5) Cam ille h eard his p a in tin g s called “stillsc a p e s” .
6) W e w ere lau g h ed o u t of co u rt.
7) ... te llin g no sto ry as did th e p ic tu re s of th e tim e.
16. Answer the following questions:
1. W hen was th e O fficial Salon opened?
2. W ho a tte n d e d th e opening?
3. W h a t p ic tu re was ju d g ed th e m ost im p o rta n t w ork of
th e ex h ib itio n ?
4. W h a t did th e E m peror announce a couple of days p rio r
to th e opening of th e Salon des R efuses?

41
5. In w h at w ay was th e ex h ib itio n m ounted?
6. D escribe th e tw o m ost rem ark ab le p ic tu re s. W h a t w ere
th e y called? W ho p ain ted them ?
7. W h a t did Em ile Zola w rite in his article?
8. W hy did th e public deride and rid icu le L u n c h e o n on th e
Grass and T h e W h ite G irl?
9. P is a rro ’s p a in tin g s w ere called “stillscap es” . W h a t was
it m eant?
10. W h a t did P is a rro te ll his w ife a f te r he h ad re tu rn e d
hom e?

42
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative
examples into Russian.
1. I have a g a lle ry of m y own. — W ho are you ex h ib it­
ing? — M onet, D egas, P issa rro and M anet.
2. T here are a g roup of o u td o o r scenes along a riv e r ban k ,
c a u g h t w ith all th e rip e, luxurious colour of m id su m ­
m er and a h o t sun.
3. It was alm ost as th o u g h these m en had created a new a rt.
4. Van Gogh had a m arvelous sense of colour.
5. The blossom ing, u n fa m ilia r co u n try sid e of Ita ly created
a new, p ictu resq u e w orld aro u n d K iprensky.
6. The exhibition of young a r tis ts created a sen satio n .
7. C ollecting w orks of a r t is a luxury we can n o t affo rd .
8. R u ssian a v a n t-g ard e is represented in th e catalogue by
K a n d in sk i’s p a in tin g s.
9. A lot of people p re fe r representational a rt.
10. He was seized by an overw helm ing sensation as he sta re d
a t th e p ain ted w alls.
2. Fill in the gaps with the words of the essential vocabulary.
creatio n , re p re se n ta tiv e s, lu x u rio u s(2 ), ex h ib ited , sen sa­
tio n , rep resen te d , e x h ib it, ex h ib itio n , sense, created
1. On ... w ere costum es fro m all over th e w orld.
2. P a in tin g a p ic tu re is an a r t of ... .
3. A ... p an o ram a could be seen o u t of th e ir hotel w indow s.
4. ... of v ario u s a r t schools w ere described by th e c ritic in
his essay.
5. P ica sso ’s “G u ern ica ” caused a ... w hen it was f ir s t ... .
6. The a r tis t ... his d a u g h te r as A p h ro d ite in his p a in tin g .
7. H is ... of p ro p o rtio n can riv a l only w ith his ... of colour.
8. A ccording to Le F ig a ro ’s c ritic , th e g en eral effect ... by
th e o fficial Salon was sleepy.
9. P o r tr a it of th e E m peror was considered th e m ost im p o r­
ta n t w ork of th e ... .
10. These f r u it s w ere e x tra v a g a n tly ... . They seem ed to
possess a som bre passion of th e ir own.
3. Word sets. Underline the odd word in each set:
1. v o lu p tu o u s, colourless, om inous, lu x u rio u s, enorm ous
2. v ests, ja ck ets, canvases, c ra v a ts, dresses

43
3. re p re se n t, in fu ria te , observe, convince, jum ble
4. p rize, scene, landscape, oil, cityscape
5. oblivion, d erisio n , d esecratio n , fa n a tic ism , g en eratio n

4. Match the two halves of the sentences.


With the growing importance of the independent exhibitions of
the works of avant-garde artists / the exhibition was hung in the
Salon d’Apollon of the Louvre Palace in Paris / a great variety
and originality / and emotion speaks a language that all may
understand / and the price of his work rose sharply / a portrait
of the artist, not of the sitter / Genius lasts longer than beauty
/ Sisley began painting as an amateur / An artist should create
beautiful things / which was in the highest degree original / After
a year-long study of the paintings of Old Masters in Italy
1. The Salon d eriv es its nam e fro m th e fa c t th a t ..........
2 ............. th e Salon g rad u ally lost its influence and p restig e.
3. A lth o u g h h is w ealth y E n g lish p a re n ts had o rig in a lly
in ten d ed him fo r com m erce, in C harles G leyre’s
stu d io in 1862.
4. S h o rtly a fte r S isley ’s d eath his ta le n t began to be w idely
re c o g n iz e d ,...........
5 ............. D aubigny re tu rn e d to P a ris and began to p a in t
h isto ric a l and relig io u s w orks.
6. A rt is a m a n ife sta tio n of e m o tio n ,...........
7. The a r t c ritic had a real desire to call th e a tte n tio n of
th e public to a t a l e n t ...........
8. E very p o rtr a it th a t is p ain ted w ith feelin g i s ...........
9 ........... . b u t he should p u t n o th in g of his own life in to them .
10. It is a sad th in g to th in k of, b u t there is no doubt t h a t .......
11. In p o rtra itu re H o g a rth d is p la y s ...........

5. A. Complete the following sentences with appropriate words


from the box.

p a i n t ( 2 ) , tubes, p i ct u r e s , colour, c a n v a s , st udi o, canvas-


e s ( 2 ) , l u m i n o s i t y , easel ( 2 ) , p a l e t t e , brushes, i n i t a t i v e ,
technique, I m p r e s s i o n i s t

One m o rn in g V in cen t w en t to sleep a b o u t fo u r o ’clock,


u tte rly e x h au ste d . H is b ro th e r Theo d id n ’t aw aken him . He
slep t u n til noon, and awoke re fre sh e d . He w andered in to his
... . The ... on th e ... w as m any w eeks old. The ... on th e ... w as
d ry , cracked, and covered w ith d u s t. The ... of p ig m en t had

44
been kicked in to th e c o rn e rs. H is ... lay a b o u t, caked solid
w ith old ... .
He took th e stack s of ... in to T heo’s room and piled th em on
th e bed. In th e stu d io he le ft only his own ... . He stood th em on
th e ..., one by one, and gazed a t them .
Yes, he had m ade p ro g ress. Slowly, his ... had lig h ten ed ,
stru g g le d to w ard a c r y s t a l ... . No lo n g er w ere th e y ... . V incent
realized fo r th e f ir s t tim e th a t he had been developing a v ery
in d iv id u al s o rt of ... . He saw th a t he was developing an ... te c h ­
nique of his own.

B. Translate the text into Russian.

6. Choose the right article: a / the


1. You have ... g re a t sense of h u m o u r.
2. I t tak es ... lifetim e to ap p reciate ... m asterpiece.
3. ... T ate G allery b o u g h t th re e p ic tu re s by th is p a in te r.
4. ... m en of ... g enius see ... life in th e ir own te rm s.
5. A ll a r t is a rtific ia l. I t o ffers us ... im ages and n o t fa c ts.
... bronze s ta tu e nev er b re a th e s. ... p a in tin g of ... r u n ­
n in g fig u re never m oves.
6. Im agine th a t you are in ... stu d io of ... scu lp to r. I t ’s ...
spacious room w ith larg e w indow s looking in to ... g a r­
den. On ... w alls th e re are ... few sketches and draw ings.
In ... m iddle of ... room ... sc u lp to r is sta n d in g on ... p la t­
fo rm and c u ttin g ... s ta tu e in life size.
7. ... young P is a rro w orked as ... clerk in his f a th e r ’s sto re.
8. ... w orks of liv in g p a in te rs w ere g a th e re d in ... h uge
ex h ib itio n , co n sistin g of ... m ost rem ark ab le collection
of p a in tin g s.
9. To m y m ind ... m ost in te re s tin g th in g in a r t is ... p erso n ­
ality of ... a r tis t.
10. ... p a in te r’s m onum ent is his w ork.
7. Choose the right preposition from the box.

of, for, in, of, with, out, of, of, from, in, at, of, to, of

1. The fam ous sc u lp to r M ichelangelo lived ... F lorence.


2. The G overnor ... F lorence asked him to m ake a s ta tu e ...
a larg e piece of m arble.
3. M ichelangelo w orked ... tw o y ears.
4. ... la st he com pleted th e b e a u tifu l s ta tu e w hich he called
D avid.

45
5. The day th e s ta tu e was read y a larg e crow d g a th e re d ...
th e sq u are.
6. The G overnor came ... th e sq u are too.
7. He said he d id n ’t like it, as th e nose ... th e s ta tu e was
too long.
8. M ichelangelo p reten d ed to be ch an g in g th e shape ... th e
nose and dropped some ... th e m arble d u s t w hich he had
ta k e n ... him .
9. The G overnor was su re th a t it w as m arble d u s t ... th e
nose ... th e s ta tu e .
10. W hen M ichelangelo fin ish e d , th e G overnor exclaim ed:
T h a t’s excellent!

8. Make a list of words the author uses describing


1) the atmosphere at the “Salon des Refusés”
2) the attitude of the public to the pictures rejected by the official
Salon.

9. Work in pairs. Act out dialogues


1) You are an admirer of the Impressionists and your friend
does not know much about them.
2) You are two friends discussing the exhibition of modern
painting.

10. Do the library research and write an essay on one of the given
topics:

1. The fo re ru n n e rs of Im pressionism .
2. The Im p ressio n ist m an n er of p a in tin g .
3. C ezanne’s c o n trib u tio n to 20th c e n tu ry p a in tin g .
4. M anet - th e f ir s t p a in te r of m odern life.

11. Translate the sentences into English using the essential vocabu-
lary.
1. К аж дом у молодому худ ож н и ку нуж ен мастер, кото­
ры й бы ему помогал.
2. В 1836 году Д обиньи впервы е вы ставил свои работы
в оф ициальном салоне.
3. П ервая половина 19-го века представлена б лестящ и ­
ми карти н ам и Б рю ллова, Тропинина, И ванова.
4. П оль Гоген начал зани м аться ж ивописью , когда ему
было около тридцати, и сначала представил свои рабо-

46
ты в Салоне 1876 года, а затем - вместе с импрессиони­
стами в 1880 и 1886 году.
5. П ервы е карти н ы молодого х у д о ж н и к а произвели сен­
сацию .
6. В своих последних работах Гоген стрем ится к более
н атуралистическом у изображ ению .
7. Все восхищ ались роскош ны м и п ей заж ам и А льф реда
Сислея.
8. Т ворчески й ген и й П и кассо н аш ел свое о тр аж ен и е
в разнообразны х средствах.
9. «Герника», огромное полотно, является одним из вели­
чай ш их творений П икассо.
10. Выставка произвела на нас благоприятное впечатление.
12 Fill in the gaps with words in the box:

authentic, atmosphere, m orality, caressing, exhibit,


scenes, oils, colour, sense, represented, medieval, immoral ,
art, sensitive, engulfed, superficial

1. The p a in te r who know s his own c ra ft and n o th in g else


w ill tu r n o u t to be a v ery ... a r tis t.
2. Y our sketches are clum sy, b u t th e y are ... .
3. The w arm ... of p raise in w hich he had ... V incent evapo­
ra te d .
4. She is v ery ... to th e changes in people’s a ttitu d e .
5. In all his life he had never heard a wom an say one ... w ord.
6. ... is like religion.
7. “They call my books ...”, said Zola, “for the same reason
th a t they attrib u te ... to your paintings. A rt is ...; so is life.
8. T h at y ear he did n o t ... in th e Salon.
9. C orot p ain ted riv ersid e ... .
10. P au l C ezanne’s ... w ere on th e opposite w all.
11. T itia n had a m arvelous ... of ... .
12. The a r t i s t ... his w ife as th e G oddess of S p rin g .
13. ... a r t was alm ost exclusively relig io u s.

47
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
EASEL PAINTING: HISTORICAL NOTES

BEFORE YO U READ

Discuss these questions.


1. W hat does tem pera mean? W hat is gesso?
2. W hat main in strum ents does the a rtist use to express his ideas
in painting?
3. Using data from U nit 1 about craft of painting and a rt of p ain t­
ing say which side of the process is more im portant?

R E A D IN G T A S K S

Understanding main points


Answer these questions
1. Find in the tex t some specific details of early Italian technique.
2. W hat changes occurred in the technique of 15th century p ain t­
ers?
3. Describe the technique of painting called tem pera.
4. W hat does “glazes” mean? Can you explain w hat “blending of
colors” is? W h a t’s the opposite of “tra n sp a re n t”?
5. Describe about the developm ent of the oil-painting technique,
using painters of the Venetian school as an example.
6. Point out two d ifferent approaches to the line and colour.
2 . Understanding details
Make these statements T (true) or F (false) according
to the information in the text.
1. The early tem pera paintings were done on gesso grounds on wood
panels.
2. A rtists progressed by developing superior skill and craftsm anship
rath er than by adopting more fluent or easily handled m aterials.
3. The works of B otticelli and F ra Angelico exem plify the high
point of technical achievement in m arine.
4. Antonello refined his tem pera paintings throughout w ith oily or
resinous tran sp aren t glazes.
5. In th eir im portance to painting techniques line can be rated above
colour.

48
6. The practice of easel painting in oil paint on canvas was a sudden
invention.
7. The tonal masses m ight be used to play a p art equal to th a t of lin­
ear draftsm anship. This change was made possible by the adop­
tion of oily mediums.
8. W orking under the patronage of the Church or the reigning fam ­
ilies, the artists reflected the artistic tastes of th e ir tim es.
2. How the text is organized.
These sentences summarize the main idea of each paragraph.
Match each sentence to the correct paragraph.
1. The early Italian paintings.
2. The culm ination of tem pera painting.
3. Predom ination of colour.
4. The practice of easel p ain tin g — a few in tro d u cto ry words
Increasing influence of the tonal masses.
3. Match these words as they occur together in the text.
easel ground
considerable point
tu rn in g detail
gesso painting
resinous m aterials
subtle approach
fluent mediums
tonal draftsm anship
technical change
linear masses
oily command

EASEL PAINTING: HISTORICAL NOTES


The p ra c tic e of easel p a in tin g in oil p a in t on can v as has
been u n iv e rs a l since th e s e v e n te e n th c e n tu ry ; i t did n o t a rise
as a su d d en in v e n tio n b u t w as th e re s u lt of a long d ev elo p ­
m e n t. S ch o lars have tra c e d th is d ev elo p m en t in co n sid erab le
d e ta il th ro u g h th e v a rio u s schools of a r t. T h ere are sev eral
m ilesto n es o r tu r n in g p o in ts in th e h is to ry of E u ro p ean easel
p a in tin g w hich can be n o te d b rie fly as follow s:
The early te m p e ra p a in tin g s, notab ly those of Ita ly , w ere
done on gesso g ro u n d s on wood pan els. W o rk in g u n d e r th e

49
p atro n a g e of th e C hurch or th e re ig n in g fam ilies, th e a r tis ts
reflected th e a rtis tic ta ste s of th e ir tim es. The re s u lts achieved
w ere e x a c tly w h a t th e p a in te r d e sire d ; th e r a th e r lim ite d
e ffects and th e r a th e r in tra c ta b le m a te ria ls w ere m a n ip u lated
by developing su p e rio r skill and c ra ftsm a n sh ip ra th e r th a n by
ad o p tin g m ore flu e n t or easily handled m a te ria ls. G iotto is an
o u tsta n d in g exam ple of th e early Ita lia n p a in te rs in th is t r a ­
d itio n ; th e w orks of B otticelli and F ra A ngelico exem plify th e
h ig h p o in t of tech n ical achievem ent in p u re egg tem p era.
A subtle change th e n followed; as sm all am ounts of w axy,
oily, o r re sin o u s m a te ria ls began to be in tro d u c e d in to th e
te m p era in v ario u s w ays, p a in tin g s showed a d e fin ite degree
of technical change. These w ere ch aracterized by a som ew hat
m ore flu e n t com m and of b ru sh w o rk and a tra c e of so ften in g or
blending of colors, b u t fo r th e m ost p a rt th e y re ta in e d th e sam e
dry , lin ear q u ality of th e e a rlie r type. The cu lm in atio n of th is
la te r type of te m p era p a in tin g m ay be seen in th e w ork of th e
V enetian p a in te rs of th e fifte e n th c e n tu ry —such as A ntonello,
Domenico V eneziano, and A n d rea del C astagno—who refin ed
th e ir tem p era p a in tin g s th ro u g h o u t w ith oily or resinous tr a n s ­
p a re n t glazes. A lso, in th e N o rth e rn co u n tries, follow ing th e
in n o v atio n s of th e Van Eycks and o th e rs a t B ruges, th e w orks
of van d er W eyden, van d er Goes, and M em ling show th e use of
oil glazes over tem p era and som etim es oil u n d e rp a in tin g s c a r­
ried on to th e h ig h e st degree of jew el-like p erfectio n .
The a rtis t has two in stru m e n ts w hich he uses to express his
in ten tio n s in p ain t; th ey are line and color or tonal m asses. In
th e ir im portance to p ain tin g techniques n e ith e r one can be ra te d
above th e o th e r, and w hen discu ssin g th em th e sam e general
te rm s are applied to each. Two com pletely d iffe re n t technical
approaches m ay th u s be d istin g u ish ed . In th e firs t, line predom ­
in ates and th e p ain ters cited above always retain ed com pletely
and m eticulously th e ir original d raftsm a n sh ip . U n d erp ain tin g
was never en tirely obscured by th e fin al p ain tin g ; its effect had
a stro n g and d irect influence on th e finished w ork.
The n e x t g re a t change was th e ten d en cy to tech n iq u es in
w hich th e to n al m asses could be m ade to c o n trib u te a g re a te r
in flu en ce to w ard th e fin a l e ffe c t so th a t th e y m ig h t be used
to play a p a rt equal to th a t of th e lin e a r d ra ftsm a n sh ip , or if
desired , to d o m in ate th e to ta l effect. T his change was m ade
possible by th e ad o p tio n of oily m edium s as opposed to th e
aqueous te m p era, w hich is m ore su ite d to th e lin e a r or «drier»
k in d of p a in tin g . B lending of to n es and also a looser, m ore

50
flu e n t s tro k in g m ay be used if desired, and th e fin a l coats of
p a in t can be m ade to c o n trib u te th e m a jo r p a r t of th e to ta l
effe c t, w hereas in th e e a rlie r m ethod, th e u n d e rp a in tin g o r
d raw in g p red o m in ates.

resinous смолистый
trace след, запись
milestone веха
reign правление, править
wax воск
coat слой, покрывать краской
subtle тонкий, едва уловимый
glaze глянец, глазурь, лессировка
m eticulously тщательно
obscure мрачный, неопределенный
assign назначать срок, поручать работу
imply подразумевать
intractable неподатливый
clement милосердный
prominence выступ, известность
consistent стойкий
opaque непрозрачный
tran sp aren t прозрачный
bulk объем, основная часть
discern распознавать
loaded весомый, плотный

Arrange the jumbled text


He is one of th e m ost su ccessfu l in d iv id u a ls of all tim e,
b o th in s e ttin g down his ex act in te n tio n s and in secu rin g la s t­
in g , p erm a n e n t re su lts. T h at he was n o t possessed of m y ste­
rio u s, te ch n ical se c re ts is am ply show n by h is w ritin g s and
by those of his associates; in a d d itio n , by th e fa c t th a t larg e
n um bers of his s tu d e n ts, a s s is ta n ts, and co n tem p o raries used
th e sam e m ethods and m a te ria ls.

This m akes fo r a d istin c t change or advance over th e e a rlie r


type of w ork, in w hich fo r th e m ost p a rt all color m asses w ere
p ain ted in equal bulk or th ick n ess. The use of th is procedure
can be discerned in th e w ork of e a rlie r p a in te rs, b u t its adop­
tio n as a d elib erate basic principle begins w ith th is period.

H ow ever, as an exam ple of th e cu lm in atio n of a tech n iq u e,


h is w ork is m ost in te re s tin g in m a rk in g a n o th e r im p o rta n t

51
change or la n d m a rk in th e developm ent of easel p a in tin g —
th a t is, th e d elib erately planned and co n siste n t use of com par­
ativ ely th ic k or loaded opaque w hites and pale colors com bined
w ith th in ly p ain ted or tra n s p a re n t d ark s and shadow s.

In th e w ork of R ubens we fin d th e cu lm in atio n of all th e


developm ents of Flem ish and Ita lia n tech n iq u es. H ere th e lin ­
e ar clem ent and to n al m asses are com bined and played a g a in st
each o th e r to b rin g one or th e o th e r in to prom inence a t w ill.
H is p a in ts w ere n o t of a com plicated n a tu re , d iffe rin g in no
m a jo r re sp e c t fro m o u r own ex cep t th a t th e y w ere p e rh a p s
m ore flu id .

Over to you
1. Can we use old m eth o ds of p a in tin g n ow adays? W h a t
valuable experiences of th e p a s t can you li s t?
2. Choose a n y p a in te r you like and m ake a p re se n ta tio n
on his p a in tin g te c h n iq u e , u sin g w o rd s an d e x p r e s ­
sions from th e te x t.
3. S e le c t a re p r o d u c tio n of a p a in t in g a n d d iscu ss it
accordin g to th e fo llow in g p o in ts:

• The g en eral d a ta (the title and th e nam e of th e a rtis t;


period or tre n d rep resen te d etc.)
• The genre and co n ten ts of th e p ic tu re (place, tim e and
se ttin g ).
• The co m p o sitio n and d ra w in g (fo re g ro u n d and b a c k ­
g round). Is com position sy m m etrical or n o t, (space and
em phasis)?
• C olouring. L ig h t and shade effects (tone m asses, b ru s h ­
strokes).
• Im pression and ju d g m en t.

52
UNIT

THREE
from "DEPTHS OF GLORY"
By I. STONE

F or th e A p ril salon of 1866 C am ille P is s a rro su b m itte d


his Banks of th e M a rn e in W in ter. In it he had c a p tu re d th e
b are, s ta rk , cold loneliness of w in te r. T here was a tr a il on th e
v ie w e r’s le ft lead in g him in to th e scene w ith th e su g g e ste d
im ages of a w om an w ith a sm all child; th e p a th b o rd ered by
leafless tre e s. T here w as a g reen m o u n t slo p in g to w a rd th e
riv e r, as did th e solidly p la n ted field s th a t looked as th o u g h
th e re w ould be h a rd e a rth b e n e a th th em a h u n d re d m iles in
d ep th . T here was no fa n ta sy h ere, ju s t h a rsh w in te r re a lity ;
and an e te rn a lly searin g b eau ty .
He took th e p a in tin g in to P a ris to C orot to secure p e rm is­
sion to use th e older m a n ’s nam e as his m a ste r in th e catalogue.
It was a w hile since he had clim bed to th e b are, spacious stu d io
on th e f o u rth flo o r of 54 R ue P a ra d is P o isso n n iere. Several
canvases w ere d ry in g on th e ir easels. C orot, in his faded blue
sm ock and blue wool cap, p u ffed aw ay on his pipe, hum m in g a
tu n e fro m O ffenbach’s opera La Belle Helene. The sam e books
occupied th e shelves; The B rid ge a t N arn i, th e fa v o u rite of
his p a in tin g s , s till h u n g over his bed in th e alcove. He w el­
comed Cam ille w ith his g rav ely voice.
“A h, P is s a rro , y o u ’ve b ro u g h t y o u r Salon e n try fo r th is
y e a r.”
“How are you, P ap a C orot?”
“A g in g m iracu lo u sly , th a n k you. N ever a day w ith o u t a
draw in g or a few dabs of oil on a canvas. T h a t’s how to sta y
alive fo re v e r.”
“I believe you. T here is n ’t a new w rinkle in y o u r fa c e .”
“W hy should th e re be? I am n o t a p e n ite n t who b eats h im ­
self w ith th e th o rn y b ran ch es of th e o ry . I learn ed early how to
p a in t and I ’ve never c h a n g ed .”
He gave Cam ille a mellow sm ile.
“W e are only sim ple m o rtals, su b ject to erro r: so liste n to
th e advice of o th e rs, be firm , be m eek, b u t follow y o u r own
convictions. W hen one follow s a n o th e r, one is alw ays behind...
Y ou w a n t to use m y nam e in th e catalo g u e? W h y not! I ’ve
know n y o u r w ork now fo r a w hole decade.”
Cam ille handed him Banks of th e M a rn e in W in ter. A lm ost
in s ta n tly th e atm osphere in th e stu d io froze. Corot laid down

54
his pipe and took a long strid e to th e big n o rth window. W hen
he tu rn e d back to Cam ille his face was expressionless.
“W h y ?” he dem anded coldly.
“W hy w h a t? ”
“Such fla tn e s s .”
“I t ’s a w in te r scen e.”
“Is w in te r ugly? R ep u lsiv e?”
“It is b e a u tifu l.”
“B u t n o t on y o u r c a n v a s.”
“P a rtic u la rly on th is c a n v a s.”
“T here is no delicacy here, no c h a rm .”
“T here is n ’t any on th e banks of th e M arne in w in te r.”
“Then w hy w aste y o u r tim e p a in tin g i t ? ”
“Because i t ’s a scene of in ten se c h a ra c te r.”
“The com position is good. The re s t e stra n g e s me. Y ou’re
u sin g C o u rb et’s h a rsh to n e s.”
“I had n o t m ean t to. The p a in tin g is n o t d e riv a tiv e .”
“C ertain ly n o t of me!”
C orot w ent back to his stool before th e easel, re lig h te d his
pipe.
“It w on’t be accepted, you know. You have stray ed too f a r .”
“From w h a t? ”
“A harm o n io u s glow. A joyous im p re ssio n .”
“I took joy fro m th e p a in tin g .”
“I t ’s n o t enough to ta k e joy. You have to give it. This is
a gloom -filled w orld. Ah! M odern a r tis ts , th e poor God is n o t
happy a t all. He show s you th e m ost b e a u tifu l th in g s to see, th e
m ost b e a u tifu l th in g s to re n d e r, and you a lte r th em , you spoil
th em . E h bien, m y little frie n d . God, to p u n ish you, m akes of
y o u r h e a rt a h e a rt of c o rk .”
W ith w hich he tu rn e d back to his own canvas, began to hum
and apply p a in t. Cam ille saw th a t he had been dism issed.
He w en t dow n to th e fo u r flig h ts of s ta ir s m ore slow ly
th a n he had gone up, his p a in tin g u n d e r his arm . T here was no
q u estio n now of p u ttin g C o ro t’s nam e in th e catalogue.
B a n k s o f th e M a r n e in W in te r w as rejected by th e ju ry .
S ittin g a t a ta b le o u ts id e th e C afe de B ade close by th e
S alo n , P is s a r ro tr ie d to f ig u re w hy th e ju r y h ad re je c te d h is
p ic tu r e . H e w as in te r r u p te d in h is m u sin g s by a c ry fro m
C h arles B a u d e la ire : “C am ille, y o u r c a n v a s is b e in g h u n g ,
“The B anks of th e M arn e”!
S ta rtle d , Cam ille called back: “B u t th e ju ry reje cted i t . ”
“Each m em ber has w h at is know n as his “c h a rity ” . He can pick

55
one can v as am ong th e re je c ts fo r fre e ad m issio n . D aubig ny
chose y o u rs” .
Cam ille m u rm u red : “I ’m in sev en th heaven. I ’ve adm ired
D au b ig n y ’s w ork enorm ously, b u t I h a v e n ’t m et him , so th is
is n o t a frie n d ly fav o u r. “
“On th e c o n tra ry , — said B audelaire. — D aubigny th in k s
y o u ’re th e b est of th e young o n es.”

G LO SSARY
1. capture схватить, уловить
2. border ограничивать
3. slope полого спускаться, уклон
4. harsh жесткий, резкий, суровый
5. searing опаляющий, иссушающий
6. spacious просторный
7. smock блуза, рабочий халат
8. m iraculously чудесным образом
9. penitent каю щ ийся греш ник
10. dab мазки, накладывать мазки
11. mellow зрелый, сочный; умудренный опытом
12. m ortal смертный
13. flatness плоскость; скука
14. repulsive отталкивающий
15. delicacy изысканность
1 6 .charm очарование
17. estrange отталкивать, делать чуждым
18. gloom уныние
19. render передать, донести до публики
20. apply наносить краску
21. muse размыш лять
22. reject отвергнутое произведение
23. admission допущение, принятие

COM ENTARY

1. Pissarro, Camille (1830— 1903) a F rench Im p ressio n ist la n d ­


scape p a in te r, who en d u red prolonged fin an c ial h a rd sh ip
in keeping fa ith w ith th e aim s of Im pressionism . D espite
acute eye tro u b le, his la te r years w ere his m ost p ro lific.
P is s a rro w as th e only Im p re ssio n ist p a in te r who p a rtic ip a te d
in all e ig h t of th e g r o u p ’s e x h ib itio n s. H is k in d n e ss,
w a rm th , w isdom , and e n c o u ra g in g w ords c a st him in
a fa th e rly role to s tru g g lin g y o u n g e r a r t i s t s —M onet,

56
R en o ir, C ezanne, and G a u g u in —who w ere ex p lo rin g new
m eans of p erso n al ex p ressio n . D espite fin a n c ia l b u rd e n s
th a t c o n tin u ed u n til he reached his 60s, P is s a rro n ev er
lo st f a ith in th e new a r t, b eliev in g th a t “one m u s t be
su re of success to th e v e ry end, fo r w ith o u t th a t th e re
is no hope!”
2. The Banks of the Marne in Winter a b rillia n t exam ple of
P is s a ro 's p a in tin g
3. Corot, Camille(1796— 1875) a F ren ch p a in te r, noted p rim a r­
ily fo r his landscapes, who in sp ire d and to some e x te n t
a n tic ip a te d th e landscape p a in tin g of th e Im p ressio n ists.
H is oil sketches, rem ark ab le fo r th e ir tech n ical freedom
and clear colour, have come to be as h ig h ly reg ard ed as
th e fin ish e d p ic tu re s th a t w ere based upon them .
4. Rue Paradis Poissonniere s tre e t in P a ris
5. Offenbach, Jacques (1819— 1880) a com poser who created
a ty p e of lig h t b u rlesq u e F ren ch comic opera know n as
th e o p erette, w hich becam e one of th e m ost c h a ra c te ris ­
tic a rtis tic p ro d u cts of th e period.
6. La Belle Helene an o p e re tta w ritte n by O ffenbach in 1864
7. Courbet, Gustave (1819— 1877) F rench p a in te r and lead er
of th e R e a list m ovem ent. C ourbet rebelled a g a in st th e
R om antic p a in tin g of his day, tu rn in g to everyday events
fo r his su b ject m a tte r. H is huge shadow ed canvases w ith
th e ir solid g ro u p s of fig u re s, such as The A r tis t’s S tudio
(1855), drew sh a rp c ritic ism fro m th e e sta b lish m e n t.
From th e 1860 m ore sensuous and co lo u rfu l m an n er p re ­
vailed in his w ork.
8. Salon o ffic ia l e x h ib itio n of a r t sp o n so red by th e F ren ch
g o v e rn m e n t. I t o rig in a te d in 1667. A fte r 1737 th e Salon
becam e an a n n u a l r a th e r th a n a sp o rad ic e v en t, and in
1748 th e ju ry sy stem of selectio n w as in tro d u c e d .
9. Baudelaire Charles (1 8 2 1 — 1867) a F ren ch poet, tr a n s la ­
to r, and lite ra ry and a r t c ritic w hose re p u ta tio n re s ts
p rim a rily on The Flow ers of E vil, (1857), w hich was p e r­
haps th e m ost im p o rta n t and in flu e n tia l p o e try collec­
tio n published in E urope in th e 19th cen tu ry .
10. Daubigny Charles-Francois (1817— 1878) a F rench p a in te r
whose landscapes in tro d u ced in to th e n a tu ra lis m of th e
m id -1 9 th c e n tu ry an o v errid in g concern fo r th e accu ra te
analysis and depiction of n a tu ra l lig h t th ro u g h th e use
of colour, g re a tly in flu en cin g th e Im p ressio n ist p a in te rs
of th e la te 19th ce n tu ry .

57
SPEECH PATTERN S

1. That's how to stay alive fo rev er.


T h at's how to become an a r tis t.
T h at's how to create so m eth in g of g re a t w o rth .

2. It looked as though there w ould be h a rd e a rth b en eath


th em a h u n d red m iles in d ep th .
I t looked as th o u g h we w ere spoiling th e p a rty .
I t looks as th o u g h you ju s t c a n 't draw .

3. N ever a day w ithout a d raw in g or a few dabs of oil on a


canvas.
N ever a d a y w ith o u t a sm ile.
N ever a p a in tin g w ith o u t a p a rt of y o u r soul in it.

4. There is no delicacy here, no charm .


There is no h arm on y in th is canvas.
There w as no hum our and no m oral in th is sto ry .

5. I learned early how to paint and I'v e never changed.


I learned how to follow th e ru les.
H e learned how to become a decent m em ber of th e com ­
m u n ity .

PHRASES A N D W O R D C O M B IN A T IO N S

1. cold loneliness холодное одиночество


2. leafless trees лиш енные листьев деревья
3. a hu n d red m iles in depth сто миль в глубину
4. to secure perm ission получить разреш ение
5. spacious studio просторная студия
6. to hum a tu n e напевать мотив
7. to stay alive оставаться ж ивы м
8. to tak e a long strid e ш ироко ш агнуть
9. h arsh tones резкие тона
10. a harm onious glow умиротворяю щ ии свет
11. a joyous im pression впечатление радости
12. to apply p ain t наносить краски
13. to be in seventh heaven быть на седьмом небе
14. a frien d ly fav o u r друж еская услуга

58
E S S E N T IA L V O C A B U L A R Y
fade verb
1. become less famous
M ost of these painters just fade away and are forgotten.
2. s ta rt to die
If you don’t start eating properly you’re going to fade away.
3. lose stren g th
The voice on the radio faded out.
4. if the colour of som ething fades or if som ething fades it, it grad­
ually becomes paler:
The picture faded in the sun.
favourite adj
— your favourite person or th in g of a p articu lar kind is the one
th a t you like best, His favourite pictures were exhibited in the
new museum,
express verb
1. tell feeling/idea/aim
His teachers expressed concern about his progress at the art school.
The government has reportedly expressed an interest in the art gal­
lery.
2. to show your feelings in a p a rtic u la r way: express yourself
thro u g h /b y , students who express them selves through art.
The emotions expressed by this canvas were the deep ones.
The Russian pictures of the 20-s will never fade away.
Lucy's excitement expressed itself in quick brushstrokes and
joyful light coloring of the picture.
Her eyes expressed total shock a t the sight of his last picture.
expressive adj
1. clearly showing w hat your thoughts or feelings are, especially
by your behaviour.
He gave an expressive shudder when asked about this trend in
modern art.
expressively adv
In his letter he wrote expressively of his sincere regret.
expressiveness noun
Public was really shaken by the expressiveness of this newly
found masterpiece.
compose verb
1. to w rite a piece of music
The song was specially composed for their wedding.
2. to arran g e the p a rts of som ething such as a photograph or a
painting in order to get a particu lar effect.
He sat down and composed his ideas before p u ttin g them onto
canvas.
3. to form som ething: be composed of.
Secondary colors are composed of the prim ary ones.

59
composition noun
1. the way som ething is form ed from separate p arts or people;
S tu dyin g this landscape's composition we should p a y a tten ­
tion to the significant details.
2. something such as a piece of music, a piece of writing, or a painting
Compositions of flowers are very im portant p a r t of the interior
design.
3. the skill or process of producing music, w riting, or paintings
harmony noun
1. a situ atio n in which people live and work well w ith other people,
and in a way th a t does not damage things around them .
He had to ensure th a t there was harmony between the different
p a rts of his composition.
2. musical notes th a t are sung or played at the same tim e, m aking
a pleasant sound.
The beautiful harmonies of M ozart's choral works.
Afro-American music denies harmony.
3. the attrac tiv e effect th a t is created when objects, colours etc
combine together well
Harmony can be defined as a pleasing arrangement of parts,
whether it be music, p o etry, color, or even an ice cream sun­
dae.
4. a feeling th a t you are happy and your m ind and emotions are
well balanced:
The human brain needs harmony and requires th a t we present
a logical structure to him.
harmonious adj
1. friendly and peaceful:
The whole thing looked harmonious and natural.
2. used about th in g s such as colours or p arts of som ething th a t
combine well w ith each other: The audience was struck by a h a r­
monious arrangem ent of colours
The different p a rts of the picture form a harmonious whole.

60
ACTIVITIES

1. Consult a dictionary and practice the pronunciation of the following


words. Mark the main stressed syllabse in each of these words.
V iew er, alcove, p e rm issio n , m ira c u lo u sly , h a rm o n io u s,
joyous, fig u re , catalogue, stu d io , spacious, atm o sp h ere, w rin ­
kle, th o rn y , heaven
2. Analyze the structure of the following words.
E norm ously, expressionless, re lig h te d , in d ifferen ce, d is­
m issal, p ro -g o v ern m en tal, rep lacem en t, disappearance
E xa m p le : d isag reem en t
dis — n eg ativ e p re fix
agree — ro o t
m en t — n o u n -fo rm in g s u ffix
3. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the bold type word.
Render like
1. They w an ted ... effe c ts 1. ... R eynolds, R am say
of s u n lig h t as t r u t h f u lly as sp en t some y ears in Ita ly b u t
possible. ... him was n o t affected by th e
2. I t su ite d ... of m asses of m a ste rs of th e g re a t p ast.
g reen ery and of th e th o u san d 2. I t is m u ch m o re ...
and one reflectio n s. to f in d a m a s te rp ie c e in
light som ebody's cellar.
1. He ... his pipe. paint
2. They produced can v as­ 1. He o ften ... in th e open
es w hose ... and in te n s ity of a ir.
color ex p ressed b rillia n c e of 2. He m ixed som e ..., s a t
n a tu re . down and b e g a n __
look
1. ... a t th e reliefs fo r th e
f ir s t tim e one m ay fin d th em
ra th e r bew ildering.
2. T he o b je c ts in th e s e
p a in tin g s ... so stra n g e ly fla t.
4. Pick out from the text some adjectives and give their compara­
tive and superlative degrees:
Example:
Long - longer- th e longest
B eau tifu l - m ore b e a u tifu l - th e m ost b e a u tifu l

61
5. Finish the sentences, using the patterns:

That's how to...


That's why...

It looked as though...
It looked a lot like...

N ever a day w ithout...


N ever a picture w ithout...

There is no...
There are no...

I learned how to ...


He realized how to...

6. Translate into English the sentences containing the patterns.


1. И менно так создается ш едевр.
2. П охож е, собирается дож дь.
3. Твоим девизом долж ны стать слова «ни дня без з а н я ­
тий ан гли й ски м ».
4. Н ичто не сравнится с родны м домом.
5. Он н аучился пользоваться компью тером.
6. Таким образом нужно натягивать холст на подрамник.
7. К арти н а в ы гл яд ела так , словно побы вала в р у ках в ар ­
варов.
8. Он ни дня не мог прож ить без своих лю бимы х поло­
тен.
9. Н ет так о го х у д о ж н и к а , к о то р ы й не сч и тает себя
гением .
10. И мпрессионисты научились наносить отдельны е свет­
лы е м азки таки м образом, чтобы создать на полотне
эф ф ект солнечного света.
7. Write down from the text the sentences containing phrases and
word combinations. Translate them into Russian.

8. Write 10 sentences incorporating the following word combinations.

1. leafless tre e s
2. a h u n d re d m iles in d ep th
3. to secure perm ission
4. spacious stu d io

62
5. to hum a tu n e
6. h a rsh tones
7. a joyous im pression
8. to apply p a in t
9. to be in sev en th heaven
10. a frie n d ly fa v o u r
Describe your favorite picture using the following phrases and
word combinations.
th e p a in te r has ca p tu re d
it looked as th o u g h
th e re is no fa n ta sy
h a rsh re a lity
searin g b eau ty
p a rtic u la rly on th is canvas
10. Work in pairs. Act out dialogues using the following phrases
and word combinations.
A
1. a scene of in ten se c h a ra c te r
2. d eriv a tiv e p a in tin g
3. gloom -filled atm o sp h ere
4. harm o n io u s glow
5. to ta k e joy fro m th e p a in tin g
6. god shows th e a r tis t th e m ost b e a u tifu l th in g s to ren d er
B

1. to adm ire sm b 's w ork enorm ously


2. to follow o n e's convictions
3. to draw fro m life
4. he w as\w as n o t enough of a m a ste r to express
5. th ro u g h th e m eans of
6. on th e c o n tra ry
11 Work in pairs. Act out dialogues.
a) T alk a b o u t Irv in g S to n e, th e w rite r (use in fo rm a tio n
given in U n it 2).
b) You are ad m irin g C orot and y o u r frie n d is e n th u sia stic
about C ourbet.
12 Translate the following sentences into English
1. Сезанн получил разреш ение вы ставить свою к арти н у
в Салоне.

63
2. Работая, К ам и ль Коро частенько напевал.
3. Эта к ар ти н а создает впечатление радости.
4. Его просторная студия бы ла зал и та солнечны м све­
том.
5. П иссарро был на седьмом небе от счастья, когда ж ю ри
Салона наконец-то п рин яло его кар ти н у .
6. Р езки е тона на к ар ти н ах М унка порож даю т у зр и те­
л я ощ ущ ение беспокойства.
7. Сера наносил к р аск и особым способом, которы й полу­
чи л название п уанти лизм .
8. Ж и зн ь х у д о ж н и к а бы ла наполнена холодны м одино­
чеством.
9. У м и ротворяю щ ий свет л и л ся сквозь м ногоцветны е
в и траж и ц еркви .
10. Добиньи оказал Камилю Писсарро дружескую услугу.
13. Are these sentences true or false?
1. P issa rro su b m itte d his B a n k s o f th e M a r n e in W in te r
fo r th e Salon of 1890.
2. It is a landscape fu ll of joy and b rig h t colors.
3. P issa rro applied fo r perm ission to use th e nam e of Corot
as his m a ste r in th e catalogue.
4. C orot p raised th e B a n k s o f th e M a r n e .
5. C orot provided P issa rro w ith his su p p o rt.
6. B a n k s o f th e M a r n e in W in te r was rejected by th e ju ry .
7. D aubigny picked B a n k s o f th e M a r n e in W in te r am ong
th e reje cts, because P issa rro had pleaded him to do so.
14 Word partnership.
Match the words on the left with the words on the right.
A.
1. leafless bran ch es
2. wool e a rth
3. spacious p ic tu re
4. th o rn y tre e s
5. fa v o rite stu d io
6. apply c h a ra c te r
7. free heaven
8. sev en th adm ission
9. in ten se p a in t
10. h a rd cap
B. Write 10 sentences incorporating

64
15. Finish the following sentences with the text wording:

T here w as a green m o u n t sloping tow ard...


He took th e p a in tin g in to P aris...
W hen one follow s another...
He shows you th e m ost b e a u tifu l th in g s to see...
T here w as no q u estio n now...
He was in te rru p te d ...
W e are only sim ple m o rtals, su b ject to erro r...

16 Explain what the author meant by:

1. ... He had captured the bare, stark , cold loneliness of w inter.


2. ...the scene w ith th e su g g ested im ages...
3. T here was a green m o u n t sloping to w ard th e riv e r.
4. ...A p e n ite n t who b eats h im self w ith th e th o rn y b ra n c h ­
es of th e o ry .
5. W e are only sim ple m o rtals, su b ject to erro r...
6. I t 's a scene of in ten se ch a ra c te r.
7. The p rin tin g is n o t d eriv a tiv e.
8. I took joy fro m th e p a in tin g .
6. God, to pun ish you, m akes of your h e a rt a h e a rt of a cork.

17 Answer the following questions:


1. W h a t p a in tin g did P issa rro su b m it fo r th e A p ril salon
of 1866?
2. H ave you ever seen it? If no, fin d th e re p ro d u ctio n and
describe th e p a in tin g .
3. W hy did P issa rro ta k e his p a in tin g to C orot?
4. H ave you ever seen any p a in tin g s by C orot? F ind some
and describe one of them .
5. W h ere was C o ro t's stu d io ?
6. D escribe th e m a ste r and his stu d io .
7. W h a t can you say ab o u t C o ro t's a ttitu d e to life?
8. W h at did Corot say about the B a n ks o f th e M a rn e in
Winter?
9. How did C orot see th e role of a r tis ts in th e w orld? Do
you agree w ith him ?
10. Did P issa rro gain a perm ission to use th e nam e of th e
m a ster?
11. W as th e B a n k s o f th e M a r n e in W in te r exh ib ited ?
12.How did it happen?

65
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY EXERCISES
Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative
examples into Russian.
1. H er fo o tstep s faded away down th e staircase.
2. A ra tio can be expressed as a percen tag e.
3. The g o v ern m en t has rep o rted ly expressed an in te re s t in
th e schem e.
4. A fte r one h it p a in tin g he rap id ly faded into o b scu rity .
5. M ost co m p o sitio n s do n o t a d h e re o n ly to one of th e s e
m o d els, b u t u se a c o m b in a tio n of tw o o r th r e e to h elp
c a r r y a v ie w e r th r o u g h m ore com plex p a th w a y s .
6. Harmony can be defined as a pleasing a rra n g e m e n t of
p a rts , w h e th e r it be m usic, p o etry , color, or even an ice
cream sundae.
7. C orot is one of m y favourite p a in te rs.
8. W hen som eth in g is n o t harm onious, i t ’s e ith e r b o rin g
or chaotic.
9. The a r tis t has to compose harm oniously all th e in te g ra l
p a rts of th e p a in tin g .
10. E a rlie r D utch landscape w as u su ally a com bination of
observed elem ents and im ag in ary ones, composed in to
fa n ta s tic panoram as

2. Fill in the gaps with the words of the essential vocabulary

Com position, h a d f a d e d a w a y , to express, fa v o u r ite ,


com position, h arm o n ies, express, h a rm o n io u s

1. C an v ases in th e s tu d io d iffe re d w id ely in th e ir size


and ... .
2. He adores th e lig h t-an d - colour ... of V erm eer.
3. Im p re ssio n ists w an ted to re n d e r as tr u th f u lly as pos­
sible th e ... effects of su n lig h t.
4. W hen Sisley was p a in tin g fig u re s, he abandoned his ...
m ethod of little sep arate b ru sh stro k e s.
5. H is m a ste ry can be seen in clear ... and flu id d raw in g .
6. D egas nev er accepted a com m ission and nev er fin ish e d
a p o rtr a it if his i n t e r e s t ... away.
7. P a ste l sa tisfie d D egas's desire fo r b rillia n t, m ore v a p o r­
ous colour and allow ed him to ... him self in d raw in g as
in p a in tin g .

66
3. Word sets.
Underline the odd word in each set

1. little , sm all, tin y , broad


2. cool, freeze, h e a t, cold
3. b eau ty , ugly, charm , splendo
4. te a r, sm ile, g rin , lau g h
5. reje ct, b an , agree, refu se
4. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases:
In h a rm o n y w ith th e w hole w o rld ; fa d e d b lu e je a n s; a p o ­
em e x p re s s in g g rie f; p e r fe c t h a rm o n y ; p ic tu r e fa d e s o u t;
I w ould lik e to e x p re ss m y th a n k s ; f a v o u r ite a r ti s t; c o m p li­
cated co m p o sitio n ; h a rm o n io u s so u n d s; to com pose a le tte r ;
to e x p re ss o n e 's fe e lin g s; th e fa d e d g lo ry of th e old h o te l;
th e le a s t f a v o u r ite c o m p o sitio n ; in te g r a te h a rm o n io u s ly
in to so ciety ; th e la u g h te r fad ed ; th e o p in io n s e x p re sse d .

5. Match the two halves of the sentences.

1. began to c o n cen tra te on p o r tr a its


2. c a p tu r in g th e in n e r life o f h is sitte rs.
3. in th e opera house a n d ballet.
4. b u t also t h e h o u r s o f s tr a in a n d e x h a u s t i n g
tr a in in g .
5. by ch o o sin g m ore realistic m o dels a n d a r r a n g ­
in g th e m in less fo rm a l poses.
6. n ew a n d s u r p r is in g a n g les o f co m p o sitio n
7. to c a tc h t h e f l e e t i n g p o s e a n d i m m e d i a t e
expression
1. A t f ir s t D egas trie d to p a in t h isto ric a l su b jects in th e
approved m an n er, g iv in g th em w h at he called a to u ch of
“m odern fe e lin g ” ...
2. He soon gave up th is idea and...
3. In h is e a rly can v ases D egas im m ed iately show ed h is
skill in ...
4. A s he pro g ressed his to u ch becam e lig h te r and he grew
m ore able ...
5. A fte r th e w ar of 1870 D egas looked aro u n d fo r new su b ­
jects and discovered th em ...
6. A t th e sam e tim e he so u g h t....
7. In his stu d ie s of d ancers he re-created n o t only g lam o r­
ous m om ents on th e stage...

67
6. A.Complete the following sentences with appropriate words
from the box.
l i g h t, harbor, m o dern , b an n ed, a tm o sp h e re, exhibi­
tion, m en to r, “I m p r e s s i o n i s m . ”, technique

The ch an g in g ... th a t falls on fig u re s and anim als in m otion


dem anded a b risk p a in tin g ..., fo r th e ir aim w as to c a p tu re th e
fle e tin g m om ent. The re s u ltin g p ic tu re s w ere fu ll w ith a flu id ,
colorful, and airy ..., th o u g h to m ost co n tem p o rary observers
th e y sim ply looked u n fin ish e d . Black, g ray , and brow n w ere ...
fro m th e ch ro m atic ran g e in fa v o r of th e hues of th e sp ectru m :
blue, green, yellow, orange, red , and indigo. The gro u p slow ly
d rifte d a p a rt a fte r its sp iritu a l..., M anet, died in 1883.
“Im pression, Soleil le v a n t” (Sunrise) was th e title M onet
gave to th is early m o rn in g view of a ... p ain ted in 1872, and
shown in th e 1874 group ...held in th e studio of th e pioneer pho­
to g ra p h e r N adar, in P aris. The critics laughed a t th e u n fa m il­
ia r style of such w orks by calling them m ere ... .Thus th e revolu­
tio n ary style th a t m arks th e s ta r t of ... a r t was christened.
B. Translate the sentences into Russian
7. Choose the right article.
... p rim e c h a ra c te ristic of Im p ressio n ist p ic tu re s was th a t
th e y w ere executed in ... open a ir, in fro n t of th e m o tif. They
c a p tu re d th e m o m en tary e ffe c ts of s u n lig h t, shadow , a tm o ­
sphere, and m ovem ent, in ste ad of being m ixed on ... p a le tte ,
th e colors w ere o ften applied s tra ig h t and unm ixed t o ... canvas
in sh o rt stro k es of v a ry in g shape placed n e x t to one a n o th e r,
so th a t th e y m erged to g e th e r in to ... new color in th e v ie w er’s
eye. The co n to u rs of th in g s w ere no lo n g er em phasized, and
persp ectiv e no lo n g er played ... s tru c tu rin g role. The re s u lt
was ... use of b rig h t colors and quick b ru sh stro k e s w hich le n t
Im p ressio n ist p a in tin g s ... ro u g h , u n fin ish e d appearance by
com parison to tra d itio n a l oils. E v e ry th in g was ren d ered w ith
... sw eeping vividness.
8. Choose the right preposition from the box.

for, in, from , in, of, in, on, in, w ith , a t, in, at, in

Im p ressio n ism w as a re v o lu tio n ... p a in tin g th a t opened


th e door ... th e new era ... 2 0 th -c e n tu ry a rt. The nam e of th e
style derived ... M onet’s canvas “Im pression, S u n rise ” . The
young a rtis ts who held th e ir f ir s t jo in t ex h ib itio n ... 1874 w ere

68
frien d s: Cezanne, D egas, M onet, P issa rro , R enoir, and Sisley.
M anet, despite th e allegiance he f e l t ... th e group, did n o t p a r­
tic ip a te in th e f ir s t show. The Im p ressio n ists le ft th e stu d io to
p a i n t ... th e open a ir, a th in g alm ost u n h eard ... th e tim e. They
w orked ... th e woods alongside th e R iv er Seine or ... th e n o r th ­
ern coast of F r a n c e ,... th e horse r a c e s ,... o utdoor re s ta u ra n ts ,
... cafes, th e a te rs , and circuses.
9. Make the list of the adjectives the author uses describing Banks
of the Marne in Winter.
Describe your favourite picture, paying special attention
to adjectives.

10. Translate the sentences into English using the essential vocabulary.
1. Н ельзя не восхищ аться полотнам и Коро, вы ставлен ­
ны м и в Л увре.
2. Н екоторы е х у д о ж н и к и п редпочитаю т п и сать н еп о­
средственно на полотне, не делая набросков.
2. Рем брандт пользовался менее я р к и м и цветам и , чем
Рубенс и В еласкес.
4. И х полотна соверш енны м образом п ередавали гар ­
монию и блеск природы , купаю щ ейся в солнечны х
лучах.
5. В аж но подчеркнуть, что великие м астера - таки е к а к
Р ен уар - н и ко гд а не чувствовали себя об язан н ы м и
п ри д ерж и ваться какого-то одного метода.
6. Творчество этого х у д о ж н и к а представлено в Э рм ита­
ж е четы рьм я полотнам и.
7. Р азн и ц а м еж ду карти ной и скульптурой так ж е вел и ­
к а , к а к м еж д у тенью и тем объектом , что эту тень
отбрасы вает.
8. Он работал весь день, но наброски н и как не получались.
9. Он копировал полотна Тициана, которые наш ел в музее.
10. Д ж отто был первы м из и т а л ь я н с к и х м астеров, кто
стал писать с натуры .
11. О кна его просторной студии вы ходят на запад.
11. Do the library research and write an essay on one of the given
topics.
1. N ovelty of Im pressionism .
2. Im p ressio n ist th e o ry of colour.
3. Choose th e p a in te r and w rite about his life .
4. A nalyze one of his p a in tin g s.

69
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

H O W TO APPRECIATE PAINTINGS

BEFORE YO U READ

Discuss these questions.


1. W hy do personal reactions to a rt differ so much?
2. Is it possible to have common standards and yet disagree about
individual artistic approaches?
3. W hat kind of painting a ttra c ts you mostly?
4. Give your reasons .
5. Can an adequate likeness be a poor painting? Why?

R E A D IN G T A S K S

Understanding main points


Answer these questions.
1. Can an inexperienced viewer appreciate a rt as profoundly as a
more experienced one can?
2. Is it possible to learn to appreciate art?
3. The ability to appreciate a work of a rt is an acquired one, isn ’t it?
How can a person gain b etter understanding of art?
4. Do you th in k the excellence of an a r tis t’s style can be recognized
at firs t sight?
5. Should one be ashamed of one’s apparent dullness? How should
one improve his knowledge of art?
6. Is painting easier to understand than other kinds of art?
7. W hich is the correct way of viewing paintings?

2 . Understanding details
Make these statements T (true) or F (false) according
to the information in the text.
1. In Reynolds’s day society p o rtra itu re had become a monotonous
repetition of the same them e.
2. The p o rtra it was to be done according to certain rules.
3. Reynolds insisted th a t a p o rtra it could and should be a monoto­
nous repetition of the same theme.

70
4. Reynolds helped to found the Royal Academy of A rts in 1768.
5. In his ’’Discourses” Reynolds outlined the history of art.
6. Reynolds considered taste as an inherent property.
7. Reynolds suggested the means of achieving perfection through
train in g and study of the Old M asters.
8. For Reynolds each s itte r was not ju st a physical fact to be record­
ed, b u t ra th e r a story to be told.

3. Match these words as they occur together in the text.


commanding taste
florid train in g
rigorous dullness
apparent style
society ear
inexpressive taste
poetical figure
musical p o rtraitu re
acquired elegance

H O W TO APPRECIATE PAINTINGS
S ir J o s h u a R ey n o ld s (1 7 2 3 — 1792) w as in h is own day
a co m m an d in g f ig u r e , w hose a u th o r ity o u tliv e d h im an d
who e v e n tu a lly becam e a ta r g e t fo r R o m a n tic a tta c k s . In
R ey n o ld s’s day society p o r tr a itu r e had becom e a m onotonous
re p e titio n of th e sam e them e. A ccording to th e fo rm u la , th e
s itte r w as to be posed c e n tra lly , w ith th e b a c k g ro u n d (c u r­
ta in , p illa r, c h a ir, p erh ap s a h in t of landscape) disposed like a
back-drop beh in d ; n o rm ally th e head was done by th e m a ste r,
th e body by a p u p il or “d ra p e ry a s s is ta n t” , who m ig h t serve
several p a in te rs . Pose and ex p ressio n te n d ed to be re g u la te d
to a s ta n d a rd of p o lite and in e x p re ssiv e elegance; th e por-
tr a itto ld little ab o u t th e ir su b jects o th e r th a n th a t th e y w ere
th a t s o rt of people who had th e ir p o r tra its p a in te d . They w ere
effig ies; life d ep a rte d .
It was R eynolds who in siste d in his p ractice th a t a p o rtr a it
could and sho u ld be also fu ll, com plex w ork of a r t on m any
levels; he conceived his p o rtra its in te rm s of h isto ry p a in tin g .
Each fre sh s itte r w as n o t ju s t a physical fa c t to be recorded,
b u t r a th e r a sto ry to be told. H is people are no lo n g er s ta tic ,

71
b u t c a u g h t betw een one m om ent and th e n e x t. R eynolds was
indeed a consum m ate p ro d u cer of c h a ra c te r, and his p ro d u c­
tio n m ethods rew ard in v e stig a tio n . F or th em he called upon
th e fu ll re p e rto ire of th e Old M asters.
R eynolds gave a t th e R oyal A cadem y of A rts — w hich he
helped to fo u n d in 1768 — th e fam ous D iscourses, w hich in
p ublished fo rm rem ain a form idable body of Classical d o ctrin e.
In his D iscourses R eynolds o u tlin ed th e essence of g ra n d e u r in
a r t and su g g ested th e m eans of achieving it th ro u g h rig o ro u s
academ ic tra in in g and stu d y of th e Old M asters.
R ead w h at S ir J o sh u a R eynolds says about his own e x p e ri­
ence:
ON TA STE

... I am now clearly of o pinion th a t a re lis h fo r th e h ig h e r


excellencies of a r t is an a c q u ire d ta s te , w hich no m an ev er
p o ssessed w ith o u t long c u ltiv a tio n , an d g r e a t la b o u r an d
a tte n tio n . On such occasion as th a t w hich I have m en tio n ed
we are o fte n asham ed of o u r a p p a re n t d u lln ess; as if i t w ere
to be expected th a t o u r m in d s, like tin d e r, sh o u ld in s ta n tly
catch fire fro m th e d iv in e sp a rk of R a p h a e l’s g en iu s. I f l a t ­
te d m y self th a t now i t w ould be so, and t h a t I have a ju s t
and lik ely p ercep tio n of h is g re a t pow ers: b u t le t it be alw ays
rem em b ered , th a t th e excellency of h is sty le is n o t on th e s u r ­
face, b u t lies deep; and a t th e f ir s t view is seen b u t m istly . I t
is th e flo rid sty le , w hich s trik e s a t once, and c a p tiv a te s th e
eyes fo r a tim e , w ith o u t ev er s a tis fy in g th e ju d g m e n t. N or
does p a in tin g in th is re sp e c t d iffe r fro m o th e r a r ts . A ju s t
p o etical ta s te , and th e a c q u isitio n of a nice d is c rim in a tiv e
m u sical e a r, are eq u ally th e w ork of tim e. E ven th e eye, how ­
ev er p e rfe c t in its e lf, is o fte n unable to d is tin g u is h betw een
th e b rillia n c y of tw o diam onds; th o u g h th e ex p erien ced jew ­
e le r w ill be am azed a t its b lin d n e ss: n o t c o n s id e rin g t h a t
th e re w as a tim e w hen he h im se lf could n o t have been able to
p ro n o u n ce w hich of th e tw o w as th e m o st p e rfe c t, and th a t
h is own pow er of d is c rim in a tio n w as a c q u ire d by slow and
im p ercep tib le degrees.

1. targ e t цель, мишень


2. sitte r тот, кто позирует художнику, натурщ ик
3. pillar колонна, столп
4. back-drop задник (театр.)

72
5. effigy изображение
6. conceive представлять себе, задумывать
7. consummate законченный, полный, совершенный
8. endeavour попытка, стремление
9. essence сущность
10. grandeur величие, великолепие
11. relish склонность, пристрастие
12. rigorous доскональный, тщательный
13. apparent очевидный, явный
14. tin d er трут
15. divine божественный
1 6 .spark искра
17. fla tte r льстить
18. m ist дымка
19. captivate пленять
20. discrim inative умеющий различать, разборчивый
21. im perceptible незначительный
22. conversant сведущий, знакомый
23. servile подобострастный
2 4 .torpid оцепеневший, бездеятельный
25. delusive обманчивый, мнимый

Read the life story of Sir Joshua Reynolds and retell it.
Note that this text and the previous one are written by different
authors.
Find some of Reynolds's paintings and give your opinion about:
• Drawing
• Colour
• Composition
• Resemblance to paintings of Venetian and Flemish schools.

R eynolds atten d ed th e P lym pton g ram m ar school of w hich


h is f a th e r, a clerg y m an , w as m a ste r. The y o u n g R eynolds
becam e well read in th e w ritin g s of classical a n tiq u ity and
th ro u g h o u t h is life w as to be m uch in te re s te d in lite ra tu re ,
co u n tin g m any of th e fin e st B ritish a u th o rs of th e 18th c e n tu ­
ry am ong his closest frien d s. R eynolds early aspired to become
an a r tis t, and in 1740 he w as a p p re n tic e d fo r fo u r y ears in
London to Thom as H udson, a conventional p o rtra itis t. In 1743
he re tu rn e d to Devon and began p a in tin g a t P ly m o u th naval
p o r tra its th a t reveal his in ex p erien ce. R e tu rn in g to London
fo r two years in 1744, he began to acquire a know ledge of th e

73
old m a sters and an in d ep en d en t sty le m arked by bold b ru sh -
w ork and th e use of im pasto, a th ick su rface te x tu re of p a in t.
In 1749 R eynolds sailed w ith his frie n d A u g u stu s K eppel
to M inorca, one of th e B alearic Islands off th e M ed iterran ean
co ast of S p ain . F rom M inorca he w en t to R om e, w here he
re m a in e d fo r tw o y e a rs, d e v o tin g h im se lf to s tu d y in g th e
g re a t m asterpieces of an cien t G reco-R om an sc u lp tu re and of
Ita lia n p a in tin g . The im pressions th a t he re ta in e d fro m th is
v is it w ere to in sp ire his p a in tin g s and his D iscourses fo r th e
re s t of his life. The V enetian tr a d itio n ’s em phasis on colour
and th e e ffect of lig h t and sh ad in g had a la stin g in flu en ce on
R eynolds, and, a lth o u g h all his life he preached th e need fo r
young a r tis ts to stu d y th e sc u lp tu ra l d efin itio n of fo rm c h a r­
a c te ris tic of F lo re n tin e and R om an p a in te rs , his own w orks
are red o len t of th e V enetian style.
A fte r his v isit to Italy , he trie d to produce th e effects of
T in to re tto and T itian by u sin g tra n s p a re n t glazes over a m ono­
chrom e u n d e rp a in tin g , b u t th e pig m en t he used fo r his flesh
to n es w as n o t p e rm a n e n t and even in h is life tim e began to
fade, causing th e overpale faces of m any su rv iv in g p o rtra its .
In th e 1760s R eynolds began to use m ore extensively b itu m en
o r coal substances added to p igm ents. This p ractice proved to
be d e trim e n ta l to th e p a in t su rface. T hough a keen collector of
old-m aster draw ings, R eynolds him self was never a d ra ftsm a n ,
and indeed few of his draw ings have any m e rit w hatsoever.
In 1753 R eynolds se ttle d in London, w here he w as to live
fo r th e re s t of his life. H is success was assu red fro m th e f ir s t,
and by 1755 he was em ploying stu d io a s s is ta n ts to help him exe­
cu te th e n u m ero u s p o r tr a it com m issions he received. The early
London p o r tr a its have a v ig o u r and n a tu ra ln e s s ab o u t th em
th a t is p erh ap s b est exem plified in a likeness of “H onourable
A u g u stu s K eppel” (1 7 5 3 -1 7 5 4 ); N atio n al M aritim e M useum ,
G reenw ich, London).
Of h is d o m e stic p o r t r a i t s , th o s e of “N elly O ’B rie n ”
(1 7 6 0 -1 7 6 2 ) and of “G eorgiana, C ountess S pencer, and H er
D a u g h te r ” (1 761) a re esp e c ia lly n o ta b le fo r th e ir te n d e r
ch arm and c a re fu l o b serv atio n .
A fte r 1760 R eynolds sty le becam e in c re a sin g ly classical
and self-conscious. As he fell u n d e r th e in flu en ce of th e classi­
cal B aroque p a in te rs of th e Bolognese school of th e 17th c e n tu ­
ry and th e archaeological in te re s t in G reco-R om an a n tiq u ity
th a t w as sw eeping E urope a t th e tim e, th e pose and clothes of
his s itte r s took on a m ore rig id ly an tiq u e p a tte rn , in conse­

74
quence losing m uch of th e sy m p ath y and u n d e rsta n d in g of his
e a rlie r w orks.
In 1781 R eynolds v isited F lan d ers and H olland, w here he
stu d ie d th e w ork of th e g re a t F lem ish B aroque p a in te r P e te r
P au l R ubens. T his seem s to have affected his own sty le, fo r
in th e m an n er of R u b en s’ la te r w orks th e te x tu re of his p ic­
tu r e su rface becom es f a r ric h e r. T his is p a rtic u la rly tr u e of
his p o rtra it of th e “D uchess of D evonshire and H er D a u g h te r”
(1786). R eynolds was nev er a m ere society p a in te r or f la t te r ­
er. It has been su g g ested th a t his deafness gave him a clearer
in s ig h t in to th e c h a ra c te r of his s itte rs , th e lack of one fa c ­
u lty sh a rp e n in g th e use of his eyes. H is v a s t le arn in g allow ed
him to v a ry his poses and style so o ften th a t th e w ell-know n
re m a rk of Thom as G ainsborough, “D am n him , how v ario u s he
is!” is e n tire ly u n d erstan d ab le.

R e y n o ld s’ D isco u rses d e liv ered a t th e R oyal A cadem y


(1 7 6 9 -1 7 9 1 ) is am ong th e m ost im p o rta n t a r t criticism of th e
tim e. In it he o u tlin ed th e essence of g ra n d e u r in a r t and su g ­
gested th e m eans of achieving it th ro u g h rig o ro u s academ ic
tra in in g and stu d y of th e old m a sters of a rt.
Over to you
1. L eo n a rd o da V in ci once said:
“A good p a in te r is to p a in t tw o m ain th in g s, nam ely, m an
and th e w orking of m a n 's m ind. The f ir s t is easy, th e second
d iffic u lt, fo r it is to be rep re se n te d th ro u g h th e g e stu re s and
m ovem ents of th e lim b s.”
Do y o u agree w ith th e s ta te m e n t?
I s it so im p o r ta n t - to sh o w th e w o r k in g o f m a n 's m in d ?
2. R e a d th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t o f V in c e n t V a n G ogh
(from I.S to n e, L u s t fo r Life):
“ ... N ot only does th e d raw in g of fig u re s and scenes from
life dem and a know ledge of th e h a n d ic ra ft of d raw in g , b u t it
dem ands also p ro fo u n d stu d ie s of lite ra tu re .
I c a n 't draw a fig u re w ith o u t know ing all about th e bones
and m uscles and ten d o n s th a t are inside it. A nd I c a n 't draw
a head w ith o u t know ing w h at goes on in th a t p e rso n 's b ra in
and soul. In o rd er to p a in t life one m u st u n d e rs ta n d n o t only
anatom y, b u t w h at people feel and th in k about th e w orld th ey
live in .”
I s th e r e a n y d iffe re n c e b etw een p a i n t i n g th e p h y s ic a l
ap p ea ra nce a n d th e soul o f a p erson?

75
W h a t m a k e s a g r e a t p o r tr a it?
Can an a d eq u a te liken ess be a p o o r p a in tin g ?
3. T h ere are p e o p le , w ho specialize in a p p r e c ia tin g art.
E x p la in th e d ifference betw een
an a r t c ritic , a connoisseur, a collector, an a r t dealer.
4. I t is c o m m o n belief t h a t th e role o f th e a r tis t in th e
society has a lw a y s been a n d w ill a lw a y s be to reflect th e real­
ity . Do y o u agree? F in d som e a r g u m e n ts .

76
UNIT

FOUR
TEXT

from THE MOON AND SIXPENCE


by Somerset Maugham
William Somerset Maugham was born in 1874. After graduating from Heidelberg
University he worked at a hospital, but the success of his first novel “Liza of
Zambeth” (1897) encouraged him to give up medicine and become a professional
writer. Somerset Maugham is the author of several well-known novels and plays, and
a lot of short stories.
The most famous of his novels, “The Moon and the Sixpence” (1916) follows the
story of Charles Strickland, a stockbroker who became an artist, in his quest for truth and
beauty.
Somerset Maugham died in 1965 at the age of 92.

I did n o t know w hy S tric k la n d h ad su d d en ly o ffe re d to


show his p ic tu re s to me. I welcom ed th e o p p o rtu n ity . A m a n ’s
w ork reveals him .
A s I w alked up th e endless s ta irs of th e house in w hich
S tric k lan d lived, I confess th a t I was a little excited. It seem ed
to me th a t I was on th e th re sh o ld of a s u rp ris in g ad v en tu re.
I looked about th e room w ith cu rio sity . It was even sm aller and
m ore b are th a n I rem em bered it. I w ondered w h at those frien d s
of m ine w ould say who dem anded v a st stu d io s, and vowed th ey
could n o t w ork unless all th e conditions w ere to th e ir liking.
“Y o u ’d b e tte r s ta n d th e r e ,” he said , p o in tin g to a sp o t
fro m w hich, presum ably, he fancied I could see to b est ad v an ­
ta g e w h at he had to show me.
“You d o n ’t w an t me to ta lk , I su p p o se,” I said.
“No, b la st you; I w an t you to hold y o u r to n g u e .’
He placed a p ic tu re on th e easel, and le t me look a t it fo r a
m in u te or two: th e n took it down and p u t a n o th e r in its place.
I th in k he showed me about th ir ty canvases. It was th e re s u lt
of th e six y ears d u rin g w hich he had been p a in tin g . He had
never sold a p ic tu re . The canvases w ere of d iffe re n t sizes. The
sm aller w ere p ic tu re s of still-life and la rg e st w ere landscapes.
T here w ere about half-a-dozen p o rtra its .
“T h at is th e lo t,” he said a t la st.
I w ish I could say th a t I recognized a t once th e ir beau ty and
th e ir g re a t o rig in ality . Now th a t I have seen m any of them again

78
and th e re s t are fam ilia r to me in reproductions, I am astonished
th a t a t f ir s t sig h t I was b itte rly disappointed. I fe lt n o th in g of
th e peculiar th rill w hich it is th e p ro p erty of a rt to give. The
im pression th a t S tric k la n d ’s p ictu res gave me was disconcert­
ing; and th e fact rem ains, always to reproach me, th a t I never
even th o u g h t of buying any. I m issed a w onderful chance. M ost
of them have found th e ir way in to m useum s, and th e re st are
th e tre a s u re d possessions of w ealth y a m a te u rs. I tr y to fin d
excuses fo r m yself. I th in k th a t my ta ste is good, b u t I am con­
scious th a t it has no o rig in ality . I know very little about p a in t­
ing, and I w ander along tra ils th a t o th ers have blazed fo r me. A t
th a t tim e I had th e g re a te st ad m iratio n fo r th e Im pressionists.
I longed to possess a Sisley and Degas, and I w orshipped M anet.
H is O lym p ia seemed to me th e g re a te st p ic tu re of m odern tim es,
and L u n ch eo n on th e Grass moved me profoundly. These w orks
seemed to me th e la st w ord in p ain tin g .
I will n o t describe th e p ic tu re s th a t S tric k la n d showed me.
D escriptions of p ic tu re s are alw ays dull, and th ese, besides, are
fa m ilia r to all who ta k e an in te re s t in such th in g s. Now th a t
h is in flu e n c e h as so en o rm o u sly a ffe c te d m o dern p a in tin g ,
S tric k la n d ’s p ic tu re s, seen fo r th e f ir s t tim e, w ould fin d th e
m ind m ore p rep ared fo r them ; b u t it m u st be rem em bered th a t
I had nev er seen a n y th in g of th e so rt. F irs t of all I w as ta k en
aback by w h at seem ed to me th e clum siness of his tech n iq u e.
A ccustom ed to th e d raw in g of th e old m a ste rs, and convinced
th a t In g re s w as th e g re a te s t d ra u g h ts m a n of re c e n t tim e s,
I th o u g h t th a t S tric k la n d drew v ery badly. I knew n o th in g of
th e sim p lific atio n a t w hich he aim ed. I rem em bered a still-life
of oranges on a p la te, and I was b o th ered because th e p late was
n o t ro u n d and th e oranges w ere lop-sided. The p o rtra its w ere
a little la rg e r th a n life-size, and th is gave th em an u n g ain ly
look. To m y eyes th e faces looked like c a ric a tu re s. They w ere
p a in te d in a w ay th a t was e n tire ly new to me. The landscape
puzzled me even m ore. T here w ere tw o or th re e p ic tu re s of th e
fo re s t a t F o n tain eb leau and several of s tre e ts in P a ris; m y f ir s t
feelin g w as th a t th e y m ig h t have been p ain ted by a d ru n k e n
cab-driver. I was p erfectly bew ildered. The colour seem ed to
me e x tra o rd in a rily crude. I t passed th ro u g h m y m ind th a t th e
w hole th in g was a stu p en d o u s, incom prehensible farce. Now
th a t I look back I am m ore th a n ever im pressed by S tro e v e ’s
acu ten ess. He saw fro m th e f ir s t th a t here was a rev o lu tio n in
a r t, and he recognized in its b eg in n in g s th e genius w hich now
all th e w orld allows.

79
B u t if I w as puzzled and d isco n ce rted , I w as n o t u n im ­
pressed. Even I, in m y colossal ignorance, could n o t b u t feel
th a t here, try in g to express itse lf, was real pow er. I was excited
and in te re ste d . I fe lt th a t these p ic tu re s had som ething to say
to me th a t was v ery im p o rta n t to know. They w ere stra n g e ly
ta n ta liz in g . They said som ething th a t w ords w ere pow erless
to u tte r . I fan cy th a t S tric k la n d saw v ag u ely some s p iritu a l
m eaning in m a terial th in g s. It was as th o u g h he found in th e
chaos of th e u n iv erse a new p a tte rn . I saw a to rm en ted s p irit
s triv in g fo r th e release of expression. I tu rn e d to him .
“I w onder if you h a v e n ’t m istak en y o u r m ed iu m ,” I said.
“W h a t th e hell do you m ean ?”
“I th in k y o u ’re try in g to say so m eth in g , I d o n ’t q u ite know
w h at it is, b u t I ’m n o t su re th a t th e b est w ay of saying it is by
m eans of p a in tin g .”
W hen I im agined th a t on seeing his p ic tu re s I should g et a
clue to th e u n d e rsta n d in g of his stra n g e c h a ra c te r I was m is­
ta k en . They m erely increased th e a sto n ish m en t w ith w hich he
fille d m e. I w as m ore a t sea th a n ever. The only th in g th a t
seem ed clear to me - was th a t he was p assio n ately s triv in g fo r
lib eratio n fro m some pow er th a t held him . B u t w h at th e pow er
was rem ain ed obscure. Each one of us is alone in th e w orld.
He can com m unicate w ith his fellow s only by sig n s, and th e
signs have no com m on value, so th a t th e ir sense is vague and
u n c e rta in . W e seek p itifu lly to convey to o th e rs th e tre a su re s
of o u r h e a rt, b u t th e y have n o t th e pow er to accept th em , and
so we go lonely, side-by-side b u t n o t to g e th e r, unable to know
o u r fellow s and unknow n by th em . W e are like people liv in g
in a c o u n try whose language th e y know so little th a t, w ith all
m an n er of b e a u tifu l and p ro fo u n d th in g s to say, th e y are con­
dem ned to th e b a n a litie s of th e co n v ersatio n m an u al. T h eir
b ra in is seeth in g w ith ideas, and th e y can only te ll you th a t th e
u m b rella of th e g a rd e n e r’s a u n t is in th e house.
The final im pression I received was of a prodigious effo rt to
express some state of the soul. He did not hesitate to sim plify or
to d isto rt if he could get nearer to th a t unknow n th in g he sought.
Though these pictures confused and puzzled me, I was moved by
th e em otion th a t was p aten t in them ; and, I knew not why, I felt
an overw helm ing com passion and tried to explain my feelings.
“I do n o t know w h a t in f in ite y e a rn in g possesses y o u ,”
I said to him .
“I see you as th e e te rn a l p ilg rim to some sh rin e th a t p erh ap s
does n o t ex ist. I do n o t know a t w h at in sc ru ta b le N irv a n a you

80
aim . Do you know y o u rself? P erh ap s it is T ru th and Freedom
th a t you seek.
He sm iled d ry ly and pulled his b eard .
“You are a d re a d fu l s e n tim e n ta list, m y poor frie n d .”
A week la te r I h eard by chance th a t S tric k la n d had gone to
M arseilles. I nev er saw him again.

G LO SSARY
1. studio студия, ателье, мастерская
2. easel мольберт
3. canvas холст, картина
4. still-life натюрморт
5. landscape ландшафт, пейзаж
6. caricature карикатура
7. sp iritu al духовный
8. medium средство, способ
9. obscure тусклый, неясный, смутный, скрытый
10. m anual руководство, справочник
11. seethe кипеть, бурлить
12. prodigious удивительный, изумительный, огромный
13. sim plify упрощать
14. overwhelming подавляющий, непреодолимый
15. compassion сострадание, сочувствие
16. stupendous громадный, огромной важности
17. blast проклинать
18. acuteness проницательность
19. tantalizing мучительный
20. d isto rt искаж ать
21. patent открытый, явный, очевидный
22. yearning сильное желание, острая тоска
23. shrine место поклонения, святыня
24. inscrutable непостижимый, загадочный
25. nirvana нирвана

COM M ENTARY
1. Sisley, Alfred (1839 - 1899) a landscape p a in te r who was
one of th e c re a to rs of F ren ch Im pressionism
2. Degas. Edgar (1834 - 1917) a F rench a r tis t, acknow ledged
as th e m a ste r of d raw in g th e h u m an fig u re in m otion.
He is b est know n fo r his p a in tin g s and d raw in g s of b a l­
lerin as
3. “Olympia”, “Luncheon on the Grass” tw o b est know n p ic­
tu re s by E d o u ard M anet, F ren ch p a in te r (see com m en­
ta ry , U n it I)

81
4. Ingres, Dominique (1780 - 1867) a F ren ch p a in te r, re p re ­
se n ta tiv e of classicism , b est know n fo r his p o rtra its
5. Fontainebleau tow n in n o rth e rn F ran ce, a p o p u la r re s o rt
fo r P a ris ia n holidaym akers
6. Nirvana B uddhism & H in d u ism . F inal release fro m th e cycle
of re in c a rn a tio n a tta in e d to th e e x tin c tio n of all desires
and in d iv id u al existence, cu lm in a tin g in absolute b less­
edness.

SPEECH P A T T E R N S
1 . It seem ed to me th a t I was on th e th re sh o ld of a s u r ­
p risin g a d v en tu re.
These w orks seem ed to me th e la st w ord in p a in tin g .

2. Now th at his in flu en ce has so enorm ously affected


m odern p a in tin g ...
Now th at o th e rs have created th e c o u n try w hich ...
Now th at I look back ...

3. You d o n ’t w ant me to talk.


I w ant you to hold y o u r to n g u e.

4. I w ish I could say th a t ...


p erh ap s it is th e T ru th and Freedom th a t you seek.

PH RASES A N D W O RD C O M B IN A T IO N S
1. su rp risin g ad v en tu re удивительное приклю чение
2. g re at o rig in ality больш ая оригинальность
3. peculiar th rill особый трепет
4. trea su red possessions ценное имущество
5. w ealthy am ateurs богатые любители
6. th e last w ord in p ain tin g последнее слово в ж ивописи
7. clum siness of th e technique грубая техника
8. g re atest d rau g h tsm an величайш ий рисовальщ ик
9. en tirely new совершенно новый
10. ex tra o rd in arily crude необычно примитивны й
11. a revolution in a rt револю ция в искусстве
12. stran g ely ta n ta liz in g странно мучительный
13. colossal ignorance колоссальное невежество
14. sp iritu a l m eaning духовное значение
15. to rm en ted sp irit том ящ иися дух

82
16. passionately striv in g страстно стрем ящ ийся
17. prodigious e ffo rt огромное усилие
18. in fin ite y earning бесконечная тоска
19. overw helm ing com passion всепоглощающее сострадание
20. etern al pilgrim вечный странник

E S S E N T IA L V O C A B U L A R Y
reproduce verb
1. to make a copy of som ething such as a picture, a piece of w riting,
or a musical sound:
Gaugin’s pictures have been reproduced many times.
reproduction noun
1. the process of m aking a copy of som ething or of doing som ething
again in the same way as before:
the quality of photographic reproduction
a copy of som ething, especially a work of a rt or an antique:
A n inexpensive reproduction of a well-known pain tin g
I was eager to buy the picture but it turned out to be a mere
reproduction
impress verb
1. if someone or som ething impresses you, you adm ire them:
W hat impressed me was their ability to deal w ith any prob­
lem.
Her carvings attracted many admirers but her pain tin gs failed
to impress.
2. to make a m ark or p attern on som ething by pressing an object
into its surface:
impress something on someone
to try to make someone understand how im portant som ething is:
They impressed on us the need to keep the project completely
secret.
impressed adj
adm iring someone or som ething very much, especially because
of an unusually good achievem ent, quality, or skill:
Dan looked impressed but slightly confused.
im pressed by/w ith:
I was very impressed by his paintings.
impression noun
1. an opinion or feeling you have about someone or som ething but
do not know very well:
have/get the im pression th at: I have the impression th a t she’s
very good at carving.
firs t im pressions (^opinions th a t you form im m ediately, before
thinking thoroughly):
The report seems to be based entirely on first impressions.

83
2. the opinion th a t other people have about you because of the way
you look, speak, or behave:
create/m ake an im pression on someone:
The visit to the Tretyakov Gallery made a good impression on
everyone.
give the im pression (that):
He gives the impression of a mature artist.
make an im pression
to make other people notice and adm ire you:
I t ’s a picture th a t’s sure to make an impression on the jury.
amateur noun
1. someone who does something because they enj oy it instead of as a j ob
2. someone who does not do som ething very well:
L et’s show them w hat a bunch of amateur artists they are.
amateur adj
1. done for pleasure instead of as a job:
amateur sports
amateur dramatics (=the production of plays by am ateurs)
2. used about someone who does som ething because they enjoy it
and not as th eir job:
an amateur golfer /photographer /painter
amateurish adj
done or made w ithout much skill:
amateurish work
colour noun
1. red, blue, black, yellow etc:
Pink is m y favourite colour,
a light brown colour
change colour:
M any fruits change colour as they become ripe.
in colour: His hair is reddish in colour.
2. the quality of being red, blue, black, yellow etc, instead of being
black and white or transparent:
Pot plan ts add colour to a room.
In colour: A re the pictures in colour or black and white?
3. som ething such as clothing or paint th a t is a particu lar colour:
I prefer wearing dark colours.
M ix the colours with your paintbrush.
4. the colour of someone’s face when it shows how they are feeling:
Suddenly, the colour drained from his cheeks.
She giggled nervously as colour flooded her face.
5. a chemical th a t you put on your hair to make it change colour:
Before you spend money on a perm or colour, talk to your hair­
dresser.
colour verb
1. to add colour to som ething or make it a d ifferent colour:
I think I ’ll colour m y hair.

84
colour som eth in g b lu e /g re en /r ed etc: Rivers and lakes are often
coloured green by algae.
2. if you colour, or if som ething colours your face, your face
becomes red:
She looked away from him, colouring slightly.
3. colour or colour in to use pens, pencils, or crayons to add colour
to a picture:
A s a child, I could spend hours just colouring in.
colour som ething b lu e/green /red etc: Colour the boy's eyes blue.
colour adj
1. a colour photograph, magazine etc is in colour, not black and
white
2. a colour television, m onitor etc shows colour pictures or images
draught noun
rough sketch: a draught for a picture
draughtsman noun
man who prepares draughts, especially in painting and architec­
ture

85
ACTIVITIES

1. Consult the dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the fol­


lowing words. Mark the main stressed syllabse in each of these
words.
T h re sh o ld , p re s u m a b ly , d is c o n c e rtin g , d r a u g h ts m a n ,
c a ric a tu re , chaos, prodigious
2. Analyze the structure of the following words.
E x a m p le : rep ro d u ctio n
re - p re fix
p ro d u ct - ro o t
ion - n o u n -fo rm in g su ffix
sim p lific atio n , in to lerab le, pow erless, p assio n ­
ately , necessity
3. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the underlined
word.
simple
D on’t tr y to ... th e m a tte r.
p m ver
The p ic tu re produces a ... im pression.
4. Pick out from the text several adjectives and give their compar­
ative and superlative degrees.
E x a m p le : sm all - sm aller - th e sm allest
bare - m ore b are - th e m ost bare
5. Finish the sentences using the following patterns.
1. I t seem s to me th a t ...
H is w orks seem ed to me ...
2. Now th a t I look back ...
Now th a t S tric k la n d ’s in flu en ce ...
Now th a t o th e rs ...
3. You d o n ’t w an t me to ...
I w an t you to ...
4. I w ish I could ...
5. P erh ap s it is ... th a t ...
6. Translate into English the sentences containing the patterns.
1. Мне показалось, что на его стиль п о вл и ял а ж ивопись
Коро.

86
2. Ее к ар ти н ы п оказал и сь мне п ри м и ти вн ы м и и в у л ь­
гарны м и.
3. Теперь, когда я огляды ваю сь назад, собственное неве­
ж ество п ораж ает м еня.
4. Теперь, когд а я лучш е разбираю сь в и скусстве, его
акварел и к аж у тся мне ш едеврам и.
5. Я хочу, чтобы ты посети л в ы став к у соврем ен н ы х
м олоды х худож ников.
6. Я не хочу, чтобы ты стал худож ни ком . Тебе не х в ата­
ет талан та.
7. Ж ал ь, что я так мало знаю об архи тектуре.
8. В озм ож но, им енно Сислей был гл авн ы м идеологом
им прессионизм а.

8 . Work in pairs. Act out dialogues.

a) You adm ire G a u g u in ’s p a in tin g s and y o u r frie n d is q u ite


in d iffe re n t to him .
b) Two a r t s tu d e n ts are d iscu ssin g and com paring C o ro t’s
and S isley’s landscapes.

9. Write out of the text the sentences containing phrases and word
combinations. Translate them into Russia.

10 Write 10 sentences incorporating the following word combinations:


1. s u rp ris in g a d v e n tu re
2. tre a s u re d possessions
3. w ealthy a m a te u rs
4. colossal ignorance
5. e x tra o rd in a rily crude
6. s p iritu a l m eaning
7. clum siness of th e tech n iq u e
8. p rodigious e ffo rt
9. overw helm ing com passion
10. e te rn a l p ilg rim
11 Describe your favourite picture using the following phrases and
word combinations:
1. g re a t o rig in a lity
2. p ecu liar th rill
3. th e la st w ord in p a in tin g
4. to rm e n te d s p irit

87
5. g re a te st d ra u g h tsm a n
6. e n tire ly new
7. a rev o lu tio n in a r t
8. stra n g e ly ta n ta liz in g
9. p assio n ately s triv in g
10. in fin ite y earn in g

12. Work in pairs. Act out dialogues using the following phrases
and word combinations:

1. s u rp ris in g a d v e n tu re
2. g re a t o rig in a lity
3. p ecu liar th r ill
4. th e la st w ord in p a in tin g
5. e n tire ly new
B.
1. a rev o lu tio n in a r t
2. stra n g e ly ta n ta liz in g
3. p assio n ately s triv in g
4. g re a te st d ra u g h tsm a n
5. s p iritu a l m eaning
14 Translate the following sentences into English.
1. П осещ ение к ар ти н н ы х галерей Европы — это уд и ви ­
тельное приклю чение.
2. В сякое новое худож ественное направление яв л яется
револю цией в искусстве.
3. Д уховное значен ие русской ж и воп и си трудно п ере­
оценить.
4. Н екоторы е искусствоведы считаю т М атисса вел и ч ай ­
ш им ри совальщ иком своего времени.
5. У лы бка Д ж оконды вы зы вает особый трепет.
6. К аж ды й тал ан тли вы й худ ож н и к — это вечны й стран ­
н и к в п оисках красоты .
7. Богаты е лю бители ж ивоп и си рассм атриваю т п о ку п ­
к у карти н к а к влож ение к ап и тал а.
8 .П еред ви ж н и ки соверш или револю цию в искусстве.
9. И х подход к отраж ению действительности о к азал ся
соверш енно новы м
10. Д ля м ногих «Ч ерны й квадрат» М алевича — это в б ук­
вальном смы сле последнее слово в искусстве.

88
15. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.

1. I knew w hy S tric k la n d had suddenly o ffered to show his


p ic tu re s to me.
2 . 1 w asn ’t a t all excited because I w asn ’t in te re s te d in a rt.
3. S tric k la n d had a v a st stu d io .
4. He show ed me ab o u t fo rty canvases of th e sam e size.
They w ere all oils and w ater-colours.
5. I recognized th e b eau ty and o rig in a lity of his p ic tu re s
a t f ir s t sig h t.
6. The Im p re s s io n is ts le f t me a b s o lu te ly in d if f e r e n t.
I fo u n d M a n e t’s O ly m p ia d is ta s te f u l an d w as co n ­
vinced th a t In g res was th e w o rst d ra u g h tsm a n of recen t
tim es.
7. M ost of S tr ic k la n d ’s p ic tu re s fo u n d th e ir w ay in to
m useum s.
8. On seeing his p ic tu re s I got a clue to th e u n d e rsta n d in g
of his c h a ra c te r.
9. S tric k la n d called me a d re a d fu l s e n tim e n ta list.
10. S trickland re tu rn e d to London and we see a lot of each
other.
16. Finish the sentences with the text wording:
1. A m a n ’s w ork ...
2. I was on th e th re sh o ld of ...
3. I fe lt n o th in g of th e p ecu liar th rill w hich ...
4. My ta s te is good, b u t I am conscious th a t ...
5. I w orshipped M anet. H is O lym p ia seem ed to me ...
6. To m y eyes th e faces looked ... . They w ere p ain ted in a
w ay t h a t ...
7. It was as th o u g h he fo u n d in th e chaos of th e u n iv erse ...
8. The only th in g th a t seem ed clear to me was th a t ...
9. The fin a l im pression I received was ...
10. T hough th ese p ic tu re s confused and puzzled me, ...
17 Explain what the author meant by:
1. The p o rtra its w ere a little la rg e r th a n life size.
2. This gave th em an u n g ain ly look.
3. You h a v e n ’t m istak en y o u r m edium .
4. I was m ore a t sea th a n ever.
5. ... a t w h at in sc ru ta b le N irv a n a you aim .
6. I w an d er along tra ils th a t o th e rs have blazed fo r me.
7. T h at is th e lot.

89
18. Word Partnership.
A. Match the words on the left with the words on the right.

1. rem ained a. p ro fo u n d ly
2. m om entous b. ignorance
3. s u rp ris in g c. d isap p o in ted
4. move d. com passion
5. m iss e. aback
6. colossal f. obscure
7. overw helm ing g. a chance
8. stu p en d o u s h. significance
9. ta k e n i. farce

10. b itte rly 3- a d v e n tu re
B. Write 10 sentences incorporating the above word combinations.

19. Answer the following questions:

1. W h a t did S tric k la n d o ffe r to show to th e a u th o r?


2. W h a t w ere th e a u th o r ’s feelings as he w alked up th e
s ta irs of th e house in w hich S tric k la n d lived?
3. W h a t p ic tu re s w ere show n? How m any?
4. W h ere could S tric k la n d ’s p ic tu re s be fo u n d a fte r his
death ?
5. W h a t was th e a u th o r’s a ttitu d e to th e Im pressionists?
6. Can you describe th e a u th o r ’s f ir s t and fin a l im p re s­
sions?
7. W h a t did D irk S troeve see fro m th e f irs t?
8. The a u th o r fe lt in h im self a feeling th a t he had no t
expected to experience. W hich was th a t?
9. W hy did S tric k la n d call him a d re a d fu l se n tim e n ta list?

90
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative


examples into Russian.
1. He sp en t th e b e tte r p a rt of th e afte rn o o n , try in g to sell
h e r som e e tc h in g s a f te r R e m b ra n d t and an ex cellen t
reproduction of a V enetian w a te r scene a f te r T u rn er.
2. V incent suddenly saw his d raw in g s th ro u g h his frie n d ’s
eyes, he realized how u tte rly am ateurish th e y w ere.
3. My f ir s t im pression is th a t you m u st be w orking v ery
close to y o u r m odels.
4. A fte r m y draw ing becom es a c c u ra te , I w ill be able to
m ake m oney. D ra u g h tsm e n in London and P a ris e arn
fro m te n to fifte e n fra n c s a day.
5. The sooner you begin w o rk in g in colour, th e b e tte r it
w ill be fo r you.
6. It w ill m ake a fav o u ra b le im pression on th o se people
who su sp ect you of am ateurism and idleness.
7. M auve w ill m ake a w ater-colourist o u t of you.
8. Theo w as an am ateur, c a re fu lly tra in e d in th e a r t of
ju d g in g , b u t he nev er could m ake up his m ind ju s t w h at
he th o u g h t of his b r o th e r ’s w ork.
9. V an G ogh h ad been d o in g a lo t of s tr e e t scenes in
w ater-co lo u r and he fo u n d th a t m edium s a tisfa c to ry fo r
a quick im pression.
10. T h a t’s w h a t it m eans to be an Im pressionist: n o t to
p a in t like everyone else, n o t to be a slave to ru le s and
re g u la tio n s.
11. The old D utch m a ste rs had ta u g h t him th a t drawing
and colour w ere one.
2 . Fill in the gaps with the words of the essential vocabulary.
a m a te u ris h , colours, p ic tu re s , c o lo u rist, colours,
im p re s sio n is t, p a in te r, im p re ssio n s, p a in t, am a ­
te u r s , d r a u g h ts m a n ’s, lu m in o u s, d ra u g h ts m a n ,
im pressive, w ater-co lo u r, rep ro d u ctio n s

1. The d a rk e s t ... M onet used w as a dozen tim es lig h te r


th a n th e lig h te s t ... to be fo u n d in all th e m useum s of
H olland.
2. Look a t y o u r fa c e s, y o u r tr e e s , you fig u re s in th e
field s. They are ... . They are ro u g h , im p e rfe c t, filte re d

91
th ro u g h y o u r p e rso n a lity . You are an ... w h e th e r you
like it o r n o t.
3. They th in k you have a p e n e tra tin g eye and a ... fis t. Now
all you need to do is to learn how to ... liv in g , ... air.
4. You are a ... ? I hope you w ill buy y o u r ... here. A nd p e r­
haps you w ill le t me see some of y o u r ... ?
5 . 1 am really d isap p o in ted . Y our w ork rem ain s u n co u th
and ... .
6. S tric k lan d was a m arvelous ... and a m arvelous ... .
7. F ifte en years ago I sold cheep ... .
8. S tick to y o u r ro u g h n ess, V incent. D on’t ru n a f te r th e ...
and dealers. L et th em come to you.
9. The a r t c ritic ’s p rofessional record was ... .
10. M ay I drop in to y o u r ... fo r a m om ent? I ’m a fra id I am
n o t m aking p ro g ress w ith m y w a te r ... .
3. Word sets.
Underline the odd word in each set:
1. landscape, p o r tra it, g en iu s, still-life , p ic tu re
2. b eau ty , farce, o rig in a lity , pow er, passion
3. puzzled, disappointed, bew ildered, ta n ta liz in g , discon­
certed
4. liberate, convey, create, incom prehensible, com m unicate
5. clum sily, stra n g e ly , fa n c ifu l, vaguely, p itifu lly

4. Match the two halves of the sentences.


/because of his insistence on personal im pression/ in
favour of working out-of-doors, directly from n a tu re /
/w h en it becam e a p o p u lar re s o rt fo r P a ris ia n h o li­
day m a k e rs/ M anet ex h ib ited his fam ous p a in tin g
“L uncheon on th e G ra ss”/ b u t h is tr u e le an in g s
w ere to w ard landscape p a in tin g /
/a n d th e re is an a f f in ity b etw een h is v isio n and
th a t of a high-speed c a m e ra /
/ M uch of S isley ’s w ork was done a t a tim e /D egas
w orked in m any m e d iu m s/

1. F o n tain eb leau was little m ore th a n a h am let u n til th e


19th c e n tu ry ...
2. C ezanne’s a r t challenged all th e conventional values of
p a in tin g in th e 19th c e n tu ry ...
3. ... o fficially reg ard ed as a scandalous a ffro n t to ta ste .
4. D egas was in te re s te d in p h o to g ra p h y ...

92
5. ... p re fe rrin g p astel to all o th e rs.
6. In his y o u th D aubigny illu s tra te d books...
7. The B arbizon School rebelled a g a in s t th e fo rm u la s of
tra d itio n a l landscape p a in tin g ...
8. ... w hen he was in close to u ch w ith M onet.
5. A. Complete the following sentences with appropriate words
from the box.
p a i n t e d , b ea u ty, im pression, p o r t r a i t , colours, o ve r­
w h elm in g , p a i n t i n g , a r t, c a n v a s s e s ,p i c tu r e s , genius,
rep ro du ctio n s, easels, s tu d io , a r t i s t

1. He w as seized w ith ... se n sa tio n as he s ta re d a t th e ...


w alls.
2. He knew n o th in g of ... b u t th e re was so m eth in g about
th ese ... th a t affected him .
3. It was a hym n to th e ... of th e h u m an race.
4. I have nev er seen ... w hich m ade so deep an ... upon me.
5. It was a w ork of ...
6. The ... w ere v ery stra n g e : blues, p u rp les, red s, deep y el­
lows.
7. On th e walls were coloured ... of S trick lan d ’s best pictures.
8. G reat ... is alw ays decorative.
9. In a d d itio n to th e ..., fra m e s, ...and sto o ls, tw o larg e
tables encum bered th e ...
10. The ... p a in te d his w ife ’s ... on th e ir w edding day.
B. Translate the sentences into Russian.

6. Make a list of words the author uses describing


1) th e p ic tu re s
2) his feelings.

7. Act out dialogues using the above words.

1) Two frie n d s are a t th e ex h ib itio n of m odern p a in tin g .


2) A te a c h e r of d raw in g trie s to explain to his pupil w hy he
d o esn ’t q u ite like th e la t t e r ’s still-life.
8. Translate the sentences into English using the essential vocabulary.
1.Т ерм ин «И м п ресси он и зм », впервы е п р о зв у ч авш и й
в 1874 году, происходит от н азв ан и я к ар ти н ы Моне
«Рассвет. Впечатление»

93
2. В галереях обычно продаю тся репродукции известны х
картин, таки х к а к «Подсолнухи» Ван Гога и «К увш ин­
ки» Моне.
3. К аж д ы й лю битель, зан и м аю щ и й ся акварелью , зн а ­
ет, что чем больш е он см еш ивает к р аск и , тем больш е
они теряю т блеск.
4. П ей заж и ст, которы й хочет воспроизвести оттенки в
природе, д олж ен у ч и ты в ать не только «локальн ы й
цвет», но и так н азы ваем ы й «атмосферны й цвет».
5. Чтобы стать хорош им ж ивописцем , худож ник долж ен
быть хорош им рисовальщ иком .
6. Его акварели были лю бительским и.
7. Т еплы е тона - это к р асн ы й , ж ел ты й и оран ж евы й ,
холодны е - голубой и зелены й.
8. Гойя наш ел себя (свой стиль) в портретной ж ивописи.
9. Тернер счи тал ак в ар ел ь п рекрасн ы м средством д л я
набросков (этюдов) с натуры .
10. М ногие предпочитаю т изобразительны й стиль в и скус­
стве.
Choose the right article: a/ the
1. In P a ris , ... m ost a rtis tic city in ... w orld, th e re m u st be
.. m a rk e t fo r such b e a u tifu l th in g s.
2. I have ju s t sold ... M illet fo r ... considerable sum .
3. M odigliani opened ... door of h is room . In one c o rn e r
stood ... u n tid y stack of em pty b o ttles, and in ... c e n te r
... easel b earin g ... larg e p a in tin g , alm ost fin ish e d , of ...
reclin in g nude.
4. ... p ro fe sso r did n o th in g beyond c o rre c tin g ... lin e, or
p o in tin g , w ith ... blan k expression to ... lack of balance
in ... com position.
5. ... long g alleries of ... P ra d o w ere em p ty except fo r ...
few copyists.
6. H is eye was c a u g h t, suddenly, by ... sm all s till life of ...
u tte r sim plicity.
7. Two of m y p a in tin g s are in ... M unicipal G allery in ...
H ague, one in ... B russels, and a n o th e r in ... Oslo S ta te
M useum . A fte r all, some c o u n tries do buy ... w orks of ...
y o u n g er a r tis ts .
8. G oya’s g re a t p a in tin g L a M a ja show s ... D uchess of A lba
reclin in g on ... coach w ith o u t... s titc h of clo th in g .
9. ... m eetin g of ... selection com m ittee took place a t eleven
o ’clock. You know ... p ro cedure. ... m em bers of ... com-
m itte e s it in ... sem icircle of a rm c h a irs, w ith ... p re s i­
d e n t in ... cen ter, in one of ... galleries. A s ... p a in tin g s
are b ro u g h t in one a t ... tim e, and placed on ... th ro n e ,
th e y vote on th em . A cceptance is in d icated by ra isin g ...
h an d or ... fin g e r, rejectio n by keeping ... h an d s down.
10. N ex t to S tephen was ... P olish y o u th fro m ... sm all coun­
tr y tow n n e a r W arsaw . He w orked as ... p o rte r to pay
h is fees a t D u p re t’s.
10. Choose the right preposition from the box.
about, at, from, to, of, by, out, of, of, with, of, of, to, of,
at, in, of, for, with, at, in, by, on, to, at, of, of

1. He w ent to look ... his p ic tu re s.


2. T here w ere ... tw o h u n d re d p a in tin g s ... th e gallery.
3. It was love ... f ir s t sig h t.
4 . 1 was ta k en aback ... his s tra n g e b eh av io u r.
5. ... h e arin g th e news he ru sh ed ... th e door.
6. W h a t did she aim ...?
7. ... flo o r ... ceiling th e w alls w ere covered ... a s tra n g e
and elab o rated com position.
8. It was a vision ... th e b eg in n in g s ... th e w orld, th e G arden
... Eden, it was a hym n ... th e b eau ty ... th e h u m an fo rm ,
m ale and fem ale.
9. ... f i r s t s ig h t i t w as an in n o c e n t p ic tu r e en o u g h ;
it w ould h av e been p assed ... an e x h ib itio n ... th e
P o st-Im p ressio n ists ... a careless person an excellent b u t
n o t v ery rem arkable exam ple ... th e school.
10. ... a long tim e I could n o t g et m y head th e recol­
lection .. th e e x tra o rd in a ry deco ratio n ... w hich he had
covered th e w alls ... his house.
11 Do the library research and write an essay on one of the given
topics:
1) P au l G a u g u in ’s life and w ork.
2) The w orks of van Gogh and th e ir im p act on th e view er.
3) The g re a t decorative a r tis t — M atisse.
4) R e n o ir’s style and tech n iq u e.

95
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
CRAFT OF PAINTING
BEFORE YO U READ
Discuss these questions.
1. W hat is m eant by “craft of p ainting”?
2. How do you understand the term “a rt of painting”?

R E A D IN G T A S K S
Understanding main points
Read the text and answer these questions.
1. Enum erate the most im portant qualities of a paint.
2. W hat requirem ents should the paint meet?
3. In w hat ways does easel painting differ from other techniques?
4. Enum erate some other techniques.
5. W hat m aterials do these techniques use?
6. Do the materials have to follow the rules for permanent painting?
7. W hat are the requirem ents for them ?
Understanding details
1. Make these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the
information in the text.
1. C raft of painting and a rt of painting are closely interrelated and
overlapping.
2. It is quite possible to ignore all technical considerations to estab­
lish a personal technique.
3. W orks by commercial artists, illu strato rs and designers should
follow the rules of the perm anent painting.
4. The very early European easel painters used m aterials th a t seem
to us awkward and d ifficult to command.
5. The a rtis t who has a broad general knowledge of all p ainting
methods has a great advantage, because he is able to m odify and
alter his technique to suit his personal requirem ents.
6. The term ’’easel p ain ting” means a picture th a t is kept away from
ligh in a portfolio or file.
7. The early European easel painters improved the working quali­
ties of th e ir m aterials.
8. A m ural painting is either painted directly on the wall or pasted
to the wall.

96
2. Match these words as they occur together in the text.
atm ospheric knowledge
troublesome advantage
clean principles
great procedures
general layer
basic brushstrokes
overcome qualities
tran sp aren t conditions
working difficulties
2. Guess methods of fine-arts painting from their definitions
te m p e r a , oil p a i n t i n g , w aterco lo r, fresco, gouache,
pastel
1. The ty p ical or cu sto m ary exam ple is a p ic tu re p ain ted in
s tra ig h t oil colors on a stre tc h e d linen canvas w hich has been
prim ed w ith w hite oil p a in t.
2. P a in tin g on p u re w hite ra g pap er w ith p rep ared tr a n s ­
p a re n t w aterco lo r p a in ts sold in tu b es or pans.
3. P a in tin g on w hite o r tin te d p ap er w ith th e sam e m a te ­
ria ls as w aterco lo r except th a t opaque in ste a d of tra n s p a re n t
colors are used.
4. P a in tin g on an ab so rb en t gesso g ro u n d w ith em ulsion
p a in ts w hich can be th in n e d w ith w ater. T em pera p a in ts d if­
fe r fro m th e o th e r w ater- or aqueous-m edium p a in ts. They can
be m an ip u lated to a g re a te r n u m b er of effects and w ith m ore
finesse, and in th a t, w hen d ry , th e y m ay be o v erp ain ted w ith
o th e r coats of te m p era or oil p a in ts w ith o u t being d istu rb e d .
5. P a in tin g w ith p u re p ig m en t in th e fo rm of crayons w ith ­
o u t th e use of flu id m edium s.
6. P a in tin g on fre sh ly applied, w et, lim e-p laster w alls w ith
colors m ade by g rin d in g th e p ig m en ts in w ater.

CRAFT OF PAINTING
The cra ft of p a in tin g is a stu d y a p a rt from th e a rt of p a in t­
ing; y et th e tw o are closely in te rre la te d and overlapping. The
a r tis t cannot e n tire ly divorce th e a rtis tic or aesth e tic aspects
of his w ork from his stu d ies of m a terials and m ethods by tr e a t­
ing th e subject on a com pletely scien tific or m echanical basis,
no r can he ignore all technical con sid eratio n s in his e ffo rts to
establish a personal technique fo r th e expression of his aim s.

97
It is not enough fo r a p ain t to be p erm anent—resistin g the
ravages of aging and the effects of su n lig h t and atm ospheric con­
d itio n s—b u t, in order to be an acceptable m aterial fo r a r tis ts ’
use, it m ust also be capable of being m anipulated; th a t is, it m ust
be u n d er the control of the a rtis t a t all tim es so th a t the effects
he seeks can be obtained w ithout troublesom e procedures. For
exam ple, fo r some styles of p ain tin g a p ain t m ust be capable of
being bru sh ed o u t th in ly and sm oothly to a tra n s p a re n t layer
th a t will not sag, drip, or ru n ; fo r others it m u st be applied in a
thicker, m ore opaque coating. A gain, some paints are required to
produce crisp, clean brushstrokes; w ith others a softer, blended
effect is required. Also, th e color of a pain t m ust be clean, clear,
tru e to its type, and th ere are several requirem ents it m ust m eet
in order th a t the p ain ter may control color effects.
W e can p o in t easel p a i n t i n g as an exam ple. T his te rm
m eans a b it m ore th a n ju s t a p ic tu re th a t has been p ain ted on
an a r t i s t ’s easel. It denotes th e k in d of p a in tin g th a t is m ean t to
be h u n g on a w all, u su ally in a p ic tu re fram e, as d istin g u ish e d
fro m a m u ral p a in tin g , w hich is e ith e r p a in te d d ire c tly on th e
w all or p asted to th e w all. Easel p a in tin g is also d istin g u ish e d
fro m w orks by com m ercial a r tis ts , illu s tra to rs , and d esig n ers,
w hich are exclusively done fo r rep ro d u ctio n in or tra n s la tio n
to o th e r m a te ria ls (for exam ple, p r in te r ’s ink). Such w ork need
n o t follow th e ru les fo r p erm a n en t p a in tin g , since th e o rig in al
is seldom valued as a u nique w ork of a r t, and if it m u st be p re ­
served fo r fu tu re referen ce, is kep t aw ay fro m lig h t in a p o rt­
folio or file. By in feren ce, th e easel p a in tin g has been done in
accordance w ith th e ru les fo r p erm a n en t p a in tin g .
These re q u ire m e n ts have n o t alw ays been in e ffe c t. F or
in stan ce, th e v ery early E uropean easel p a in te rs used m a te ri­
als th a t seem to us aw kw ard and d iffic u lt to com m and. They
paid considerable a tte n tio n to th e use of p e rm a n e n t m a te ri­
als, b u t th e y overcam e d iffic u ltie s in these m a tte rs by develop­
in g a v ery h ig h degree of skill ra th e r th a n by im p ro v in g th e
w orking q u alities of th e ir m a terials. The m odern p a in te r has
th e ad v an tag e of im proved m a terials and m ethods, w hich have
been developed and stan d ard ized th ro u g h th e ages and v erified
by scien tific controls, com bined w ith th e o p p o rtu n ity to stu d y
th e basic u n d erly in g p rinciples of his c ra ft.
The choice of a technique th a t will be m ost ap p ro p riate to
th e su b ject a t h an d involves sev eral co n sid eratio n s besides
p u rely technical ones. B ut th e fin al choice is largely influenced
by technical considerations, and th e a r tis t who has a b ro a d gen ­

98
eral know ledge of all p a in tin g m eth o d s—reg ard less of w hich
one is his sp ecialty —has a g re a t ad vantage. He is th ereb y able
to m odify and a lte r his technique to s u it his personal re q u ire ­
m ents by ta k in g w h at he needs from o th e r technical m ethods of
p ain tin g ; he is also able to v ary his technique to s u it th e d iffe r­
e n t types of p a in tin g he m ay w an t to do fro m tim e to tim e.

G LO SSARY
interrelated and overlapping взаимосвязанный
consideration анализ, суждение
ravage разрушительное действие
obtain получать, обретать
tran sp aren t прозрачный
sag подтекать
drip капать
opaque непрозрачный
coating слой,грунт
crisp четкий, решительный
blend смешивать, переход оттенков
easel мольберт
denote означать
awkward неудобный
tre a t обрабатывать
layer слой
skill мастерство
verify проверять
Arrange the jumbled text according to the plan.
1. Schools of a rt as a p art of education system .
2. Becoming an a rtis t required an extended apprenticeship.
3. A rtists absorb the prevailing ideas, beliefs, and techniques of
th eir generation.
4. The academies and th eir role.

The A rtist's Training


A rtis ts and th e ir w orks belong to specific places and tim es.
T hro u g h th e ir w orks a r tis ts in te r p r e t th e ir societies to th e ir
own g e n e ra tio n . A t th e sam e tim e , th e y d is till th e essence
of th e ir tim e and place fo r la te r g en eratio n s. A n illu s tra tio n
by N orm an Rockw ell p erfectly ca p tu re s th e q u a lity of life in
ru ra l, sm all-tow n A m erica in th e f ir s t h alf of th e 20th ce n tu ry .
The g re a t rose w indow of th e c a th e d ra l a t C h a rtre s v iv id ly
depicts th e objects of belief fo r 12th-cen tu ry C h ristian s. Eero
S a a rin e n ’s T ran s W orld A irlin es te rm in a l a t J o h n F. K ennedy

99
In te rn a tio n a l A irp o rt in New Y ork C ity sym bolizes th e te c h ­
nology and a d v e n tu re of flig h t.
A s a r tis ts are p ro d u c ts of th e ir tim e, th e y are also in d i­
v id u a ls w ith special ta le n ts , who in m ost cases have devoted
s ig n ific a n t p o rtio n s of th e ir lives to tra in in g and to s h a rp e n ­
in g th e ir skills.

Today it is possible to study th e a rts in a college or university.


There are also specialized schools of arch itectu re, m usic, design,
and o th er arts. These educational in stitu tio n s are a fairly m odern
developm ent, m ostly from the m id-19th century. From ancient
tim es th ro u g h the 16th century, a rtis ts were train ed by o th er a r t­
ists in th e ir w orkshops or studios. The a rtis t became an appren­
tice as a young teenager and did th e m ost m anual labour tasks
around th e studio before being train ed in the m ore d ifficu lt tasks
of an a rt or craft. The norm al period of service was seven years.

By th e 17th c e n tu ry , how ever, th e e a rly academ ies h ad


begun to flo u rish as tra in in g cen ters.
These academ ies becam e a v ita l force in th e in s tru c tio n of
young a r tis ts , and th e y e x e rte d a p o w erfu l in flu en ce on th e
developm ent of th e a rts g enerally. Because th e academ ies lim ­
ite d th e ir en ro llm en ts, th e y created a rtis tic elites w ith in th e ir
co u n tries. They also set s ta n d a rd s of ta s te fo r whole societies.

R eactions a g a in st th e m onopoly of th e academ ies arose in


th e 19th c e n tu ry . In London th e governm ent-sponsored School
of D esign opened in 1837. In 1852 th e V ic to ria and A lb e rt
M useum was founded, and a t th e sam e tim e a nu m b er of o th e r
a r t schools w ere set up by th e g o v ern m en t. The com bination
of m useum and a r t school took hold in o th e r c o u n tries as well.
A basic p a rt of th e a r t i s t ’s tra in in g was p a in tin g im ita tio n s of
th e old m a ste rs in m useum s. T h ro u g h its in flu e n c e , schools
of a r t th a t em braced its m ethods and ideals w ere in co rp o rated
in to colleges and u n iv e rsitie s, especially in th e U n ited S tates.
Over to you
1. W hat techniques can you use? W hich ones do you prefer?
2. Is your choice influenced by technical considerations?
3. W hat m aterials do you use? Are you satisfied w ith th e ir proper­
ties? W ould you like to improve some of them ?
4. W hich is more im portant for the success of the picture - a rt or
craft? Explain your point of view and give some examples.

100
UNIT

FIVE
TEXT

from CROME YELLOW


b y ALDOUS HUXLEY
The English novelist and essayist Aldous Huxley, born July 26, 1894, died
November 22, 1963, a member of a distinguished scientific and literary family, intended
to study medicine, but was prevented by an eye ailment that almost blinded him at the
age of 16.
He then turned to literature, publishing two volumes of poetry while still a student at
Oxford. His reputation was firmly established by his first novel, Crome Yellow (1921),
a witty satire on the intellectual pretensions of his time.

G om bauld had annexed fo r his p ainting-room a little d is­


used g ra n a ry th a t stood by itse lf in a green close beyond th e
fa rm y ard . It was a sq u are b rick b u ild in g w ith a peaked roof and
little w indows set h igh up in each of its w alls. H ere G om bauld
w orked d u rin g six or seven ho u rs of each day. He was p u rsu in g
som ething new, som ething te rrific if only he could catch it.
D u rin g th e la st eig h t years he had w orked his w ay in d u s tr i­
ously th ro u g h cubism . He had begun by p a in tin g a fo rm alized
n a tu re ; th e n , little by little , he had rise n fro m n a tu re in to th e
w orld of p u re fo rm , till in th e end he was p a in tin g n o th in g b u t
his own th o u g h ts, ex tern aliz ed in a b s tra c t geom etrical form s.
A nd th e n , q u ite suddenly, he grew d issa tisfie d ; he fe lt h im ­
self co n fin ed w ith in in to le ra b ly n arro w lim ita tio n s. He w as
h u m ilia ted to fin d how few and crude and u n in te re s tin g w ere
th e form s he could in v e n t; th e in v e n tio n s of n a tu re w ere w ith ­
o u t n u m b er, inconceivably su b tle and elaborate. He had done
w ith cubism .
F or a long tim e an idea had been s tir rin g in his m in d . He had
m ade a p o rtfo lio fu ll of stu d ie s, he had draw n a carto o n ; and
now th e idea w as ta k in g shape on canvas. A m an fallen fro m a
horse. The huge horse filled th e u p p er h a lf of th e p ic tu re w ith
its bony body. On th e g ro u n d , betw een th e legs of th e to w erin g
b east, lay th e fo resh o rten ed fig u re of a m an, th e arm s flu n g
wide to r ig h t and le ft. A w hite, rele n tless lig h t poured down
fro m a p o in t in th e r ig h t fo reg ro u n d . The b east th e fallen m an
and w ere sh arp ly illu m in ated ; ro u n d th em , beyond and behind

102
th em , was th e n ig h t. They w ere alone in th e d ark n ess, a u n i­
verse in them selves.
The p ic tu re w as m ore th a n h a lf fin ish e d . G om bauld had
been a t w ork all th e m o rn in g on th e fig u re of th e m an, and now
he was ta k in g a re s t — th e tim e to sm oke a c ig a re tte . T iltin g
back his c h a ir till it touched th e w all, he looked th o u g h tfu lly
a t h is canvas. He w as pleased, and a t th e sam e tim e he w as
desolated. In itse lf, th e th in g was good; he knew it. B ut th a t
som eth in g he was a fte r, th a t so m eth in g th a t w ould be so t e r ­
rific if only he could catch it — had he c a u g h t it? W ould he
ever catch it?
T h ree little ta p s — r a t, t a t , ta t! S u rp ris e d , G om bauld
tu rn e d his eyes to w ard s th e door. N obody ever d istu rb e d him
w hile he w as a t w ork; it was one of th e u n w ritte n laws. ‘Come
in!’ he called. The door, w hich was a ja r, sw ung open.
‘M ay I come in ? ’ M ary asked.
‘C e rta in ly .’
She was over th e th re sh o ld in an in s ta n t. ‘A le tte r came
fo r you by th e second p o s t,’ she said. ‘ I th o u g h t it m ig h t be
im p o rta n t, so I b ro u g h t it to y o u .’ H er eyes, h e r ch ild ish face
w ere lu m in o u sly candid as she handed him th e le tte r. T here
had nev er been a flim sie r p re te x t.
G om bauld looked a t th e envelope and p u t it in his pocket
unopened. ‘L u ck ily ,’ he said, ‘it is n ’t a t all im p o rta n t. T hanks
v ery m uch all th e sa m e .’
T here was a silence; M ary fe lt a little un co m fo rtab le. ‘M ay
I have a look a t w h at y o u ’ve been p a in tin g ? ’ she had th e c o u r­
age to say a t la st.
G om bauld had only h a lf sm oked his c ig a re tte ; in any case
he w o u ld n ’t begin w ork again till he had fin ish e d . He w ould
give h e r th e five m in u tes th a t sep arate d him fro m th e b itte r
end. ‘T his is th e b est place to see it fro m ,’ he said.
M ary looked a t th e p ic tu re fo r som e tim e w ith o u t sa y ­
in g a n y th in g . Indeed, she d id n ’t know w h at to say; she was
ta k e n aback, she w as a t a loss. She h ad ex p ected a c u b ist
m a ste rp ie c e , and h ere w as a p ic tu re of a m an and a h o rse,
n o t only recognizable as such, b u t even ag g ressiv ely in d raw ­
in g . T rom pe-oeil — th e re was no o th e r w ord to describe th e
d elin eatio n of th a t fo resh o rten ed fig u re u n d e r th e tra m p lin g
fe e t of th e horse. W h a t was she to th in k , w h at was she to say?
H er o rie n ta tio n s w ere gone. One could adm ire rep re se n ta tio n -
alism in th e Old M asters. O bviously. B u t in a m odern ...? W h a t
could G om bauld be up to? She had fe lt so safe in ad m irin g his

103
w ork before. B u t now — she d id n ’t know w h at to th in k . It was
v ery d iffic u lt.
‘T here’s ra th e r a lot of chiaroscuro, is n ’t th e re ? ’ she v en ­
tu re d al last, and inw ardly congratulated herself on having found
a critical form ula so gentle and a t the same tim e so p en etratin g .
‘T here i s ,’ G om bauld agreed.
M ary was pleased; he accepted h er criticism ; it was a s e ri­
ous discussion. She p u t h e r head on one side and screw ed up
h e r eyes. ‘I th in k i t ’s aw fully f in e ,’ she said. ‘B u t of course
i t ’s a little too ... too ... tro m pe-oeil fo r m y ta s t e .’ ‘W hen I
was in P a ris th is sp rin g I saw a lot of T sch u p litsk i. I adm ire
his w ork so trem endously. Of course, i t ’s frig h tfu lly a b stra c t
now - frig h tfu lly a b stra c t and frig h tfu lly in tellectu al. He ju s t
throw s a few oblongs on to his canvas — q u ite fla t, you know ,
and p a in te d in p u re p rim a ry colours. B u t his design is w on­
d erfu l. H e’s g e ttin g m ore and m ore a b stra c t every day. H e’d
q u ite given up th e th ird dim ension w hen I was th e re and was
ju s t th in k in g of giving up th e second. Soon, he says, th e re ’ll be
ju s t th e blank canvas. T h a t’s th e logical conclusion. Com plete
ab stractio n . P a in tin g ’s fin ish ed ; h e ’s fin ish in g it. W hen h e ’s
reached p u re a b stractio n h e ’s going to tak e up a rc h ite c tu re . He
says i t ’s m ore in tellectu al th a n p ain tin g . Do you a g ree?’
‘T s c h u p lits k i’s fin ish e d p a in tin g ,’ G om bauld said. ‘I ’ve
fin is h e d m y c ig a re tte . B u t I ’m g o in g on p a i n tin g ,’ A n d ,
ad v an cin g to w ard s h e r, he p u t his arm ro u n d h e r sh o u ld er,
aw ay from th e p ic tu re .
M ary looked up a t him . ‘Do you ag ree w ith h im ? ’ she
rep eated .
‘I d o n ’t know. I shall have to th in k about i t . ’ ‘Be carefu l
going down th e la d d e r,’ he added solicitously.
She was carefu l. The door closed behind h e r and she was
alone in th e little green close. She w alked slow ly back th ro u g h
th e fa rm y a rd ; she was pensive.

G LO SSARY
1. granary амбар
2. pursue преследовать; добиваться
3. cubism кубизм
4. confine ограничивать
5. intolerably невыносимо
6. hum iliate унижать
7. crude сырой, необработанный, грубый

104
8. subtle тонкии, утонченный, изысканный
9. elaborate тщательно разработанный,
искусный
10. portfolio портфель, папка
11. study этюд, эскиз, набросок
12. cartoon иск. картон (этюд для
картины,фрески и т.п.)
13. foreshorten чертить в перспективе или в ракурсе,
видеть что-л. в перспективе,
в ракурсе, сбоку
14. relentless безжалостный
15. illum inate освещать
16. universe вселенная, мир
17. desolated несчастный, безутешный
18. m asterpiece шедевр
19. delineation очерчивание, изображение
20. chiaroscuro светотень
21. penetrating проникающий
22. trem endously очень, чрезвычайно
23. frig h tfu lly ужасно, страшно
24. venture рисковать; осмеливаться;
отважиться
25. oblong продолговатый

COM M ENTARY

1. Cubism a m ovem ent in p a in tin g and sc u lp tu re w hich devel­


oped in F ran ce, b eg in n in g in 1907. The m ovem ent was
giv en im p e tu s by P icasso and B raq u e. T h is, to g e th e r
w ith an in flu en ce of A frican N egro sc u lp tu re , p rom pted
th e e x p erim en ta tio n in th e red u ctio n of n a tu ra l form s to
th e ir basic geom etric shapes.
2. Old Masters G reat E uropean p a in te rs of th e X V Ith -X V IIth
c e n tu rie s
3. trompe-oeil (F r.) optical illu sio n

SPEECH P A TT E R N S
1. ... a u n iv erse in them selves.
In itself, th e th in g w as good.

2. He p ain ted n othing but his own th o u g h ts.

105
3. The p ic tu re was more than h a lf finished.

4. She looked a t th e p ic tu re w ith ou t sayin g a n y th in g .

5. W h a t was she to think, w h at was she to say?

6. One could adm ire th e Old M asters.

PH RASE S A N D W O RD C O M B IN A T IO N S
1. formalized nature формализованная природа
2. pure form чистая форма
3. geometrical form геометрическая форма
4. narrow limitations узкие рамки
5. subtle and elaborate утонченный и искусный
6. take shape принимать форму
7. sharply illuminated ярко освещенный
8. to be at work работать
9. unw ritten laws неписаные законы
10. cubist masterpiece шедевр кубизма
11. critical formula критическая формула
12. prim ary colours основные цвета
13. third dimension третье измерение
14. complete abstraction полная абстракция
15. take up architecture заняться архитектурой
16. blank canvas пустое полотно

106
E S S E N T IA L V O C A B U L A R Y

form — noun
1. a type of som ething:
Painting is by far the most popular form of art.
2 . the p articu lar way in which som ething appears or exists:
The information is also available in electronic form.
3. a shape of someone or something:
She stared at the lifeless form in the picture.
Three forms gradually emerged out of the darkness.
4. an official docum ent th a t has spaces w here you can p u t in
inform ation:
Use the order form to g et new office supplies.
fill in/out a form: Make sure you fill in the application form
completely and legibly.
touch — verb
1. to put your hand on someone or som ething:
Beth reached out and touched his cheek.
He was careful not to touch the exhibits.
touch something to something (=move som ething so th a t it
touches som ething else):
‘Be quietV she said, touching her finger to her lips.
He touched the brush briefly to the canvas.
2 . to press som ething in a light way w ith your fin g er or foot to
make som ething work:
K ate touched a button and the machine whirred into action.
3. to affect your emotions, especially so th a t you feel sad or sym pa­
thetic:
His latest watercolours really touched me.
He was touched by their suffering and offered to help.
4. to feel g ratefu l because someone has been very kind to you:
I was really touched by the flowers he sent.
Eric was touched by her concern.
5. if an expression, especially a smile, touches your lips or eyes,
you have it for a short time:
A trace of a smile touched her lips.
touch — noun
1. the action of p u ttin g your hand on someone or something:
The touch of his hand frightened her.
2 . the sense th a t tells you w hat som ething feels like, through your
skin, or when you put your fingers on it:
Children’s imagination can be stim ulated through sight, touch,
and smell.
3. a small feature th a t improves som ething:
The flowers in the room were a nice touch.
Lace added a decorative touch to the tablecloth.

107
4. fin ish in g /fin al touch(es) som ething you add or do to make some­
th ing complete:
The artist is p u ttin g the finishing touches to his painting.

masterpiece — noun
1. an excellent painting, book, piece of music etc., or the best work
of art th at a particular artist, w riter, musician etc has ever pro­
duced:
“M ona L isa” is the p a in tin g widely regarded as Da Vinci's
masterpiece.
2. an extremely good example of something:
a masterpiece of something; a masterpiece of medieval architec­
ture
Every other po rtra it he did was a real masterpiece.
abstract — adj
abstract ideas exist as thoughts in the mind, and are not related
to physical objects or real events and actions:
Are you still involved in modern abstract pain tin g exhibition?
admire — verb
to have a feeling of great respect for someone or something:
I ’ve always admired her portraits.
The pain ter was loved and admired by all of us.
admire someone for something: A ltm an is much admired for
his drawing skills.
admirer — noun
someone who adm ires someone or som ething:
The artists were surrounded by friends and admirers.
admirer of: He was a great admirer of Vrubel.
admiration — noun
a feeling of respect and approval:
I gazed at the landscape in admiration.
admiration for: W e’re full of admiration for your recent exhibi­
tion.

108
ACTIVITIES

Consult the dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the fol­


lowing words. Pay attention to the stress.

Granary, pursue, desolated, ajar, threshold, luminously, delineation,


chiaroscuro, solicitously

2 . Analyze the structure of the following words.

E x a m p le : re p re se n ta tio n a lism
re — p re fix
p re se n t — ro o t
atio n — n o u n -fo rm in g s u ffix
al — ad jectiv e-fo rm in g s u ffix
ism — n o u n -fo rm in g s u ffix

formalized, thoughtfully, recognizable, disused, uncomfortable

3. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the underlined


word.

f orm use
His m anner is casual and .... A ll m y e f f o r ts to co n v in ce
thought him w ere q u ite ... . He does
He is so selfish and ..., he w h at he likes.
never th in k s of o th er peo­ co m fo rt
ple. I feel a stom ach . . . .
r eco gn ize
H is p ic tu re s won w ide ...
all over th e w orld.

4. Pick out from the text several adjectives ending -in -ic, - less, -ous.

5 . Complete the sentences containing the patterns.


1. In itself, th e p ic tu re is ...
In th em selves, th ese d raw in g s are ...
2. He draw s nothing but ...
She designed nothing but ...
3. The p a in tin g w as more than h a lf ...
4. He le ft w ithout saying ...

109
5. W hat w as I to do ... ?
W hat were we to do ... ?
6. In o rd er to become an a r tis t, one m u s t ...
6 . Translate into English the sentences containing the patterns.
1. Сама по себе идея неплохая.
2. Х удож н и к не писал ничего, кроме натю рмортов.
3. А кварель бы ла почти закончена.
4. П осетители смотрели н а ш едевр Р аф аэл я, не говоря
ни слова.
5. Ч то я долж ен был сделать, что думать?
6. Чтобы понимать ж и воп и сь, нуж но много читать и посе­
щ ать вы ставки.
7. Work in pairs. Act out dialogues:
1) The artist explains to his friend the subject of his picture.
2) Two friends are discussing one of Pablo Picasso’s cubist
masterpieces.

8. Write down from the text the sentences containing phrases and
word combinations. Translate them into Russian.

9. Write 10 sentences incorporating the following word combina­


tions:
1. fo rm alized n a tu re
2. n arro w lim ita tio n s
3. to be a t w ork
4. u n w ritte n laws
5. c ritic a l fo rm u la
6. ta k e up a rc h ite c tu re
7. ta k e shape
8. blank canvas
10 Describe your favourite cubist picture using the following phras­
es and word combinations:
1. p u re form
2. geom etrical fo rm s
3. su b tle and elaborate
4. sh arp ly illu m in a te d
5. cu b ist m asterpiece
6. p rim a ry colours
7. th ird dim ension
8. com plete a b stra c tio n

110
11. Work in pairs. Act out dialogues using the following phrases
and word combinations:

1. fo rm alized n a tu re
2. n arro w lim ita tio n s
3. to be a t w ork
4. u n w ritte n laws
5. c ritic a l fo rm u la

1. cu b ist m asterpiece
2. p rim a ry colours
3. th ird dim ension
4. com plete a b stra c tio n
5. su b tle and elaborate
12 Translate the following sentences into English.
1. В абстрактной ж и воп и си и спользую тся чисты е гео­
м етрические формы .
2. У зкие рам к и аван гарди зм а стали тесны этому тал ан т­
ливом у худ ож н и ку.
3. Ф игура на переднем плане бы ла яр ко освещ ена.
4. П очему бы вам не зан яться архи тектурой?
5. М ногие к а р т и н ы П и к ассо сч и таю тся ш ед ев р ам и
кубизм а.
6. П остепенно зам ы сел х у д о ж н и к а н ачал обретать ф ор­
му на холсте.
7. Р азн ооб рази е к р асо к д ости гается путем см еш ен и я
основны х цветов.
8. Когда худ ож н и к работает над карти н ой , ему не следу­
ет м еш ать.
9. От реал и зм а к полной абстракции - таков путь некото­
ры х современны х ж ивописцев.
10. К р и ти ческая ф орм ула, д ан н ая в этой статье, ад ек ват­
но вы раж ает содерж ание карти н ы .
13 Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.
1. G om bauld h ad an n ex ed fo r h is p a in tin g -ro o m a big
b arn .
2. He had w orked his w ay th ro u g h cubism and rem ained
fa ith fu l to it.
3. He was p a in tin g a m an fallen fro m a horse.

Ill
4. G om bauld did n o t sm oke and he h ad a lo t of v is ito rs
w hile he w orked.
5. M ary b ro u g h t a v ery im p o rta n t le tte r w hich had come
by th e f ir s t post and th e a r tis t read it im m ediately.
6. G om bauld was eager to show h e r his fin ish e d p ic tu re .
7. H is canvas was a cu b ist m asterpiece.
8. M ary said th a t th e re was lot of ch iaro scu ro in it, and th e
a r tis t agreed w ith h er.
9. G om bauld to ld h e r th a t he had given up th e second and
th ir d dim ensions and w as th in k in g of ta k in g up a rc h i­
te c tu re .
10. M ary was d issa tisfie d w ith th e ir co n v ersatio n .
14. Finish the sentences with the text wording:
1. G om bauld annexed fo r his p ain tin g -ro o m ...
2. He w as p u rsu in g so m eth in g ...
3. He had begun by ...
4. He grew disap p o in ted ; he fe lt h im self ...
5. On th e g ro u n d lay ...
6. Nobody ever disturbed him while he was a t w ork; it was
• • •

7. M ary fe lt u n co m fo rtab le. A t la st she had th e courage


to say: ...
8. M ary in w ard ly c o n g ra tu la te d h erself on ...
9. ‘W hen T sch u p litsk i has reached p u re a b s tra c tio n ’, M ary
said, ‘he is going to . . . ’.
10. ‘I ’ve fin ish e d m y c ig a re tte ,’ G om bauld said, ‘ b u t . . . ’.
15. Word Partnership.
A. Match the words on the left with the words on the right.

1. n arro w a. form
2. p u re b. lim ita tio n s
3. su b tle and c. m asterpiece
4. fo resh o rten ed d. illu m in ated
5. rele n tless e. dim ension
6. sh arp ly f. fig u re
7. cu b ist g. elaborate
8. p rim a ry h. a b stra c tio n
9. th ir d i. lig h t
10. com plete j. colours
B. Write 10 sentences incorporating the above word combinations.

112
16. Explain what the author meant by:

1) He had w orked his w ay th ro u g h cubism .


2) T h at so m eth in g he was a fte r — had he c a u g h t it?
3) W h a t could G om bauld be up to?
4) I t ’s a little too tro m p e — l ’oeil fo r m y ta ste .
17. Answer the following questions:
1. W h a t b u ild in g did G om bauld use fo r his p a in tin g room ?
2. W h a t sty le did he ta k e up a t th e b eg in n in g of his career?
3. W hy did he grow d issa tisfie d w ith cubism ?
4. W h a t was th e su b ject of his la te s t p a in tin g ?
5. W ho cam e to see him w hile he w as a t w ork?
6. Did M ary give any reason fo r h e r com ing?
7. W hy was she ta k e n aback a fte r G om bauld show ed h er
his u n fin ish e d p ic tu re ? W h a t did she expect to see?
8. Did she say a n y th in g about th e p ic tu re?
9. W hose w ork did M ary adm ire? How did she describe it?
10. W h a t was G om bauld’s reactio n ?

113
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative


examples into Russian.

1. ‘I am no good at form al s tu d y in g ,’ V in cen t said to


h im se lf, ‘Does th a t m ean I c a n ’t be of any use in th e
w o rld ? ’
2. He noticed a fa in t touch of colour in h e r cheeks.
3. A rt has to do w ith abstract th in g s, like colour, design
and tone.
4. T here was a fa n ta s tic effect of lig h t and d a rk formed by
th e shadow s of th e clouds.
5. W h a t had s tru c k him m ost about th e old D utch p ic tu re s
was th a t th e y had been p a in te d quickly, th a t th e g re a t
m asters dashed off a th in g fro m th e f ir s t stro k e and did
n o t retouch it.
6. L isten to w h at th e c ritic said about m y canvases a t th e
la st salon. T oulouse-L autrec appears to be insensible to
b eau ty of f u tu re , elegance of form and grace of m ove­
m ent. He p a in ts w ith a loving b ru sh beings ill-form ed
and rep u lsiv e.
7. M argot b ro u g h t su rp rise lunches to please him , se n t to
P a ris fo r some p rin ts th a t he had m entioned w ith adm i­
ration, and nev er in tru d e d on his w ork.
8. Goya developed h is own te c h n iq u e th a t has given us
m any m asterpieces.
9. Van Gogh sincerely ad m ired th e Im p ressio n ist m an n er
of p a in tin g w ith sk etch y touches of th ic k p a in t.
10. E dw ard H o p p er’s a r t w as opposite to th e g en eral tre n d s
of m odernism : in ste a d of ab stra c tio n ism it was a p u rely
re p re se n ta tio n a l a rt.
2. Fill in the gaps with the words of the essential vocabulary.
C reated , to u c h , fo rm , m a ste ry , a b s tra c t, fo rm ,
ad m irer, m asterp ieces, to u ch es, im pression, ad m i­
ra tio n

1. S tric k la n d m ade no p a r ti c u la r ... on th e people who came


in co n tact w ith him in T ah iti.
2. I was his f ir s t ... in th e islands.
3. The p ic tu re was p ain ted w ith g r e a t . . . .

114
4. W h ich s trik e s us f ir s t in R u b e n s’ p a in tin g is th e b e a u ­
ty of th e colour, w hich is laid on w ith th e lig h te s t ...
possible.
5. H o g a rth ’s sk etch “S hrim p G irl” is d istin g u ish e d by th e
harm o n y of ... and co n ten t.
6. He sto o d g a z in g in aw k w ard ... a t a sheep head by
M auve.
7. D u rin g th e b rie f seven years before R a p h a e l’s d eath an
asto n ish in g nu m b er of ... w ere . . . .
8. ... E xpressionism is on of th e tre n d s in m odern A m erican
p a in tin g .
9. G ainsborough p ain ted w ith tin y ... of th e b ru sh .
10. In th e w ork of M atisse we can see th e preponderance of
colour over . . . .
3. Word sets. Underline the odd word in each set:
1. cubism , realism , rep re se n ta tio n a lism , criticism , im p re s­
sionism
2. lu m in o u sly , f r ig h tf u lly , so lic ito u sly , tre m e n d o u sly ,
in d u strio u sly
3. design, dim ension, conclusion, a b stra c tio n , reactio n
4. ro u n d , sq u are, p rim a ry , oblong, re c ta n g u la r
5. stu d y , p ic tu re , carto o n , canvas, m asterpiece

4. Match the two halves of the sentences.


w ithout a m oral elem ent / th e laym an can u n d erstan d
nothing of p ain tin g / the a rtis t finds in the chaos of
the w orld / I look forw ard to th e day when M anet’s
picture will hang in the Louvre. / th ro u g h the eyes
of th e a rtis t / its victory over th e older schools was
still recent / em otion speaks a language th a t all m ay
u n d erstan d / made so deep an im pression upon me.

1. W hen “O lym pia” was show n in th e Salon, Zola said: ...


2. G reat a r t c a n ’t e x ist ...
3. The w orld sees n a tu re ...
4. A t th a t tim e Im pressionism reigned in th e L atin Q u a rte r,
b u t ...
5 . 1 can n o t agree w ith th e p a in te rs who claim t h a t ...
6. A r t is a m a n ife sta tio n of em otion and ...
7. B eauty is so m eth in g w onderful and s tra n g e th a t ...
8. I have nev er seen a p a in tin g w hich ...

115
5. Complete the following sentences with appropriate words from
the box.
A.
p a l e t t e , c a n v a s , p a i n t i n g , p e n s i v e , t a k e sh ap e,
h a lf-fin is h e d p o r t r a i t , p a i n t e d on, s i t t i n g , easel,
brushes, a t a loss, pose, like, u nillu m in ated, motion

G om bauld glared a t A nne ro u n d th e ... on th e . . . .


‘D on’t move! S it s t i l l \ he o rd ered . He picked up his ... and
... and atta c k e d his ... w ith th e a rd o u r of irr ita tio n .
A fte r ... fo r a little tim e in silence G om bauld beg an to
speak again. ‘Y ou’re playing th e sam e gam e w ith D en is.’ A nne
sh ru g g ed h e r sh o u ld ers. ‘I ’m ... to know w h eth er you are silly
or ru d e. I nev er d re a m t of playing any gam es w ith h im .’ He
becam e som ew hat . . . .
G om bauld ... w ith fu ry . W hen it was fin ish ed , th e p o rtra it
w ould be diabolic. He was p a in tin g h e r in th e ... she had aglopt-
ed a t th e f i r s t . . . . He was a t w ork on th e face now; it had begun
to ... on th e canvas. It was A n n e’s ... doll-like face - b u t h er face
as it w ould be, u tte rly ... by th e inw ard lig h ts of th o u g h t and
... . The p o rtra it was te rrib ly ..., and a t th e sam e tim e it was
m alicious. He w ondered w h at she w ould th in k of it.

B. Translate the sentences into Russian.

6. Choose the right article: a/ the


1. ... stu d io was ... aq u ariu m of lig h t.
2. I p re fe r cubism , because I like to see ... p ic tu re s w hich
are exclusively ... p ro d u ct of ... h u m an m ind.
3. T here was ... p a in tin g of ... flow ers, th e re was ... sm all
landscape.
4. ... anim als resem ble ... m en w ith ... tru th fu ln e s s of ...
c a ric a tu re .
5. She was s ittin g in ... low, w ooden ch air. H er rig h t elbow
re ste d on ... back of ... ch air.
6. E veryone says he was ... g re a te s t p a in te r in ... co u n try .
7. ... body was th a t of ... young g irl. She stood in ... d is­
to rte d pose. ... face, in p ro file, was b arely su g g ested .
8. W hen ... a r tis t becom es fam ous, he still has ... lo t of his
early, unsold s tu ff.
9. You d o n ’t k n o w ... th in g a b o u t... a r t i n ... m odern society.
10. ... g a lle ry o ccu p ied ... g ro u n d flo o r of ... m o d e rn
b u ild in g on ... M adison A venue. ... p a in tin g s w ere dis-

116
played on ... m ain level, ... p r in ts and ... d raw in g s on
... balcony.
7. Choose the right preposition from the box.
on, of, by, in, to, of, in, at, to, of, to, for, into, of, by,
with, for, up, with, of, on, from , of, for, to, in, at, by,
in, on, a t, for, out

1. W illiam H o g a rth is fam ous ... his p o rtra y a ls ... hum an


w eaknesses.
2. A r tis ts alw ays p u t th e ir p e rso n a litie s ... th e ir p a in t­
ings.
3. M odern design has been in flu en ced ... a b s tra c t a rt.
4. The G u g g en h eim M useum ... M odern A r t ... New
Y ork co n tain s an im pressive collection ... m odern a r t ­
is ts ra n g in g ... im p re ssio n ists ... a b s tra c tio n is ts . The
u n u su al c irc u lar b u ild in g ... th e m useum was designed
... F. W rig h t.
5. The w alls ... th e stu d io w ere covered ... fram ed p a in t­
in g s, etch in g s, draw in g s.
6. The f if th flo o r provided liv in g q u a rte rs ... th e a rtis ts .
7. W h a t happened ... th e th re e draw ings th a t w ere ... th e
stu d io ? - They are ... m y possession ... th e p resen t tim e.
8. She trie d h e r h an d ... p a in tin g ... a w hile, b u t gave it
... Then she decided to m ake h e r c o n trib u tio n ... a r t ...
m odeling.
9. The b e st ... h is n u d es w ere ch arg ed ... v ig o r, c a u g h t
... m ovem ent. T his one lay ... h e r side ... a ro u g h wood
p lan k , h e r back ... th e view er.
10. Som etim es th e a r tis t does a p a in tin g th a t comes ... so
w ell, th a t he d o esn ’t w an t to sell it. He p u ts it ... th e
w all and looks ... a t. M aybe he w ill keep it ... years.
8. Make a list of words the author uses describing
1) Gombauld's unfinished picture
2) cubism

9. Do the library research and write an essay on one of the given topics:

1. A b stra c t A rt.
2. P ica sso ’s “blue p erio d ” .
3. Choose a m odern A m erican a r tis t.
4. D escribe y o u r fa v o u rite m odern p ic tu re .

117
10. Translate the sentences into English using the essential vocabulary.

1. Кубизм — это направление в ж ивописи и скульптуре,


которое возникло во Ф ранции в начале 20 века.
2. Рем брандт был зам ечательны м мастером офорта.
3. Его карти н ы отличаю тся искусны м использованием
светотени и теплой палитрой.
4. П осетители вы ставки восхищ ались кар ти н ам и этого
молодого худ ож н и ка.
5. “К у в ш и н к и ” — один из наиболее и звестн ы х ш едев­
ров К лода Моне.
6. Х удож н и к нанес последние ш три хи на свою карти н у.
7. Содержание и форма долж ны гармонично сочетаться.
8. П икассо часто в ы р аж ал свои идеи в абстрактн ы х гео­
м етри ческих ф ормах.
9. М ногие худож ники-авангардисты использую т чистые
основные цвета, пы таясь достичь полной абстракции.
10. Он не р азб и р ал ся в и скусстве, но в этих ак в а р е л я х
было что-то, что глубоко трогало его.

118
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
DIGITAL PRINTING
BEFORE YO U READ
Discuss these questions.
1. W hat does the term “d ig ital” mean?
2. Do you know the details of digital printing?
3. The process of book p rin tin g was invented by G utenberg in the
15th century. Try to enum erate some results of this really essen­
tial invention. Have any im portant consequences occurred as a
resu lt of digital technology?

R E A D IN G T A S K S
Understanding main points
Answer these questions
1. Do you agree th a t it is necessary from time to tim e to replace real
m asterpieces by reproductions?
2. E num erate the reasons of the author. Find some more pro (in
favor of) and some contra (against) argum ents.
3. W hat technology is used to produce reproductions?
4. W hat o th er applications is large-form at digital p rin tin g s u it­
able for?
5. W hat m aterials can digital p rin tin g be done on?
6. W hat are the advantages of the new digital prin tin g m ethods?
7. Who designed glass pyram ids in fro n t of the Louvre in Paris?
8. W hy did the museum need pyram ids at all?
9. Enum erate the steps of canvas copying.
10. W hat qualities make it possible to use digital prin tin g for o u t­
door projects?
Understanding details
1. Make these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the
information in the text.
1. The glass pyram ids were designed by the C hinese-A m erican
architect I.M. Pei in the 19th century.
2. Some of the p aintings visitors are looking at in the Louvre in
P aris are actually well-executed fakes.
3. Those in charge of the museum are members of a well-organized
band of sm ugglers operating worldwide.

119
4. Digital p rin tin g is used only for reproducing artw ork.
5. P rin tin g can be done on plastic, cloth or glass - w hatever medium
the a rtis t originally chose.
6. D igitally produced posters also last longer, w ithout th e ir color
and brightness fading.
7. The ability of the printed plastic sheets, nets, and posters used
for outdoor advertising to persist UV radiation is n 't very im por­
ta n t for custom ers.
8. W hen digital reproductions are displayed, a small sign indicates
th a t they are legally executed forgeries.
2. How the text is organized.
These sentences summarize the main idea of each paragraph.
Match the sentence to the correct paragraph.

1. The L ouvre and its tre a su re s .


2. R easons fo r ex h ib itin g fakes.
3. P o ssib ilities and ad v an tag es of d ig ita l p rin tin g .
4. V ersatile tech n iq u e.
3. Match these words as they occur together in the text.

glass q u a lity
fam ous tech n iq u e
countless sm ugglers
b ru sh m useum
band of ex h ib its
h ig h p y ram ids
average p rem ium
in su ran ce m em ber
exotic spot
o u td o o r adm ire
p lastic cam paign
resp e c tfu lly a d v e rtisin g
blank ap p licatio n
a d v e rtisin g sheets

DIGITAL PRINTING
E very day th o u san d s of v isito rs stream p ast th e glass p y ra ­
m ids designed by th e Chinese-A m erican arc h ite c t I.M . Pei and
in to th e m ost fam ous m useum in th e w orld, th e Louvre in P aris.
Inside th is old palace, a rt e n th u sia sts can w onder a t countless

120
e x h ib its co v erin g e ig h t c e n tu rie s of a r t. They re sp e c tfu lly
adm ire th e b ru sh technique of Van Gogh, R enoir and S alvador
Dali, th e eclecticism of A ndy W arhol, and th e pop-art of Roy
L ich ten stein . W h a t th e y m ay n o t suspect is th a t some of th e
p ain tin g s th ey are looking a t are actually w ell-executed fakes.
B ut these are fakes th a t th e c u ra to rs of th e Louvre know
all about. Those in charge of th e m useum are not m em bers of
a w ell-organized band of sm ugglers o p eratin g w orldw ide: th ey
only w ant th e ir exhibits to look th e ir best . P a in tin g s m u st be
resto red from tim e to tim e, b u t ra th e r th a n leaving a blank spot
on th e gallery w all, th ey are “secretly ” sw itched in th e n ig h t fo r
reproductions - facsim iles produced on d ig ital presses.
A ll over th e w orld, m useum s are h av in g th e ir Old M asters
reproduced d ig itally . A s a re s u lt of th is new technology, th e
larg e fo rm a t p rin tin g business is boom ing.
D ig ital p rin tin g is ideal fo r rep ro d u cin g a rtw o rk , p a rtly
because it is so v ersatile: p rin tin g can be done on p la stic, cloth
o r glass - w h atev er m edium th e a r tis t o rig in ally chose. H igh
q u a lity p r in ts of th e se p a in tin g s are scan n ed , d ig itiz e d and
th e n p rin te d by in k je t or a irb ru s h p rin te rs on real canvases.
Of course, th e copies do n o t correspond 100% to th e o rig in als.
B ut since th e p a in tin g s are displayed behind glass anyw ay, an
average m em ber of th e public, view ing it fro m a norm al d is­
tan ce, w ill n o t notice th e differen ce.
W orks of a r t m ay even be replaced p erm a n en tly by d ig ita l
rep ro d u ctio n , because th e th e ft and dam age in su ran ce p re m i­
um s fo r some are so huge th a t th e m useum can no lo n g er a ffo rd
to display th e o rig in als. In th e case of such w orks, a sm all sign
in d icates th a t th e y are legally displayed fo rg eries.
D ig ital p rin tin g technology is su itab le fo r m ore th a n such
exotic ap p licatio n s, how ever, In fa c t, d ig ita l technology opens
up a w ide ran g e of new landscapes, p a rtic u la rly fo r o u td o o r
a d v e rtisin g . The process is also ideal fo r larg e scale a d v e rtis ­
in g cam p aig n s fo r d e p a rtm e n t s to re s and m u seu m s. L arge
su rfaces can only be processed w ith d ig ita l technology. Color
in k je t p rin te rs can p rin t m ore th a n 500 sq u are fe e t p er h o u r so
th e y can produce a 2000 sq u are-fo o t su rface area in only fo u r
h o u rs. This is an enorm ous increase over th e perfo rm an ce of
classic sc re e n -p rin tin g tech n iq u es.
D ig itally produced p o sters also la st longer, w ith o u t th e ir
color and b rig h tn e s s fa d in g . C ustom ers a tta c h g re a t im p o r­
ta n c e to th e a b ility of th e p rin te d p la stic sh e e ts, n e ts, and
p o sters used fo r o u td o o r a d v e rtisin g to p e rsist UV ra d ia tio n .

121
The new d ig ita l p r in tin g m eth o d s can be em ployed fo r
b o th o u td o o r and in d o o r p ro jects. W hy n o t produce a larg e,
100-foot by 45-foot p ic tu re as a huge m ap th a t people can w alk
on? A d v e rtisin g p ic tu re s produced on cloth are used w ith su c­
cess a t v ario u s tra d e shows.

G LO SSARY
digital цифровой
suspect подозревать
fake подделка
sm uggler контрабандист
boom всплеск активности
versatile многогранный
average среднестатистический
th e ft воровство
afford позволить себе
forgery фальсификация
advertising реклама
fade блекнуть, выгорать
persist настаивать, продолжать существование
Arrange the jumbled text

DIGITAL PAINTING
He f u r th e r arg u es about th e convenience of d ig ita l p a in t­
ing: th e h o u rs sp en t p re p a rin g canvases, m ix in g p a in t, w ash ­
in g b ru sh es, w aitin g fo r p a in t layers to d ry , could be sp en t on
th e essen tial creativ e m a tte rs .

A p a in tin g , fo rm erly u n iq u e and one of a k in d , can now


be rep ro d u ced by u sin g d ig ita l p r in t and th e n th e d ig itiz e d
p a in tin g can be e x h ib ite d on a v irtu a l w eb-gallery, opening
up a b ro ad er audience and m a rk e t fo r th e a r tis t. In his book
‘P a in tin g and th e D ig ita l A d v e n tu re ’ Ja m e s F a u re -W a lk e r
describes th e im m ense p o ssib ilities of d ig ita l technology:
“This m arvelous technology m u st change th e w ay we th in k
about p a in tin g . So m uch m ore becom es possible in th e control
of colour, in th e m an ip u latio n of fo rm s, th e in c o rp o ratio n of
photos, and so o n ...

The q u e s tio n a ris e s w h e th e r d ig ita l p a in tin g on c a n ­


v as can be re g a rd e d as p a in tin g ? W o rk s by a r t i s t s w ho

122
em ployed n o n -tra d itio n a l to o ls, m a te ria ls and m eth o d s, are
s till ad d ressed as ‘p a in tin g s ’. If it is a p a in tin g w hen J o h n
H oyland splashes th e p a in t on a canvas, P e te r Blake uses gloss
house p a in tin g , Roy L ich ten ste in uses dots and A ndy W arh o l
uses sten cils, th e n it can be arg u ed th a t a rtw o rk ‘p ain ted w ith
p ix e ls’ u sin g d ig ita l p rin t technology also can be considered a
‘p a in tin g ’. The M useum of M odern A rt w ould re g a rd an in k je t
p r in t as a p a in tin g ‘in th e sam e sense th a t a W arh o l screen-
p r in t on canvas is considered a p a in tin g .

U nlike its physical c o u n te rp a rt th e d ig ita l im age can be


co rrected , d u p licated , sto red , rem a stered in a d iffe re n t colour
schem e, a t a d if fe r e n t scale, blended in w ith a p h o to g ra p h .
Y ear by y ear th e q u a lity of p rin te d o u tp u t im proves and th e
gap betw een ‘re a l’ colour, th a t is to say b ru sh ed on p ig m en t,
and ‘v ir t u a l’ co lo u r (w hich is also p ig m e n t on w a te rc o lo u r
p ap er or on canvas) narro w s. So if th e q u estio n was sim ply can
th is technology sim u late and p erh ap s ev en tu ally replace ‘t r a ­
d itio n a l’ p a in t m edia th e n th e answ er is a h e s ita n t “y e s.”

G LO SSARY
application применение
charcoal угольный карандаш
Immense огромный
counterpart копия;дополнение
output продукция
h esitant нерешительный
convenience удобство
closs глян ец ,лоск
splash брызги, пятно
stencil трафарет
screenprint изготовленный методом трафаретной печати

Answer these questions


1. W hat argum ents in favour of this m ethod can you find in the
quotation taken from Jam es F aure-W alker's book?
2. Do you agree th a t this technique can be regarded as painting?
3. Find answ ers in fa v o u r of and ag a in st th e idea of Jam es
Faure-W alker.

123
4. Read the last passage again. Do you know any of these painters?
Have you seen th eir works?
5. Do you know any other unusual technique?

Over to you
1 Describe the immense possibilities of digital technology
2 Have you ever designed an object? W hat was it? Describe the pro­
cess and the results. Listen to you fellow -students and be ready
to criticize and to be criticized. Did your use a com puter while
working at your project?
3 Explain the difference between digital p rin tin g and digital p ain t­
ing.
4 Have you ever been to any web-gallery?
5 Do you agree th a t we can acknowledge digital painting as a work
of art? As a p art of w orld’s culture?

124
UNIT

SIX
TEXT

from THE SECOND DEADLY SIN


by LAWRENCE SANDERS
The artist Victor Maitland was murdered in his Manhattan studio in New York. The
body was discovered by Saul Geltman, Maitland’s exclusive agent. Police detective
Edward Delaney started investigating the case. The team of detectives began looking
into the painter’s private life and personal affairs. They questioned a long list of art­
ists, models, art dealers, art critics, drinking companions, and a few distant relatives,
none of whom seemed particularly distressed by the sudden death of Victor Maitland.
Depending on the education and/or social status of the acquaintance questioned, the
dead man was described as everything from ‘an offensive and disagreeable individual’
to ‘a lousy bastard’.
Wishing to form his own opinion, Chief Delaney bought a book of Maitland’s paintings.

It was p ractically all black-and-w hite and full-color re p ro ­


d u ctio n s of M a itla n d ’s p a in tin g s on slick p aper. The lim ited
te x t consisted of a s h o rt in tro d u c tio n , a b io g rap h y of th e a r t ­
is t, a listin g of his com plete w ork, and an essay by an a r t c ritic
an aly zin g it. D elaney began to read.
The essay, alth o u g h a tte m p tin g to be m oderate and ju d i­
cial in to n e, added up to a panegyric. A ccording to th e w rite r,
V icto r M aitlan d had b re a th e d fre s h life in to th e te ch n iq u es
of th e g re a t Ita lia n m a ste rs, had tu rn e d his back on th e t r a n ­
sie n t fash io n s of co n tem p o rary a r t an d , going his own w ay,
had im bued th e tra d itio n a l, re p re se n ta tio n a l sty le of p a in tin g
w ith a passion th a t had n o t been seen fo r cen tu ries.
T here w as m uch m ore of a te c h n ic a l n a tu re th a t E dw ard
D elaney could n o t com pletely com prehend. B u t it w as n o t d if ­
fic u lt to u n d e rs ta n d th e c r itic ’s a d m ira tio n , his awe a t w h at
M a itla n d h ad done. “A w e” w as th e w ord u sed in th e te x t.
D elaney resp o n d ed to it because it w as e x actly w h a t he had
f e lt on f i r s t looking a t th o se ro u g h sk e tc h e s in M a itla n d ’s
stu d io . N ot only awe a t th e m a n ’s ta le n t, b u t w onder and a
k in d of d re a d in seeing b e a u ty he had n ev er know n ex iste d .
“A t la s t,” th e critic concluded, “A m erica has a p a in te r of th e
fir s t m agnitude who devotes his a rt to th e celebration of life .”
B u t n o t fo r long, D elaney th o u g h t m orosely. He w as an
u n tra in e d a m a te u r w hen it cam e to th e ap p reciatio n of a rt. He

126
acknow ledged th is. B u t he loved p a in tin g and sc u lp tu re . A nd
th e cool, o rd ered am bience of m useum s, th e rich n e ss of g ilt
fram es, th e elegance of m arble pedestals. He had trie d to ed u ­
cate h im self by read in g books on a r t h isto ry and a r t criticism .
B ut he fo u n d th e language so reco n d ite th a t he w ondered if it
was n o t d elib erately designed to confuse th e u n in itia te d . B u t,
he a d m itte d , th e fa u lt m ig h t be his: an in a b ility to g rasp a r t
th e o ry , to follow th e tu rg id logic of cu b ists, a b stra c tio n ists,
and all th e o th e r a r t “schools” th a t follow ed one a fte r a n o th e r
in such rap id and bew ildering succession.
F inally, he was forced back to his own eye, his own ta ste :
th a t m uch scorned cliché “I know w h at I like w hen I see i t , ”
sensing dim ly th a t it served fo r th e b u tc h e r who liked su n se ts
p a in te d on black velvet as well as fo r th e m ost ideological of
a r t e x p e rts who w ro te know ingly of asy m m etrical te n sio n s,
and exogenous calcificatio n .
E dw ard D elaney liked p a in tin g s th a t w ere recognizable.
A nude was a nude, an apple an apple, a house a house. He found
technique in terestin g and enjoyable; the folds of satin in the p ain t­
ings of Ingres were a delight. B ut technique was never enough. To
be tru ly satisfying, a painting had to move him . A painting did
not have to be beautiful; it had to be tru e. Then it was beautiful.
M ost of V icto r M a itla n d ’s p a in tin g s w ere tru e . D elaney
n o t only saw it, he fe lt it. T here w ere a few still lifes, one or
tw o p o r tr a its , sev eral cityscapes. B u t M aitlan d had p a in te d
m ostly th e fem ale nude. M any of th e su b jects w ere c e rta in ly
n o t b e a u tifu l, b u t all of th e p a in tin g s w ere b u rs tin g w ith th a t
“celebration of life ” th e c ritic had noted.
B u t th a t was n o t w h at im pressed C hief D elaney m ost about
M a itla n d ’s w ork. It was th e purpose of th e a r tis t, th e use he
m ade of his ta le n t. T here w as so m ething fra n tic th e re , som e­
th in g alm ost deran g ed . I t w as, D elaney th o u g h t, a s u p e rh u ­
m an s triv in g to be aw are of life and c a p tu re it w ith cold p a in t
on ro u g h canvas. I t w as a m anic greed to know it all, own it all,
and to display th e p lu n d e r.
Saul G eltm an received D elaney in his office.
“W h a t k in d of a m an w as M aitlan d ?” D elaney asked.
“As a hum an being, a te rrib le , frig h te n in g , m ean, co n tem p t­
ible, cruel, heartless son of a bitch. As an a rtis t, a g ia n t, a sain t,
a god, th e one real genius I ’ve seen in th is business in th e last
tw en ty years. A c e n tu ry from now you and I will be no th in g .
D ust. B ut V ictor M aitland will be som ething. H is p ain tin g s in
m useum s. Books on him . Im m ortal. I really m ean t h a t.”

127
“So you p u t up w ith his m iserable p e rso n a lity because of
his ta le n t? ”
“N o ,” G eltm an sm iled. “I p u t up w ith his m iserable p e r­
sonality because of th e m oney he m ade me. F ifteen years ago
I sold cheap reproductions. Van G ogh’s sunflow ers and M onet’s
w ater lilies. Then V ictor M aitland en tered m y life, and today
I ’m w orth alm ost a q u a rte r of a m illion. “The bulk of m y incom e
came from him ; I d o n ’t deny it. B ut I rep resen t o th e r a rtis ts .
I do okay. If M aitland had le ft me, I w ouldn’t have starv ed . He
got killed, b u t I ’m still in business. B ut th e re is som ething else
... w hen I was a kid, I w anted to be a v io lin ist. So I stu d ie d ,
I p racticed . A nd one day I was play in g a Bach concerto, and
I suddenly stopped, p u t th e fiddle away, and I h av en ’t touched
it since. I do n ’t m ean I was bad, b u t I ju s t d id n ’t have it. A t least
I had sense enough to know; no one had to te ll me. S tu d y in g
is n ’t enough, and p racticin g is n ’t enough. If you h av en ’t got
it in th e genes, y o u ’ll always be a second-rater, no m a tte r how
good you force yourself to be. M aitland had it in his genes. N ot
ju s t ta le n t - genius. Hey, genius and genes! Is th a t w here th e
w ord comes from ? I got to look it up. B ut M aitland had it, and
i t ’s too ra re to let go of ju s t because th e guy in su lts you in pu b ­
lic and tre a ts you like d irt. I re p re se n t a lo t of o th e r a rtis ts .
Good a rtis ts . B ut M aitland was th e only genius I had, and prob­
ably ever will h av e.”
“V ic to r w as a th ro w b a c k . A d in o s a u r. He knew w h a t
w as g o in g on in p a in tin g in th is c o u n try in th e F iftie s and
S ix tie s. A b s tra c t E x p ressio n ism , P o p -A rt, M inim al, all th e
a v a n t-g a rd e idiocies. B u t M a itla n d p aid no a tte n tio n to it.
He w en t his w ay. T ra d itio n a l. R e p re se n ta tio n a l. A nd y o u ’d
be s u rp ris e d how m any people w an t p a in tin g s th e y can re c ­
ognize, p a in tin g s th a t te ll a sto ry , b e a u tifu l p a in tin g s. A nd
M aitland could p a in t b e a u tifu l. A m arvelous co lo rist. A m a r­
velous d ra ftsm a n . A m arvelous a n a to m is t.”
“B u t i t c a n ’t be w holly a m a tte r of te c h n iq u e ,” D elaney
said. “I t w as so m eth in g m o re .”
“Oh, y e s,” G eltm an nodded. “M uch, m uch m ore. W ith o u t
try in g to in tellectu alize w h at M aitlan d did, I th in k i t ’s obvi­
ous th a t he, in a w ay, sp iritu a liz e d sensuousness. Or m aybe a
b e tte r w ay of p u ttin g it w ould be to say th a t he conceptualized
physical passion. So you can look a t his nudes and feel no m ore
lu s t th a n you w ould on view ing th e V enus de M ilo.”
“Can I? ” D elaney said dryly.
G eltm an laughed sh o rtly .

128
“W ell, le t’s say I c a n ,” he said. “To me, th e r e ’s n o th in g
c arn al in M a itla n d ’s w ork. I see his p a in tin g s as e ssen tially
sexless. T hey’re m ore th e idea of sex, th e v isu al re p re s e n ta ­
tio n of a conception. B u t I ad m it, t h a t ’s m y personal reactio n .
You m ig h t see so m eth in g e n tire ly d iff e r e n t.”
“I d o ,” D elaney assu red him .
“T h a t’s one of M a itla n d ’s g re a te s t g if t s ,” G eltm an n o d ­
ded. “H e ’s e v e ry th in g to everyone. He gives you back w h at
you b rin g to his a r t and conform s y o u r secret d re a m s.”
He sw iveled to face th em , his eyes w et.
“W h a t can I tell y ou?” he said, his voice clogged. “I was so
am bivalent about him . I h ated his g u ts. B ut if I had th e m oney,
I ’d buy ev ery th in g he did, buy it fo r m yself, line m y a p a rtm e n t
w alls w ith it, lock th e door, and ju s t s it th e re and s ta r e .”
G LO SSARY
1. essay очерк, эссе
2. offensive агрессивный
3. slick гладкий, блестящий, амер. превосходный
4. judicial рассудительный, беспристрастный
5. panegyric панегирик, похвала
6. tran sien t преходящий
7. awe трепет, благоговение
8. sketch эскиз, набросок
9. dread страх,боязнь
10. m agnitude величина
11. morosely мрачно, угрюмо
12. ambiance окружение, обстановка
13. recondite тёмный, неясный
14. deliberately умышленно, нарочно
15. to confuse смущать, сбивать с толку
16. the u n in itiated непосвящённые
17. tu rg id напыщенный
18. cliché фр. клиш е, штамп
19. nude обнаженная фигура (в живописи)
20. citiscape городской пейзаж
21. fran tic неистовый, безумный
22. deranged ненормальный, сумасшедший
23. genius гений
24. gene биологический ген
25. second-rater посредственность, заурядная личность
26. throwback регресс, возврат к прошлому
27. dinosaur динозавр

129
28. marvelous изумительный, удивительный
29. carnal плотский, чувственный
30. am bivalent противоречивый

COM M ENTARY
1. Manhattan d is tric t in New Y ork
2. Abstract expressionism, Pop-art, minimal a v a n t-g a rd e
m ovem ents in th e 20th c e n tu ry
3. Venus de Milo (Венера Милосская) an cien t G reek scu lp ­
tu re

SPEECH P A T T E R N S
1. It was exactly w hat he fe lt.

2. ... when it came to ...

3. ... no m atter how good you tr y to be.

4. If I had th e m oney, I’d buy ev e ry th in g he did.

PH RASES A N D W O RD C O M B IN A T IO N S
1. private life частная жизнь
2. personal affairs личные дела
3. social status социальный статус
4. full-colour reproductions цветные репродукции
5. to breathe fresh life into вдохнуть новую жизнь
6. transient fashions преходящая мода
7. contemporary art современное искусство
8. traditional style традиционный стиль
9. rough sketches черновые наброски
10. celebration of life прославление жизни
11. to confuse the uninitiated смущать непосвящённых
12. superhuman striving нечеловеческие усилия
13. marvelous colorist / замечательный колорист/
draftsm an/anatom ist рисовальщик/анатомист
14. a m atter of technique дело техники
15. spiritualize sensuousness одухотворить чувственность
16. visual representation визуальное изображение
17. greatest gift величайший дар
18. personal reaction личная реакция

130
E S S E N T IA L V O C A B U L A R Y
Comprehend — verb
to understand som ething:
How could you possibly comprehend the difficulties of drawing?
comprehend that:
Laura gasped, hardly able to comprehend th a t her brother’s life
was in danger.
fully comprehend:
We fully comprehend people’s anxieties at the sight of such an
installation.
comprehensible — adj
able to be understood:
a clear comprehensible document
The language of art critics is barely comprehensible to most people.
comprehension — noun
the ability to understand som ething:
The art students stared at me without comprehension.
We have no comprehension of the lectures these children have
attended.
W hy did the boy decide to exhibit his pictu re is beyond m y com­
prehension.
(=impossible for someone to understand):
Such acts are beyond the comprehension of most people.
comprehensive — adj
including many details or aspects of something:
We offer a comprehensive range of tools and colours,
a comprehensive guide to courses in pain tin g
This was a regular English comprehensive school, in which stu­
dents with different levels of ability are taught elementary p a in t­
ing course.
technique — noun
1. a m ethod of doing som ething using a special skill th a t you have
developed:
statistical/analytical/surgical techniques
techn\c\ueior\ auseful technique for dealing with difficult customer s
technique of: modern techniques of business management
2. the skills needed to do ap articular activity, especially in sport or a r t:
a player of great technique
technical — adj
1. involving science or industry:
technical experts
The job requires someone with specialized scientific and tech­
nical knowledge.
2 . technical language is difficult to understand for people who do
not know a lot about the subject:
The text is interesting and informative without being too technical.

131
3. relatin g to the skills needed to do a p articu lar activity, espe­
cially in sport or art:
The painter reached extremely high levels of technical skill and
ability.
Initiate — verb
1. to make som ething sta rt:
The company initiated a management training program m e for
small businesses.
We shall initiate urgent discussions with our European p a r t­
ners.
2 . to introduce someone to a skill, subject, or activity and teach
them about it:
initiate someone into something:
Nicky was initiated into the world of art and painting in p ar­
ticular.
3. to make someone a member of an organization or group,
initiation — noun
1. a process or ceremony in which someone becomes a member of an
organization or group: a secret initiation
in itiatio n rites/ritu als/cerem o n ies
2 . the act of m aking som ething sta rt, especially an official process:
initiation of:
Youth Councils will be set up for the initiation of these art proj­
ects.
3. an introduction to a new skill, subject, or activity:
a brief initiation into basic art skills
initiative — noun
1. the ability to decide in an independent way w hat to do and when
to do it:
M r Hills showed initiative and bravery when dealing with a
dangerous situation.
use your initiative:
Employees are encouraged to use their initiative if faced with
a problem.
on your own initiative (=w ithout other people telling you to do
something):
He developed the plan o f ... on his own initiative.
2 . an im portant action th a t is intended to solve a problem:
a number of in itia tives designed to address the problem of
child a rt education.
3. take the initiative:
She would have to take the initiative in order to improve their
vision of life
lose/gain/seize the initiative:
We have lost the initiative and allowed our opponents to domi­
nate the discussion.

132
talent — noun
1. a n atu ral ability for being good at a p articu lar activity:
talent for: She had an obvious talent for painting.
Nora shows a remarkable talent for drawing.
talent as: You have undoubted talent as a painter.
a m an/wom an of many talents:
"So you can p a in t a picture too?”
“Fm a man of many talen ts.”
talent show/contest (=a com petition in which singers, dancers
etc show th eir ability):
W e’re helping to organize the school talent show.
talented — adj
someone who is talented is very good at som ething:
a highly talented young designer
train — verb
1. teach /learn
2 . make m ind/body do som ething
to teach someone to do a particu lar job or activity:
We need to recruit and train more police officers.
train someone to do something:
They were training him to use the new filing system.
train to do something:
I have an uncle who trained to be a pilot.
to learn how to do a p articu lar job or activity:
train as: He trained as a chef in Paris.
to study som ething such as painting, dancing, or singing for a
long period of time:
train in: Stephanie has trained in both dance and drama.
to make your mind or body do something:
You have to train yourself to stay calm.
to practise a sport regularly before a m atch or competition:
The wrestlers train five days a week.

133
ACTIVITIES
1. Consult the dictionary and practice the pronunciation of the follow­
ing words. Mark the main stressed syllalse in each of these words.
transient, morosely, techniques, turgid, rough, sensuousness, avant-
garde, ambivalent, calcification

2. Analyze the structure of the following words.

E xa m p le : disagreeable
dis — p re fix
agree — ro o t
able — ad jectiv e-fo rm in g s u ffix

admiration, inability, asymmetrical, spiritualize, heartless

3. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the underlined


word.
admire
I am an a rd e n t ... of his tal- s p ir it
ent. ... are relig io u s songs sung
able by N egroes in th e USA.
T his p a rk in g lo t is reserv ed heart
fo r ... people. They welcom ed us ... .
sy m m e try
The lines in th is p ic tu re are
absolutely . . . .
4. Pick out from the text several adjectives ending in -al, -ive, -able,
-less.
5. Find in the text all combinations with the word “art”, e. g. art
critics, art dealers, etc.

6. Finish the sentences using the following patterns.


1) It w as exactly w h at he ...
It is exactly w h at I ...
2) W hen it com es to a r t, I th in k ...
W hen it cam e to ...
3) No m atter how good you are ...
No m a tte r how hard you try ...
4) If I had enough m oney, I would b uy ...
If I knew his address, I w ould ...

134
7 . Translate into English the sentences containing the patterns.
1) Это к а к раз то, что нуж но д ля п они м ани я ж ивописи.
2) И менно это он чувствовал, гл я д я на карти н ы Ван-Гога.
3) Когда дело доходило до обсуж дения творчества других
худож ни ков, он хран и л м олчание.
4) К ак бы ты ни старался, худож ни ком ты не станеш ь.
5) Ч то бы ни говорили, человек он тал ан тли вы й .
6) Е сли бы я ум ел р и со в ать, я н ар и со в ал бы ваш
портрет.
7) Если бы у м еня был талан т, я бы стал ж ивописцем .

8 . Work in pairs. Act out dialogues.


a) You are a guide in the Tretyakov Gallery. Explain to a visitor
what makes Valentin Serov's Girl with Peaches a real master­
piece.
b) Your friend admires I. Glazunov's work and you don't think very
highly of him.

9. Write out of the text the sentences containing phrases and word
combinations.

Translate them into Russian.

10. Write 10 sentences incorporating the following word combina­


tions

1) p riv a te life
2) personal a ffa irs
3) social s ta tu s
4) fu l-co lo u r rep ro d u ctio n s
5) to b re a th e fre s h life
6) tra n s ie n t fash io n s
7) co n tem p o rary a r t
8) tra d itio n a l style
9) ro u g h sketches
10) celebration of life
11 Describe your favourite picture using the following phrases and
word combinations
1) to confuse th e u n in itia te d
2) su p erh u m an s triv in g
3) m arvelous c o lo ris t/d ra fts m a n /a n a to m is t
4) a m a tte r of tech n iq u e

135
5) to sp iritu a liz e sensuousness
6) v isu al re p re se n ta tio n
7) g re a te st g ift
8) personal reactio n

12 Work in pairs. Act out dialogues using the following phrases


and word combinations

1. to b re a th e fre sh life in to
2. tra n s ie n t fash io n s
3. co n tem p o rary a r t
4. tra d itio n a l style
5. celebration of life

6. to confuse th e u n in itia te d
7. m arvelous co lo rist
8. a m a tte r of tech n iq u e
9. v isu al re p re se n ta tio n
10. g re a te s t g ift

13. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. В ален тин Серов был зам еч ател ьн ы м колори стом и


ри со вал ьщ и ко м .
2. П реж де чем н ачать работу над карти н ой , ж ивописец
обычно делает черновы е наброски.
3. П оследние полотна м астера вы полнены в тради ц и он ­
ном стиле.
4. Ч астн ая ж и зн ь творца не д олж н а интересовать публи­
ку; все, что с ним происходит,— его личное дело.
5. Мы коллекц ион ируем кн и ги о х у д о ж н и к ах с ц ветн ы ­
ми реп родукц иям и .
6. Современное искусство ш ироко представлено в Т реть­
яковской галерее.
7. Я зы к искусствоведов порой см ущ ает н еп о св ящ ен ­
ны х.
8. П е р е д в и ж н и к и вд о х н у л и новую ж и зн ь в русское
искусство 19 века.
9. Создание ш едевра — не только дело тех н и ки , д ля это­
го требуется н езаурядн ы й талан т.
10. Гениальность — это вели чай ш и й дар.

136
14. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.
1. The body of th e a r tis t was discovered by th e police.
2. M a itla n d ’s frie n d s and re la tiv e s w ere d istre ssed by his
sudden d eath and spoke h ig h ly of him .
3. A ccording to th e a r t c ritic , V ictor M aitland im bued th e
re p re se n ta tio n a l sty le of p a in tin g w ith a g re a t passion.
4. On f ir s t looking a t M a itla n d ’s sk etch e s D elaney w as
com pletely unim p ressed .
5. C hief D elaney could be called a tra in e d p ro fe ssio n a l
w hen it came to th e ap p reciatio n of a rt.
6. He fo u n d th e language of th e books on a r t h isto ry and
a r t c riticism v ery easy.
7. D elaney p re fe rre d a b s tra c t p a in tin g .
8. V ictor M aitland p a in te d m ostly th e fem ale nude.
9. S aul G eltm an d escrib ed M a itla n d as a k in d -h e a rte d ,
w ell-bred in d iv id u al.
10. G eltm an considered him a m arvelous colorist, d ra ftsm a n
and an ato m ist.
15. Finish the sentences with the text wording:
1. The police m ach in ery s ta rte d ...
2. The lim ited te x t consisted of ...
3. V ictor M aitland tu rn e d his back on ...
4. I t w as n o t d iffic u lt to u n d e rs ta n d th e c r itic ’s
5. “A t la s t,” th e c ritic concluded, “A m erica has
6. D elaney trie d to educate h im self by ...
7. To be tru ly sa tisfy in g , a p a in tin g had to ...
8. I t w as a su p erh u m an s triv in g to be ...
9. If you h a v e n ’t got it in th e genes, ...
10. M aitlan d was th e only genius ...
16. Word partnership. Match the words on the left with the words
on the right.
A.. 1. fu ll-co lo u r a fre sh life
2. to b re a th e b fash io n s
3. tra n s ie n t c art
4. to confuse d rep ro d u ctio n s
5. co n tem p o rary e sty le
6. re p re se n ta tio n a l f fram es
7. p a in te r g pedestals
8. g ift h idiocies
9. m arble i th e u n in itia te d
10. av an t-g ard e j of th e f ir s t m ag n itu d e
B. Write 10 sentences incorporating the above word combinations.

137
17. Explain what the author meant by:
1. The essay by th e a r t c ritic added up to a panegyric.
2. It w as a m agic greed to know it all and to disp lay th e
p lu n d e r.
3. I d o n ’t m ean I was bad, b u t I ju s t d id n ’t have it.
4. V ictor was a d in o sau r.
18. Answer the following questions.
1. W ho was m u rd ered in his M a n h a tta n stu d io ?
2. W h a t did C hief D elaney and his team do to in v e stig a te
th e m u rd er?
3. W hy did D elaney buy a book of M a itla n d ’s p a in tin g s?
W h a t did th e book include?
4. Did th e a u th o r of th e essay ad m ire M a itla n d ’s w ork?
W h a t was his m ain feeling?
5. D elaney w as an u n tra in e d a m a te u r w hen it cam e to th e
ap p reciatio n of a rt. D escribe his a ttitu d e to a rt.
6. W h a t did M aitland p a in t m ostly?
7. W h a t k in d of a m an w as M a itla n d , acco rd in g to h is
ag en t S aul G eltm an?
8. W hy did G eltm an call M aitland a d in o sau r?
9. N am e a v a n t-g a rd e m ovem ents m en tio n ed in th e te x t.
Can you give any o th e r exam ples?
10. W h a t was M a itla n d ’s g re a te s t g if t in G eltm an ’s o p in ­
ion?

138
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative


examples into Russian.
1. If he had any talen t, I should be th e f ir s t to encourage it.
I ’d ra th e r be m a rried to a p a in te r th a n to a stockbroker.
2. H is ta s te fo r m usic and lite ra tu r e gave d ep th and v a r i­
ety to his com prehension of p a in tin g .
3. The im p ressio n ists ex tended th e ir techniques to depict
lan d scap es, tre e s , h ouses, and even s tr e e t scenes and
ra ilro a d sta tio n s.
4. Van Gogh w orked h a rd b u t soon realized th e d iffic u lty
of s e lf-tra in in g and th e need to seek th e g u id an ce of
m ore experienced a rtis ts .
5. M o n et’s p a in tin g “Im p ressio n . S u n ris e ” e arn ed th e m
th e in itia lly d erisiv e nam e “im p re s s io n is ts ” fro m th e
jo u rn a lis t Leroy.
6. If he h ad d e te rm in e d to be a painter m erely to b reak
w ith irksom e ties, it w ould have been com prehensible.
7. W ith h is d is in te re s te d p assio n fo r a r t, he h ad a re a l
desire to call th e a tte n tio n of th e public to a ta le n t w hich
was in th e h ig h e st degree o rig in al.
8. “You m u st le a rn y o u r elem en tary technique f ir s t and
th e n y o u r d raw in g will come slow ly.”
9. P ere T anguy has an acute sense of th e a u th e n tic . If he
asks you fo r one of y o u r canvases, give it to him . It w ill
be y o u r in itia tio n in to P a risia n art.
10. He p ain ted w ith g re a t d iffic u lty and lost m uch tim e in
fin d in g out fo r him self th e solution of technical problem s
w hich preceding generation had already w orked out.
11. In th e evening she s a t in th e stu d io ag ain , w hile D irk
played m usic w hich I am su re was beyond her com pre­
hension.
2 . Fill in the gaps with the words of the essential vocabulary.
Com prehensible, im pression(2), a rtis t, technique(2),
c o lo u rs, c re a tiv e , ta le n t(2 ), p a in te r , cu b ism ,
adm ired, sensation, tra in s, in itia to r

1. He was quick to discover ..., and his praise was generous.


2. She trie d to ta lk to h im , p a rtly by s ig n s , p a rtly in F re n c h ,
w hich she th o u g h t w ould be m ore ... to him .

139
3. I ... y o u r p ic tu re s th e v ery f ir s t tim e I saw them .
4. He gave me an e x tr a o rd in a r y ... - an ... of g re a t
s tre n g th .
5. He show ed V incent a few elem ents of ...
6. It seem s to me th a t if you had any ..., if you w ere really
c u t o u t to be an ..., those sketches w ould come r ig h t th e
f ir s t tim e.
7. He stu d ie d th e ... closely, and saw th a t M anet p u t ele­
m en tal ... n e x t to each o th e r w ith o u t g ra d a tio n .
8. The p ic tu re gave me th e ... of so m eth in g v ery stro n g ,
o v erm a sterin g th a t held th e ... a g a in st his w ill.
9. How s tra n g e it w as th a t th e ... in s tin c t sh o u ld seize
upon th is dull sto ck b ro k er, to his own ru in , p erh ap s.
10. Picasso w as th e ... of ...
11. G raphic design d e p a rtm e n t ... m ostly book desig n ers.
3. Word sets. Underline the odd word in each set:
1. in tro d u c tio n , b io g rap h y , essay, listin g , fram e
2. g ia n t, sa in t, god, a m a te u r, genius
3. cru el, noble, h e a rtle ss, contem ptible, m ean
4. co lo rist, a n a to m ist, c ritic , d ra ftsm a n , p a in te r
5. re p re s e n t, in te lle c tu a liz e , s p iritu a liz e , co n cep tu alize,
recognize
4. Match the two halves of the sentences.
To th e la te s t d ev elo p m en ts in F re n c h p a in tin g /
colour can ex p ress so m eth in g by it s e lf / th e f ir s t
o ffic ia l show of th e Im p re s s io n is ts / re s u ltin g in
such m asterp ieces as S e lf-P o rtra it in f r o n t of an
E a se l/ s till life, landscape and f ig u r e / la stin g only
th e 10 y ears fro m 1880 to 1 8 9 0 / w here th e g r e a t­
e st m em ber of R u b e n s’s w orks could be se e n / th e y
h ad o p p o sin g id e a s / a lth o u g h C e za n n e’s p a i n t­
in g s w ere severely c ritic iz e d / P is s a rro p ersu ad ed
C e z a n n e /...

1. Van G ogh’s a rtis tic caree r was ex trem ely s h o rt, ...
2. He p ain ted th re e types of su b jects ...
3. The w orks of Veronese and D elacroix ta u g h t him t h a t ...
4. H is a d m ira tio n fo r P e te r P au l R ubens in sp ire d his su d ­
den d e p a rtu re fo r A n tw erp , B elgium , ...
5. In P a ris v an Gogh m et T oulouse-L autrec, G auguin and
o th e rs who opened his eyes...

140
6. By th e beginning of 1888, van G ogh’s P ost-Im pressionist
style had crystallized ...
7. F or tw o m o n th s van Gogh and G auguin w orked to g e th ­
er, b u t th e ir re la tio n s rap id ly d e te rio ra te d because...
8. ... to lig h te r his colours.
9. In 1874 Cezanne re tu rn e d to P aris and p articip ated in ...
10. ...h e co n tin u ed to w ork d ilig en tly .

5. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate words


from the box.
A.

th eo ry, a m a t e u r , a r t, rep ro d u ctio n s, com position ,


agent, d r a f t s m a n , genius, design, collectors, a r tis t,
p a in tin g s , a n a to m is t, ta le n t

“W h a t are you s tu d y in g ? ”
“G raphic Ted M aitland m u tte r e d .- “The h isto ry and
.. . o f a r t . ”
“V isual ...? D ecoration and P rin tin g ? ”- D elaney asked. -
“L ayout and d esig n ?”
“Yes. A ll th a t. How come a cop know s th a t? ”
“I am an ... .1 like y o u r f a th e r ’s w ork. H is ... Saul G eltm an
says he was a g re a t ..., a g re a t ...” .
“You d o n ’t know a th in g ab o u t ... in m odern so c ie ty ,” -
th e boy said d is d a in fu lly . - “I t ’s an upside-dow n p y ram id .
B alanced on its p o in t. A nd above, d e alers, c ritic s , ric h ...,
p u b lish ers of a r t books and .... You know w h at th is p y ram id is
balanced on? The creativ e ... .He provides th e good life fo r all
of them . A nd th e y lau g h a t him . My f a th e r w as a ...!”
D elaney looked a t him in asto n ish m en t.
“B u t you told me you d id n ’t like y o u r f a th e r ’s w ork. Let
me guess. You m ig h t n o t like y o u r f a th e r ’s sty le, th e ... he did,
b u t you recognize and adm ire his ... Is th a t r ig h t? ”
“Yes. T h a t’s ab o u t r i g h t ...”
B. Translate the text into Russian.

6. Choose the right article: a/ the

1. ... a r t is d iffe re n t from o th e r business.


2. ... w rite r w rites ... book, and ... m illion copies of th a t
book are sold. B u t ... p a in te r? He p a in ts one p ic tu re .
M aybe ... a r tis t w orked ... y ear on it, m aybe m ore.

141
3. How m any people i n ... world b u y ... original works o f... art?
4. Some people buy ... a r t fo r ... in v e stm e n t, or th e y w an t
p ic tu re s to m atch th e ir c u rta in s.
5. “It is ... b est th in g y o u ’ve ever d o n e,” I to ld him .
6. ... a r tis t picked up ... stick o f... charcoal and atta c k e d
... w hite paper.
7. He rip p ed o ff ... sh eet of ... p ap er, le t it f a l l ... th e flo o r,
began ... fre sh one.
8. It was ... h a rd , quick sk etch o f... ru n n in g w om an.
9. The sm all room was dom inated by ... d raw in g tab le, ...
j ars o f... p e n s, ... p en cils,... p a s te ls ,... w aterco lo u rs and
a sh tra y s everyw here.
10. Belle le ft ... stu d io ab o u t... h o u r la te r. ... sh o o tin g was
com pleted before 3 p .m ., and ... m odels d ep arted .

7. Choose the right preposition from the box.

w i t h o u t , for, in, of, a t, to, with, a fte r , in, a fte r , in,


about, of, from , in, of, on, to, betw een, in, of, in, at,
of, fo r

1. M aitland tu rn e d his back ... all th e av an t-g ard e m ove­


m ents.
2. The early 1860s was a period ... g re a t v i t a l i t y ... P a risia n
lite ra ry and a rtis tic a c tiv ity .
3. How o ften , ... th ese th re e y ears, had he h eard th a t p a n ­
egyric ... his son S te p h a n ’s, even th e w ord genius was
now being used ... reserve.
4. W h a t was beauty, ... all, th a t m en should m a rty r th e m ­
selves ... it p u rs u it, die ... it, like th e sain ts ... old?
5. I t seem ed ... B e rtra m th a t th e co n flict ... life and a r t
could nev er be resolved.
6. P eerin g h a rd ... th e canvases he trie d to fin d v irtu e s ...
th em n o t a p p a re n t ... him before?
7. Look, Chief, w hen y o u ’re ta lk in g ... a r tis ts , you are ta lk ­
in g ... a bunch ... n u ts . D on’t expect a logical b eh av io u r
... th em , or even com m on sense.
8. Van G ogh’s a r t becam e v ery p o p u lar ... his d eath , spe­
cially ... th e la te 2 0 th cen tu ry .
9. ... its s h o rt ex isten ce th e Im p re ssio n ist g ro u p accom ­
plished a rev o lu tio n ... th e h isto ry ... a rt.
10. ...a n early age Cezanne decided to p u rsu e some kind ...
a rtis tic career.

142
8. Do the library research and write an essay on one of the given
topics.
1. V alentin Serov — the g reatest colourist and draughtsm an.
2. R ep resen tatio n a l style in co n tem p o rary p a in tin g .
3. The la te s t ex h ib itio n you have been to.
4. The new est tre n d s in to d a y 's w estern a rt.
9. Make a list of words the author uses describing the personality
of Victor Maitland and his style of painting. Work in pairs. Act
out dialogues using the above words.
1. Two a r t s tu d e n ts are d iscu ssin g some co n tro v ersial a r t ­
is t know n b o th fo r his eccen tric b eh av io u r and fo r his
ta le n t, e. g. V an Gogh, M odigliani, etc.
2. Two v isito rs of th e ex h ib itio n of a b s tra c t a r t. One is its
g re a t ad m irer, th e o th e r d o esn ’t u n d e rsta n d it.
10 Translate the sentences into English using the essential vocabulary.
1. А бстрактная ж ивопись недоступна моему пониманию .
2. Сезанн н ачал серьёзно и зучать техн и ку и теорию и м ­
прессионизм а у П иссарро.
3. Этот молодой худ ож н и к очень талан тли в.
4. Ван Гог яв л яется одним из родоначальников постим ­
прессионизм а.
5. Этот худож ественны й колл ед ж готовит ж ивописцев
и дизайнеров.
6. Я н ахож у, что его карти н ы соверш енно непонятны .
7. Ф ран ц узски й худ ож н и к Ж о р ж Сера ввёл новую тех ­
н и ку, получивш ую н азван ие «пуантилизм ».
8. «Т алант — ед и н ствен н ая новость, ко то р ая всегда
нова. »
9. Все и м п ресси они сты п олуч и ли ак ад ем и ч еско е обра­
зован ие.
10. В ы ставка бы ла организована по и ни ци ати ве д и ректо­
ра м узея.

143
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
PRINTMAKING TECHNIQUES

BEFORE YO U READ
Discuss these questions.
1. Do you know any techniques of printm aking?
2. W hat are they?
3. How are they different from other works of art?
4. This technique has some advantages, as well as some disadvantag­
es. W hat are they? If you find it too difficult to answer offhand —
ju st compare printm aking techniques w ith easel painting.
5. Name a few a rtists who worked w ith prints.

R E A D IN G T A S K S
Understanding main points
Answer these questions
1. Read about the main p rin tin g techniques and describe the wood-
cut method.
2. W hat is intaglio printm aking?
3. W hat is relief printm aking?
4. Find in the Appendix the definitions of the term s connected w ith
printm aking.
5. W hat is engraving?
6. Give the definition of etching.
7. Describe drypoint m ethod.
8. Do you work w ith prints? W hat technique do you use?
Understanding details

1. Make these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the


information in the text.
1. P rintm aking was considered as a medium of communication.
2. In 19th century artists began to produce lim ited editions and to
sign th eir prin ts.
3. The Japanese made the firs t au th en ti cated p rin ts, wood-block
rubbings of B uddhist charm s.
4. The firs t woodcuts printed on paper were playing cards produced
in Germany at the beginning of the 15th century.

144
5. P rin tin g from a m etal engraving was introduced a few decades
before the woodcut.
6. It was in Germany th a t early intaglio p rin tin g developed before
passing to Italy and other countries.
7. In intaglio printm aking lines are engraved w ith m etal gravers or
etched into a silver plate.
8. The plate is then inked and wiped clean, leaving ink in the incised
lines .
2. How the text is organized.
These sentences summarize the main idea of each paragraph.
Match each sentence to the correct paragraph.
1. The technique of woodcuts.
2. Intaglio methods of fine printm aking.
3. Origin of the printm aking techniques.
4. P rin tin g from a m etal engraving.
5. W hen people began to consider printm aking as an a rt form .
6. In relief printm aking methods.
3. Match these words as they occur together in the text.
p rin tin g tra d itio n
lim ited p late
copper ed itio n s
royal im ages
a rtis tic press
en g rav ed seal
cave lines
incised w alls

PRINTMAKING TECHNIQUES
In th e b eg in n in g , before th e p rin tin g p ress, p rin tm a k in g
was n o t considered an a r t fo rm , ra th e r a m edium of com m u­
n icatio n . It w as n o t till th e e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry th a t a r t p rin ts
began to be considered o rig in a ls and n o t till th e n in e te e n th
th a t a r tis ts b eg an to p ro d u ce lim ite d e d itio n s and to sig n
th e ir p rin ts along w ith th e tech n ical in fo rm a tio n necessary to
a u th e n tic a te th e w ork.
E n g rav in g goes back to cave a r t, executed on stones, bones
and cave w alls. The d u p licatio n of en graved im ages goes back
som e 3 ,0 0 0 y e a rs to th e S u m e ria n s who e n g ra v e d d esig n s
on sto n e c y lin d e r seals. A cadem ics th in k th a t th e C hinese
produced a p rim itiv e fo rm of p rin t, th e ru b b in g , as f a r back

145
as th e 2nd c e n tu ry AD. The Jap an ese m ade th e f ir s t a u th e n ti­
cated p rin ts , wood-block ru b b in g s of B u d d h ist charm s, in th e
late-m iddle e ig h th cen tu ry .
P r in t m a k in g in E urop e
The tech n iq u e of c u ttin g a wood block fo r p rin tin g is v ery
an cien t. B ut in th e W e ste rn a rtis tic tra d itio n , th e w oodcut was
o ften used to produce illu s tra tio n s fo r books a f te r th e in v e n ­
tio n of th e p rin tin g p ress. E uropean p rin tm a k in g began w ith
te x tile p rin tin g as early as th e s ix th c e n tu ry , w hile p rin tin g
on p ap er had to w ait a b it longer fo r th e a rriv a l of p ap er te c h ­
nology from th e F a r E ast. The f ir s t p ap er produced in E urope
was in J a tiv a in Spain in 1151. The f ir s t w oodcuts p rin te d on
p ap er w ere p laying cards produced in G erm any a t th e b eg in ­
n in g of th e fifte e n th c e n tu ry . I t w as only slig h tly before th is
th a t th e f ir s t royal seals and stam p s appeared in th e E ngland
of H en ry VI.
P r in tin g fro m a m e tal e n g ra v in g w as in tro d u c e d a few
decades a f te r th e w oodcut, and g re a tly re fin e d th e re s u lts .
R e stric te d a t f ir s t to g o ld sm ith s and arm o rers, it soon becam e
th e m o st p o p u la r fo rm of s e ria l re p ro d u c tio n . The e a r li­
e st d a te d p rin te d e n g ra v in g is a G erm an p r in t d a te d 1446,
“The F la g e lla tio n ,” and it was in G erm any th a t early in tag lio
p r in tin g developed b efo re p assin g to Ita ly and o th e r co u n ­
trie s . F rom th e m a k ers of p la y in g card s th e m e tal e n g ra v ­
in g tech n iq u e passed to a r tis ts w here it probably reached its
apex in th e h an d s of A lb rech t D u rer in th e six te e n th ce n tu ry .
D u rer rep resen te d a w atersh ed in th e h isto ry of p rin tm a k in g ,
and, since he tra v e le d to Ita ly , his in flu en ce w as fe lt th e re in
a d ire c t way.
B o th c o p p e rp la te e n g ra v in g a n d e tc h in g a re in ta g lio
m e th o d s of fin e p rin tm a k in g . In in ta g lio p rin tm a k in g , lin es
a re e n g ra v e d w ith m e ta l g r a v e r s o r e tc h e d in to a co p p er
p la te w ith th e use of acid. The p la te is th e n in k e d and w iped
clean , le a v in g in k in th e in c ised lin e s. The p la te is p r in te d
w ith g r e a t p re s s u re , u s u a lly th r o u g h a s e t of ro lle rs , so t h a t
th e d am p en ed p a p e r w ill ab so rb all th e in k fro m th e lin e s in
th e p la te .
In re lie f p rin tm a k in g m ethods such as th a t of th e wood-
c u t and wood e n g ra v in g , th e p rin tin g te ch n iq u e is like th a t
of a ru b b er stam p: only th e raised areas are inked, and th is is
p rin te d by h an d or by u sin g a press w hereby th e in k block is
pressed onto th e p ap er w ith re la tiv e ly lig h t p re ssu re (as com ­
pared to in tag lio p rin tm a k in g ).

146
G LO SSARY
authenticate удостоверять, устанавливать подлинность
cave пещера
seal печать
rubbing копия; рисунок, копированный притиранием
charm амулет
re stric t ограничивать
goldsm ith золотых дел мастер
blacksm ith кузнец
arm orer оружейник
apex вершина
copper медь
acid кислота
damp влажный
ferm ent волнение
apace быстро
artisan ремесленник
destine предназначать
seminal плодотворный, конструктивный
grasp схватывать
prodigious поразительный
mold форма, лекало
plentitude изобилие
contest опровергать
Arrange the jumbled text and retell it.

ALBRECHT DURER
A lb rech t D u re r was b o rn in 1471. He was th e son of a
H u n g arian goldsm ith in N u rem b u rg , G erm any. It was a tim e
of ferm en t in p ain tin g and p rin tm ak in g circles all over E urope.
The new in d u stria l m iddle class was on th e rise and th e dem and
fo r p ain tin g s, p rin ts and illu stra te d books was grow ing apace.
H is ach iev em en ts in p a in tin g , w oodcut and en g ra v in g ,
although prodigious and u nsurpassed to th is day, are perhaps
overshadow ed by his philosophical co n trib u tio n to th e h isto ry of
W estern a rt and cu ltu re. W ith o u t A lbrecht D u re r’s invention of
him self as “th e a rtis t prince” th e g re a t p ain ters and printm ak-
ers who followed in his footsteps, a rtis ts like R em brandt, Goya,
Velazquez, M onet, and Picasso m ig h t well have been considered
little m ore th a n e x tra o rd in arily able craftsm en.

147
He p a in te d th e f ir s t self p o r tr a its in th e h is to ry of a r t
(s ta rtin g w ith a pencil sk etch w hen he was 13 years old), and th e
f ir s t landscapes fro m life and fo r th e ir own sake. (P reviously
th e y w ere m ere in v e n tio n s used as back g ro u n d s fo r p o rtra its .)
H is creativ e and in te lle c tu a l pow ers, along w ith his prodigious
b elief in his own ta le n ts , p e rm itte d him to c a st a new m old
fo r “th e a r t i s t ,” a m old w hich rep resen te d a w atersh ed in th e
h isto ry of civ ilizatio n and to w hich a r tis ts are s till in debted
today. A nd all of th is in a fa r-o ff tim e ju s t a few years a fte r
C olum bus discovered San S alvador.
A r tis ts , how ever, w ere s till v ery m uch a p a rt of th e a rtis a n
class, anonym ous w orkshop c ra ftsm e n along w ith ceram icists,
b lack sm ith s, silv e r sm ith s, g u n sm ith s, g o ld sm ith s and a h o st
of o th e r m a ste r cra ftsm e n . In th e eyes of th e ir co n tem p o raries
th e re was no reason to d istin g u ish th e c ra ftsm e n of th e v isu al
a rts fro m th e re s t of th e a rtis a n s.
It w as th is self-co n scien cio u s yo u n g p a in te r and p rin t-
m aker who was d estin ed to change v irtu a lly single handedly
th e s ta tu s of “th e a r tis t as m ere skilled w o rk er” .
The im p o rta n c e of th is one-m an R en aissan ce in th e h is ­
to ry of a r t in g en eral and of p rin tm a k in g in p a rtic u la r cannot
be overem p h asized . He em braced th e m edia of w oodcut and
en g rav in g early on and, over a 4 0 -year career, took th em to
h eig h ts u n su rp assed in th e su b seq u en t h a lf a m illennium .
Over to you

1. Speak about D u re r's c o n trib u tio n to th e h is to ry of a rt.


2. F ind one of D u re r's p rin ts and m ake a re p o rt about it
(genre, su b ject, sty le, tech n iq u e, y o u r im pression as a
sp ecialist in th is field).

148
UNIT

SEVEN
TEXT

from IN THE FRAME


by DICK FRANCIS

A successful painter of horses flies to Australia to see his married cousin Donald,
finds his house burgled and his wife, Regina, murdered. Though Donald is shocked he
asked the painter to do his wife’s portrait.

I h ated a u tu m n . The tim e of m elancholy, th e tim e of d eath .


My s p irits fell each y e a r w ith th e soggy leaves and rev iv ed
only w ith c risp w in te r f ro s t. P s y c h ia tric s ta tis tic s pro v ed
th a t th e h ig h e st suicide ra te occurred in th e sp rin g , th e tim e
fo r re b irth . If ever I jum p ed over a c liff, it w ould be in th e
d ep ressin g m o n th s of decay.
The sunroom was g rey and cold. No su n , th a t S unday.
I w ent u p s ta irs, fetched m y suitcase, and b ro u g h t it down.
Over years of w andering jo u rn ey s I had reversed th e p a in te r's
tra d itio n a l luggage: m y suitcase now contained th e tools of my
tra d e , and m y satchel, clothes. The large toughened suitcase,
its in te rio r adapted and fitte d by me, was in fa c t a so rt of p o r­
table stu d io , co n tain in g besides p ain ts and b ru sh es a lig h t col­
lapsible m etal easel, unbreakable co n tain ers of linseed oil and
tu rp e n tin e , and a rack w hich w ould hold fo u r w et p a in tin g s
safely a p a rt. T here were also a d u st sheet, a larg e box of tissu es
and generous am ounts of w hite s p irit, all designed fo r p re v e n t­
in g m ess and keeping th in g s clean. The o rg a n iz a tio n of th e
suitcase had saved and m ade th e price of m any a sandw ich.
I untelescoped th e easel and set o u t m y p a le tte , and on a
m iddling-sized canvas laid in th e beginnings of a m elancholy
landscape, a m ix tu re of D onald's g ard en as I saw it, a g a in st a
sweep of b are fields and gloom y woods. N ot my u su al so rt of
p ic tu re, and n o t, to be honest, th e so rt to m ake headline news a
c e n tu ry hence; b u t it gave me a t least som ething to do. I w orked
steadily, grow ing ever colder, u n til th e ch illier F ro st* chose to

* F ro st — th e nam e of th e detectiv e who in v e stig ate s th e crim in al case.

150
d ep art; and he w ent w ith o u t seeing me again, th e fro n t door
closing decisively on his p u rp o sefu l footsteps.
He was gone all day. I sp en t it p a in tin g .
N ot th e sad landscape. The sunroom seem ed even g rey er
and colder th a t m o rn in g , and I had no m ind anym ore to sink
in to m elancholy. I le ft th e h a lf-fin ish e d canvas on th e tab le
th e re an d rem oved m y self an d tra p p in g s to th e so u rce of
w arm th . M aybe th e lig h t w a s n 't so good in th e k itch en , b u t it
was th e only room in th e house w ith th e pulse of life.
I p ain ted R egina sta n d in g beside h er cooker, w ith a wooden
spoon in one hand and a b o ttle of w ine in th e o th er. I p ain ted
th e way she held h er head back to sm ile, and I p ain ted th e sm ile,
shiny-eyed and guileless and u n m istak ab ly happy. I p ain ted th e
k itch en behind h er as I lite ra lly saw it in fro n t of m y eyes, and
I p ain ted R egina h erself fro m th e clearest of in n e r visions. So
easily did I see h er th a t I looked up once or tw ice from h e r face
on th e canvas to say som ething to h er, and was disconcerted to
fin d only em pty space. A n e x tra o rd in a ry feeling of th e real and
u n real d istu rb in g ly tan g led .
I seldom ever w orked fo r m ore th a n fo u r h o u rs a t a s tre tc h
because fo r one th in g th e actu al m u scu lar control req u ired was
tirin g , and fo r a n o th e r th e co n cen tratio n alw ays m ade me cold
and h u n g ry ; so I knocked o ff a t aro u n d lu n ch -tim e and dug o u t
a tin of corned beef to e a t w ith pickles on to a st, and a fte r th a t
w ent fo r a w alk, dodging th e fro n t-g a te w atch ers by ta lk in g to
th e apple tre e s and w rig g lin g th ro u g h th e hedge.
I tram p ed aim lessly fo r a w hile ro u n d th e sc a tte re d shape­
less v illag e, th in k in g ab o u t th e p ic tu re and w o rk in g o ff th e
b u r s t of p hysical en erg y I o fte n fe lt a fte r th e c o n s tra in t of
p a in tin g . M ore b u rn t um ber in th e folds of th e k itch en c u rta in s,
I th o u g h t; and a p u rp lish shadow on th e saucepan. R e g in a 's
cream s h irt needed yellow ochre u n d e r th e collar, and probably
a to u ch of green. The cooking stove needed a lot m ore a tte n ­
tio n , and I had broken m y general ru le of w orking th e p ic tu re
as a whole, background and subject pace by pace.
T his tim e, R e g in a 's face stood o u t clearly, fin ish e d except
fo r a gloss on th e lips and a line of lig h t along inside th e low er
eyelids, w hich one c o u ld n 't do u n til th e u n d e r p a in t was dry.
I had been a fra id of seeing h e r less clearly if I took too long,
b u t because of it th e p ic tu re was now o u t of balance and I'd
have to be v ery carefu l to g et th e k itch en in to th e sam e key, so
th a t th e w hole th in g looked harm o n io u s and n a tu ra l and as if
it c o u ld n 't have been any o th e r way.

151
The w ind was raw ly cold, th e sky a h u rry in g jum bled m ass of
d ark en in g clouds. I huddled m y hands inside my anorak pockets
and slid back th ro u g h th e hedge w ith th e f ir s t drops of rain .
The a fte rn o o n session w as m uch s h o rte r because of th e
lig h t, and I f r u s tr a tin g ly could n o t catch th e r ig h t m ix of
colours fo r th e tops of th e k itch en fitm e n ts . Even a f te r y ears
of experience, w h at looked rig h t on th e p a le tte looked w rong on
th e p a in tin g . I g o t it w rong th re e tim es and decided to stop.

The p o r tra it of R egina, th o u g h , was th e b est w ork I ’d


done fo r m o n th s. She laughed o u t of th e canvas, alive
and glow ing, and to me a t least seem ed v iv id ly h erself.
P ic tu re s o ften changed as one w orked on th em , and day
by day th e em phasis in m y m ind h ad s h ifte d , so th a t
th e k itc h e n b ack g ro u n d w as g row ing d a rk e r and less
d is tin c t and R egina h erself m ore lum inous. In th e end
I had p a in te d th e k itch en , w hich was s till th e re , as an
im pression, and th e g irl, who was n o t, as th e re a lity .

COM ENTARY

G LO SSARY
1. suicide самоубийство
2. fetch сходить за чем-то, принести
3. reverse зд. изменить
4. adapt приспособить
6. linseed льняное (масло)
7. tu rp en tin e очищенный скипидар
8. rack подставка, сетка,стойка
9. untelescope зд. раскрывать
10. guileless простодушный
11. disconcerted смущенный, приведенный
в замешательство
12. disturbingly обеспокоенно
13. tangled запутан
14. knock off прекратить работу
15. dodge увертываться, избегать
16. wrigle увиливать
17. tram p идти неохотно
18. huddle зд. засунуть руки
19. anorak анорак, куртка с капюшоном

152
SPEECH P A TTE R N S

1. If ever I jumped over a c liff, it w ould be in th e d ep ress­


ing m o n th s of decay.
If th e p ic tu re had any more colour it would be w rong.
If I didn’t buy this picture those two women would let me
go again.

2. ... it gave me at least som ething to do.


It gave me th e r ig h t to tell the truth to the artist.
H is a ttitu d e to p a in tin g gives me the possibility to p a r­
tic ip a te in th e ex h ib itio n

3. ... th e c o n cen tratio n alw ays made me cold and hungry.


H is b eh av io u r alw ays m akes me wild.
P lease come back and m ake me happy again.

4. the w hole th in g looked harm onious and natural.


.... w hat looked rig h t on th e pallet looked w rong on th e
p ain tin g .
The p a in te r looked frustrated a t th e s ig h t of th e scene.

PH RASES A N D W O RD C O M B IN A T IO N S

1. the tools of my trade инструменты моей профессии


2. portable studio переносная студия
3. unbreakable containers небьющиеся контейнеры
4. set out a pallete установить палитру
5 middling-sized canvas холст среднего размера
6 . 1 had no mind зд. не было желания
7. to sink into melancholy впадать в меланхолию
8. source of warm th источник тепла
9. the pulse of life пульс жизни
10. inner vision внутреннее видение
11. at a stretch без перерыва
12. for one thing ... for another thing с одной стороны ...
с другой стороны
13. a touch of green немного зеленой краски
14. pace by pace шаг за шагом
15. stand out clearly четко выступать
16. the rig h t m ix of colours правильное сочетание
красок

153
E S S E N T IA L V O C A B U L A R Y
balance — verb
1. to keep your body steady w ithout falling over, to put som ething
somewhere carefully so th a t it is steady and does not fall:
We all sat with plates balanced on our knees.
2 . to be steady in a position where it is possible to fall:
Jean went out, the tra y balancing precariously in one hand.
3. to create or preserve a good or correct balance between different
features or aspects:
We have to balance the needs and tastes of all our customers.
4. balance or balance out to reduce the effect, strength, or am ount
of som ething, and as a result make it better:
The dark colours are balanced by the brightness of the walls.
balance — noun.
1. [u] lose your balance:
He lost his balance and dropped his easel on the floor.
keep your balance:
She grabbed at the picture to keep her balance.
2. balance between:
I t can be hard to find the right balance between advising your
son to take up the brush and controlling him.
[c] strik e a balance (=achieve a good balance):
W e’re tryin g to strike the right balance so th a t the art classes
to be both enjoyable and useful
balance to:
His conservatism is the perfect balance to her artistic personality.
balance of:
You can use the balance of the time to finish the portrait.
m ental or emotional calm:
She quickly recovered her balance after the competition.
be/hang in the balance = you do not know w hether it will suc­
ceed or fail:
Jack’s artistic career is hanging in the balance while they con­
sider what to do.
frustrate — verb.
1. to make someone feel annoyed and im patient by preventing them
from doing or g etting som ething:
She has always been frustrated by her inability to draw.
A ctivists and reformers are frustrated by the public’s lack of
interest.
2. to prevent someone or som ething from succeeding:
fru stra te someone’s attem p ts/effo rts:
Their attitu de frustrated all our efforts to open an art school.
frustrated — ad j.
feeling annoyed and im patient because you are prevented from
achieving something:

154
Frustrated passengers have started to use other forms of trans­
port.
frustrated with:
Parents are increasingly frustrated with the local school sys­
tem.
frustrated at:
He gets so frustrated at not being able to apply e oil.
frustrating — adj
m aking you feel annoyed and im patient because you are p re­
vented from achieving something:
I t ’s frustrating to wait all day for a famous painter who doesn’t
show up.
frustratingiy adverb: frustratingly slow
frustration — noun.
an annoyed or im patient feeling th a t you get when you are pre­
vented from doing w hat you want:
a sense/feeling of fru stra tio n
There is a grow ing sense of frustration among artists.
fru stra tio n of the act of preventing som ething or someone from
being successful:
Their exhibition was frustration for the visitors.
vision — noun.
1. the ability to th ink about and plan for the fu tu re , using in telli­
gence and im agination, especially in politics, business and art:
He’s a good painter but he lacks vision of magical touch..
She showed bad taste in not liking th a t pictu re th a t required
real vision of the revolutionary m ethod which a d m itted no
half-measures.
2 . c. someone’s idea or hope of how som ething should be done, or
how it will be in the fu ture:
vision of:
a vision of an utopian society without money
vision for:
They outlined their vision for regenerating the old harbour
district.
3. unc. the ability to see: I have vision in only one eye.

155
ACTIVITIES
Consult a dictionary and practice the pronunciation of the following
words. Mark the main stressed syllabse in each of these words.
melancholy, psychiatric, suicide, occur, wondering, reversed, tough­
ened, interior, turpentine, untelescoped, honest, decisively, purpose­
ful, source, guileless, disturbingly, physical, saucepan, rawly, frus-
tratingly, emphasis .

2 . Pick out from the text all the adjectives and give their compara­
tive and superlative degrees.
E x a m p le :cold — colder — th e coldest,
sad — sad d er — th e sad d est,
f r u s tr a tin g — m ore f r u s tr a tin g — th e m ost
fr u s tr a tin g
3. Analyse the structure of the following words:
E xa m p le : unputdow nable
un — n eg ativ e p re fix
put-dow n — ro o t
able — ad jectiv e-fo rm in g s u ffix

depressing, wandering, traditional, portable, collapsible, preventing,


decisively, purposeful, unmistakably, disturbingly, aimlessly, shape­
less, purplish, frustratingly, downloadable, unthinkable, unintelligible.

4. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the underlined


word.
break___________________ love
Now I have an ... rule: Old Jolyon alw ays rem em bered
nev er to stu d y a t n ig h t. w h at a ... boy his son w as.

kiss_____________________ collapse
I te ll you w h at - she is The whole w eekend I was look-
th e m ost... g irl I ’ve in g fo r a ... bicycle,
ever m et.

fr u s tr a te ________________ d istu rb
A fte r tw o h o u rs ’ ... delay W h a t a nuisance em otionally ...
o u r tr a in a t la st a rriv e d , ch ild ren are!
There was som ething ...resolute
in th e way he talk ed to th e girl.

156
5. Explain the following word structures

shiny-eyed, fro n t-g a te , lu n c h -tim e r, headline,


m iddling-sized, h alf-fin ish ed
6. A. Finish the following sentences.

1.

1. If ever I b o u g h t a p ic tu re I w ould ...


2. If I d id n ’t p ain ted R eg in a m y cousin w ould ...
3. If m y frie n d d id n ’t a tte n d le ctu res on a r t he w ould ...
4. If th e p ro fesso r sp en t a few y ears in Ita ly he w ould ...
5. If we had m oney we w ould ...
2.
1. I am n o t a p rofessional p a in te r b u t it helps me ...
2. The book gave me a chance to ...
3. The fram e was v ery old b u t it gave th e a r tis t ...
4. The school w as n o t w ell-equipped b u t it gave th e s tu ­
d en ts ...
5. The m useum was sm all b u t it gave ...
3.

1. The a r tis t lo o k e d ..................................................


2. The te a c h e r looks ................................................
3. The m useum lo o k s ................................................
4. The la st p ic tu re l o o k s .........................................
5. The w om an in th e p ic tu re looked ...................
B. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

7. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Если бы худ ож н и к был тал ан тли вы м , он бы написал


сам ы й л у ч ш и й портрет. 2. Е сли бы м олодой ч еловек
поступил в университет, он бы получил прекрасное обра­
зование. 3. Если бы у м еня бы ли деньги, я бы поехала в
И талию заверш и ть свою учебу. 4. Если бы погода бы ла
хорош ей , я бы к о н ч и л ри совать к ар ти н у . 5. Е сли бы
мои родители не возраж али , я бы стала певицей.

1. Я не проф ессиональны й м у зы к ан т, но это дает мне


возм ож ность вы рази ть свои чувства. 2. В ы ставка д ала
ем у в о зм о ж н о сть п р о д ем о н стр и р о вать свои зн а н и я .

157
3. В о сп о л ьзу й тесь эти м сл у ч аем и вы у в и д и те , что
р езу л ь таты дадут Вам ш ан с участвовать в в ы ставк е.
4. Эти рассказы д оставляли лю дям огромное удовольст­
вие многие годы. 5. С тех пор к а к м ал ьчи к н ачал рисо­
вать, он нам не доставляет н и к а к и х хлопот.

1. Х удож ник вы глядел счастливы м и удовлетворенным.


2. П реподаватель к аза л ся расстроенны м и разочарован ­
ны м.
3. М узей вы глядел заброш енны м и непосещ аемы м.
4. П оследняя карти н а к аж ется законченной и ее счита­
ют самой лучш ей
5. Ж ен щ и н а на карти н е вы гл яд ела ж ивой и радостной.
8. Note down from the text the sentences containing the phrases
and word combinations

9. Choose some word combinations and act out a diologue.


A.
th e tools of m y tra d e ,
p o rtab le stu d io
have no m ind
fo r one th in g ... foe a n o th e r th in g
B.

th e r ig h t m ix of colours
a to u ch of green
m iddling-sized canvas
a t a s tre tc h

in n e r vision
th e pulse of life
pace by pace
sta n d o u t clearly.
10. Translate the following sentences into English
1. После того к а к я приобрел переносную студию , пульс
моей ж и зн и и зм ен и лся.
2. Х у д о ж н и к в згл я н у л на к ар ти н у студента и ск азал :
“Добавьте немного зеленой к р а с к и .”
3. Его внутренне видение не обмануло его.
4. Н ебью щ иеся контейнеры очень удобны в дороге.

158
5. Осень всегда вы зы вает у него грусть.
6. Все инструменты моей профессии легко ум ещ ались в
переносной студии, вклю чая холст среднего разм ера.
7. В течение н ескольких лет, ш аг за ш агом он п реврати л­
ся в зрелого мастера.
8. Ее м илы й образ сл уж и л д л я него постоянны м источ­
ником теп ла и вдохновения.
9. В инсент н аш ел удачное место и бы стро устан ови л
п али тру.
10. Его к ар ти н ы хар ак тер и зу ю тся п рави л ьн ы м соотно­
ш ением красок.
11. Match the words on the left with the words on the right
1. tim e of a p a in t
2. suicide b h arm o n io u s
3. d ep ressin g c m elancholy
4. m onths d w et p a in tin g s
5. gloom y e canvases
6. h alf-fin ish ed f ra te
7. a tin of g ochre
8. yellow h corn-beef
9. u n d e r of i decay
10. look j woods
12. True or false.
1. I w ent u p s ta irs to fetc h w hite s p irit.
2. The la rg e to u g h en ed su itc a se ... was in fa c t a p o rtab le
k itch en w ith a cooking stove.
3. The sunroom seem ed ch eerfu l and in v itin g .
4. I painted R egina stan d in g in the garden frig h ten ed and
pale.
5. I u su ally w orked fo r an h o u r or so a t a s tre tc h .
6. I tram p ed fo r a w hile ro u n d th e sc a tte re d shapeless v il­
lage in search of a new house.
7. The a fte rn o o n session was m uch longer because of th e
su n sh in in g b rig h tly .
8. I got it r ig h t on th e p a in tin g .
13 Finish the sentences with the text wording.
1. My s p irits fell each y ear w ith th e soggy leaves a n d ......
2. P s y c h ia tric s ta tis tic s p roved th a t th e h ig h e st su icid e
ra te occurred ... .
3. O ver y ears of w an d erin g jo u rn ey s I had rev ersed ... .

159
4 . 1 le ft th e h alf-fin ish ed canvas on th e table th e re and ... .
5. This tim e R e g in a ’s face stood o u t clearly ... .
6. I huddled m y h ands inside m y an o rak pockets and ... .
7. Even a f te r years of experience, w h at looked rig h t on th e
p a le tte ... .
8. In th e end I h ad p a in te d th e k itc h e n , w hich w as s till
th e re ... .
14 Explain what the auther meant by.
1. The o rg a n iz a tio n of th e su itcase m ade th e price of m any
a sandw ich.
2. ... th e fro n t door closing decisively on his p u rp o se fu l
fo o tstep s.
3 . 1 rem oved m yself and trap p in g s to th e source of w arm th.
4. I had no m ind to sink in to m elancholy.
5. I knocked o ff a t aro u n d lunch tim e.
6. I dug o u t a tin of corned beef.
7. The p ic tu re now was o u t of balance.
15. Answer the following questions
1. W hy did th e p a in te r h ate au tu m n ?
2. How did th e p a in te r rev erse his tra d itio n a l luggage?
3. The p a in te r a d m itte d th a t it was n o t his u su al s o rt of
p ic tu re , th e n w hy did he decide to do it?
4. The w r ite r s ta r te d se v e ra l tim e s th e se n te n c e s w ith
“I p a in te d . . . ” w h a t fe e lin g s of th e a r t i s t d id he w a n t
to convey?
5. W hy did he seldom w ork fo r m ore th a n fo u r h o u rs?
6. W h a t w as he th in k in g ab o u t w hile he tra m p e d ro u n d
th e village?
7. W hy could n o t he catch th e r ig h t m ix of colours fo r th e
top of th e k itch en ?
8. W h a t w as th e p a in te r 's o p in io n of th e p o r tr a i t of
R egina?
9. W h a t happens to p ic tu re s as a p a in te r w orks on them ?
10. Do you th in k D onald liked th e p ic tu re of his la te w ife?

160
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. A s G a u g u in in te n d e d , th e th in g th a t fa s c in a te s one
im m e d ia te ly a b o u t th is p a in tin g , b e fo re an y in te lle c tu a l,
c ritic a l m ethods are b ro u g h t in to use, is all-over harm ony of
th e th em e, w hich im p resses its e lf on th e consciousness like
th e d o m in an t th em e of sym phony. 2. U n d er th e in flu en ce of
his b a rb a ric isla n d his vision had grow n m ore c lear-cu t and
acu te, and had a tta in e d freedom ; his m ind had tra n s fo rm e d
th e S o u th S eas in to a s e ttin g fo r p o e tic an d m y s te rio u s
m y tlo s .3 .1 had had so m any visions of m y p ic tu re th a t re p re ­
sen ted tw o Ita lia n w om en ta lk in g th a t in an in s ta n t of tim e I
b o u g h t it. 4. One needs th e a b ility to p e n e tra te and share the
vision of the artist. 5. T his categ o ry w as m ain ly fo u n d ed on a
concept of n a tu ra l “b e a u ty ” and was to becom e a vehicle and
source of in s p ira tio n fo r new visu al concepts. 6. M onet k ep t
p a in tin g co u n tless la rg e and sm all v a ria tio n s on his th em es
on th e side, in o rd e r to assess structure and his vision s. 7. In
m a te ria l te rm s, V incent was to ta lly d ep en d en t on Theo, who
believed in his brother’s vision. 8. T his e x h ib itio n frustrated
me. 9. D oesn’t it fru strate you th a t audiences in th e a r t g a l­
leries are so re stric e d ? 10. R o b e rta fe lt frustrated and a n g ry
because h e r p ic tu re w as o u t of b alance. 11. T h e ir m a rria g e
is a d elicate balance betw een tra d itio n a l and c o n te m p o ra ry
v a lu e s. 12. It w as fru stra tin g to be o u t of th e A cadem y of
A r ts fo r a y e a r. 13. One needs th e a b ility to p e n e tra te and
share the vision of the artist. 14. T his categ o ry was m ainly
fo u n d ed on a concept of n a tu ra l “b e a u ty ” and was to becom e
a vehicle and source of in s p ira tio n fo r new v isu al concepts.
15. In sp ite of his o th erw ise ex cellen t vision, he fo u n d he was
colour-blind. 16. The young v illa g e rs re p o rte d seeing V irg in
M ary in a vision . 17. The p a in te r had visio n s of b ein g s u r ­
ro u n d ed by his a d m ire rs.

2. Make a list of negative adjectives the author uses in the text.


What effect do they produce? How do they convey
the painter’s state of mind? Is it the right atmosphere
to create a picture?

161
3. Fill in the gaps with the words in the box.

b e a u tifu l p ic tu re so close to n a tu re
a com m ent on life a r t i s t ’s w ork,
w ith in tim acy no sa tisfa c tio n
gay and am u sin g and odd of it in flu en ces
no ju s tific a tio n w a te r colours
A.

W h a t a lovely thing! As so o ften w ith th a t ...


it grew b e tte r and b e tte r ... you did n o t th in k
of its school, of its period, ..., it was sim ply
a tru e and ... It was n o t like th e p ic tu re s
aro u n d it, ..., n o r was it like th e
... in a n o th e r show th a t we had th a t afte rn o o n
been seeing, p re tty and old-fashioned and ...
as to be u n n a tu ra l. It was lovely as a r t and lovely
as .., and it needed ..., no
p raise, no em phasis. " Is n 't it lovely?" I said . . . .
B. Translate the text into Russian.

4. Word sets: arts. Underline the odd word in each set

h a rm on y, agreem en t, concord, c o n g r u ity /m a t­


rim o n y a d a p ta tio n , a d ju s tm e n t, reconciliation,
u n io n / c o n s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t , o r g a n is a tio n , c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n / m i x i n g , g r o u p in g gloss, shine, lease, p o l ­
ish, l u s t e r

5. Choose the right article.


C ontem porary w ork, how can you tell? I ’ve collected th ese
th in g s sim ply because I like th em and th e y are th e /a c o n sta n t
joy to m e, little scrap s of b e a u ty s c a tte re d up and down m y
little house. A nd m ay be t h a t ’s th e /a b est reason, a n /th e only
reason, fo r ow ning a /th e p ic tu re because you like it. Some p ic­
tu re s go f a r deeper th a n th a t, have th e /a n active positive life
of th e ir own. If th e y ta k e th e /a lik in g to you th e y can save
y o u r life, and if th e y d e te st you th e y can ru in it.
6. Restore the order of the text from the jumbled sentences.
1 .1 n o rm ally ch u rn ed one o ff th e p ro d u ctio n line every te n
days or so, know ing th a t th e y w ere all tech n iq u e and no soul.
2. Picture of th ese s o rt, easy to live w ith and passab ly e x p ert,

162
w ere m y bread and b u tte r. 3. I m ade p ro g ress w ith b o th th e
p a in tin g s. 4. T he sad landscape was no lo n g er sad b u t m erely
O ctoberish, w ith th re e horses sta n d in g aro u n d in a field, one
of th em e atin g g rass.

7. Match the two halves of the sentences.

1. The p ic tu re is done e n tire ly and learn fro m each


in tin y dots, o th e r.
2. He w orked in his studio, com­ how m eticulously S e u ra t
p leting section every day, p rep ared th e p a in tin g .
3. In a le tte r P issa rro gave an th e indefatigable su p ­
econom ical d escrip tio n of p o rte r of in n o v ato ry a r t ­
th e tech n iq u e S e u ra t had ists.
4. F o u rteen su rv iv in g stu d ie s was co n tin u ally a t tr a c t­
and some d raw in g s show in g new follow ers.
5. In la te 1888, G auguin and a fte r th o ro u g h stu d y of
Gogh m ade th e ir fam ous th e scien tific th eo ries.
a tte m p t to w ork to g e th e r
6. B e rn a rd ’s w ork included a like a fresco p a in te r or
vig o ro u s, co n cen trated p o r­ m osaic a r tis t.
tr a i t of P ere T anguy,
7. T ouluse-L autrec w as a sk il­ in clu d in g th e s trip .
fu l d ra u g h ts m an to c a p tu re
c h a ra c te r, m o m en tary mood
of a person in facial ex p res­
sion, and body language and
8. By th e la te 1 8 8 0 's, th ro u g h th ese th a t p e r­
Im pressionism was firm ly so n ’s social situ a tio n .
estab lish ed , fa m ilia r even
o u tsid e F rance and

8 . Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Тю бики с ж елтой краской опустош ались мгновенно,
и кисть щ едро наносила ее на полотно.
2. Внезапно он п онял, что задний план карти н ы оставал­
ся вне п оля зрени я.

163
3. Х у д о ж н и к только на м гновение увидел море, и это
видение никогда его не покидало.
4. Я помню чудное м гновение, передо мной яви лась ты
к а к мимолетное видение к а к гений чистой красоты .
5. К арти ну неудачно повесили, и она оказалась вне поля
зрени я посетителей.
6. Н аш декан был прони цательн ы й человек, и ничто от
него не ускользало.
7. Р ом антические грезы юности — это сам ая счатл и вая
пора ж и зн и .
8. Ему не разреш или вы ехать за границу, и это расстрои­
ло все его планы .
9. Он вы ш ел из себя из за п у стяк а и н и к ак не мог совла­
дать с собой.
10. Зн ам ен и ти ы й худ ож н и к был ум ны м человеком и по­
ним ал, что создать хорош ую кар ти н у ничуть не л ег­
че, чем найти алм аз или ж ем чуг.

9. Fill in the gaps with proper prepositions.


... 1883 M onet had m oved ... a house ... G iverny w hich he
su b seq u en tly b o u g h t. The hom e becam e th e cen tre ... his ex is­
tence, ... w hich he ra re ly w e n t... fo ray s ... new subjects. ... th e
tu r n ... th e c e n tu ry he tra v e lle d once ag ain ... London w here
... his ho tel w indow he p ain ted th e T ham es, th e b rid g es and
th e H ouses ... P a rlia m e n t ... th e a u tu m n and w in te r m ists.
The sole reason M onet gave ... tra v e llin g ... London was
th e fog. H is p a in tin g s are tig h tly -w o v en fab rics ... s h o rt b ru sh
stro k es. The palpably m a te ria l te x tu re ... oils and canvas is
g re a te r th a n t h a t ... th e su b jects, w hich seem in s u b s ta n tia l ...
th e haze. M onet su b seq u en tly a ttu n e d th e colours ... th e v a r i­
ous p ic tu re s ... his stu d io , and ex h ib ited th em as a series a t
D u ran d -R u el’s in 1904.
... 1912 he had c a ta ra c ts ... b o th eyes, and ... 1923 had to
have an o p eratio n ... th e r ig h t eye. It was some tim e before he
could be provided ... g enuinely h elp fu l spectacles, and he had
to rely ... his own know ledge ... p a in t and th e effects ... m ixed
colours, w hen placing colours ... his su rface according ... th e
label ... th e tu b e or th e ir positio n ... his p allet.
10 Discussing ideas
1 .W hen you are faced w ith th e need to do a p ictu re w here do
you p refer to s ta r t it?
2. Do you th in k th a t g e ttin g aw ay fro m y o u r norm al work-

164
in g en v iro n m en ts cre a ts th e rig h t atm o sp h ere in w hich
to p a in t a p ic tu re?
3. If you w anted to have a creativ e ddiscussion w ith y o u r
colleagues, w here w ould you hold it? E xplain w hy?
4. Choose th re e a d je c tiv e s fro m th is lis t to a ta le n te d
p a in te r.
f a m o u s , w ell-fa m o u s , n o te d , w ell-kn ow n , r e v o lu ­
tio n a r y , original, in te llec tu a l, ren ow ned , a d m i r e d ,
l e g e n d a r y , celebrated one o f the g r e a t e s t
5. If you w ere choosing a p ic tu re as a p re se n t fo r you frie n d
w h at p a in te r w ould you p re fe r? E xplain why?

165
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
CONTEMPORARY ARTS:
GRAFFITI & INSTALLATION

BEFORE YO U READ

Discuss these questions.


1. Have you ever done g raffiti?
2. Have you seen any installation, made by a professional artist?
Describe it.
3. Give the definition of the installation a rt (from the tex t or your
own).

R E A D IN G T A S K S

Understanding main points


Answer these questions
Graffiti
1. W hat do you need to create g raffiti?
2. W here did the word “g ra ffiti” come from ?
3. W hat do “tag s” or “h its” mean?
4. Are there any messages in g raffiti?
5. W hat surfaces do young people and artists use?
6. Find the difference between the firs t g ra ffiti and the later ones.
Understanding details

1. Mark these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the


information in the text.

1. The use of spray-can p a in t becam e a p o p u lar phenom ­


enon am ong th e m ost pro sp ero u s businessm en.
2. The f i r s t m o d ern g r a f f it i a r t w as w o rk ed in m any
b rig h t colors.
3. G ra ffiti rap id ly sp read w orldw ide and becam e an in te ­
g ral p a rt of y o u th c u ltu re .
4. G ra ffiti a r t was approved by M in istry of E ducation.
5. Some g r a f f iti are ex h ib ited in a r t m useum s.
6. G ra ffiti a r tis ts use te m p e ra fo r th e ir b est “ta g s ” .
7. R ailroad sta tio n s, and especially tra in s , w ere a fa v o rite
focus of g r a ffiti a rtis ts activ ity .
8. Since an cien t R om an tim es, th e te rm g r a f f iti had t r a ­
d itio n ally been used as a s ig n a tu re on docum ents.
2. How the text is organized.
These sentences summarise the main idea of each paragraph.
Match the sentence to the correct paragraph.

1. A sign language fo r everyday com m unication.


2. W h ere you can see g r a ff iti.
3. H isto ry and essence of g r a ff iti.
3. Match these words as they occur together in the text.

sp ray phenom enon


ra ilro a d m o tifs
subw ay tra in s
sim plified co n to u r
d ecorative s ta tio n
zigzag fig u re s
p o p u lar can

GRAFFITI
The use of spray-can p a in t became a popular phenom enon in
1969 w hen teenagers in th e poorer neighborhoods of New Y ork
began sp ray in g it on w alls. The w ord g ra ffiti comes from th e
Ita lia n and m eans som eth in g "scratch ed " or "incised." Since
ancient R om an tim es, th e te rm had tra d itio n a lly been used to
designate th e in scrip tio n s and draw ings etched on w alls in pu b ­
lic places. The f ir s t m odern g ra ffiti a r t was w orked in a single
color and contained only th e sp ra y e r's nam e a n d /o r trad e m ark .
Such sig n a tu re s w ere know n as "h its" or "ta g s." L a te r th e y
were supplem ented by "pieces," or p ictorial g ra ffiti. The focus
of in te re s t was provided by a w ord, usually th e sp ra y e r's nam e,
th e background being form ed by a less clearly defined space or
surface w ith zigzag contours. These surfaces w ere em bellished
w ith f u rth e r decorative m otifs such as arabesques, s ta rs , check­
erboard p a tte rn s, e tc ., to w hich w ritte n m essages or dedications
m ig h t be added. This type of g ra ffiti rap id ly spread w orldw ide
and became an in teg ral p a rt of yo u th cu ltu re.
R ailro ad s ta tio n s , and especially tr a in s , w ere a fa v o rite
focus of th is a c tiv ity . In New Y ork, tw o subw ay tra in s achieved

167
a k in d of fam e: th e Freedom T rain , co n sistin g of eleven cars
and created in 1976; and th e C h ristm as T rain , a te n -c a r piece
of D ecem ber 1977. W hen th e y pulled in to th e s ta tio n , people
sp o n ta n e o u sly a p p la u d e d — an ev e n t w hich did n o t p re v e n t
th e sp ray ers fro m being a rre ste d fo r v an d alism . In th e 1980s
g r a ffiti began to e n te r a r t m useum s, th e w orks of th re e a r tis ts
being fe a tu re d in 1982 a t th e p re stig io u s D ocum enta e x h ib i­
tio n in G erm any: B asq u iat, H arin g , and Q uinones.
H aving stu d ie d a r t, H a rin g tu rn e d his back on g allery and
m useum a r t a t an early stag e and adopted g r a ffiti as w h at he
re fe rre d to as a sig n lan g u ag e fo r everyday com m unication.
He developed a v ery p erso n al to u c h and sty le, fe a tu rin g his
c h a ra c te ristic sim plified c o n to u r fig u re s set a g a in st a b r ig h t­
ly colored b ack g ro u n d . These w ere fre q u e n tly su p p lem en ted
by w ritte n m essages, such as appeal to avoid d ru g s.

Read the text and answer the questions.

INSTALLATION ART
M any a rtists have found th e trad itio n al m edia of painting,
sculpture and printm aking inadequate to convey th e ir intentions.
T heir search fo r m ore im m ediate and all-em bracing m eans of
expression has led to the idea of installation. This is a combination
of various objects and m aterials displayed in a real room, purpose -
made or else pre-existent. The elements used are either taken from
the environm ent or made to order by the artist. Installations are
frequently created for the duration of the exhibition only and pre­
served for posterity in photographic or video-form.
Installations are designed for a variety of purposes: as a reac­
tion to everyday experience, as an urge to record memries of the
past, or as an expression of hope for the fu tu re. The list of pos­
sible media is endless: fam iliar objects as radios and TV sets, fash­
ion item s, neon signs, pictures, photos, books - anything can be
co-opted into a new and original environm ent. A ugm ented by
m usic, voice recordings, or video, an alm ost th eatrical space is
constructed which can frequently actually be entered by viewers.
They experience a new, unprecedented world, a context in which
th e fam iliar becomes stran g e - a tran sfo rm atio n w hich is th e
essence of art.
One of th e p rem ier a r tis ts w orking in th e m edium is th e
A m erican A nn H am ilto n who w as chosen to in sta ll a w ork in
th e n a tio n 's neo-classical p av ilio n in V enice, w hich is used
every tw o years fo r an in te rn a tio n a l a r t ex h ib itio n .

168
Ms. H am ilton's style is to take a bewildering variety of m ateri­
als - anything from cut flowers to wool coats, bird carcasses, lum ps
of soot, decaying bread dough, and horsehair — and arrange them
into a purposefully disorganized pile of a rt. In Venice, fo r th e
1999 show, she placed an enormous veil of w ater glass in fro n t of
the pavilion th a t both fram ed and radically obscured the stru c ­
tu re 's 90-foot length and 18-foot height. Set three yards from the
entrance, the steel-and-glass wall distorted the pavilion, m aking it
look som ething like the other side of a fun-house m irror.
In sid e, she had som e fu c h sia -h u e d pow der cascad in g slow ­
ly dow n th e w alls. T his g a ris h pow der piled up on B raille d o ts
H am ilto n a rra n g e d th a t spelled o u t v erses re la tin g to h u m an
s u ffe rin g . The pow der slow ly descended fro m th e to p of th e
g a lle ry w alls, and as tim e p assed, th e pow der b u ilt up a ro u n d
th e w h ite d o ts, m ak in g th e m p a rtia lly v isib le, y et s till f r u s ­
tr a tin g th e v ie w e r's a b ility to re a d w h a t th e y say. M u tte rin g
s o ftly in th e b a c k g ro u n d w as H a m ilto n 's w h isp ered r e n d i­
tio n of e x c e rp ts fro m A b ra h a m L in c o ln 's second in a u g u ­
ra l a d d re ss, w hich deals w ith c u rin g th e w ounds caused by
slav ery . You m ig h t n o t u n d e rs ta n d it because Ms. H am ilto n
spelled o u t th e w ords le tte r by le tte r in in te rn a tio n a l a lp h a ­
b e t code (alp h a, b rav o , c h a rlie , d e lta , and so on).
H am ilto n called h e r piece M yein, w hich comes fro m th e
an cien t G reek w ord fo r m y ste ry and in itia tio n and also re fe rs
to an abnorm al c o n tra ctio n of th e eye's pupil.

G LO SSARY
posterity потомки
augm ent пополнять
disparate несопоставимый
evoke вызывать чувства
longing стремление
dimension измерение
lump выступ, большое количество
soot сажа
decay гниение
dough тесто
fuchsia фуксия
garish яркий, кричащ ий
rendition толкование
pupil зрачок

169
Answer these questions

1. W h a t m a te ria ls can be used fo r in sta lla tio n ?


2. H ave you ever done it y o u rself? If you did, describe it.
3. R ead th e d e sc rip tio n of Ms H a m ilto n 's w ork. Do you
like it? W h a t im pression did you get?
Over to you
Put these sentences into the correct order and read the description
of the installation:
1. A drop of w a te r em erges fro m a sm all b rass ta p . 2. It
is m ag n ified by a video cam era and p ro jected on a larg e
screen. 3.T he close-up im age reveals th a t th e view er and
p a rt of th e room w here th e y sta n d are visible inside each
fo rm in g drop. 4. The drop sw ells and sh u d d ers as it re a c h ­
es su rfa c e te n sio n . 5. I t fin a lly fa lls and c re a te s a loud
re so n a n t sound as it lan d s on an am p lified d ru m below.
6. A new drop im m ed iately begins fo rm in g . 7. The cycle
co n tin u es in in fin ite re p e titio n .
Here are two more descriptions. Read them and try to understand:
what the artist tried to express by his installation?

• The a r tis t p resen ted his "sound p a in tin g ” . He connected


h u n d re d s of all-sized bells w ith 150 fe e t of chord and
designed a m echanism w hich w ould a t once trig g e r v a r i­
ous bells w hen one bell w as touched or affected by a p e r­
son. The bells w ere s tu n g all over th e g allery , rin g in g
random ly and chaotically th ro u g h o u t th e n ig h t.
• In th e c en ter of th e room th e re is a red Volvo- equipped
w ith a long block engine and propane fuel system — atop
of a p en tag ram . The vehicle is u n d e r a g ia n t n e t, grip p ed
in th e jaw s of five g ia n t alu m in u m heads of th e A ztec
goddess of b ir th , T lazlteo tl. T his m odified fam ily -car
g liste n s w ith h o t flam es and it is s u rro u n d e d by th e
sounds of w ind in th e gallery.

170
APPENDIX
THE PREFACE
THE a r tis t is th e c re a to r of b e a u tifu l th in g s.
To reveal a r t and conceal th e a r tis t is a r t ’s aim .
The c ritic is he who can tra n s la te in to a n o th e r m an n er or a
new m a te ria l his im pression of b e a u tifu l th in g s.
The h ig h e st as th e low est fo rm of c ritic ism is a m ode of
au to b io g rap h y .
Those who fin d ugly m eanings in b e a u tifu l th in g s are co r­
ru p t w ith o u t being ch arm in g . T his is a fa u lt.
Those who fin d b e a u tifu l m eanings in b e a u tifu l th in g s are
th e c u ltiv a te d . F or th ese th e re is hope.
They are th e elect to w hom b e a u tifu l th in g s m ean only
B eauty.
T here is no such th in g as a m oral or an im m oral book.
Books are well w ritte n , or badly w ritte n . T h at is all.
The n in e te e n th c e n tu ry dislike of R ealism is th e rag e of
C aliban seeing his own face in a glass.
The n in e teen th cen tu ry dislike of R om anticism is th e rage
of Caliban n o t seeing his own face in a glass. The m oral life of
m an form s p a rt of th e su b ject-m atter of th e a rtis t, b u t th e m ora
J ity of a r t consists in th e p erfect use of an im perfect m edium .
No a r tis t desires to prove a n y th in g . Even th in g s th a t are
tru e can be proved.
No a r tis t has eth ical sy m p ath ies. A n eth ical sy m p ath y in
an a r tis t is an unp ard o n ab le m an n erism of style.
No a r tis t is ever m orbid. The a r tis t can express ev ery th in g .
T h o u g h t and la n g u a g e are to th e a r t i s t in s tr u m e n ts of
an a r t.
Vice and v irtu e are to th e a r tis t m a te ria ls fo r an a rt.
From th e p o in t of view of fo rm , th e type of all th e a rts is
th e a r t of th e m usician. From th e p o in t of view of feeling, th e
a c to r’s c ra ft is th e type.
A ll a r t is a t once su rface and sym bol.
Those who go b en eath th e su rface do so a t th e ir p eril. Those
who read th e sym bol do so a t th e ir p eril.
It is th e s p e c ta to r, and n o t life, th a t a r t really m irro rs .
D iv ersity of opinion about a w ork of a r t shows th a t th e w ork
is new, com plex, and v ita l.
W hen c ritic s d isag ree th e a r tis t is in accord w ith him self.
W e can fo rg iv e a m an fo r m aking a u sefu l th in g as long as he
does n o t adm ire it. The only excuse fo r m ak in g a useless th in g
is th a t one adm ires it im m ensely. A ll a r t is q u ite useless.
O S C A R W ILD E

172
NOTES OF ART TERMS

MUSEUM, ART GALLERY, PICTURE GALLERY

M useum
M useum is in m o st, b u t n o t all-cases, an e q u iv a le n t of
м у з е й , th a t is, a b u ild in g in w hich objects illu s tra tin g h is to ­
ry , science, c u ltu re are displayed. T hus in a m useum we expect
to fin d , fo r exam ple, p o tte ry , w eapons, o rn am e n ts, f u rn itu re ,
costum es and docum ents illu s tra tin g th e life of some p a st age
o r period. Specialized m useum s co n tain objects “re la tin g to a
p a rtic u la r sp h ere of a c tiv ity , fo r exam ple, th e th e a tre , m u si­
cal in s tru m e n ts , railw ays. A m useum m ay also co n tain w orks
of a r t, such as p a in tin g s, d raw in g s and sc u lp tu re , b u t th a t is
n o t g en erally its m ain purpose, a t le ast in B rita in . A m erican
usage d iffe rs in th is resp ect, and th e espressions a r t m useum ,
m useum of a r t are used in th e USA of a b u ild in g w here w orks
of a r t are show n.
An open-air m useum , as its nam e im plies, is n o t a b u ild in g ,
b u t a collection of e x h ib its, u su a lly a rc h ite c tu ra l, a rra n g e d
outside. F or exam ple, a b ro ch u re about th e city of C hichester
co n tain s th e follow ing d escrip tio n of its open-air m useum :
“S et in a g e n tly slo p in g , p a rtia lly w ooded v alley , th is
m useum provides a u n iq u e o p p o rtu n ity of seeing how co u n ­
tr y people in s o u th e rn E n g lan d lived fro m m edieval tim e s
onw ards. The m ain purpose of th e m useum is to select b u ild ­
in g s, th re a te n e d by decay or dem olition and re-erect th em on
th is 35-acre site. A n e n tire social h isto ry of th e r u ra l area is
d em o n strated by th e ex h ib its b ro u g h t to g e th e r h e re .”
O pen-air m useum corresponds to м узей под о т кр ы т ы м
небом, заповедник, and can be used of such places as K hizhi.
The K h izh i Open-Air M u s e u m
R eserve and reservation are ra re ly if ev er used in th is
sense.
M useum is n o t a p p ro p ria te in cases w here th e b u ild in g
its e lf is of p rim e im p o rtan ce, r a th e r th a n w h at is displayed
th e re , or w here n o th in g is displayed. In th e R u ssian F ed eretio n

173
th is applies p a rtic u la rly to ch u rch es and c a th e d ra ls such as
S t. Is a a k ’s C ath ed ral in S t. P e te rb e rg , and th o se in Moscow
K rem lin , w hich are no lo n g er used fo r services, b u t are p re ­
serv ed as a rc h ite c tu ra l m o n u m en ts and open to th e public,
and to palaces. Such b u ild in g s should be called a rc h ite c tu ra l
m onum ents (open to th e public), and we can say of th e m , fo r
exam ple:
The Church/Cathedral/Palace is no longer used for servic­
es/lived in, but is preserved (by the s ta te ) as an architectural
monument for people to visit.
N ote th a t fo rm e r palace is used only w hen follow ed by th e
nam e of th e fo rm er.
The form er palace of Count Grigori Potemkin. T his is
because palace re fe rs to th e ty p e of b u ild in g , irre sp e c tiv e of
its p re se n t fu n c tio n .
M u seu m is n o t g e n e ra lly used of houses o r fla ts w here
fam ous people lived, unless th e objects displayed th e re are a t
le ast as im p o rta n t as th e place itse lf. Sim ply house is used.
Dickens’ House, in London
F lat ra re ly if ever occurs in such cases, because fla ts are
n o t tr a d itio n a l in B rita in , b u t it m ay be used to tr a n s la te
музей-квартира. Дом-музей and м узей-кварт ира sh o u ld
th e re fo re be tra n s la te d as house and flat.
Repin’s House Pushkin’s Flat
Since th e person is fam ous and th e house or f la t is open
to th e public, it is clear th a t it is specially a rra n g e d to illu s ­
tr a te th e p e rs o n ’s life. If th e house o r f la t is th e one w here
th a t person was b o rn , birthplace can be used, as in th e case of
S h ak esp eare’s B irth p lace in S tratfo rd -o n -A v o n .

Art gallery
A n art gallery is a b u ild in g or room w here p ic tu re s a n d /o r
sc u lp tu re are ex h ib ited . T his concept is a se p a ra te one fro m
m useum , as illu s tra te d by such p ro p er nam es as:
Birmingham Museum and A r t Gallery
In cases w here th e re is only an a r t g allery , n o t com bined
w ith a m useum , sim ply g allery is used in th e nam e.
The National Gallery.
The H a y w a rd Gallery
Gallery m ay also denote a room w ith in an a r t gallery.
We had no time left for the last two galleries.
Room, how ever, is m ore com m on in th is sense.

174
Picture gallery
This is som etim es used in ste ad of a r t g a l l e r y in cases w here
only p ic tu re s are on show. In p ractice it g en erally denotes sm all
galleries, o ften p riv a te . I t ra re ly occurs in p ro p er nam es. H ere
sim ply g a l l e r y is used, as in th e case of a r t galleries.
S o m e L o n d o n M u s e u m s a n d A r t Galleries

Here are the nam es of the m ost w ell-know n m useum s and


art galleries in London, all public.

M useums
The B ritish M useum
h isto ric a l and archeological ex h ib its, g rap h ics.
The B ritis h M useum also has a refe re n c e lib ra ry , called
the B r i ti s h M u s e u m R e a d i n g Room, w hich is n o t sim ply p a r t of
th e M useum , b u t is th e la rg e st and m ost im p o rta n t referen ce
lib ra ry in B rita in .
The V ictoria and A lbert M useum
fin e and applied a rts of all c o u n tries, periods and styles.
N am ed a f te r Queen V icto ria and h e r h u sband A lb ert.
The Science Museum
ex h ib its illu s tra tin g th e h is to ry of science ( е с т е с т в о з н а ­
ние ) and in d u s try .
The N atural H istory M useum
ex h ib its re la tin g to b o tan y and zoology.
The New London Museum
a m useum of th e h is to ry of London (form ed by a m e rg ­
er of tw o m useum s, th e G uildhall and th e London M useum )
housed in a larg e m odern b u ild in g n e a r S t. P a u l's C ath ed ral
and opened in 1977.

A r t galleries
The N ational Gallery
E uropean a r t of all schools.
The N ational Portrait Gallery
p o rtra its of notable people, fro m th e M iddle A ges to th e
p re se n t tim e.
The Tate Gallery
B ritish p a in tin g s of all periods, m odern fo reig n p a in tin g ,
m odern sc u lp tu re .
The Hayward Gallery

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a sm all g allery b u ilt in th e 1960s by th e G re a te r London
Council on th e so u th bank of th e T ham es, n e x t to th e R oyal
F estiv al H all, fo r special ex h ib itio n s.
The gallery of the Royal Academ y, in B u rlin g to n H ouse,
n e a r Piccadilly. This is used only fo r special ex h ib itio n s.
The R oyal A cadem y of A rts w as fo u n d ed in 1768, w ith S ir
J o sh u a R eynolds as f ir s t p re sid e n t, “fo r th e purpose of c u l­
tiv a tin g and im p ro v in g th e a r ts of p a in tin g , s c u lp tu re and
a rc h ite c tu re .”
A rtis ts who are m em bers of th e R oyal A cadem y m ay p u t
th e le tte rs R .A . a f te r th e ir nam e.
S i r J o s h u a R e y n o ld s , R A .

176
EXHIBITION, EXHIBIT, SHOW, DISPLAY

Exhibition
This corresponds in general to вы ст а вка , вы ст авочны й
and is used in th e follow ing expressions:
art exhibition
special exhibition — врем енная вы ставка
N ote th a t te m p o ra ry ex h ib itio n is ra re ,
perm anent exhibition — п остоянная вы ставка
This is less o ften used in p ractice th a n special exh ib itio n ,
since ex h ib itio n s are n o t u su ally p erm an en t,
exhibition of ...
an exhibition o f E n g lish water-colours/ works by R ussion
a rtists/w o rk s from R ussion m u seum s
(name of a r t is t ) ... exhibition
There’s going to be a T u rn e r exhibition n e x t m onth.
W h en does the T u rn er exhibition open?
one-m an exhibition — персональная вы ставка
( Speaking o f an a r tis t) H e had a one-man exhibition last
year.
centenary /b icen ten ary’exhibitlon
These expressions are often used of exhibitions held to m ark
th e h u n d re d th /tw o -h u n d re d th an n iv ersary of an a r tis t’s b irth .
(on a p o ste r a d v e rtisin g an e x h ib itio n ) H e n r y M a tisse:
A C entenary E xhib itio n
I n 1975 there was a bicentenary exhibition o f the works of
Turner.
These expressions can only be tra n s la te d in to R u ssian by:
вы ст а вка , посвящ ен н а я ст о лет и ю / д вухсо т лет и ю со дня
рож дения худож ника.
T e rc e n te n a r y (3 0 0 th a n n iv e r s a r y ) , q u a te r c e n te n a r y
(400th) and q u in c en ten ary (5 0 0 th , som etim es q u in g e n ten ary )
also e x ist, alth o u g h th e y are less o ften needed.
A nniversary is used in cases w here th e re is n o t an exact
nu m b er of h u n d red s.
50th,/ 6 0 th / 75 t h / 150th a n n iversary exhibition
travellin g exhibition
T h ey chose the na m e “P e r e d v iz h n ik i” because they had
decided to show their works to the coun try as a whole by m eans
o f tra velling exhibitions.

177
exhibition hall — вы ставочны й зал
The E a r l s Court E x h ib itio n H a l l in L o n d o n is u sed f o r such
exh ib ition s as the I d e a l H o m e E x h ib itio n a n d the M o t o r Show ,
but not fo r a r t exhibitions.
The follow ing v erb s are used w ith e x h ib itio n fro m an o rg a ­
n iz a tio n a l.p o in t of view: o rg an ize, a rra n g e , hold, m o u n t.

E xh ibit
exhibit
A s a verb th is corresponds to вы ставлять(ся).
H i s work w as e x h ib ite d a t the R o y a l A c a d e m y .
H e often e x h ib its in A m e r ic a .
A s a noun it m eans экспонат in B ritish E nglish.
The T u t a n k h a m u n e x h ib itio n c o n s i s t e d of f i f t y e x h ib its
fro m the tom b of the y o u n g P h a rao h.
In A m erican E nglish, how ever, it is a synonym of exhibi­
tion.
W e w e n t to an i n t e r e s t i n g e x h ib it y e s te r d a y .

Show
Show, as a verb or a noun, m ay be used in ste ad of ex h ib it,
ex h ib itio n
in some cases, a lth o u g h it is less specific, since it can be
applied n o t only to a r t
H i s e a r l i e r w o rk s w ill be sh o w n fr o m J a n u a r y 1 5 th . on
show.
The R o y a l A c a d e m y S u m m e r S h ow the n a m e of an a n n u a l
exhibition.

Display
display
T his w ord is n o t g e n e ra lly used in th e sense of e x h ib it,
e x h ib itio n , s h o w , as illu s tr a te d above. In an a r t c o n te x t it
occurs m ainly in such sentences as:
H i s work d i s p l a y s a w o n d e r fu l fe elin g fo r nature.
O th e rw ise i t is u sed p a r tic u la r ly in c o n n e c tio n w ith
shops.
There w a s a b ea u tifu l d i s p l a y of china in the shop window .
an d in su c h g e n e ra l s e n te n c e s as: H e d i s p l a y e d g r e a t
courage.

178
Going Round a Museum or Art Gallery
Go t o / r o u n d is m ore com m on in co n v ersatio n and in fo rm al
w ritin g th a n v isit. A s a noun, how ever, v is it is m ore o ften used,
probably since go t o / r o u n d can n o t be used su b sta n tia lly .
A p e rso n v is itin g a m u seu m m ay be called a v i s i t o r ,
a lth o u g h th is w ord is avoided by m any people in c o n v e rsa ­
tio n .
T here are tw o w ays of going ro u n d a m useum or gallery:
w ith a guide or on on e's own
w ith /in a group; by oneself
on a g u id e d /co n d u cted to u r
Rem em ber th a t guide is also used in the sense of guide book.
Let's go to the bookstall a n d see if they've got a guide (book).
E x c u r s io n should n o t be used in th e sense of “guided to u r ” .
H ow ever, it m ay be used of an o r g a n iz e d v i s i t to ( not r o u n d )
a m useum or gallery.
There's a n excu rsio n to the H e r m i t a g e tom orrow.
We're g o in g on a n excu rsio n to the H e r m i t a g e tom orrow.
S c h o o l p a r t y is u sed fo r a g ro u p of sc h o o lc h ild re n v i s i t ­
in g a m u seu m .
There are a lot of school p a r t i e s in the m u s e u m s a t this tim e
o f year.
R oom , n o t h a l l , is th e u su al w ord fo r a room in a m useum
w here w orks of a r t are ex h ib ited , even if it is a larg e one.
( S p ea k in g of an exhibition) — The fir s t room contains m a in ­
ly dr a w in g s a n d water-colours. The oils are in the n ex t room.
There are sev e r a l rooms on the f i r s t floor d e v o te d to ( the
works o f ) the I m p r e s s io n is ts .

Gallery is som etim es used in th is sense, especially if th e


room is long and n arro w , a lth o u g h g a lle r y m ore o ften denotes
a w hole b u ild in g .

179
WORK OF ART

N ote th a t work of art is th e u su al expression co rresp o n d ­


in g to п ро и звед ен и е и с к у с с т в а . A r t work is occasionally used
by a r tis ts , a r t c ritic s, etc., b u t is n o t to be g en erally recom ­
m ended. P iece of a r t is n o t used, a lth o u g h , occurs in o th e r
expressions .

W orks of art are u su ally classified as follows:


1. painting — живопись
2. graphic art — графика sometimes called the graphic a rts
or graphics.
H ow ever, a lth o u g h th e se are th e p ro p e r te rm s , th e ir
use is confined m ainly to p ro fessio n al circles. The g en ­
eral public te n d to use m ore specific w ords, especially:
d r a w in g s , p r i n t s , d r a w i n g s and p r i n t s .
3. sculpture — с к у л ь п т у р а
4. applied art — п р и к л а д н о е и с к у с с т в о

H ere are some exam ples of usage:


a. I like p a i n t i n g ( s ), but I f i n d d r a w i n g s a n d p r i n t s r a t h e r
d i f f i c u l t to appreciate.
b. — I w e n t to a n e x h ib itio n o f w ork s by M o s c o w a r t i s t s
y e s t e r d a y , a t the A r t i s t s 9 Union.
— Oh yes? W h a t are th e y showing? J u s t p a i n t i n g ( s )?
— W ell, i t ’s m o s t l y p a i n t i n g ( s ), but there are g ra p h ics
a n d sc u lp tu re as well, a n d a room of applied art.

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PAINTING, PICTURE, CANVAS

P A IN TIN G

Since p a in tin g arouses th e w idest in te re s t, it w ill be tr e a t ­


ed in some d etail.
P aintin g can be used in tw o ways:
1. as an u n co u n tab le noun, co rresp o n d in g to ж и во п и сь ,
I like p a i n ti n g .
2. as a countable noun , m eaning a p ic tu re in p a in t,
T h ere a re m a n y p a i n t i n g s by R e p in in th e R u s s i a n
M useum.

A painting m ay be in oil o r w ater colour. This second sense


has no ex act R u ssian eq u iv alen t, and u su ally has to be tr a n s ­
lated as к а р т и н а , sam e w ay as p i c t u r e .
P icture is m ore g en eral th a n p ain tin g, since i t in clu d es
n o t only w orks in p a in t (oil p a in tin g s and w ater-colours), b u t
also d r a w in g s , p r i n t s , etc.
Canvas is som etim es used of a p ic tu re p ain ted on canvas
{полот но), m ainly by a r tis ts , a r t c ritic s, etc.
These c a n v a s e s p a i n t e d d ir e c t fr o m n a tu r e were n e v e r f i n ­
ished, as T u r n e r d i d not i n te n d th em fo r exhibition.
U se of the prepositions of and by w ith p ictu re/p ain tin g
N ote th a t a p i c t u r e / p a i n t i n g of follow ed by a p ro p er nam e
re fe rs to th e su b ject of th e p ic tu re , n o t th e a r tis t. T hus, fo r
exam ple:
a p i c t u r e / p a i n t i n g of M o n e t m ean s one d e p ic tin g
M onet, th a t is, a p o rtra it.
W hen g iv in g th e nam e of th e a r tis t by should be used:
a p i c t u r e / p a i n t i n g by M o n e t
The sam e applies to p o r t r a i t , d r a w in g , sketch , etc.
A rtist’s nam e d en o tin g a w ork
The nam e of an a r tis t can be used like a com m on noun to
denote a w ork by him . T hus a P ic a s s o m eans a w ork by Picasso.
O th er exam ples are:
a. I t looks tike a Gauguin.
b. T h e r e ’s a n e a rly Van Gogh in the exhibition.
c. H o w d i d you like the Goya?
d. The H e r m i t a g e has the la r g e s t collection o f R e m b r a n d t s
in the world.

181
Genres in painting
landscape paintin g — п ей заж
L andscape p a in tin g m ay be countable or u n countable.
L a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g became very p o p u la r in the 1 7th century.
G ods a n d g o d d e s s e s r a r e ly a p p e a r in a D u t c h l a n d s c a p e
painting.
Landscape is widely used in the sense of a landscape pain tin g.
There w a s a b e a u tifu l la n d sc a p e by L e v ita n .
The H e r m i t a g e has a fin e collection o f D u t c h la n d sca p es.
Landscape p ain ter d en o tes an a r ti s t who specializes in
landscape p a in tin g .
Constable is perh aps the g r e a te s t E nglish landscape pain ter.
N ote th a t in th e co n tex t of a r t, landscape generally denotes
a p ic tu r e , and n o t th e view depicted th e re . In th e la tte r sense
scenery is th e u su al w ord.
From about 1 8 0 7 T u r n e r began to ex h ib it more la n d sc a p e s
o f E n g lis h scenery.
The scenery o f the Alps inspired him to p a i n t several beauti­
ful pictures.
Countryside is som etim es used in a sim ila r way.
T u r n e r p a i n t e d m a n y p i c t u r e s o f th e c o u n t r y s i d e n e a r
P e t w o r t h , where he o f t e n s t a y e d a t th e house o f his p a t r o n ,
L o r d E g r e m o n t.
N ature is used w ith re fe re n c e to lan d scap e p a in te rs in
such sentences as:
C onstable loved n ature,
h a d a g r e a t love o f / f o r n ature.
S h is h k in h a d a w o n d e r fu l fe elin g fo r nature.
N ote, how ever, th a t n a tu re is used only in a general sense
and is n o t q u alified a ttrib u tiv e ly by such adjectives as E nglish,
R u ssia n , n o rth e rn , etc. In tr a n s la tin g such e x p ressio n s as
р у с с к а я природа, c o u n tr y s id e is m ore a p p ro p riate
seascape (painting) — морской п ей заж
A lth o u g h sea sca pe p a i n t i n g is possible, a t least in u n c o u n t­
able use, sim ply seasca pe is gen erally p re fe rre d .
This is one o f T u r n e r s e a r ly seascapes.
Marine painter is used to denote a p a in te r of seascapes.
T u r n e r is c o n s id e r e d by m a n y people to be the g r e a t e s t
m arine p a in te r.
portrait painting — портретная ж ивопись
Portrait p ainting is only u n co u n tab le.
R u s s ia n P o r t r a i t P a i n t i n g in the 1 9 th C e n tu r y

182
Portrait is used w hen a countable noun is needed.
P ortrait of a Young M an.
There are sev era l fin e p o r t r a i t s by D e g a s in the exhibition.
Self-portrait corresponds to автопортрет.
Portrait painter or p ortraitist is used to denote an a r tis t
who specializes in p o rtra it p a in tin g .
D e g a s w a s a superb p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r / p o r t r a i t i s t .
O th er expressions connected w ith p o r tra it p a in tin g are: to
p a i n t a p o r t r a i t of, s m b / s m b ' s p o r t r a i t
H e p a i n t e d sev era l p o r t r a i t s of his wife,
H e p a i n t e d his wife's p o r t r a i t ( s e v e r a l t i m e s ).
N ote th a t th e verb p o r t r a y is n o t g en erally used in th e spe­
cific sense of “p a in t a p o r tr a it o f” , because its ap p licatio n is
m ore g eneral
S itter, subject, model
S itter is th e m ost u su al w ord fo r a person who is h av in g
his p o rtr a it p ain ted , or s ittin g fo r his p o rtra it.
D e g a s has c a p tu r e d the in n e r life of his sitter.
Subject is som etim es used in ste a d of s itte r , p a rtic u la rly
in cases w here th e person did not s it fo r his p o rtra it, b u t was
sim ply observed by th e a rtis t. It clearly has a w ider application
th a n s itte r.
Model is used m ainly of nudes.
fu ll-len gth portrait
h a lf/k n ee/sh o u ld er-len g th portrait
equestrian portrait — one w here th e su b ject is on a horse
still-life (painting) — натю рм орт
S till-life , w ith o u t p a in tin g , is g e n e ra lly u sed b o th as a
countable and u n co u n tab le noun.
The still-life w a s v e r y p o p u l a r w ith the Cubists.
T h ere w a s a b e a u t i f u l s till-life o f a v a s e a n d so m e f r u i t
a g a i n s t / o n a blue background.
There were three still-lifes by Picasso.
S till-life is used ad jectiv ally in:
still-life painter
still-life com position/arrangem ent
genre painting — ж ан р о вая ж ивопись
This can be defined as painting th a t represents scenes from daily
life in a more or less realistic way. Genre painting is used mainly by
artists, a rt critics, a rt historians. The general public tends to prefer
some more specific expression, for example, with scene.
genre painter — a p a in te r of genre scenes
m ural, fresco

183
Mural is used of any p ain tin g on a wall (ст ен н а я роспись).
S h e has done sev er a l m u r a ls fo r p u b lic buildings.
Fresco d en o tes a p ic tu re o r d esig n p a in te d on a w all or
ceiling w hile th e p la ste r is s till w et, or a t le ast dam p ( ф р е с к а ,
ф реск о ва я живопись).
The fo llow ing w ords are o fte n used in co n n ectio n w ith
p a in tin g :
oil, w ater-colour — масло, акварель
A p a in te r m ay use oil p a in t(s) o r w ater-co lo u r(s). These
expressions are used in such sentences as:
T u rn e r used w ater-colour for im m e d ia te stu d ie s from
n a tu re, a n d oil fo r those p i c t u r e s which he i n t e n d e d to exhibit.
W in s lo w H o m e r is fa m o u s fo r his la n d s c a p e s in oils, a n d
even b e t t e r in water-colours.
Oil p ain tin g, w ater-colour p a in tin g are used as c o u n t­
able n o u n s to m ean a p i c t u r e p a i n t e d in o i l s / w a t e r - c o l o u r s .
H ere th e w ord p a in tin g m ay be o m itte d ; th is is o fte n done
in th e case of oil p a in tin g s and n e a rly alw ays in th e case of
w ater-co lo u rs.
I liked the oil p a i n ti n g s / oils, b u t I was even more im pressed
by the water-colours.
scene
T his w ord is used in v a rio u s e x p ressio n s sp ecify in g th e
su b ject of a p ic tu re , fo r exam ple:
s t r e e t scene, h u n t i n g scene
c i t y scene, h isto rica l scene
c o u n t r y scene, b a ttle scene
Scene is o ften follow ed by from ... life.
H e p a i n t e d scenes fr o m e v e r y d a y / village / court life, life in
T ahiti.
piece
This is used as a g en eral te rm m eaning “w o rk ” , “p ic tu re ” ,
som etim es alone,
The ex h ib itio n c o n ta in s sev era l fin e p ieces by Corot.
b u t m ore o ften in com binations such as:
conversation piece — жанровая сцена
a p ic tu re d ep ictin g a g ro u p of people in th e ir cu sto m ary
indoor or o u td o o r su rro u n d in g s
flow er piece
a ty p e of still-life re p re se n tin g a carefu lly a rra n g e d vase
of flow ers re a listic a lly p ain ted in m in u te d etail
m asterpiece — шедевр
Piece m ay re fe r also to g rap h ics.

184
Painting as a process
P a in tin g is th e ap p licatio n of color to a su rface. This is th e
sim plest g en eral d e fin itio n th a t can be m ade.
There are some terms:
Pigments. The colors used in p a in tin g are know n as p ig m en ts.
The p ig m en ts are d ry pow ders w hich are m a n u fa c tu re d
fro m raw m a te ria ls (n a tu ra l and a rtific ia l) and w hich,
in o rd e r to fu n c tio n p ro p e rly , m u st be c a re fu lly m ade
to m eet v ery s tr ic t req u ire m e n ts. The sim p lest fo rm of
p a in tin g , th e re fo re , is to sm ear d ry p ig m en ts on a ro u g h
su rface. T his is done in p astel p a in tin g ; p astels are p ig ­
m en ts or m ix tu re s of p ig m en ts, m olded w ith w a te r and a
little gum in to th e fo rm of crayons and th e n d ried .
Pigment requirements. The p ig m e n ts u sed in th e v a rio u s
kinds of p ain t-o ils, w aterco lo r, and so on-are th e sam e;
th e d iffe re n c e lies in th e liq u id used. T his is m erely a
broad g en eral s ta te m e n t, since a p ig m en t th a t is su itab le
fo r one k ind of p a in t does n o t alw ays m eet th e re q u ire ­
m en ts of a n o th e r. Some tech n iq u es re q u ire tra n s p a re n t
p ig m en ts, some re q u ire opaque p ig m en ts, and some are
lim ited to th e use of p ig m en ts w ith v ery special p ro p e r­
ties. A ll m odern m ethods of p a in tin g re q u ire a p ig m en t
to be a v ery sm ooth, fin ely divided pow der, as b rillia n t
and clear in color as its ty p e can be m ade, free fro m im p u ­
ritie s , and insoluble in its vehicle. It m u st be absolutely
p erm a n en t, im pervious to th e effects of su n lig h t, also of
atm o sp h eric and o th e r conditions u n d e r w hich th e p a in t­
ing is expected to en d u re.
Vehicles. P a in t, in th e o rd in a ry sense of th e te rm , m eans
a f lu id m a te r ia l in to w h ich a b r u s h m ay be d ip p e d
in o rd e r to ap p ly th e flu id to a s u rfa c e and sp re a d it
a ro u n d . Such p a in ts are m ade by com bining d ry , pow ­
dered p ig m e n ts w ith v a rio u s liq u id s. W hen th is is done
w ith tr u e p ig m en ts of th e c o rre c t p ro p e rtie s , th e colors
do n o t d isso lv e b u t re m a in in su sp e n sio n , co m p letely
d isp ersed in th e liq u id . A fte r th e p a in t h as been applied
to a su rfa c e and has becom e d ry , th e la y er of p ig m e n t
im p a rts its ty p ic a l color to th e su rfa c e ; its p recise to n e ,
v alu e, or b rig h tn e s s is su b je c t to m o d ificatio n s d ep en d ­
in g upon th e co n d itio n s w hich s u rro u n d it, th e se b ein g
due m ain ly to th e n a tu re of th e liq u id used as a vehicle.

185
In p ra c tic e , v irtu a lly no su ccessfu l p a in ts can be m ade
by a sim ple m ix in g of th e d ry p ig m e n ts w ith th e v e h i­
cle, because fo r sev eral reaso n s a p a in t u su a lly re q u ire s
th o ro u g h g rin d in g by s tro n g fric tio n if it is to behave
c o rre c tly .
The functions of vehicles. T hus f a r only one fu n c tio n of th e
liq u id in g re d ie n t has been c o n sid e re d -p u ttin g th e p ig ­
m en t in a flu id fo rm so th a t it is possible to apply and
b ru s h it o u t. T his m ay be called its ex ecu tiv e fu n c tio n ,
b u t th e re are th re e o th e r fu n c tio n s a vehicle m ay serve.
W e could d e m o n stra te th e f ir s t, or ex ecu tiv e, p ro p e rty
of a vehicle by u sin g p la in w a te r o r tu rp e n tin e as o u r
liq u id , w hich w ould su ffice fo r th is pu rp o se alone, b u t
w ould re s u lt in a sp re a d -o u t lay er of p ig m en t e n tire ly
u n s a tis fa c to ry as a p a in t. I t w ould be sm eary , ir r e g u ­
la r, and d u ll. W hen d ry it w ould soon ru b o ff or drop
fro m th e su rfa c e , since b o th w a te r and tu rp e n tin e are
com pletely v o la tile -th a t is, th e y ev ap o rate in to th e a ir
on d ry in g and leave no re sid u a l su b stan ce th a t has any
e ffe c t on th e p ig m en t. Such “p a in ts ” have n o t been used
since th e p re h isto ric cave p a in te rs , un less one includes
th e body p a in tin g p ra c tic e d by p rim itiv e trib e s.
The ground is th e su rface upon w hich an a r tis t p a in ts. In m ost
p a in tin g tech n iq u es, a d istin c tio n is m ade betw een tw o
elem ents: th e g ro u n d its e lf, or th e su rfa c e la y er upon
w hich th e p a in t is applied, and th e su p p o rt or c a rrie r of
th e g ro u n d ; fo r exam ple, lin en or co tto n canvas, wood
or com position board or m etal. T hus, th e u su al oil p a in t­
in g is executed on a g ro u n d m ade of tw o coats of w hite
oil p a in t applied to a su p p o rt, w hich is a piece of linen
cloth stre tc h e d on a wooden fram e-th e whole com m only
re fe rre d to as a canvas.
Binding. If we use a m ix tu re of s ta rc h p aste and w ater fo r o u r
liquid and g rin d th e p ig m en t in to it th o ro u g h ly , th e n th e
p a in t on becom ing d ry w ill hold to g e th e r, because th e
p ig m en t p a rtic le s are p asted or bound in to single m ass
by th e s ta rc h a fte r ev ap o ratio n of th e w ater. This illu s ­
tr a te s th e b in d in g p ro p e rty of a vehicle.
Adhesiveness. H ow ever, such a m ix tu re of sta rc h p aste and
pig m en t alone does n o t m ake a v ery good p ain t. The film
is v ery likely to crack and m ay flake or peel aw ay from
th e su rface because th is p a rtic u la r com bination of p ig ­
m en t and paste does n o t have good adhesive q u alities. If,

186
in ste ad of th e sta rc h , we use a glue (m ade from anim al
skins) or casein (w hich is m ade fro m th e cu rd of skim
m ilk) or egg yolk or gum arab ic (a v eg etab le p ro d u c t
obtained fro m a N o rth A frican tree), p a in ts can be p ro ­
duced w hich will have all th e th re e desirable p ro p erties:
(1) th e y can be b ru sh ed o u t nicely; (2) th e pig m en t p a r ti­
cles will be bound to g e th e r in a u n ifo rm film ; and (3) th e y
will adhere well to m ost su rfaces. I t should be noted th a t
th e te rm “b in d e r” is used in terch an g eab ly w ith “vehicle” ;
th e tw o te rm s in d icate th e sam e in g re d ie n t of a p a in t b u t
in reference to d iffe re n t fu n ctio n s; it is called a vehicle
because it carries th e pig m en t, and it is also called a b in d ­
e r because it binds th e p ig m en t p a rtic le s to each o th e r
and to th e g round. The in d u s tria l p a in t tech n ician s have
a th ird te rm fo r th e sam e in g red ien t-film fo rm er.

Graphic Art
G raphic a r t includes:
drawing рисунок
engraving гравю ра
etching офорт
lithography литография

Graphic artist is used as a g en eral te rm fo r an a r tis t who


draw s,
en g rav es, etc. It is used in c o n tra st to p a i n te r .
R e m b r a n d t w as g r e a t not on ly as a p a i n t e r but as a gra ph ic
a r tis t.
The v erb s draw, engrave, etch, etc. are used w ith r e f e r ­
ence to th e g rap h ic a rts , depending on th e genre.
Do o ften occurs as a g en eral w ord in cases w here th e m ore
specific verbs listed above are u n su ita b le fo r some reason.
H e d i d m a n y b e a u tifu l d r a w i n g s of S t. Peters-burgh.
This e n g r a v i n g w as don e in 1822.
drawing
Drawing is used as an u n co u n tab le noun (рисование) and
as a countable noun { р и с у н о к ).
F o r R e m b r a n d t d r a w i n g w a s a m e a n s o f r e c o r d i n g his
im p ressio n s o f the o u tsid e world.
T h ere are so m e b e a u t i f u l d r a w i n g s by V an Gogh ( in the
ex h ibition ).

187
T here are v ario u s types of draw ing: p e n c il d r a w in g s , p e n
( a n d i n k ) d r a w i n g s , bru sh d r a w i n g s , p a s t e l s d raw in g s w ith
special a r tis ts ' crayons
A sketch is also u su ally a d raw in g . In th e case of p ro fe s­
sional a r tis ts , sk etch es are g en erally m ade as a p re lim in a ry
stag e fo r a p a in tin g {набросок). H ow ever, sketch, sketching
are w idely used of a m a te u rs in ste ad of draw , draw ing. Some
people go sk etch in g , fo r exam ple, in th e c o u n try , sim ply fo r
re c re a tio n , w ith o u t any in te n tio n of u sin g th e ir sketches fo r a
p a in tin g . S ketch books are sold fo r sk etch in g .
D rau gh tsm an m ay be u sed of an a r t i s t w ho d ra w s
(р и с о в а л ь щ и к ), a lth o u g h th is w o rd m ore o fte n m ean s
ч ерт еж н и к . In an a r t co n te x t it is g en erally m odified, and
re fe rs to technical skill in draw ing.
He's a fin e d r a u g h t s m a n .
Since m ost a r tis ts rio t only draw , b u t also do en g rav in g s,
etc., th e general te rm graphic artist m ay be used in ste a d .
engraving
Engraving may be used as a countable or uncountable noun.
E n g r a v i n g is a laborious art.
T h ere w ere s o m e e x q u i s i t e e n g r a v i n g s o f 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y
S t. P etersbu rgh .
A n e n g ra v e r is an a r tis t who en g rav es, or does e n g ra v ­
ings.
etching
E tching is also used co untably and unco u n tab ly .
E t c h i n g is q u ic k e r a n d e a s i e r t h a n e n g r a v i n g , a n d the
r e s u ltin g p r i n t is v e r y sim ilar.
D u r i n g the p e r io d of the N a p oleon ic in v a sio n of S p a in Goya
d i d a series o f e tch in g s called "D isa sters o f W a r " .
An etcher is an a r tis t who does etch in g s.
lithography, lithograph
Lithography is u n co u n tab le, lithograph countable.
L i t h o g r a p h y is th e s i m p l e s t a n d m o s t d i r e c t o f a ll th e
g ra p h ic arts.
The s i m p le s t m e th o d of m a k i n g a lith ograph is to d r a w on
ston e w ith chalk or pencil.
A lithographer is an a r tis t who does lith o g ra p h s.
print — эстамп
A print is th e p rin te d im pression m ade w hen th e p late or
block on w hich th e en g rav in g , etch in g or lith o g ra p h has been
done is covered w ith in k and p ressed dow n onto a sh eet of
paper.

188
P r in t is o ften used as a collective te rm fo r p ic tu re s p rin te d
in in k fro m e n g rav in g s, etch in g s or lith o g ra p h s.
A r tis t, c re a tin g e n g rav in g s, etch in g s or lith o g ra p h ie s is
called a Printm aker and th e process — Printm aking создание
оттисков.

There are some definitions concerning Printmaking

Aquatint — A n etch in g tech n iq u e th a t creates areas of tone


th ro u g h th e use of pow dered resin th a t is sp rin k le d on
th e etch in g p late p rio r to being b itte n by th e etch in g acid.
The re s u lt is a finely te x tu re d to n al area whose d arkness
is d eterm in ed by how long th e p late is b itte n by th e acid.
Drypoint — S im ila r to e tc h in g , b u t th e lin es a re sim p ly
sc ra tc h e d in to th e p la te m an u ally , w ith o u t th e use of
acid. The h allm ark of a d ry p o in t is a so ft and o ften r a th ­
er th ic k or b u sh y line som ew hat like th a t of an in k pen
on m oist paper.
Engraving — A fo rm of in ta g lio p rin tin g in w hich lines are
in cised in to a m e tal p la te w ith a c a rv in g tool called a
b u rin . The c h a ra c te ris tic s of b u rin e n g ra v in g d iffe r
fro m th a t of etch in g in th a t e n g rav in g , re q u irin g con­
siderable force, is done fro m th e s tre n g th of th e arm and
elim in ates th e q u av erin g a u to g ra p h ic q u a litie s of e tc h ­
in g , w hich is done m ore fro m th e fin g e r tip s like fin e
draw in g . The h allm ark s of e n g rav in g are o ften eleg an tly
sw elling and ta p e rin g lines.
Etching — A m eans of incising lines in a m etal plate w ith acid
fo r p rin tin g in th e in tag lio technique. The p late is f ir s t
covered w ith an acid re sista n t ground th ro u g h w hich th e
a rtis t scratches a design w ith a stylus or needle, revealing
th e bare m etal below. This p late is th e n im m ersed in an
acid b ath th a t cuts th e incised lines into th e plate. Etched
lines often b etray the subtle m otions of th e a r tis t’s fin g e r­
tips.
Fine art printmaking is based on th e concept of c re a tin g a m as­
te r p la te, know n as th e m a trix . T his is used to tra n s fe r
th e im age onto paper. N ow adays p rin tm a k in g is an a r t
fo rm th a t h as m any su b d iv isio n s, each of w hich is an
a r t fo rm in its own rig h t: etch in g , lith o g ra p h y , lin o cu t,
etc. The p rin tm a k in g process is g en erally a com plex one,
u sin g a v a rie ty of d iff e re n t te c h n iq u e s, and m edium ,
depending on th e type of p rin t. The a r tis t creates d iffe r­

189
e n t su rface te x tu re s , color effects and fo rm s, ju s t as in
p a in tin g , p ro d u cin g a uniq u e w ork of a r t, defined by th e
a r t i s t ’s style and p erso n ality .
M ost tim es th e process of tr a n s f e r r in g or p rin tin g th e
im age can be rep eated n u m ero u s tim es, c re a tin g ed itio n s
of th e sam e im age. Som etim es each in d iv id u a l p r in t is
reto u ch ed or added to a fte rw a rd s, m aking it uniq u e or
one-of-a-kind. O th er tech n iq u es involve u sin g th e sam e
m a trix b u t d iffe re n t co m b in atio n s of in k s and colors,
also c re a tin g u n iq u e w o rk s(m o n o p rin ts and m ezzo tin ts
are exam ples of such w orks).
W h a t is an edition?
W hen all th e p rin ts are c reated fro m th e m a trix to be
id e n tic a l, th is is called an “E d itio n ” . The a r tis t g e n e ra l­
ly lim its th e ed itio n to a c e rta in n u m b er of th e ir choice.
He or she th e n in d ic a te s in pencil (u su ally in th e b o tto m
le ft h a n d c o rn er) th e n u m b e r of each in d iv id u a l piece
and th e to ta l n u m b er of copies in th e e d itio n , fo r ex am ­
ple, 5 /4 0 .
Inkjet print — a g en eral d esig n atio n fo r th e larg e class of p r in t­
ers used to p rin t co m p u ter im ages. In k je t p rin te rs m ake
use of ex trem ely sm all nozzles to d eliv er ex act am o u n ts
p ig m en t to precise locations on th e paper.
Intaglio — A ny of th e tech n iq u es in w hich an im age or to n al
area is p rin te d fro m lines or te x tu re s scratch ed or etched
in to a m etal p la te (en g rav in g , etch in g , d ry p o in t, a q u a ­
tin t, lif t g ro u n d , so ft g round). The p late is covered w ith
in k , th e n w iped clean leaving in k in th e incised lines or
te x tu r e s of th e im age. T his p la te is th e n p rin te d in a
press on m oistened paper. The p ap er is forced down in to
th e area of th e p late holding in k , and th e im age is tr a n s ­
fe rre d to he paper.
Lithograph — A p r in tin g te c h n iq u e in w hich th e im age is
d raw n on a v e ry f la t slab of lim esto n e (or a specially
tre a te d m e ta l p la te ). T his sto n e is tre a te d ch em ically
so th a t in k , w hen rolled on to th e sto n e, ad h eres only
w here th e d raw in g was done. This inked im age can th e n
be tra n s fe rre d to a piece of p ap er w ith th e help of a h ig h
p re s s u re p re ss. L ith o g ra p h y w as in v e n te d in 1798 in
S olnhofen, G erm any by A lois S enefelder. The early h is ­
to ry of lith o g ra p h y is d o m in ated by g re a t F ren ch a r t ­
is ts such as D aum ier and D elacroix, and la te r by D egas,
T oulouse-L autrec, P icasso, B raque and M iro.

190
Monotype — A form of p rin tm ak in g in w hich th e a rtis t draw s or
p ain ts on some m aterial, such as glass, and th e n p rin ts th e
im age onto paper, usually w ith a press. The rem aining p ig ­
m ent can th e n be rew orked, b u t th e subsequent p rin t will
n ot be an exact version of th e previous p rin t. M onotypes
m ay be unique p rin ts or v aria tio n s on a them e.
Offset Lithography — A special photom echanical tech n iq u e in
w hich th e im age to be p rin te d is tra n s fe rre d to th e n eg a­
tiv e p lates and p rin te d onto papers. O ffset lith o g ra p h y is
v ery well ad ap ted to color p rin tin g .
Print — P ic tu re , d esig n etcm ade by p rin tin g fro m a block,
p late etc.
Proofs — Im pressions of a p rin t. In th e case of an incom plete
p rin t th e y are re fe rre d to as “w orking p ro o fs.”
Relief print — A ny p rin t in w hich th e im age is p rin te d from th e
raised p o rtio n s of a carved, etched, or cast block. A sim ­
ple exam ple w ould be a ru b b er stam p. The m ost common
relief p rin ts are w oodcuts. The te rm “relief p r in t” is used
w hen it is not clear w hich kind of relief p rin tin g has been
used (photom echanical or hand carved, fo r exam ple).
Screen Print — A form of stencil p rin tin g in w hich th e stencil is
adhered to a fine screen fo r su p p o rt. Ink can be squeegeed
th ro u g h th e screen onto paper. Screen p rin tin g can have
a h ard edged q u ality caused by th e crisp edges of th e ste n ­
cil. Also re fe rre d to as “silk screen” and “se rig ra p h y .”

S c u lp tu re
T here are only a lim ited nu m b er of w ords and expressions
connected w ith sc u lp tu re in g en eral use, and on th e whole th ey
p re se n t no problem s of usage fo r R u ssian speakers.

Sculpture m ay be used u n co u n tab ly in a g en eral sense.


I p r e f e r scu lp tu re to p a i n ti n g .
T h e r e ’s a n e x h i b i t i o n o f m o d e r n scu lpture at th e
H e r m ita g e .
or c o u n ta b ly , to m ean a p a rtic u la r w o rk , a piece of sculpture.
There’s a new sculpture in the en trance hall of the university.
The m u s e u m has bought sev er a l s cu lp tu re s by local a r t i s ts .
Sculpture is occasionally used as a verb, b u t in m ost cases
some m ore specific w ord such as carve or cast is p re fe rre d .
Sculpt (vb) ex ists, b u t is n o t com m on.
Sculptor m eans an a r tis t specializing in sc u lp tu re .

191
The tra d itio n a l form s of sc u lp tu re are the statu e, the bust,
and the head. These m ay be carved in sto n e, m arble, ivory or
wood, cast in m etal, fo r exam ple, in b ro n ze, o r m odelled in
clay. O u t of m ay be used in ste ad of in w ith carve.
H e c a r v e d the s t a t u e in m a r b l e / o u t of marble.
A sta tu e of a person on a horse is called an eq u estrian statu e.
Figure is o fte n used in connection w ith sc u lp tu re , espe­
cially in th e nam es of w orks n o t re p re se n tin g a p a rtic u la r in d i­
v id u al.
standing / sea ted / reclining figure
figure of a m an/boy/w om an
If th e re are several fig u re s to g e th e r, th e y m ay be called
a (sculptural) group.
M onum ental scu lp tu re is used of s c u lp tu re on a la rg e
scale.
S ite is used in connection w ith sc u lp tu re o u t of doors.
The site ( o f the s c u l p t u r e ) is well-chosen/ ideal.

Applied Art
The m ost w idely-know n fo rm s of applied a r t are:
pottery w eaving and tex tile design
glass embroidery
jew ellery

192
DISCUSSING PICTURES

W h en ta lk in g o r w ritin g a b o u t p ic tu re s , th e follow ing


p o in ts are o ften discussed:
subject, them e, brushwork
form, shape
ligh t and shade
com position, technique
colour, style
line, work

Subject, Theme
subject — сю ж ет
This m eans w h at is depicted.
D e g a s looked rou n d fo r new su b jects a n d fo u n d th e m in the
opera-house.
It is used in such com binations as:
historical subjects
m ythological subjects
B iblical subjects
classical subjects
them e
Them e is n o t a synonym of s u b j e c t , a lth o u g h th e ir use
overlaps in some cases. In connection w ith a p a in tin g , th em e
m ay be used in such sentences as:
The th em e of the p a i n t i n g is the f u t i l i t y of war.

Composition
Composition
Composition m eans how th e v ario u s elem ents of th e p ic­
tu re are a rra n g e d (ком п озиц ия).
The com position of the p i c t u r e is v e ry strikin g .
W hen ta lk in g about th e com position of a p ic tu re , we need
th e follow ing expressions:
in the foreground/back-off center ground
The tree is in the ce n tre f o r e g r o u n d / o f f c e n t e r /
background on / to the right / left (of the in the left fore­
ground/back- picture)
ground at the top / bottom
in th e righ t foreground / in th e top / b ottom le ft /
right-background hand corner
in the centre / m iddle (of the picture)
C om position m ay also be used co untably to m ean a p ic tu re ,
considered fro m th e p o in t of view of its com position.
I t is a large com position of the e s t u a r y o f the T h a m es.

Compositional models
A good basic com position w ill o ften e ith e r be asy m etrical
or will lead th e v ie w er’s eye aro u n d th e w ork. Some sta n d a rd
com positional lay o u ts are show n above.

Quadrant — In th is sim ple com position a dynam ic balance is


created by th e changes in value fro m d ark to lig h t. T here
is n o t equal am o u n ts of d ark or lig h t on each side.
Sequential — T his sim ple com position is com pletely re lia n t
on rh y th m s. R h y th m is im p o rta n t to all com positions in
any discipline and v isu al a r t is no exception. The ch an g ­
in g sizes and v alu es lead a view er across th e page like
ch an g in g notes lead a liste n e r th ro u g h a piece of m usic.
N otice th a t th e re are n o t any tw o areas th a t are th e sam e
size. This helps to create an asy m m etrical balance. O ther
ty p es of se q u e n tia l com positions rely on m a th e m a tic s,
like th e Fibonacci Sequence.
Asymmetrical — A lso re fe rre d to as D ynam ic B alance. T his
s o rt of com position relies on c re a tin g balance betw een
th e tw o sides of th e p ic tu re . In th is p ic tu re th e n eg ativ e
space, or area on th e le ft w here th e re is no re c ta n g u la r
object, has equal v isu al w eig h t to th e rig h t side. T hink
of it as you w ould a scale. On one side of th e scale th e re is
e ig h t one-ounce cubes and on th e o th e r is tw o four-ounce
cubes. They b o th w eigh e ig h t ounces, b u t look d iffe re n t.
In a com positon th is could be show n as tw o la rg e d ark
sq u a re s and e ig h t lig h t sq u a re s. T ry to m ove th e ele­
m en ts aro u n d th e com positon to lead th e view er aro u n d
th e com position. The use of one shape, color, line etc. is
called re p e titio n of an elem ent and helps to create con­
nections betw een objects in a com position. This com po­
sitio n al style also shows up in sc u lp tu re .
Golden Mean (or Fibonacci Sequence used in a spiral) — This
m ath em atical com position is created from a 1 to 1 .6 1 8 ...

194
ra tio . You w ill fin d th is p a rtic u la r ra tio w orks well in
c re a tin g an in te re s tin g balance in a p ic tu re. The system is
m ade up of a series of square areas w hich dim inish in size
and curve in tow ard th e cen ter, m uch like a s n a il’s shell.
One can re c re a te a sim ila r in sta n c e of th is by s ta r tin g
w ith a 10 inch by 16 inch rectan g le. D ivide a sq u are sec­
tio n on th e le ft side w ith a v ertical line. D raw a line from
co rn er to corner. A t th e p o in t th a t th e diagonal m eets th e
v ertical line draw in a h o rizo n tal. D raw a n o th e r diagonal
fro m th e top r ig h t co rn er to th e b o tto m of th e v e rtic a l
line. D raw a v ertical from th e p o in t w here th e diagonal
m eets th e h o rizo n tal line and continue th e process u n til
th e squares become too sm all to w ork w ith.
M ost com p o sitio n s do n o t ad h ere only to one of th e se
m odels, b u t use a co m b in atio n of tw o or th re e to help
c a rry a view er th ro u g h m ore com plex pathw ays.

Colour

Colour, colouring, colourist


Colour is used u n co u n tab ly in such sentences as:
H e has a w o n d e r fu l sense o f colour.
H e uses colour v e r y e ffectively .
The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s p r o d u c e d c a n v a s e s where lig h tn e ss a n d
i n t e n s i t y o f colour e x p r e ss e d p e r f e c t l y the l u m i n o s i t y a n d
brilliance o f n a tu r e b a th e d in su nligh t.
As a countable noun it denotes a p a r t i c u l a r colour.
Green w as a colour t h a t T u r n e r p a r t i c u l a r l y disliked.
The b r i g h t colou rs o f th e p e a s a n t s ' c o s t u m e s s t a n d o u t
a g a i n s t the d a r k background.
The p a i n t e r uses cool colours — bluish-greens, blues and-
violets — f o r the s h a d o w s, a n d w orm colours, t h a t is, those
where yellow s p r e d o m i n a t e , fo r the fu lly-lit areas.
The follow ing adjectives are o ften applied to colours:
lig h t, d ark lum inous
b rig h t, pale stro n g
v ivid h a rsh , so ft, p astel,
b rillia n t subdued, delicate
in ten se w arm , cool
Primary colours are red, blue a n d y e l l o w , fro m w hich all
o th e r colours can be obtained by m ixing.

195
Colouring is used to denote th e w ay in w hich an a r tis t uses
colour.
The delicate colouring of this picture is typical of his later works.
N ote th a t la ter, n o t late, is used in c o n tra st to early in such
cases. This applies also to th e o th e r a rts , fo r exam ple, m usic,
lite ra tu re .
Colourist occurs in such sentences as:
T u r n e r is a superb colourist.
It is g en erally m odified, as in th e above sentence, by g o o d ,
fine, superb, poor, or som e o th e r word.

Shade, tint, tinge, tone, hue


These w ords are o ften used w hen d iscu ssin g an a r tis t's use
of colour, and th e d istin c tio n s betw een th em are n o t alw ays
easy to g rasp .

Shade as a co u n tab le no u n re fe rs to degree or in te n s ity of


colour {о т т ен о к).
The p i c t u r e is p a i n t e d e n t i r e l y in v a r y i n g s h a d e s o f blue,
r a n g in g fr o m the v e r y p a l e blue, a l m o s t white, of the sky, to
the d a r k blue, a l m o s t black, of the ship.
Tint m ay be a synonym of sh a d e. H ow ever, it is used especial­
ly w ith referen ce to pale and delicate shades, and th is use is
given as a tech n ical te rm of p a in tin g :
a g r a d e of colour; spec, a m i x t u r e o f a colour w ith w hite
The follow ing sentence illu s tra te s th e m ore specialized use:
R en o ir excelled a t flesh tin ts .
T in t is also used as a v erb , m eaning “to give a t i n t to , to
colour, especially w ith a pale and delicate sh ad e” .
A tinge is a slig h t shade of colour, especially one m odifying
th e basic colour.
The s k y is g r e y w ith a tin g e of p in k.
Tinge is also a verb.
The s k y is t i n g e d w ith pin k.
Tone m ay also be used in th e sense of shade.
The prevailing effect of the com bination of light and shade and
of the general scheme of colouring, in a painting, building.
T his sense can be illu s tra te d as follows:
T u r n e r a n d the R o m a n t i c p a i n t e r s were s o m e tim e s called the
w hite p a i n t e r s by followers o f the classical t r a d i ti o n because
of the light tones o f th e ir p ictu res. These c o n t r a s t e d s tr o n g ly
w ith the t r a d i ti o n a l d a r k tones o f the classical school.

196
Hue is used occasionally to m ean a colour or s h a d e o f colour,
m ainly in poetic lan g u ag e, alth o u g h som etim es sim ply fo r s ty ­
listic v a rie ty in fo rm al s itu a tio n s.
Light and Shade
These tw o w ords are o fte n used to g e th e r to d en o te th e
lig h te r and d a rk e r p a rts of a p ic tu re , th a t is, those p a rts w hich
are rep resen te d as illu m in a te d , and those rep resen te d as lack ­
in g illu m in atio n .
The lig h t a n d s h a d e in the fo ld s of the w o m a n ’s d r e s s is
s k ilfu lly rendered.
There are som e b e a u tifu l e f fe c ts of lig h t a n d shade.
ligh t and shade effects.
N ote th a t s h a d e , n o t s h a d o w , is used here. The usage of
th ese tw o w ords coincides in some cases, b u t th e g en eral te n ­
dency is as follows:
Shade is m ost o ften used u n countably to denote an area of
rela tiv e d ark n ess, w hereas shadow is m ost o ften used count-
ably to denote a d ark shape th ro w n on th e g ro u n d , floor, a w all,
etc. by, fo r exam ple, a person, a tre e , a building.
Shade is also used as a verb, m eaning to d ark en w ith p a r ­
allel pencil lin es, etc. (p a rts of a d raw in g , etc.) to give th e
appearance of lig h t and shade.
The fo ld s of the d re s s are s h a d e d ( in p e n c i l ).
This process, or th e re s u lt of it, is called sh ad in g .
This d r a w i n g is r e m a rk a b le fo r the s k ilfu l use o f sh ad in g.

L in e (w o r k )
A p a rt fro m its o rd in a ry , co u n tab le use, as in to d r a w a
l i n e , lin e is also used u n c o u n ta b ly in th e g e n eralized sense
of “lines, use of lines, d ra w in g ” , alth o u g h w ith referen ce to
p a in tin g as well as g rap h ics.
H e has a good sense o f line.
This p i c t u r e is r em a r k a b le fo r its p u r i t y of line,
Linework is also used.
The linework is brilliant.

Brush work
This m eans how th e p a in t is applied (ж и во п и сн а я м а н е р а ,
м а н е р а письма).
The brushwork of the Impressionists differed from that of their
predecessors in that they did not blend the colours together impercep­
tibly, but left the brushstrokes clearly visible all over their canvases.

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SOME GENERAL WORDS

The follow ing w ords are w idely used w hen d isc u ssin g p ic ­
tu re s .

depict, portray, represent


Depict and p o rtra y are w idely used in th e sense of “re p re ­
sen t, show in th e fo rm of a p ic tu re ” . They are m ore or less
in terch an g eab le, and m ay o ften a lte rn a te fo r sty listic v a r i­
ety. H ere are some exam ples of usage:
The drawing depicts a sleeping child.
Scenes from the Greek m y th s are depicted in the frescoes.
The series of etchings “D isasters of W a r " (by Goya) po r­
trays the heroism a n d s u ffe rin g s of the people d u r in g the
Napoleonic invasion of Spain.
Death is portrayed as an old woman.
The fam o us writer is portrayed sittin g at his desk.
Represent also occurs in some such cases, b u t is com para­
tiv ely ra re ,
render, catch, capture
Render is used in th e sense of “reproduce by a rtis tic m e an s,”
g en erally w ith an adverbial m odifier.
The p a in te r has rendered the child's expression of wonder
very well.
Degas effectively renders the atmosphere of the ballet.
The Im p ressionists w anted to render as tr u th f u lly as pos­
sible effects of sunlight.
Catch and capture occur in a sim ila r sense, u su ally w ith ­
o u t an adverbial m odifier.
I have caught the ef fect I wanted-the half-parted lips, and
the bright look in the eyes. ( Oscar W il d e )
The p a in te r has succeeded in capturing the inner life of his
sitter.
sense
T his w ord is used in th e ex p ressio n a sense of w ith tw o
m eanings:
1. a feeling fo r,
The a r tis t has a good/ f i n e / w ond erfu l sense o f colour/
line / form / composition.
2. an im pression o f,
The artist has created a sense of space/m ovem ent.
There is a sense of g ra n d eu r in this picture.

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Impression m ay also be used here,
effect, effective
Effect is w idely used in th e sense of im pression created in
such sentences as:
The e f fe c t of a w i n d s w e p t sea w ith boats ris in g a n d f a llin g
is d r a m a t i c a l l y r e n d e r e d in “S h ip p in g a t the M o u t h of the
T h a m e s ” ( b y T u r n e r ).
There are some b e a u tifu l colour effects in th is p ic tu re ,
effects of light and shade.
Effective, m eaning “p ro d u cin g th e desired effect, or m ak ­
in g a s trik in g im p ressio n ” , also occurs fre q u e n tly .
H i s use of colour is v e r y effective.
H e m a k e s e f fe c tiv e use of sh a din g .

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THE FINE ARTS
PAINTING TECHNIQUES

Each k ind of p a in tin g has its v a ria n ts or subdivisions, and


each is adaptable to a n u m b er of purposes. H u n d red s of y ears
of experience have show n us th a t, w hen p reserv ed u n d e r th e
n o rm al c o n d itio n s u su a lly a ffo rd e d to w orks of a r t, all are
eq u ally p e rm a n e n t, a lth o u g h som e are m ore d u rab le o r less
fra g ile th a n o th e rs w hen exposed to m ore severe conditions.
The p rin cip al accepted m ethods of p a in tin g are liste d below:

Oil painting. The ty p ical or c u sto m a ry exam ple is a p ic tu re


p a in te d in s tra ig h t oil colors on a stre tc h e d linen canvas
w hich has been prim ed w ith w hite oil p a in t.
Water color. P a in tin g on p u re w h ite ra g p ap er w ith p rep ared
tra n s p a re n t w aterco lo r p a in ts sold in tu b es or pans.
Gouache. P a in tin g on w h ite or tin te d p ap er w ith th e sam e
m a te ria ls as w a terco lo r ex cep t th a t opaque in s te a d of
tra n s p a re n t colors are used.
Tempera. P a in tin g on an ab so rb en t gesso g ro u n d w ith em u l­
sion p a in ts w hich can be th in n e d w ith w ater. T em pera
p a in ts d iffe r fro m th e o th e r w ater- or aqueous-m edium
p a in ts in th a t th e y can be m an ip u lated to a g re a te r n u m ­
b er of effects and w ith m ore finesse, and in th a t, w hen
d ry , th e y m ay be o v erp ain ted w ith o th e r coats of te m ­
p e ra or oil p a in ts w ith o u t being d istu rb e d .
Pastel. P a in tin g w ith p u re p ig m e n t in th e fo rm of cray o n s
w ith o u t th e use of flu id m edium s.
Fresco. P a in tin g on fre sh ly applied, w et, lim e-p la ster w alls
w ith colors m ade by g rin d in g th e p ig m en ts in w ater.

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COLOUR

C olor th e o ry en co m p asses a m u ltitu d e of d e fin itio n s ,


concepts and design ap p licatio n s. A ll th e in fo rm a tio n w ould
fill several encyclopedias. A s an in tro d u c tio n , h ere are a few
basic concepts:

The Colour Wheel


A color circle, based on red , yellow and blue, is tra d itio n a l
in th e field of a rt. S ir Isaac N ew ton developed th e f ir s t c irc u ­
la r d iag ram of colors in 1666. Since th e n sc ie n tists and a r t ­
is ts have s tu d ie d and desig n ed n u m e ro u s v a ria tio n s of th is
concept. D ifferences of opinion about th e v a lid ity of one f o r ­
m at over a n o th e r co n tin u e to provoke debate. In re a lity , any
color circle or color w heel w hich p re se n ts a logically a rra n g e d
sequence of p u re hues has m e rit.

Primary colours
Red, yellow a n d blue
In tra d itio n a l color th e o ry , these are th e 3 p ig m en t colors
th a t can n o t be m ixed or form ed by any com bination of o th e r
colors. A ll o th e r colors are derived fro m th ese 3 hues.

Secondary colours
Green, orange a n d p u rp le
These are th e colors form ed by m ixing th e p rim a ry colors.

Tertiary colours
Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green
a n d yellow-green.
These are th e colors fo rm ed by m ix in g one p rim a ry and
one secondary color.

Color Harmony
H arm o n y can be d efin e d as a p le a sin g a rra n g e m e n t of
p a rts , w h e th e r it be m usic, p o etry , color.

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STYLE IN THE ARTS
The te rm style is m ost easily u n d ersto o d as a way of doing
a rt. W hen two a u th o rs have a d iffe re n t way of w ritin g , each is
said to have a personal style. The style of H erm an M elville was
his own, q u ite d iffe re n t fro m th a t of M ark Tw ain, fo r instance.
If a w rite r a ttra c ts follow ers who tr y to im ita te th e a u th o r’s p a r­
tic u la r way of w ritin g , th e y help p e rp e tu a te a style. Im ita to rs
of Jam es Joyce, fo r exam ple, use his stream -of-consciousness
effects, and th e ir w ritin g s are called Joycean.
W h a t is p ecu liar to each one is its style. A m ovem ent in
p a in tin g , such as im pressionism , can be called a style. A school
of p a in tin g , such as th e H udson R iv er School in th e early 19th
c e n tu ry , su g g ests a specific style. T here are, in fa c t, so m any
w ays to describe style th a t th e w ord has become alm ost im pos­
sible to define.
N ot u n til ab o u t 1600 in Ita ly was sty le applied to d iffe re n t
types of m usic. Its use fo r th e v isu al a rts cam e sh o rtly a fte r
1700. Today it is th e m ost com m on w ord used to describe d is­
tin c tiv e c h a ra c te ris tic s of in d iv id u a l a r tis ts , perio d s of a r t,
n atio n al a rts , reg io n al ty p es, and o th e r v a ria tio n s in th e a rts .
T h u s th e te rm s R om anesque, B yzantine, G othic, rea listic,
postim pressionist, cubist, baroque, rococo, classical, n eoclas­
sic, m annerist, p oin tillistic, surrealistic, m inim alist, and sim ­
ila r adjectives can be u n d ersto o d as in d ic a tin g styles.

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TEXTS FOR RENDERING
ТЕКСТ 1
Сэр Д ж ош уа Рейнольдс стал первы м президентом осно­
ванной в 1768 году Королевской А кадем и и искусств. Б л а ­
годаря Рейнольдсу традиционны й стиль английского порт­
рета, восходящ и й к и скусству Ван Д ей к а, п олучи л новое
развитие. Ему удалось и збавиться от монотонного повторе­
н и я отработанной п ортретистам и того врем ени ф орм улы :
м одель р азм ещ ал ась по ц ен тру п олотн а, н а п одходящ ем
ф оне(драпировки, колонна, либо ландш аф т). Рейнольдс сде­
лал колорит полотен светлее, д ви ж ен и я кисти — более бы ст­
ры м и , а главное: н а см ену стати чн ы м , засты вш и м позам
п р и ш л и гр ац и я и элеган тн ость, интерес к л и чн ости , чье
и зображ ение передает х у д о ж н и к . Ибо к аж д ы й человек не
просто объект к о п и р о в ан и я, но и сто р и я, которую м астер
долж ен рассказать с помощ ью кисти и красок.

ТЕКСТ 2
И менно Дюрер создал ж ан р автопортрета, внеся таки м
образом значи тельн ы й вклад в историю искусства. П ричем
п ервы м его опы том в данной области стал к ар ан д аш н ы й
набросок, вы полненны й худож ни ком в возрасте 13 лет. П ре­
ж де ландш аф ты использовались ли ш ь к а к фон, наприм ер
д ля создания портрета. Дю рер сделал пейзаж н ую ж ивопись
сам остоятельны м ж анром .
Только человек, обладавш ий огромной созидательной и
и нтеллектуальн ой мощ ью , уверенны й в силе и у н и к ал ьн о ­
сти своего тал ан та, мог изм енить отнош ение современников
к “человеку искусства” , превратить рем еслен ни ка в творца,
на которого общество взирало с долж ны м восхищ ением .
Гравю ры Д ю рера п олучи ли мировое п ри зн ан и е и ещ е
при ж и зн и х у д о ж н и к а принесли ему такой успех, что этот
период в истории искусства мы с полны м основанием м ож ем
н азвать “эпохой Д ю рера” .

ТЕКСТ 3
Весной 1863 года ж ю ри оф ициального Салона отвергло
три ты сяч и из п редставл ен н ы х п я ти ты сяч полотен. Оно
стрем илось всяч ески огран и чи ть п риток новы х х у д о ж н и ­

203
ков, счи тая, что они могут стать “серьезной опасностью для
общ ества” . Л уи Н аполеон повелел вы ставить все отвергну­
ты е произведения в располож енном рядом с Салоном Д вор­
це пром ы ш ленности.
Эта п ар ал л ел ьн ая вы ставка и получи ла назван ие “Салон
отверж ен н ы х” .
Среди представленны х там работ были полотна П иссар­
ро, Сезанна, ам ери канского х у д о ж н и ка У истлера. Но под­
линны м центром п р и тяж ен и я стала кар ти н а Эдуарда М ане
“З ав тр ак н а тр ав е” . Все хотели видеть и зображ ен ие двух
молоды х м уж чи н и двух ж ен щ и н , — одна из которы х бы ла
полуодета, а вторая соверш енно обнаж ена, — устроивш их
п и к н и к на лесной поляне. С кандал был полны м. Весь П ари ж
буквально стоял на голове.
Н аполеон III и и м п ератри ца, посетивш ие “Салон отвер­
ж ен н ы х ” , так ж е бы ли возм ущ ены . И мператор расп оряди л ­
ся впредь другого “Салона отверж ен н ы х” не откры вать.

ТЕКСТ 4
Б убн овы й В ал ет
“Бубновый валет” — одно из самых поразительны х худо­
ж ественных объединений 1910— 1917 годов. Основатели этого
движ ения — большие ш утники, задиры. Н аталия Гончарова
и М ихаил Ларионов, очевидно, знали, что “бубновый валет”
означает “обманщ ик”, “плут”. Правда, газетные репортёры в
то время поименовали “Бубновый валет”, наверное, более точ­
но — “молодость и горячая кровь” . Да, действительно, бубно-
вовалетцы были молоды, талантливы , скандальны и готовы
были ниспровергать все другие масти отечественного и миро­
вого живописного искусства. И делали это энергично, азарт­
но, страстно, подчас не ж алея ни чуж и х, ни своих.
И х верховны м божеством при всех персональны х р азл и ­
ч и я х их стилистической, эстетической и ж анровой позиции
был цвет: его буйное, безудерж ное раздолье, яростн ая его
самодостаточность, сочны й, подчас затей ли вы й и весёлы й
ж и во п и сн ы й я з ы к . Своими п редтечам и больш инство из
них счи тали С езанна, М атисса, Гогена, Ван Гога, Д ерена,
ван Донгена, классиков постим прессионизма. Но даж е к сво­
им п рароди телям бубнововалетцы относились достаточно

204
снисходительно, даж е свы сока. По крайн ей мере, послуш но
им не следовали.
И ещ ё одно ф еном енальное явлен и е “Бубнового в ал ета” .
С обравш ись непреднам еренно, х у д о ж н и к и р азн ы х н ап р ав ­
лен и й , сти л и сти ч ески х и и ны х п ри страсти й , они н ео ж и д ан ­
но сп лотились, образовав цельное творческое объединение.
П очти все они, к аж д ы й сам по себе, составили славу и гор­
дость отечественного изобразительного искусства. Н атал и я
Гончарова, М ихаил Л арион ов, П ётр К он чаловски й , И л ья
М аш ков, А ристарх Л ентулов, Роберт Ф ал ьк, В асилий Р о ж ­
дественски й, А лександр К у п р и н ... Здесь ни кто друг н а д ру­
га не в л и я л , н икто друг друга не повторял. Если Н атал и я
Г ончарова и М и хаи л Л арион ов у ж е через два года после
в о зн и к н о в ен и я “Бубнового в а л е т а ” о т к азал и сь от него и
образовали противоборствую щ ий “О слины й хвост” , то все
остальны е до к о н ц а дней своих преданно сл у ж и ли п ервон а­
ч ал ьн ы м эстети чески м и н равственно-духовны м заветам ,
п р и н яты м бубнововалетцам и.
“Бубновы й в ал ет” о к азал огромное вли ян и е на развитие
отечественной ж и воп и си. Но если за последние 1 0 -1 5 лет
персональны е и групповы е вы ставки с участием этих м ас­
теров неоднократно проходили в наш ей стране, то восста­
новить всю вы ставку “Бубнового в ал ета” в её п ервон ачаль­
ном виде к ак -то не удавалось. И вот н аконец-то она бы ла
воссоздана в том легендарном первозданном облике и объ­
ёме. Но произош ло это чудесное воскреш ение не просты м
п утём . В н ач ал е 2004 года Ф онд к у л ь ту р ы “Е к а т е р и н а ”
в М онако устроил вы ставк у “М еж ду С езанном и ав ан гар ­
д ом ” , где бы ли п р ед ставл ен ы п р о и звед ен и я в основном
из частн ы х к о л л ек ц и й . Вообще отнош ения м еж ду “Бубно­
вым валетом ” и авангардом форм очень разм ы ты . П оэтому
порой в р я д ах п р и зн ан н ы х бубнововалетцев н еож и дан но
могут оказаться и М алевич, и К ан ди н ски й , и П опова, и Т ат­
л и н , д аж е О. Р озан ова и более поздние их последователи.
М ощь и масш таб “Бубнового вал ета” без всякого н а п р я ж е ­
н и я позволяю т делать подчас диам етрально п ротивополож ­
ные обобщ ения.
Затем вы ставка “Бубновы й вал ет” в русском аван гарде”
состоялась в С анкт-П етербурге, в Русском музее. Здесь буб-
нововалетц ы к а к бы составляю т часть русского ав а н га р ­
да, что вполне правом ерно и в то ж е врем я не бесспорно.
Н ак он ец , в М оскве, в Т ретьяковской галерее, р еш и ли не
м удрствовать и н а зв а л и в ы ста в к у просто — “Б убн овы й

205
в ал ет” , п редставляя тем сам ы м м осковский вариант объеди­
н ен и я, т .к . именно от них и пош ла зн ам ен и тая м осковская
ш к о л а ж и вописи. Со временем эксп ози ц и я будет н ап о л н ять­
ся всё новым содерж анием , соответствую щ им требованиям ,
вкусам и задачам современности. Ведь значение “Бубнового
в ал ета” в наш е врем я во много раз сущ ественнее, о чём ц ен и ­
тели искусства тех лет не м огли д аж е и подозревать.

ТЕКСТ 5
И Л Л Ю С Т РА Ц И Я (от л ат. illustratio — освещ ение) —
пояснение словесной инф орм ации н агляд н ы м и прим ерам и,
и зоб раж ен и ям и , а так ж е область изобразительного и скусст­
ва , составная часть искусства кн и ги .
В ср ед н евек о в ы х р у к о п и сн ы х к н и г а х и л л ю стр ац и и
в ы п о л н ял и сь в тех н и к е м и н и атю рн ой ж и во п и си пером ,
к р аск ам и , золотом. В процессе разви ти я рукописной кн и ги
к н и ж н а я м и н иатю ра стала и зы ск ан н ы м по техн и ке сам о­
стоятельны м видом искусства. П озднее в западноевропей­
ской рукописной кн и ге вводятся м иниатю ры портретного,
ж анрового хар ак тер а, иногда не связан н ы е непосредствен­
но с текстом к н и ги (н ап ри м ер, сцены подн есен ия к н и ги
зак а зч и к у , сцены времен года).
С изобретением к н и го п еч атан и я и л л ю стр ац и я входит
в новы й этап своего разви ти я. В 15 веке в Германии п о я в л я ­
ю тся блочные к н и ги , в которы х текст и и ллю страции вы ре­
заю тся на одной доске, и ллю страции часто раск раш и ваю т­
ся от руки .
В эпоху В озрож дения и ллю страц и я часто заним ает р ав ­
нозначное зн ачен и е с текстом . И лл ю страц и и отли чаю тся
четкостью ком п ози ц и й , простотой и использованием си м ­
волов.
В 17 веке использование услож ненной техн и ки обусло­
вили отры в и ллю страций от текста, в ряде случаев иллю ст­
рац ии публиковались без текста.
В 18 веке интенсивно используется и лл ю страц и я, гр ав и ­
рованн ая на меди, обычно небольш ого форм ата.
В 19 веке искусство иллю страции переж ило свой расцвет.
И ллю страции к произведениям наиболее популярны х авто­
ров издавались отдельно, в виде тетрадей или альбомов.
В п ервы е д е с я т и л е т и я 20 в е к а в п роти вовес сти лю
модерн вы д ви гается дви ж ен и е “н овая ти п о гр аф и я ” , вооб­

206
щ е отрицавш ее целесообразность и лл ю страц и и . О днако в
соврем енном и скусстве к н и ги и л л ю стр ац и я п родол ж ает
зани м ать видное место. И ллю стративны е работы Р . Д ю фи,
A. М атисса, П. П икассо, Ф. М азереля, X. Эрни, Р. Гуттузо,
B.А. Ф аворского, Д. Б исти стали вы даю щ им ся дости ж ен и ­
ем культуры 20 века.

ТЕКСТ 6
К ак ни странно, в н аш и дни н ай ти достойны е п р и м е­
ры уличного и скусства в Н ью -Й орке, городе, н а п р о т я ж е ­
нии п ятн ад ц ати лет счи тавш ем ся столицей граф ф и ти , не
так-то просто. Б л аго д ар я у си л и ям легендарного бы вш его
м эра Р уди Д ж у л и ан и этот ж ан р сейчас н аходи тся на гр а ­
ни в ы м и р ан и я — вернее, он п ереехал с у л и ц и из метро на
бум агу, холсты и, конечно, в и нтерн ет. Тем не м енее, о к о н ­
чательн о эн тузи асты аэрозольного и скусства (aerosol a rt)
п о ка не перевелись: горды е п р а-п р ав н у ки А ф ри ки не обра­
щ аю т в н и м ан и я на у к а за н и я свы ш е и продолж аю т и з л и ­
вать свою креати вн ость н а стены своих и ч у ж и х ж и л и щ .
И зн ач ал ьн о граф ф и ти ассоц и ировалось здесь и ск л ю ч и ­
тельно с м етро. Этим словом н азы в а л и соверш енно особое
и скусство р и со ван и я н а м етал л и ч еск о м экстерьере п о ез­
дов — д л я того, чтобы н адп ись м огло уви деть к а к м ож но
больш е лю дей. Сами ж р ец ы и ску сства н азы в а л и себя п и с а ­
тел ям и (w rite rs ) и, в основном , зан и м ал и сь н ач ертан и ем
лозун гов и своих подписей. В середине сем и д есяты х у л и ч ­
ное и скусство достигло своего р асц в ета, чем у в н ем алой
степ ен и сп особствовали и сто щ ен и е городского б ю дж ета
и н евозм ож н ость остан ови ть в ан д ал и зм . Сотни м олоды х
лю дей “бом би ли ” м етро своим и н ад п и сям и и к а р т и н к а м и ,
борясь за зван и е к о р о л я ветк и (k in g of th e line).
Сейчас граф ф ити в сабвее м ож но увидеть довольно ред­
ко, и на поездах почти никогда: если на них обнаруж иваю т
следы к р аск и , то просто не вы пускаю т из депо. Х удож н и ки ,
однако, не уны ваю т и считаю т сущ ествую щ ее п олож ение
вещ ей врем енны м , н азы вая его “моментом чисты х поездов”
(the clean tr a in m om ent). П еребиваю тся они тем, что исполь­
зуют свой талан т в ц ел ях сугубо ком м ерческих: наприм ер,
рисую т реклам ны е к ар ти н к и на стенах перед м агази н ам и и
ресторанам и, иногда даж е с описанием меню и стоимостью
стандартного обеда.

207
В 1995 году Д ж у л и ан и в очередной раз оп олчи лся на
худож ни ков, провозгласив, что уличное искусство создает
ощ ущ ение разрухи и хаоса: “Граф ф ити м ож ет стать проло­
гом к более серьезному преступлению ” .
И все ж е искусство ради искусства по-преж нем у сущ е­
ствует, и врем я от времени, гу л я я по городу, м ож но н ео ж и ­
данно н атол кн уться н а подлинны е ш едевры , бескоры стно
вы ставленны е н а всеобщее обозрение.

ТЕКСТ 7
Р азви ти е ф ранц узского и скусства середины X IX в ек а
связан о п реим ущ ественно с ж ан ром и п ей заж ем , п реж де
всего с им енам и Коро и ж ивописцев барбизонской ш колы .
Это направлени е обязано своим назван ием деревне Барби-
зон, расп ол ож ен н ой н еп о д ал ек у от П а р и ж а , н а ок раи н е
лесов Ф онтенбло. Н а разви ти е п ейзаж н ой ж ивоп и си Коро
и барбизонцев больш ое вли ян и е о к азал и “м алы е гол лан д ­
ц ы ” и Констебль. В то ж е врем я она бы ла естественны м про­
долж ением никогда, в сущ ности, не преры вавш ейся лин ии
р азв и ти я ф ран ц узского п е й за ж а (П уссен, Л оррен, В атто,
Ф рагонар, Робер.)
Н еп о ср ед ствен н ы м п р ед ш ес тв е н н и к о м б арб и зон ц ев
был К ам и ль Коро (1 7 9 6 -1 8 7 5 ). В ран ни й период творчества
Коро много путеш ествовал по Ф ранции и И талии . Он упор­
но работал над этю дами, с самого н ач ала сознательно поста­
вив себе задачу добиться передачи естественного освещ е­
н и я. Р исунок всегда был прочной основой его ж ивописи и
ком позиц ии . Зим ой он пиш ет д ля Салона больш ие м иф оло­
гические п ей заж и , лето проводит в путеш ествиях.
В н ач ал е 1850-х годов в творчестве К оро п рои сходи т
перелом . В это врем я его обычно п ри влекаю т переходны е
и ли бурны е состоян и я п рироды . С трем ясь добиться м а к с и ­
м альной вы рази тельн ости в п ей заж е, он зачастую упорно
разраб аты вает один и тот ж е м отив. П остоянное и зучен ие
п ри род ы , ум ен ие обобщ ить увиденное п р и в о д ят к со зд а­
нию зн ам ен и той сереб ри сто-ж ем чуж н ой гам м ы , к о то р ая
отличает поздние п ей заж и Коро. Он добивается н еобы чай ­
ного богатства оттенков. Коро н и ко гд а не у трач и вает отно­
ш ен и я к природе к а к м есту оби тан и я чел овека. Это особен­
но зам етно в его ж ан р о в ы х и п ортретн ы х работах, которы е
х у д о ж н и к создавал н а п р о тяж ен и и всей своей ж и зн и .

208
ТЕКСТ 8
TH E MODEL M IL L IO N A IR E
( A f t e r O. W i l d e )
If you are n o t w ealth y th e re is no use in being a c h a rm ­
in g fellow . Rom ance is th e p riv ileg e of th e rich , n o t th e p ro ­
fession of th e unem ployed. The poor should be p ra c tic a l and
p ro saic. I t is b e tte r to have a p e rm a n e n t incom e th a n to be
ch a rm in g . These are th e g re a t tr u t h s of m o dern life w hich
H ughie E rsk in e nev er realised. P oor H ughie! He w as w onder­
fu lly good-looking, b u t poor.
To m ake m a tte rs w orse, he was in love. The g irl he loved
was L a u ra M erto n , th e d a u g h te r of a re tire d colonel. L a u ra
ad o red him and he w as read y to k iss h e r s h o e s trin g s . They
w ere th e handsom est couple in London, and had n o t a penny
betw een th em . The Colonel was v ery fond of H ughie, b u t w ould
n o t h e a r of any engagem ent.
“Come to m e, m y boy, w hen you have g o t te n th o u sa n d
pounds of y o u r own, and w e’ll see about i t ”, he used to say;
and th a t m ade H ughie v ery unh ap p y .
One m o rn in g , as he w as on h is w ay to H o llan d P a rk ,
w here th e M erto n s lived, he dro p p ed to see h is frie n d A lan
T revor, a p a in te r. W hen H ughie cam e in he fo und T revor p u t­
tin g th e fin ish in g touches to a w onderful life-size p ic tu re of a
beggar-m an. The b eg g ar h im self was sta n d in g on raised p la t­
fo rm in co rn er of th e stu d io . He was a w izened old m an, w ith
a w rin k led face, and a m ost piteo u s expression.
“W h a t an am azing m odel!” w hispered H ughie, as he shook
h ands w ith his frie n d .
“A n am azin g m o d el?” cried T rev o r. “I sh o u ld th in k so!
You d o n ’t m eet su ch b e g g a rs ev ery day. W h a t an e tc h in g
R em b ran d t w ould have m ade of him !”
“P oor old m an!” said H ughie, “how m iserable he looks!”
“C e rta in ly ” , replied T revor, “you d o n ’t w an t a b eg g ar to
look happy, do y o u ?”
A t th is m om ent th e se rv a n t cam e in , and to ld T rev o r th a t
th e fram em ak er w anted to speak to him .
“D on’t ru n aw ay, H u g h ie” , he said, as he w ent o u t, “I ’ll be
back in a m o m en t.”
The old b eg g ar-m an took a d v a n ta g e of T re v o r’s absence
to re s t fo r a m om ent on a wooden bench th a t was behind him .
He looked some m iserable th a t H ughie could n o t help p ity in g

209
him , and fe lt in his pockets to see w h at m oney he had. A ll he
could fin d w as a sovereign and some coppers. “P o o r old fe l­
low ” , he th o u g h t to h im self, “he w an ts it m ore th a n I do” , and
he w alked across th e stu d io and slipped th e sovereign in to th e
b e g g a r’s hand.
The old m an got up, and a fa in t sm ile appeared on his lips.
“T hank you, s ir ” , he said, “th a n k y o u ” .
Then T revor a rriv e d , and H ughie took his leave, b lu sh in g
a little a t w h at he had done.
The n e x t day he m et T rev o r again.
“W ell, A lan, is y o u r p ic tu re fin ish e d ? ” he asked.
“F in ish ed and fram ed , m y boy!” answ ered T revor. “By th e
w ay, th e old m odel you saw is q u ite devoted to you. I had to tell
him all about you — who you are, w here you live. W h a t y o u r
incom e is, w h at prospects you have —“
“My d ear A lan ” , cried H ughie, “I ’ll probably fin d him w a it­
ing fo r me w hen I go home. B ut of course, you are only joking.
P oor old man! I w ish I could do som ething fo r him . I have heaps
of old clothes a t home — do you th in k we w ould care fo r them ?
H is rag s w ere fallin g to b its .”
“B u t he looks splendid in th e m ” , said T revor. “I w o u ld n ’t
p a in t him in a fro c k coat fo r a n y th in g . W h a t you call ra g s
I call rom ance. H ow ever, I ’ll te ll him of y o u r o ffe r.”
“A nd now te ll me how L a u ra is ” , said T rev o r. “The old
m odel was q u ite in te re s te d in h e r .”
“You d o n ’t m ean to say you ta lk ed to him about h e r? ” said
H ughie.
“C ertain ly I did. He know s all ab o u t th e re tire d colonel,
th e lovely L au ra, and th e 10,000 p o u n d s.”
“T h at old b eg g ar, as you called him , is one of th e ric h e st
m en in E urope. He has a house in every cap ital, dines o ff gold
plate, and could buy all London tom orrow if he w ish ed .”
“W h a t on e a rth do you m ean ?” exclaim ed H ughie.
“W h a t I say ” , said T revor. “The old m an you saw in th e
stu d io is B aron H ousberg. He is a g re a t frie n d of m ine, buys
all m y p ic tu re s, and he paid me a m o n th ago to p a in t him as a
b e g g a r.”
“B aron H ousberg!” cried H u g h ie. “Good heavens! I gave
him a sovereign!”
“Gave him a sovereign!” cried T rev o r, and he b u rs t in to
la u g h te r. “My d ear boy, y o u ’ll nev er see it a g a in .”
H ughie w alked hom e, feeling v ery u n h ap p y , and leaving
A lan T revor in f its of la u g h te r.

210
The n e x t m o rn in g , as he w as a t b re a k fa s t, th e s e rv a n t
handed him an envelope.
On th e o u tsid e was w ritte n , “A w edding p re se n t to H ughie
E rsk in e and L a u ra M erton, fro m an old b e g g a r” , and in sid e
was a cheque fo r 10,000 pounds.
W hen th e y w ere m a rrie d A lan T rev o r w as th e b est m an,
and th e B aron m ade a speech a t th e w edding b re a k fa st.

ТЕКСТ 9
ART FOR HEART'S SAKE
B y R. Goldberg
Reuben Lucius Goldberg (1883-1970), an American sculptor, cartoonist, and writer
was born in San Francisco. After graduating from the University of California in 1904 he
worked as a cartoonist for a number of newspapers and magazines. He produced several
series of cartoons all of which were highly popular.
Among his best works are Is there a Doctor in the House? (1929), Rube Goldberg’s
Guide to Europe (1954) and I Made My Bed (1960).

“H ere, ta k e y o u r p in e a p p le ju ic e ,” g e n tly p e rs u a d e d
K oppel, th e m ale n u rse.
“Nope!” g ru n te d Collis P. E llsw o rth .
“B u t i t ’s good fo r you, s ir ”
“Nope!”
“I t ’s d o c to r’s o rd e rs .”
“Nope!”
Koppel h eard th e fro n t door bell and w as glad to leave th e
room . He fo u n d D octor Caswell in th e hall d o w n stairs. “I c a n ’t
do a th in g w ith h im ,” he told th e doctor. “He w on’t ta k e his
pineapple juice. He d o esn ’t w an t me to read to him . He h ates
th e radio. He d o esn ’t like an y th in g !”
D octor Caswell received th e in fo rm atio n w ith his u su al p ro ­
fessional calm . He had done some co n stru ctiv e th in k in g since
his la st v isit. This was no o rd in ary case. The old gentlem an was
in p re tty good shape fo r a m an of seventy-six. B ut he had to be
kep t from b uying th in g s. He had su ffered his la st h e a rt a tta c k
a fte r his d isastro u s purchase of th a t je rk w a te r ra ilro a d o u t in
Iowa. A ll his p urchases of recen t years had to be liq u id ated a t a
g re a t sacrifice both to his h ealth and his pocketbook.
The d o cto r drew up a c h a ir and s a t down close to th e old
m an. “I ’ve got a proposal fo r y o u ,” he said q u ietly .

211
Old E llsw o rth looked suspiciously over his spectacles.
“H ow ’d you like to ta k e up a r t? ” The d o cto r had his stel-
hoscope read y in case th e a b ru p tn e ss of th e su g g estio n proved
too m uch fo r th e p a tie n t’s h e a rt.
B ut th e old g e n tle m a n ’s answ er w as a vigorous “R ot!”
“I d o n ’t m ean s e rio u s ly ,” said th e d o cto r, reliev ed th a t
d is a s te r had been av erted . “J u s t fool aro u n d w ith chalk and
crayons. I t ’ll be f u n .”
“Bosh!”
“A ll r i g h t .” The d o c to r stood up. “I ju s t su g g e ste d it,
t h a t ’s a ll.”
“B u t, Caswell, how do I s ta r t play in g w ith th e chalk — th a t
is, if I ’m foolish enough to s ta r t ? ”
“I ’ve th o u g h t of th a t, too. I can g et a s tu d e n t fro m one of
th e a r t schools to come here once a week and show y o u .”
D octor Casw ell w en t to h is frie n d , J u d s o n L iv in g sto n ,
head of th e A tla n tic A rt I n s titu te , and ex p lain ed th e s itu a ­
tio n . L iv in g sto n had ju s t th e young m an — F ra n k Sw ain, eig h ­
teen years old and a p ro m isin g s tu d e n t. He needed th e m oney.
R an an elev ato r a t n ig h t to pay tu itio n . How m uch w ould he
get? Five dollars a v is it. F ine.
N ex t a fte rn o o n young Sw ain was show n in to th e big liv in g
room . Collis P . E llsw o rth looked a t him ap p raisin g ly .
“S ir, I ’m n o t an a r tis t y e t,” answ ered th e young m an.
“U m ph?”
Sw ain a rra n g e d som e p a p e r and cray o n s on th e ta b le .
“L e t’s tr y and draw th a t vase over th e re on th e m an telp iece,”
he su g g ested . “T ry it, M ister E llsw o rth , p le ase .”
“U m ph!” The old m an took a piece of cray o n in a sh ak y
h an d and m ade a scraw l. He m ade a n o th e r scraw l and co n n ect­
ed th e tw o w ith th e couple of crude lines. “T here it is, young
m an, “ he snapped w ith a g ru n t of sa tisfa c tio n . “Such fo o lish ­
ness. Poppycock!”
F ra n k Sw ain was p a tie n t. He needed th e five dollars. “If
you w ant to draw you will have to look a t w hat y o u ’re draw ing,
sir.
Old E llsw o rth sq u in te d and looked. “By gum , i t ’s k in d a
p re tty , I never noticed it b e fo re .”
W hen th e a r t s tu d e n t cam e th e follow ing week th e re was
a d raw in g on th e tab le th a t h ad a s lig h t resem blance to th e
vase.
The w rinkles deepened a t th e corners of th e old g en tlem an ’s
eyes as he asked elfishly, “W ell, w hat do you th in k of it? ”

212
“N ot bad, s ir ,” answ ered Sw ain. “B u t i t ’s a b it lo p sid ed .”
“By g u m ,” Old E llsw o rth chuckled. “I see. The halves d o n ’t
m a tc h .” He added a few lines w ith a palsied h an d and colored
th e open spaces blue like a child p laying w ith a p ic tu re book.
T hen he looked to w a rd s th e door. “L iste n , young m a n ,” he
w hispered, “I w an t to ask you so m eth in g before old pineapple
juice comes b a c k .”
“Yes, s i r ,” re p o rte d Sw ain respectively.
“I was th in k in g could you spare th e tim e to come tw ice a
week or p erh ap s th re e tim e s? ”
“S ure, M ister E llsw o rth .”
“Good. L e t’s m ake i t M onday, W ed n esd ay and F rid a y .
F o u r o ’clock.”
A s th e w eeks w ent by S w ain ’s v isits grew m ore fre q u e n t.
He b ro u g h t th e old m an a box of w ater-colors and some tu b es
of oils.
W hen D octor Caswell called E llsw o rth w ould ta lk ab o u t
th e g racefu l lines of th e an d iro n s. He w ould dwell on th e rich
v a rie ty of color in a bowl of f r u it. He p ro u d ly displayed th e
v a rie g a te d sm ears of p a in t on his heavy silk d ressin g gow n.
He w ould n o t allow his v a le t to send i t to th e c le a n e r’s. He
w anted to show th e d o cto r how h a rd h e ’d been w orking.
The tre a tm e n t was w orking p erfectly . No m ore trip s dow n­
tow n to become involved in p u rch ases of e n te rp rise s of d o u b t­
fu l solvency.
The d o cto r th o u g h t it safe to allow E llsw o rth to v is it th e
M etro p o litan , th e M useum of M odern A rt and o th e r ex h ib its
w ith Sw ain. A n e n tire ly new w orld opened up its c h a rm in g
m y steries. The old m an displayed an in satiab le c u rio sity about
th e g alleries and th e p a in te rs who ex h ib ited th em . How w ere
th e g alleries ru n ? W ho selected th e canvases fo r th e e x h ib i­
tio n ? A n idea was fo rm in g in his b ra in .
W hen th e la te sp rin g sun began to cloak th e field s and g a r ­
dens w ith color, E llsw o rth executed a god-aw ful sm udge w hich
he called “Trees D ressed in W h ite ” . Then he m ade a s ta rtlin g
announcem ent. He was going to ex h ib it it in th e S um m er show
a t th e L ath ro p Gallery!
F or th e S um m er show a t th e L athrop G allery was th e b ig ­
g est a r t ex h ib it of th e y ear in q u ality , if not in size. The lifetim e
dream of every m a tu re a r tis t in th e U nited S tates was a L athrop
prize. U pon th is d istin g u ish e d gro u p E llsw orth was going to
fo ist his “Trees D ressed in W h ite ”, w hich resem bled a gob of
salad dressing th ro w n violently up ag ain st th e side of a house!

213
“If th e p ap ers g et hold of th is, M ister E llsw o rth w ill become
a lau g h in g -sto ck . W e ’ve got to stop h im ,” groaned K oppel.
“N o ,” ad m o n ish ed th e d o cto r. “W e c a n ’t in te rf e re w ith
him now and ta k e a chance of spoiling all th e good w ork th a t
w e’ve accom plished.”
To th e u tt e r a s to n ish m e n t of all th re e — and esp ecial­
ly Sw ain — “T rees D ressed in W h ite ” w as accepted fo r th e
L ath ro p show.
F o rtu n a te ly th e p a in tin g w as h u n g in an in co n sp icu o u s
place w here it could n o t excite any noticeable com m ent. Y oung
Sw ain sneaked in to th e G allery one afte rn o o n and blushed to
th e top of his ears w hen he saw “Trees D ressed in W h ite ” , a
loud, rau co u s sp lash on th e w all. A s tw o g ig g lin g s tu d e n ts
sto p p ed b e fo re th e s tra n g e an o m aly S w ain fled in te r r o r .
He could n o t b ear to h e a r w h at th e y had to say.
D u rin g th e close of th e e x h ib itio n a special m essenger
b ro u g h t a long official-looking envelope to M ister E llsw orth
while Swain, Koppel and th e doctor were in the room. “Read it to
m e,” requested th e old m an. “My eyes are tire d from p a in tin g .”
“It gives th e L ath ro p G allery p leasu re to announce th a t th e
F irs t L andscape P rize of $ 1,000 has been aw arded to Collis P.
E llsw orth fo r his p a in tin g “Trees D ressed in W h ite ” .”
Sw ain and K oppel u tte re d a series of in a rtic u la te g u rg les.
D octor Caswell, ex ercisin g his p ro fessio n al self-co n tro l w ith
a suprem e e ffo rt, said: “C o n g ra tu la tio n s, M ister E llsw o rth .
F ine, fin e ... See, see ... Of course, I d id n ’t expect such g re a t
news. B u t, b u t — w ell, now, y o u ’ll have to ad m it th a t a r t is
m uch m ore sa tisfy in g th a n b u sin e ss.”
“A r t ’s n o th in g ,” sn ap p ed th e old m an. “I b o u g h t th e
L ath ro p G allery la st m o n th .”

ТЕКСТ 10
D RA W ING FROM THE N U D E

D u rin g th e w eeks he w atched G h irla n d a jo ’s every move;


w henever th e te a c h e r failed to r e tu r n to sk etch to th e p o r t­
folio, a C astagno, S ignorell or V errocchio, th e boy rem ained
b eh in d to m ake a re p ro d u c tio n . If i t w as la te a fte rn o o n he
w ould ta k e th e sh eet hom e and w hen th e re s t of th e fam ily
was asleep, m ake a fire in th e d o w n stairs h e a rth and s ta in th e
p ap er th e p ro p er colour. A t th e end of th e m o n th he has assem ­

214
bled a p o rtfo lio of a dozen fin e sketches. A t th is ra te his folio
of m a ste r sketches w ould becom e as th ic k as G h irla n d a jo ’s.
G h irlan d ajo s till cam e in early fro m d in n e r occasionally
to give h is a p p re n tic e an h o u r of in s tru c tio n : in th e use of
black chalk; how to w ork in silv e r p o in t, and th e n to in te n sify
th e effec t w ith w hile chalk. M ichelangelo asked if th e y m ig h t
som etim es draw fro m nude m odels.
“W hy should you w an t to learn to draw th e nude w hen we
m u st alw ays p a in t it u n d e r d ra p e s? ” dem anded G h irlandajo.
“T here a r e n ’t en o u g h n u d es in th e Bible to m ake it p r o f it­
a b le.”
“T here are th e s a in ts ” , replied th e boy; “th e y have to be
nude, n early w hen th e y are being sh o t w ith arrow s or b u rn ed
on a g r ill.”
“T rue, b u t who w an ts anatom y in sa in ts? It g ets in th e way
of s p ir it.”
“C ouldn’t it help to p o rtra y th e c h a ra c te r? ”
“No. all of c h a r a c te r t h a t ’s n e c e ssa ry to show can be
done th ro u g h th e fa c e ...a n d p e rh a p s th e h an d s. No one has
w orked th e nu d es since th e p ag an G reeks. W e have to p a in t
fo r C h ris tia n s . B esid es, o u r b o d ies a re u g ly , m isp ro p o r-
tio n ed , fu ll of boils, fe v e r and ex crem en t. A g ard en of palm s
and cypresses, oranges in bloom , an a rc h ite c tu ra l design of a
s tr a ig h t stone w all w ith step s ru n n in g dow n to th e s e a ...th a t
is b eau ty . A nd n o n -co n tro v ersia l. P a in tin g should be c h a rm ­
in g , re fre s h in g , lovely.w ho can say th a t th e h u m an body is
any of th ese th in g s? I like to draw fig u re s w alking d elicately
u n d e r th e ir g o w n s...”
“ ...a n d I w ould lik e to d raw th e m th e w ay God m ade
A d am .”

ТЕКСТ 11
O N E COAT OF WHITE*
B y H . F. S m i t h

C om ing hom e fro m o u r f ir s t tr ip to E u ro p e on b o ard a


ste a m e r B etsy and I m et a ta ll old m an who called h im se lf
M onsieur R oland. He was a p le asa n t, clever fellow and we soon
m ade frie n d s w ith him . One evening he suddenly to ld us th a t
*One coat of w hite — слой белой краски .

215
h is nam e was L au tisse and asked us n o t to m en tio n it to an y ­
one. H aving no idea w hy we should keep his nam e a secret we
decided to fin d o u t who L au tisse w as. A t th e s h ip ’s lib ra ry we
learn ed th a t o u r new frie n d w as probably th e w o rld ’s g r e a t­
est liv in g a r tis t. He lived in th e S o u th of F rance and had no t
p ain ted a n y th in g fo r th e la st te n y ears. He said he w ould n ev er
to u ch a b ru sh again as long as he lived.
L au tisse was going to spend a m o n th in New Y ork, and
we in v ite d him to com down to o u r place fo r a w eekend. W hen
accep tin g th e in v ita tio n he got us to prom ise th a t we w ould
n o t in v ite any g u ests or ta lk to him about a rt.
L a u tisse a rriv e d on th e fiv e o ’clock tr a in th e follow ing
S a tu rd a y . W e had an enjoyable tim e th a t evening. The n e x t
m o rn in g I got up a t se v e n -th irty as I had a job to do. O ur g ard en
fence needed a coat of w hite p a in t. I was o s ta r t p a in tin g w hen
I saw L au tisse com ing to w ard s me. I th o u g h t I should have to
p u t o ff th e job, b u t he took th e b ru sh o u t of m y hands.
“W hy, it m u st be done. L et me do i t , ” he said. I trie d to
p ro te s t b u t he took no notice of m y w ords and he sp en t th re e
h o u rs on th e job. W hen he cam e back in to th e house he looked
as happy as a child. He said th a t he had n o t enjoyed h im self so
m uch fo r years.
T h at evening he w ent back to New Y ork and we did n o t
h e a r an y th in g from him or about him fo r te n days. Then a sto ry
appeared in th e New Y ork p ap ers. It said th a t L au tisse, th e
fam ous F rench a r tis t, was stay in g in th e USA, and since his
a rriv a l he had n o t le ft New Y ork except fo r a w eekend w hich
he sp en t w ith th e G reggs (th a t was w ith us). The n ex t day our
place was crow ded w ith new spaperm en who w an ted to know
every d etail ab o u t L a u tis s e ’s sta y w ith us. W hen B etsy to ld
th em about ou r g ard en fence th e y took p ic tu res of it. Then a
long sto ry was published in th e papers u n d er th e title “L autisse
p ain ts ag ain ” . The n e x t few days w ere te rrib le . A lot of new s­
p ap erm en , b u sin essm en and re p re s e n ta tiv e s of a r t g alleries
and m useum s cam e to o u r house. They w anted to buy o u r fence
and offered me large sum s of m oney, b u t I did n o t know w h at to
do th o u g h I realized th a t I was to do som ething. On th e fo u rth
day G erston, L a u tisse ’s frie n d , called on us. He saw I was a t a
loss w h at to do. “You sh o u ld n ’t sell th e fence y e t,” he recom ­
m ended. “You should allow th e P alm er M useum in New Y ork
to ex h ib it i t . ” I follow ed his advice and some days la te r I w ent
to th e P alm er M useum w here I m et G erston, who said th a t my
fence was a g re a t success. Then we en tered th e room w here th e

216
fence was on display. I co u ld n ’t help laughing* —it had been cu t
in to th ir ty sections and had a fence aro u n d it. A t th e low er co r­
n e r of each section th e re was a w ord in black p ain t. I recognized
L a u tisse ’s sig n a tu re . I was so m uch su rp rise d th a t I could only
say, “B ut why? ... W h at? ... W here is he? .. .’’Then G erston told
me th a t L autisse had le ft fo r F rance th e day before.
“You see,” he added, “L au tisse was really fond of you and
M rs. G regg. He had no idea w hen he. p a in te d y o u r fence th a t it
w ould cause so m uch ex citem en t, b u t w hen it did he was v ery
am used. I ’ve never seen him lau g h so m uch, and it was his idea
to have th e fence c u t in to sections and to sign each section.
You should sell th e fence now .”
I follow ed his advice and tw e n ty nine sections w ere sold
w ith in a m o n th a t th e price of 10,000 p er section. The t h i r t i ­
eth section is now in o u r liv in g room .

* I co u ld n ’t help lau g h in g — я не мог не рассм еяться.

217
Grammar file
File 1: A rticles (a /th e/zero )
1 In d efin ite article: a /a n + sin gu lar, countable nouns
*speaking in general
1 w ant a brush.
* first m ention of som eone/som ething
I ’ve got a new bike!
*jobs
She’s a model. H e’s an actor.
! I am stu d e n t. > I am a student.
2 D efin ite article: the
*only one of som ething
The sun is shining.
*som ebody/som ething m entioned before
The professor showed us a picture, we liked th e picture very much.
*names of cinemas, th eatres, etc.
The N ational Theatre, The Times
*rivers, oceans, deserts, etc.
The M editerranean, The Sahara, The Himalayas
*areas
th e n o rth /th e west
*some countries and nationalities
th e USA , th e B ritish
*musical instrum ents
I can play the g u itar.
3 No article
*plural, countable nouns
I love rock bands.
*uncountable nouns in a general sense
I hate homework,
*most streets, roads, cities, etc.
R ussia, A thens, America
in s titu tio n s , e.g. school, university, college, hospital etc.
I go to school every day. My siste r’s ill in hospital.
*certain expressions
My Dad’s at w ork /h om e.
P au l’s not in class. H e’s ill in bed.
Do you want to go hom e now?
We went by c a r /b u s/p la n e /b o a t, etc.
We went home on foot.
W h a t’s for d in n er/b rea k fa st/lu n ch ?

218
! U se th e article when referring to an a ctu a l building:
I went to the hospital to see a patient.

File 2: C ountable/uncountable nouns and determ iners


1 C ountable nouns
*can be singular or plural
one brush/two brushes
one child/four children
2 U ncountable nouns
*no plural form
*common uncountable nouns
accom m odation, advice, equipm ent, fu rn itu re , h ealth , homework,
inform ation, knowledge, luck, luggage, money, m usic, news, prog­
ress, rubbish, traffic, travel, trouble, w eather, work
! Never use a /a n w ith uncountable nouns:
I need a n some advice, please.
3 C ountable or uncountable
Some nouns can be countable or uncountable, depending on the m ean­
ing.

C ountable U ncountable
That was a really I ’d like a holiday job but I haven’t
frig h ten in g picture! got m uch experience.
We sang the song We haven’t got m uch tim e left.
three tim es.
She found a hair My granddad hasn’t got
in her drink. m uch hair left.
I ’d like tw o g la sses The door was made
of lemonade. of g la ss.
I need an iron to press Iron and steel are m etals.
my jeans.
They heard a noise Don’t make so m uch noise!
outside.
I bought a paper I need som e w riting paper.
toto read the news.
T here’s a space on the There isn ’t m uch space
paper from where you in my flat.
can w rite your name.
There are six room s T here’s not m uch room
in our flat. on the coach for luggage.
T here’s a wood w ith The fram e is made of wood.
tall trees behind our house.

219
4 Q uantifiers
*som e + countable/uncountable nouns for positive statem ents
There were som e people in the room.
*any + countable/uncountable nouns for negatives/question
He d idn’t buy any CDs.
Have you got any cheese?
* lo ts/a lo t of w ith plural countable and uncountable nouns
They bought lo ts of souvenirs.
I ’ve got lo ts o f news to tell you.
*m uch + uncountable nouns for negatives/questions
He doesn’t earn m uch m oney.
How m uch tim e is there?
*m any + countable nouns for negatives/questions
There aren ’t m any posters on the walls.
Has he got m any girlfriends?
*a few /few + plural, countable nouns
There were a few people on the beach. (=some)
Few to u rists come to this area. (=hardly any)
*a lit t le /lit t le + uncountable nouns
W e’ve got a little tim e to spare. (=some)
T here’s very little b u tter left. (=hardly any)
*all (of)/n o n e (o f)/n o + countable/uncountable nouns
A ll p assen gers m ust go to the check-in desk.
No p assen gers can travel w ithout tickets.
A ll o f/N o n e of th e children went on the trip .
*each (o f)/ev ery + countable nouns
I gave each o f my friends a present.
We go to school every day.

File 3: A djectives and adverbs


1 Com parative and superlative: ad jectives
*add -er/-e st to most one-syllable adjectives
Your flat is la rg er/b ig g er than mine.
Elvis was the greatest!
A nna’s th e la ziest girl in the class.
*add m ore and th e m ost to adjectives of two or more syllables
A com puter is m ore exp en sive than a video.
London is th e m ost ex citin g city I ’ve ever been to.
! Some two syllable adjectives, such as clever, narrow , gentle, tired,
pleasant can form the com parative and superlative in both ways:
gen tle —gen tler —th e g en tlest
or g en tle —m ore g en tle —th e m ost g en tle

220
Irregular ad jectives
good b etter than the best
bad worse th an the w orst
fa r fa rth e r/fu rth e r the fa rth e s t/ fu rth e st
Irregular q uan tifiers
little less least
m uch/m any more most
few few er/less few est/least
2 Com parative and superlative: adverbs
*with regular adverbs, use m ore and the m ost
quickly - more quickly - the most quickly
slowly - more slowly - the most slowly
You’ll get to the USA m ore quickly if you fly.
*add -er/-e st to most one-syllable adverbs th a t have the same form as
adjectives
hard - harder - the hardest
fast - faster - the fastest
loud - louder - the loudest
late - later - the latest
Irregular adverbs
well b etter (the) best
badly worse (the) w orst
little less (the) least
much more (the) most
3 (not) as...as
*to compare sim ilar things
I am /am not as ta ll as my brother.
4 less and th e lea st
*to make negative comparisons
My bike cost less than my frie n d ’s.
Sue’s bike cost th e lea st.
5 th e + com p arative...the + com parative
*for liking two actions
The sooner we go, th e better.
The harder you work, th e more you will earn.
6 P osition of adverbs
A dverbs of frequency
Least o fte n ----------------------- ►most often
Never, rarely, hardly, ever, occasionally,
Sometimes, often, usually, always
* after auxiliary/m odal verbs
I have never been to China.
*before the m ain verb

221
I often m eet my friends afte r a rt college.
A dverbs of certain ty
probably, certainly, definitely, etc.
*after auxiliary/m odal verbs, before the main verb
in positive sentences
Alice is probably at the beach.
I’ll probably go to the cinema tonight.
*before auxiliary/m odal verbs in negative sentences
I probably w on’t be in school tomorrow.
A dverbs of m anner, ad verb s/ad verbial phrases of tim e
*at the end of a sentence
He sings very w ell.
We arrived late yesterday.
I play tennis once a w eek, on Saturday m ornings.
7 In ten sifiers
*to qualify com paratives
My sisters is a b it/a lo t older than me.
A com puter is fa r /a great deal more expensive than a video.
8 G radable/ungradable ad jectives and adverbs
*with gradable adjectives such as good, bad, short,
funny, sorry:
rather, quite, fairly, very, extrem ely, really, terribly
The film was extrem ely good.
*with ungradable adjectives such as fabulous, wonderful, incredible,
stunning:
quite, ab solu tely, to ta lly
The holiday was ab solu tely (NOT extrem ely) fabu lou s.

File 4: Present Tenses


1 P resen t Sim ple
*regular actions and routines especially w ith frequency adverbs
Do you go to a rt school every day?
I don’t often watch TV.
*perm anent situations
P ierre com es from France.
*general tru th s
Snow m elts in the sun.
*time clauses w ith a fu tu re m eaning, after: when, after, as soon as,
u ntil
I ’ll ring you w hen I get home.
*fixed tim etables
Our plane goes at midday.
*’s ta te ’ verbs which are not usually used in the continuous

222
I love rock graffiti!
1 don’t understand w hat h e’s saying.
S ta te verbs
be, have
feel, hear, see, taste, smell, sound
like, dislike, love, hate
know, realize, understand, think, imagine
recognize, remember, appear, look, seem, need,
want, wish, prefer, agree, disagree, believe,
doubt, suppose, deny, impress, mean, promise,
belong to, own
! Some state verbs can be used in the continuous but w ith a change of
m eaning.
You look happy! I’m look in g at you!
(^appearance) (=action)
My girlfriend has blue eyes. W e’re h avin g a party
(=possession) (=giving/organizing)
Sim ilar verbs: appear, be, feel, forget, remember, see, smell, taste,
think, try, weigh
2 P resen t Continuous: be + verb + -ing
*actions happening now
Look! I t ’s snowing!
*actions happening around the tim e of speaking
The w orld’s clim ate is ch an ging.
^tem porary situations
My uncle’s v isitin g the USA but he’ll be back tomorrow.
*plans and arrangem ents in the fu tu re
I ’m m eetin g Jane tonight.
*with always, to describe annoying or surprising habits
You’re alw ays lo o sin g things!
3 keep + -ing
*to describe habitual actions which may be irrita tin g
my uncle keeps m aking silly jokes.

File 5: Present perfect


1 P resen t perfect sim ple: h a v e /h a s + past p articip le
*events th a t began in the past and are still continuing
I ’ve been here for ten m inutes.
*events th a t started in a tim e period th a t is not finished
The phone has rung ten tim es today.
*past actio n s/situations th a t have a connection to the present
Look at this cheque. I ’ve won firs t prize!
*past actions, when the tim e is not known

223
They’ve m ade a new S tar W ars film .
*with ju st, for actions th a t happened very recently
l l ’ve ju st got home.
* w ith tim e expressions like How long...?, for and since
How lon g have you been here?
*with tim e expressions th a t mean ‘up to the present tim e’, e.g. ever,
never, already, yet, recently, so fa r
H ave you ever been to Paris?
*after superlatives
I t ’s the b est book I’ve ever read.
*after phrases like I t ’s the firs t/la s t tim e...
I t ’s th e first tim e I’ve ever been abroad.
2 P resen t perfect continuous: h a v e/h a s + been + -ing
*actions th a t started in the past and are still continuing
I’ve been liv in g in this flat since 2000.
*to emphasise how long som ething has been going on
I’ve been w a itin g for ages!
*recent continuous activities, when we can see the result
I’m hot! I’ve been running.

File 6: P ast tenses


1 P ast sim ple
*events th a t happened at a definite past tim e or are clearly finished
I saw John last week.
A gatha C hristie w rote detective stories.
*a sequence of completed past events
1 got up, had b reakfast and w ent to school.
2 P ast continuous: w a s/w ere + -ing
in te r r u p te d actions
I w as (still) h avin g dinner when my friend called.
*two actions th a t were happening at the same time in the past
I w as reading a book while my b rother w as p layin g his guitar.
3 P ast perfect: had + p ast p a rticip le/h a d + been + -ing
*for events th a t finished before other past events or times
My brothers had (already) gone to bed by the tim e I got home.
By m idnight, all the guests had le ft.
*the p ast p erfect co n tin u ous focuses on th e d u ra tio n of an action
We were tired because we had been p layin g volleyball all m orning.

File 7: used to/w ou ld


1 used to /w o u ld
*past actions and habits
I used to bite my nails b u t I ’ve stopped now.

224
Did you used to use to suck your thum b when you were a baby?
My b ro th er and I w ould often play in the woods when we were kids.
! Use would to describe past actions but not past states.
My best friend w ould be used to be very th in , but he’s not now.
W ould is not as common as used to. Do not use would in questions or
negatives.
2 used to
^actions th a t didn’t happen in the past but do now
I didn’t used to use to play football, but I do now.
We didn’t used to use to have mobile phones but we do now.
! U sed to is only used in th e p ast.
In questions and negatives, the -d is dropped:
I d idn’t use to .../D id you use to...?

File 8: Future tenses


1 Future sim ple: w ill/s h a ll + in fin itiv e
*future facts and predictions w ith no present evidence
People w ill liv e on the moon one day.
*decisions made at the tim e of speaking
Are you having a party? I’ll come!
*offers, promises, th rea ts, hopes, fears, requests, w arnings
I ’ll ring you tonight if you want.
I ’ll be really angry if you’re late again!
! P u t probably afte r will b u t before won’t.
It w ill probably rain tomorrow.
I probably w on’t see him tomorrow.
! Shall is usually only used in offers or suggestions.
S h all I get lunch?
It can be used instead of will in firs t person
sentences, but is much less common.
1 sh a ll be here at 8 o’clock.
2 Going to + in fin itiv e
*plans and intentions and things th a t are already
decided
I ’ve decided w hat to get Tom for his birthday.
I ’m goin g to buy him a CD.
*predictions w ith present evidence
Listen to the thunder! There’s goin g to be a storm .
3 P resen t continuous
*definite fu tu re arrangem ents
I w ill m eet am m eeting my girlfriend to n ig h t. (= it’s a ll arranged).
4 P resen t sim ple
^tim etables and scheduled even ts

225
The bus lea v es at 8 a.m .
*after as soon as, before, until, when, while
I ’ll meet you as soon as the class fin ish es.

File 9: -ing form s and in fin itives


1 -ing form s
*after certain verbs
1 enjoy going on holiday.
Sim ilar verbs: adm it, avoid, can’t help, consider, delay, deny,
(dis)like, enjoy, fancy, finish, hate, involve, keep, (^continue), mind,
miss, risk, suggest
*after all prepositions and phrasal verbs
You can’t learn the g u itar w ith ou t p racticing every day.
I ’m good at cooking.
I ’ve given up to do doing judo.
2 In fin itiv es
verb + to + infinitive
*after certain verbs and phrases
I w ant to study medicine.
W e’re h oping to go to Canada next year.
S im ilar verbs: afford, agree, arrange, begin, decide, expect, forget*,
hope, intend, learn, manage, offer, need, plan, pretend, promise, pro­
pose, refuse, regret*, remember, refuse, seem, start, threaten,, try*,
want, would like/love, would prefer, forget, regret, remember and try
can also be followed by -ing form , b u t w ith a change in m eaning.
See section 3.
verb + object + to + in fin itiv e
*after certain verbs
My friend asked m e to go on holiday w ith her.
I persuaded Dad to buy me some new train ers.
sim ilar verbs: allow, ask, command, encourage, expect, forbid, force,
get, hate, help, invite, order, permit, persuade, prefer, remind, teach,
tell, want, warn, would like
3 -ing form or in fin itiv e
*after verbs like s ta rt, begin, continue (no change in meaning)
I started to lea rn /lea rn in g the piano five years ago.
*after verbs like, love, hate, prefer (small change in meaning)
I love sw im m ing, (in general)
I like to sw im every day when I ’m on holiday, (specific situation)
* after verbs like forget, go on, mean, regret, remember, stop and try
(complete change in meaning)
Compare:
1 I’ll never forget m eeting Leonardo DiCaprio! (I’ll always remember it.)

226
2 I forgot to post M um’s card! (I should have done it but I haven’t.)
1 Do you remember learning to read? (Can you remember that past time?)
2 I m ust rem em ber to buy my grandm other a present. (I m u stn ’t fo r­
get to do it.)
1 1 m ust stop b itin g my nails, (give up)
2 We stopped to have a coffee on the way home, (stopped one thing in
order to do another)
1 If you can’t find the inform ation in a book, try look in g on the
In tern et. (I advise this.)
2 I tried to repair my bike but I couldn’t. (I attem pted it and failed.)
1 1 d idn’t m ean to break the window, (that w asn’t my intention)
2 Learning a language well m eans studying hard, (involves)
1 I regret to inform you th a t you’ve failed the test. (I’m sorry to tell
you this.)
2 My sister regrets lea v in g school. (She’s sorry she did it.)

File 10: Other uses of -ing form s and in fin itives


1 -ing form s
* after certain expressions
I t ’s not w orth buying th a t CD-it’s useless!
I can ’t stand w atching football on TV.
Sim ilar phrases: There’s no p oint..., I t ’s unless/hopeless/pointless...,
I t ’s a waste of tim e..., I can’t b ea r..., I ’m fed up w ith ..., I t ’s no u se...
*as the subject or the object/com plem ent of a sentence
1 love p ain tin g.
V isitin g m useum is my favourite hobby.
*as the second p art of a compound adjective
H e’s very good-looking.
She was wearing a tig h t-fittin g sweater.
*to ta lk about th e effect someone or som ething has on us or our
feelings
It was a very excited ex citin g film .
The film was ra th e r bored boring.
2 In fin itiv e
*with to, afte r certain adjectives
The homework was easy to do.
I was happy to do it.
Sim ilar adjectives: amazed, certain, difficult, disappointed, free, glad,
hard, likely, pleased, possible, simple, sure, surprised
*with to, afte r certain nouns
It was a real surprise to hear we’d won the prize.
*w ithout to, in certain phrases
I w ould rather go to a disco than stay at home.

22 7
File 11: C onditionals
1 Zero conditional: if + present + present sim p le/p resen t co n tin u ­
o u s/m o d a l/im p era tiv e
*general tru th s, instructions
If you h eat ice, it m elts.
If i t ’s rainin g, tak e an um brella.
If he looks em barrassed, he m ay be lying.
2 F irst conditional: If/u n le ss + present sim ple +
w ill/m a y /m ig h t/c a n
*things th a t are really likely to happen in the p re se n t/fu tu re
If I wiH win the lottery, I ’ll buy a picture.
W e’ll miss the plane u n less th e ta x i w ill get g ets here soon.
^promises and th reats
I’ll buy a present if you lend me a guitar.
3 Second conditional: If + p ast sim ple + w o u ld /c o u ld /m a y /m ig h t
*unreal/hypothetical situations in the p re se n t/fu tu re
W hat w ould you do if you were a famous artist?
If I had my own bedroom, I could decorate it myself.
‘•’•'advice
If I were you, I’d go home now.
! Conditional sentences can be w ritten in two ways w ith no change in
meaning:
1 w ith the if clause at the beginning of the sentence
I f you lend me some money, I ’ll buy you a present.
2 w ith the if clause at the end of the sentence
I ’ll buy you a present if you lend me some money
Note th a t the if clause is followed by a comma only when it comes at
the s ta rt of a sentence.
4 Third conditional: if + past perfect + w o u ld /c o u ld /m a y /m ig h t
have + p ast p articip le
^speculating about situations in the past which didn’t actually happen
We w ould have finished the pictures if it hadn’t rained.
If you ’d bought a ticket, you m ight have won a prize.
^som ething th a t was a possibility in the past but didn’t happen
You could have broken your arm if you’d fallen out of the tree.

File 12: W ishes


1 w ish + p ast sim p le/p a st co n tin u o u s/co u ld
*to express regrets about a present situation which we can’t change
My sister wishes she w ere p rettier.
*use if only to make a wish stronger
If only my dad didn’t snore!
! You can’t say I wish I/w e would.

228
1 wish I w ould be lyin g w ere lyin g on the beach now!
2 w is h /if only + w ould
when you w ant som ething to happen in the fu tu re but it is outside
your control
I wish my parents w ould buy me a Mercedes!
^com plaints
If only my b ro th er w ould stop ordering me around!
3 w ish /h o p e
*use wish when you imagine situations are d ifferent from reality
I w ish it would stop raining.
*use hope, not wish, for things th a t are likely to happen in reality
I hope it stops raining soon.
4 w ish + p ast perfect
*regrets about the past
I wish I hadn’t eaten so m uch last night!

File 13: Reported speech


R eporting sta tem en ts
* after reporting verbs in the present, there is no change
He says he loves her.
* after rep o rtin g verbs in the past, tenses go one step back in tim e.
Pronouns and place/tim e words may also need to change.
He said he loved her.

O riginal sta tem en t R eported sta tem en t


‘I t’s snow ing in my He said it w as snow ingin
country. his country.
‘I w as dream ing,’ he He told me th a t he had
told me. been dream ing.
‘Y ou’ve won firs t p rize,’ The man announced th a t
the man announced. they had won the firs t prize.
‘I’ve been w atch in g TV,’ He explained th a t he had
he explained. been w atch in g TV.
‘I’ll buy you a p resen t,’ Dad promised th a t he
dad promised. w ould buy m e a present.

*modals would, could, m ight, ought to or should do


not change in reported speech
‘I m igh t be la te .’ She said she m ight be late.
*m ust changes to had to
‘I m ust go.’ She said she had to go.
! Use tell not say before an object pronoun.
He said (th at) he was lost.

229
He said m e told me th a t he w as lost.
^Changes in tim e/place indicators

O riginal sta tem en t R eported sta tem en t


here there
now then
th is /th a t/th e s e /th o s e the today th a t day
tomorrow the next (following) day
yesterday the day before/the previous day
last week the week before
next week the following week
ago before

File 14: Indirect questions


1 R eporting q uestions
*Make the same changes as reported statem ents.
Change the word order so th a t the question becomes the same as a
statem ent.

O riginal question R eported question


‘Are you okay? ’ My friend asked me w as I okay if I
w as okay.
‘W here do you live?’ He wanted to know wheel I live I lived.
*if or whether for yes/no questions
‘Are you a stu d e n t? ’ He asked me if/w h e th er I was a
student.
! Remember not to use a question m ark for a reported question.
2 Reporting polite requests, advice or warnings: ask/tell/advise/warn +
object + infinitive
‘L isten, p lea se!’ The teacher asked/told us to listen.
‘Be carefu l!’ He advised/warned us to be careful.
3 Indirect questions
*w ith p olite introductory phrases such as
I wonder if you could tell me...?, I’d like to know..., Could you tell me...?
‘W here’s the box office?’ ‘Could you tell me where is the
office where the box office is? ’
*asking for instructions: Could you tell me w here/how /w hen + to +
infinitive
Could you te ll m e how to get to the post office?

File 15: Structures after reporting verbs


1 verb + th a t clause
The boys adm itted th a t they had lost the money.

230
Sim ilar verbs: complain, explain, promise, realize, remember, reply,
say, think.
! A fter m ost verbs you can drop th a t.
They adm itted (th at) they had lost it.
You cannot drop th a t afte r reply.
He replied th a t he had lost it.
2 verb + object + th a t clause
The guide w arned us th a t the castle was haunted.
Sim ilar verbs: tell, remind.
3 verb + th a t + should
Mum su gg ested th a t I (should) go to the cinema.
Sim ilar verbs: agree, demand, insist, recommend.
4 verb + to + in fin itiv e
I prom ised to w ash up.
Sim ilar verbs: agree, decide, offer, refuse, threaten.
! Some verbs can be followed by to + infinitive or a th a t clause.
W hen there is a change of subject, you m ust use a th a t clause.
‘W e’ll go w ith you!’ My friend agreed to go w ith me.
‘You can go w ith us!’ My friends agreed m e to go w ith
them th a t I should go w ith them .
5 verb + object + to + in fin itiv e
Dad encouraged my brother to go abroad.
Sim ilar verbs: advise, ask, beg, encourage, invite, order, persuade, tell,
remind, warn.
6 verb + -ing
I su ggested goin g to the disco.
Sim ilar verbs: admit, deny, recommend, suggest
! Some verbs can be followed by an -ing form or a th a t clause. W hen
there is a change of subject, you m ust use a th a t clause.
‘L et’s go to the cinema!’ Dad suggested going to the cinema.
‘Why don’t you go to the cinema?’ Dad suggested that I go to the cinema.
7 verb + preposition + -ing form
My uncle in sists on v isitin g us very late in the evening.
Sim ilar verbs: accuse smb ( of), apologise ( for), Blame smb ( for), con­
gratulate smb ( on), discourage smb ( f r om)

File 16: The passive


lU se
*with most tran sitiv e verbs (verb + object), when the action is more
im portant th an the agent
That new car w as designed in the UK.
*when the agent (the person or thing who did the action) is unknown
Someone invented television. Television was invented in the last century.

231
2 Form
Tense Subject to b e/m od al+ b e P ast p articip le
present simple Dollars are accepted (here).
present continuous A new road is being built.
past simple The P resident was assinated
present perfect The m anager has been dismissed
past continuous The car was being followed
past perfect The p arty had been cancelled
fu tu re The w inner will be given a cheque
H er story is going to be published
Modals Tickets m ust/canbe ordered
/should (in advance)

*only include the agent (by...) when th a t inform ation is im portant


The film was directed by S teven Spielberg.
Do not use the words by som eone/som ething.
! W hen we have two possible subjects for a passive verb, a person and
a thing, the person becomes the subject of the passive sentence.
I was given a prize.
A prize was given to me.
3 le t/m a k e + object + bare in fin itiv e
My b ro th er w ouldn’t let me borrow his guitar.
Dad made me clean the car yesterday.
! We use to afte r make in the passive.
My friend w as m ade to pay for the window he broke.

File 17: The causative


*activities we arrange for other people to do for us
I had my h air coloured.
Dad’s goin g to have his car serviced.
I get my h air cut at Tony’s salon.
! Get more common in the im perative form .
Get your h air cut!

File 18: Modal verbs 1


1 A b ility
*can for p re se n t/fu tu re ability
Can you swim?
*cou ld /w as able to for past ability
1 could play the g u itar when I was five years old.
2 P erm ission
*can and m ay for requesting perm ission
May I go out tonight?

232
*can’t, m ay not, not allow ed to for lack of permission
I can ’t / I ’m not allow ed to drive a car. I ’m only 14.
! May is very form al. In questions, it is polite and is used quite fre ­
quently.
May I help you?
In negatives, may not is rarely used as it sounds very form al.
3 A d vice/criticism
*should, ought to for advice
You sh o u ld /o u g h t to see a doctor.
*shouldn’t/o u g h tn ’t to for criticism of a past action
You sh ou ld n ’t have done th a t
! Should and ought to have the same m eaning, but should is used
more frequently.
4 O bligation
*m ust for strong obligation or necessity imposed by the speaker
Policeman: You m ust come to the police Station.
*m ustn ’t for strong prohibition imposed by the speaker
You m u stn ’t drink and drive.
*have to, h ave got to, need to for reporting/asking about rules/regu-
lations/obligations
Do we need to /h a v e to get visas to go to the USA?
*had to for past obligation
I had to tidy my room yesterday.
5 Lack of ob ligation
*don’t have to, don’t need to and need n ’t for lack of obligation in the
p re se n t/fu tu re
We don’t have to be home un til midnight!
*didn’t need to for actions th a t were not necessary
We didn’t need to wait for the plane as it took off im mediately.
*needn’t have + past participle for actions which were done unnecessarily
You need n ’t have w orried. I was quite safe.

File 19: Modal verbs 2


1 P ossib ility
* may / could/m ight + bare infinitive for som ething th a t is possibly
tru e b u t we don’t know.
Susan’s not in. She m ay/could/m ight be next door
*may have/ could have/ might have + past
participle for som ething th a t has possibly happened
I’m not sure where she is. She may/ could/ might have gone to the cinema.
*may/could/might + be + -ing for something that is possibly happening now
She could be watching a video.
! There is no evidence for any of these assum ptions.

233
2 D eductions
*m ust + bare in fin itiv e fo r deductions in the present
He m ust be a doctor. He has a stethoscope!
*m ust have + past particip le for deductions in the past
The police arrested the man. He m ust have com m itted a crime.
*m ust have + been + -ing for the continuous past
They couldn’t find him. He m ust h ave been hiding.
! There is usually some evidence for these deductions,
e.g. the doctor’s stethoscope.
*can’t + bare in fin itiv e for assum ptions in the present
She can ’t be a nurse. She isn ’t wearing a uniform .
*can’t h a v e/c o u ld n ’t have + past particip le for things we are sure did
not happen
He can ’t have passed his driving test. He looks upset.
*can’t have + been + -ing for the continuous past
He crashed. He can ’t have been driving carefully.

File 20: R elative clauses


1 D efin in g clau ses
*are essential to the sentence; cannot be om itted; have no commas
I know the man who starred in th a t film!
T h at’s the seat where I le ft my w allet!
*relative pronouns can be om itted if they are the object of the verb
The girl (who) I m et yesterday was really nice.
The film (w hich) we saw was very exciting.
^prepositions norm ally go at the end of the relative clause
The boy (who) I spoke to was English.
R elative pronouns
who people
which things
th a t people/things
whose possession
when time
where place
why reason

2 N on-d efining clau ses


*give ex tra inform ation th a t can be om itted; the inform ation goes
between commas.
M artha, who is Spanish, is coming to stay in our house.
*can refer to the whole previous clause
We went to see the latest S tar W ars film , w hich w as fabu lou s.
! In non-defining clauses, the relative pronoun can never be om itted.

234
File 21: Clause and result clauses
1 so m uch/m an y, so little /fe w (th at)
*so m any, so few (th at) w ith countable nouns
I ’ve got so m any CD’s th a t I don’t know where to put them!
*so m u ch /so little (th at) w ith uncountable nouns
We spent so m uch tim e in the theme park th a t we missed our coach.
2 so /su c h (th at)
*so...(th at) w ith adjectives and adverbs
I ’m so glad (th at) I passed my exam!
He spoke so q uietly (th at) I couldn’t hear him.
*such a .. .with singular, countable nouns
I had such a fabulous day (th at) I d idn’t w ant to go home.
* su ch ...(th a t) w ith p lu ral, countable nouns and w ith uncountable
nouns
It was such good new s (th at) we couldn’t believe it!
3 to o /en o u g h
*gives a negative idea - som ething is not wanted or desired
too + q uan tifier (+noun)
I ’ve eaten too m uch (food). I feel sick!
too + ad jective/ad verb
My coffee’s too hot. I can’t drink it.
He runs too fa st. I can’t keep up.
enough + noun
I ’ve had enough food,
ad jective/ad verb + enough
It was cold enough to snow.
! Enough goes afte r the adjective/adverb while too goes before,
too + ad jective/ad verb (+for + sb) + in fin itiv e w ith to
*things th a t are difficult, and therefore impossible to do
The film was too scary for my sister to w atch it to w atch.
W e were too tired to goto the exhibition.

File 22: U sefu l linking words


1 A ddition
also, besides, furthermore, in addition, moreover, w hat’s more
2 L istin g p oints in an argum ent
First ( of all), To start with, In the first place, N ext, Secondly, Finally,
Last but not least, In conclusion, To sum up
3 Time sequencers
at the beginning, at first, as soon as, afterwards, by the time, later, in
the end, at last
4 Condition
as long as, if, unless

235
5 Cause and resu lt
as, because, since, so, that, th a t’s why
6 Contrast
although, but, however, in spite of/despite, nevertheless, on the other
hand
7 E x a m p le/illu stra tio n
for example, for instance, such as

File 23: S p ellin g rules


1 W ords ending in -y
*after a c consonant, -y changes to -ie when you add -s
city - cities
cry - cries
*words ending in a final vowel + -y don’t
change
journey - journeys
say - says
2 E xceptions
*verbs ending in a vowel + -y form the past
participle by changing -y to -i and adding -d
not -ed
say - said
lay - laid

File 24: P unctuation rules


1 C apital letters
*at the beginning of a sentence
*for names of people and places
2 F ull stops
*at the end of sentences
3 Commas
*in lists of three or more item s
I need paper, a pencil, a pen and a dictionary.
*with adverbial phrases
In the end, he managed to escape.
*after adverbial clauses
If I were you, I ’d phone your parents.
*around non-defining relative clauses
My boyfriend, who is very am bitious, has ju st got a really good job.
4 Q uotation m arks
*around direct speech
‘Help!’ he shouted. ‘I ’m stuck!’
5 A postrophes
*to indicate possession
Clare’s jacket.

236
*to indicate omission
T h at’s my wallet. (= That is)
! W hen its is a possessive pronoun we do not use an apostrophe.
The dog wagged it 2» its tail.

V o c a b u la r y file
1 Adjectives from verbs and nouns
We add these suffixes to verbs and nouns to form
Adjectives. Notice any spelling changes.
-able -al -ant -ful -ible -ive -ous -(t)ic
-y -ed -ing
-able afford - affordable, believe - believable, depend - dependable,
drink - drinkable, enjoy - enjoyable
-al critic - critical, culture - cultural, environm ent - environm ental,
fiction - fictional, influence - influential, inspiration - inspirational,
intellect - intellectual, music - musical, nation - national, practice -
practical, profession - professional
-ant please - pleasant
-ful care - careful, cheer - cheerful, harm - harm ful, hope - hopeful,
success - successful, th o u g h t - thoughtful
-ible collapse - collapsible, horror - horrible, sense - sensible
-ive action - active, destruction - destructive, im agination - im agina­
tive, sense - sensitive
-ous am bition - am bitious, courage - courageous, danger - danger­
ous, fame - famous, glam our - glamorous
-(t)ic a r tis t - a rtis tic , energy - energetic, optim ism - optim istic,
romance - rom antic
-y fun - funny, mood - moody, scare - scary
-ed amuse - amused, amaze - amazed, annoy - annoyed, bore - bored,
frig h ten - frightened, in terest - interested, tire - tired
-ing amuse - am using, amaze - am azing, annoy - annoying, bore -
boring, en te rta in - e n terta in in g , in te re st - in terestin g , frig h te n -
frig htening, tire - tirin g
2 Nouns from adjectives
We add these suffixes to adjectives to form nouns.
Notice any spelling changes.
-(an)ce -(at)ion -cy -(en)ce -(il)ity
-ness -th -ty -y
-(an)cebrilliant - brilliance, im portant - importance, tolerant - tolerance
-(at)ion aggressive - aggression, determ ined - determ ination
-cy accurate - accuracy, fluent - fluency, private - privacy
-(en)ce confident - cofidence, d ifferen t - difference, independent -
independency, in te llig e n t - in tellig e n ce, obedient - obedience,
p atient - patience, violent - violence
-(il)ity able - ability, creative - creativity, equal - equality, form al -

237
form ality, generous - generosity, popular - popularity, possible - pos­
sibility, opportune - opportunity, responsible - responsibility
-ness firm - firm ness, fit - fitness, happy - happiness, lonely - loneli­
ness, sad - sadness
-th broad - breadth, dead - death, deep - depth, long - length, strong -
stren g th , tru e - tru th , warm - w arm th, young - youth
-ty cruel - cruelty, loyal - loyalty, safe - safety
-y brave - bravery, difficult - difficulty, honest - honesty, jealous -
jealousy
We can change adjectives into nouns in other ways too.
beautiful - beauty, courageous - courage, dangerous - danger, high -
height, h u n g er - hu n g ry , m ysterious - m ystery, optim istic - o p ti­
mism, pleased - pleasure, poor - poverty, proud - pride
3 Noun form verbs
We add these suffixes to verbs to form nouns.
Notice any spelling changes.
-al -ance -(at)ion -ence -m ent -ness
-nt -sion -ty -ure -y
-ance annoy - annoyance, appear - appearance, disappear - disappear­
ance, perform - perform ance, tolerate - tolerance
-(at)ion a ttra c t - attractio n , celebrate - celebration, conserve - con­
serv atio n , co n trib u te - co n trib u tio n , determ ine - d eterm in atio n ,
discuss - discussion, educate - education, explain - explanation,
inspire - inspiration, invent - invention, m otivate - m otivation, orga­
nize - organization, participate - participation, pollute - pollution
-ence obey - obedience, persist - persistence
-m ent amaze - am azem ent, amuse - am usem ent, arrange - arran g e­
m ent, astonish - astonishm ent, develop - development, disappoint -
disappointm ent, em barrass - em barrassm ent, encourage - encour­
agem ent, en tertain - entertainm ent, improve - im provem ent, tre a t -
treatm en t
-ness forgive - forgiveness
-nt participate - p articipant
-sion decide - decision
-ty save - safety, vary - variety
-ure please - pleasure
-y discover - discovery
We can change verbs into nouns in other ways too.
behave - b eh av io u r, believe - belief, choose - choice, d estro y -
d estru ctio n , die - death, fly - flig h t, laugh - lau g h ter, live - life,
m arry - m arriage, prove - proof, succeed - success
4 Verb form adjectives
We add -en to certain adjectives to form verbs.
-en broad - broaden, deep - deepen, long - lengthen, strong - stre n g th ­
en, wide - widen

238
5 M aking words negative
We use these prefixes to make words negative,
dis- il- im- in- ir- mis- un-
dis- agree - disagree, appear - disappear, approve - disapprove, like -
dislike, obedient - disobedient, obey - disobey, organized - disorganized,
pleasure - displeasure
il- legal - illegal, legible - illegible, logical - illogical
im- m ature - im m ature, p atien t - im patient, possible - impossible,
practical - im practical
in- dependent - independent, flexible - inflexible, form al - inform al,
visible - invisible
ir- regular - irreg u lar, responsible - irresponsible
mis- behave - misbehave, behaviour - m isbehaviour
un- able - unable, com fortable - uncom fortable, fit - u n fit, happy -
unhappy, im aginative - unim aginative, lucky - unlucky, reliable -
unreliable, usual - unusual
We use the suffix -less to make nouns negative
-less care - careless, harm - harm less, hope - hopeless, fear - fe a r­
less, sense - senseless
6 Compound nouns
We form compound nouns in three d ifferent ways
These combinations may be w ritten as one word, two words or w ith a
hyphen.
1 noun + noun
*one word
headphones, screw driver, songw riter, soundtrack
*two words
CD player, compact disk, concert hall, disc jockey, fridge freezer, jazz
band, lead singer, microwave oven, mobile phone, record producer,
rock concert, solo a rtist, song w riter, sound track, table tennis, tu m ­
ble dryer, vacuum cleaner, video recorder
*hyphenated
tin-opener
2 noun + verb -ing
iceskating, sightseeing,, scuba diving, w eightlifting
3 verb -ing + noun
recording studio, running shoes, shopping center, swimming pool
7 Compound adjectives
Compound adjectives contain two words, usually joined by a hyphen.
The second p art is often a present or past participle.
1 p ast participle (-ed)
bed-tem pered, big-headed, grey-haired, left-handed, m iddle-aged,
old-fashioned, short-sighted
2 present participle (-ing)
easy-going, good-looking, hard-w orking

239
Contents
Содержание

P reface
П р е д и с л о в и е .................................................................................3

U n it o n e .................................................................................................... 5

U n it t w o ............................................................................................... 29

U n it t h r e e .............................................................................................53

U n it f o u r ............................................................................................... 77

U n it f i v e ............................................................................................. 101

U n it s i x ............................................................................................... 125

U n it s e v e n .......................................................................................... 149

A p p e n d ix ............................................................................................. 171

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