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Book Title 6th International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology; 17 – 20
October 2018, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Series Title
Chapter Title Complex Influence of Intense Electric Fields upon Ozone and Free Radicals from Aqueous Solutions
Copyright Year 2019
Copyright HolderName Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Author Family Name Suărăşan
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Given Name R. E.
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Organization Technical University of Cluj-Napoca
Address 15 C. Daicoviciu Street, 400020, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Corresponding Author Family Name Budu
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Given Name S. R.
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Organization Technical University of Cluj-Napoca
Address 15 C. Daicoviciu Street, 400020, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Email Sorin.BUDU@ethm.utcluj.ro
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Author Family Name Fechete
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Given Name Radu
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Organization Technical University of Cluj-Napoca
Address 15 C. Daicoviciu Street, 400020, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Abstract Additionally to residual ozone, in processed aqueous solutions using intense electric fields, free radicals
are present and determines changes of a variety of physical parameters—chemical of solutions. Ozone and
free radicals remaining in the aqueous treatment processes are primarily responsible for harmful inhibiting,
but also are useful for biostimulation processes of living environments (increasing the speed action of
polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the healing of severe infections, changes of the pattern of collagen
regeneration during ulcerations healing). This paper presents the results of a multidisciplinary research,
with extensive scientific and technical aspects. Intense electric fields, especially using corona point or
filiform discharge electrodes, used in specially designed treatment cells and the processes of air ionization,
generates and trains a variety of electrical charge carriers, which have sufficient energy in order to brake
different gas molecules, in order to produce oxygen, or to determine the generation of ozone and free
radicals in retention solutions or in the present environment. The electric field parameters, the intensity, the
nature and shape of high voltage, exposure time, but also the characteristics and structure of cell treatment
(multipoint, filiform or brush type electrodes), gap size or the step between the discharge electrodes, all are
important parameters which determines the presence and concentration of ozone and free radicals which,
present in the processed aqueous solutions.
Keywords Intense electric fields - Ozone retention - Retention of free radicals - Aqueous solutions
(separated by '-')
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Chapter No.: 54 Date: 31-1-2019 Time: 12:44 pm Page: 1/4

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3 Complex Influence of Intense Electric Fields

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4 upon Ozone and Free Radicals from Aqueous
5 Solutions

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6 R. E. Suărăşan, S. R. Budu, I. Suărăşan, Dumitriţa Moldovan,
7 and Radu Fechete
Author Proof

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10
9 Abstract 1 Introduction 45
46
11 Additionally to residual ozone, in processed aqueous
12 solutions using intense electric fields, free radicals are Ozone is considered to be one of the strongest oxidants, 47
13 present and determines changes of a variety of physical having antiseptic properties, especially antibacterial, which 48
14 parameters—chemical of solutions. Ozone and free makes it very effective in combating of microbial infections. 49

ED
15 radicals remaining in the aqueous treatment processes Depending on the user’s needs, mainly in terms of 50
16 are primarily responsible for harmful inhibiting, but also quantities and concentrations, instrumentation or oxygen is 51
17 are useful for biostimulation processes of living environ- used as a working agent, leading to complex installations 52
18 ments (increasing the speed action of polymorphonuclear and equipment. The main industrial or laboratory method for 53
19 leukocytes in the healing of severe infections, changes of producing ozone in large and adjustable concentrations and 54
20 the pattern of collagen regeneration during ulcerations quantities is corona discharge, usually through a dielectric 55
CT
21 healing). This paper presents the results of a multidisci- barrier, already known from Siemens, and is in continuous 56
22 plinary research, with extensive scientific and technical refinement. Treatments that use the cumulative effects of 57
23 aspects. Intense electric fields, especially using corona intense electrical fields along with those of ozone can lead to 58
24 point or filiform discharge electrodes, used in specially some beneficial processes of inhibiting microorganisms and 59
25 designed treatment cells and the processes of air ioniza- biostimulating useful cells from living organisms, whether 60
26 tion, generates and trains a variety of electrical charge human or animal, by stimulating leukocytosis locally. 61
E

27 carriers, which have sufficient energy in order to brake The antimicrobial effect is due both to the direct action of 62
28 different gas molecules, in order to produce oxygen, or to ozone and its ability to form unsaturated fatty acids, very 63
29 determine the generation of ozone and free radicals in peroxide-active compounds that act destructively on 64
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30 retention solutions or in the present environment. The microorganisms [1]. If at low doses and concentrations the 65
31 electric field parameters, the intensity, the nature and ozone has a local destructive action on the cell membrane, at 66
32 shape of high voltage, exposure time, but also the higher doses it blocks certain enzymatic systems and cellular 67
33 characteristics and structure of cell treatment (multipoint, receptors that lead to the death of pathogenic microorgan- 68
34 filiform or brush type electrodes), gap size or the step isms. The bactericidal effect of ozone exceeds twice that of 69
35 between the discharge electrodes, all are important chlorine, is equally effective in cases resistant to antibiotic 70
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36 parameters which determines the presence and concen- therapy and does not induce resistance. Equally good results 71
37 tration of ozone and free radicals which, present in the have also been reported on viruses, fungi and protozors. The 72
38 processed aqueous solutions. initial mechanism by which ozone acts on microorganisms is 73

the oxidation of their membranes, a process in which gly- 74

  
41
40 Keywords coproteins, glycolipids, various amino acids in the cell wall 75
42 Intense electric fields Ozone retention Retention are affected, resulting in the penetration of ozone molecules 76
43 of free radicals Aqueous solutions in the cell, enzyme control blocking, and implicitly, cell
UN

77
44
death [2]. 78

In addition to direct action on microbial agents, ozone 79


R. E. Suărăşan  S. R. Budu (&)  I. Suărăşan  D. Moldovan 
R. Fechete also exhibits an immunomodulatory action stimulating both 80

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 15 C. Daicoviciu Street, cellular mechanisms (T-lymphocytes, monocytes) and tumor 81

400020 Cluj-Napoca, Romania mechanisms (cytokine synthesis, and primarily interferon, 82


e-mail: Sorin.BUDU@ethm.utcluj.ro

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019 1


S. Vlad and N. M. Roman (eds.), 6th International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care
through Technology; 17–20 October 2018, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, IFMBE Proceedings 71,
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6207-1_54
Layout: T3 Grey Book ID: 479907_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-13-6206-4
Chapter No.: 54 Date: 31-1-2019 Time: 12:44 pm Page: 2/4

2 R. E. Suărăşan et al.

83 tumor necrosis factors). Ozone plays an important thera- consists in connecting the stand to the mono-phase network 104

84 peutic role in various types of infections by generating free and verifying the connection of the equipment to the 105

85 radicals of oxygen (O2, OH, H2O2, NO, HOC1), radicals that grounding grid of the electric grid, then proceeding with the 106

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86 are produced by granulocytes and macrophages during introduction of the aqueous ozone solution from the con- 107

87 infectious processes. tainer 4 in the corona cell to process the aqueous solutions of 108

the Petri 5 vessel, the walls of which constitute a first

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88 The effect of ozone on micro-organisms is proportional to 109

89 ozone concentration and exposure time. Studies have shown dielectric barrier (to the desired level by actuating the valve 110

90 that ozone is effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative 6), after which oxygen is introduced into the plant by 111

91 bacteria, the latter requiring more ozone to neutralize than actuating the valve 8 and the built-in pressure regulator (until 112

92 Gram-positive. On anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, the air is completely removed from the corona cell and 113
Author Proof

93 ozone has a dramatic toxic action, given the specific energy replaced by oxygen); the protocol continues with the startup 114

94 metabolism of these bacteria, which use organic compounds and adjustment of the high voltage source 17 at the required 115

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95 as the ultimate oxygen acceptor and does not possess pro- application parameters. 116

96 tective enzymes, in relation to oxygen toxicity [1]. With the closed and 11-closed valves 6 and 8, the recir- 117

culation pump of the processed solution 12 and the 118

ozonometer 13 are started; when the ozone concentration in 119


97
98 2 Materials and Methods the aqueous solution has reached the preset value, the entire 120

equipment from the grid is decoupled, all the valves outside 121

99 Evidence of the evolution of residual ozone and free radicals the 11 are closed, whereby the ozone aqueous solution is 122

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100 from aqueous solutions processed in intense electric field of recovered and stored in the container 10. 123

101 corona discharge was performed on the stand in Fig. 1. The high voltage adjustable source used (pos. 18) was a 124

102 Methodology of working with the complex installation of source at the 50 Hz network frequency with the c.a. or cc.c. 125

103 the aqueous solutions in ozone-generating electric fields output of different polarities as a voltage level up to 25 kV. 126
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Fig. 1 The plant for direct processing in intense electric fields of collecting the processed water; 12—recirculation pump 13—residual
aqueous solutions; 1—gas discharge; 2—residual ozone depleter ozone measure in the aqueous solution; 14—pH measure or other
(optional); 3—direct processing cell; 4—vessel for the aqueous solution physico-chemical parameters of processed aqueous solutions; 15—a
to be processed; 5—petri dish for direct processing, with stationary piece for connection to the ground of the aqueous solution; 16—
liquid; 6—Valve (tap) for feeding Petri dish; 7—ground electrode, plate high-voltage corona active electrode; 17—connections to the belt and
type; 8—pressure regulator valve; 9—Oxygen tube (tank or reservoir); the grounding socket; 18—adjustable high voltage source; 19—
10—Collector of processed aqueous solution; 11—Valve (tap) for dielectric barrier
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Complex Influence of Intense Electric Fields upon Ozone … 3

Table 1 Treatment conditions and experimental results obtained before and after water treatment with ozone and intense electric field
Distilled water Treatment hour Decay of measurement time T2 (s) pH
– 1112–1116

F
Witness sample 2.68 5.7
Treated sample d.c. (+) 10 –10
15 20
11 –11
32 36
2.32 6.6
Treated sample d.c. (−) 1025–1030 1145–1149 2.82 5.0

OO
Treated sample a.c. (*) 10 –10
36 41
11 –12
57 01
3.06 4.7

127 Corona cells were tested those with stationary aqueous


Author Proof

solutions but in which the corona discharge was made either

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128

129 by a double dielectric barrier (to remove any microparticles

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130 detached from the active electrodes, with corona discharge—
131 which led to high voltages or by far less dielectric barriers
132 (by removing the barrier 19, while using the grounding piece
133 15 for the aqueous solution.
134 Four aqueous solutions: electrically untreated, treated at
135 positive voltage, at negative voltage and alternatively volt-
136 age were measured by 1H NMR relaxometry and vibrational
infrared FT-IR spectroscopy [3].

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137

138 For all samples a major peak of which position, amplitude


139 and width is sensitive to the type of treatment was identified
140 at T2 values between 2 and 4 s. For untreated and treated
141 with positive voltage the T2 distributions presents also a
142 minor peak associated with some impurities.
The low field NMR [3] measurements of aqueous solu-
CT
143 Fig. 2 Evolution of O3, relative to the d.c. and sinus wave (a.c.)
144 tions were performed using the BRUKER MINISPEC mq20 voltage
145 spectrometer. This instrument works at 0.5 T magnetic field
146 and for resonance the Larmor frequency was set at
147 19.6712 MHz. The inter-echo time in CPMG pulse

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148 sequence was set at 2.5 ms [3]. The tipping pulse length was
9 µs and refocusing pulses with the same duration was set
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149

150 double in amplitude (attenuation—6 dB).


151 A total number of 3000 echoes were recorded. The decay
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152 of transverse magnetization during the CPMG echoes train


153 was assumed to be influenced by transverse relaxation times,
154 T2 of each particular statistical sub-ensemble of protons. To
155 this purpose the experimental data was analyzed using a
156 Laplace inversion algorithm of which mathematically details
157 were detailed elsewhere [1, 2]. For the vibrational spectra a
Jasco FT-IR spectrometer was used.
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158

159
160 3 Results
Fig. 3 Evolution of free radicals relative to the d.c. and a.c. voltage
161 Experimental results obtained sequently to the carried tests
162 on the device presented in Fig. 1, referring to the evolution including NMR (Magnetic Nuclear Resonance) method 166
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163 of O3, free radicals and Ph value, using three different high concerning water characteristics, are listed in Table 1 and 167
164 voltage supply configuration (positive and negative polarity depicted in Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5, presents the results obtained 168
165 of d.c. voltage and alternative pure sinus voltage) and also on distillated water, processed in intense electric field (IEC). 169
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4 R. E. Suărăşan et al.

170
4 Conclusions 171
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The comparative analysis of the experimental results, con-

F
172

ducted to the following conclusions: 173

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• increased ozone retention/time unit (“ICE footprint” 174

type) will last significantly longer; 175

• the treatment method provides existence of more free 176

radicals, resulting in their beneficial role in bio-inhibition 177

of negative processes, or also in bio-stimulation of active


Author Proof

178

processes in living environments, with an explicit refer- 179

ence to healing processes in the human body; 180

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• increased pH retention and other modified parameters 181

(O3 generation, waveform and polarity of high voltage 182

and electric intense field) applied on water can be very 183

useful in treatment of traumatic and burned plagues; 184


Fig. 4 Evolution of Ph, relative to the d.c. and sinus wave (a.c.)
voltage • interpreting RAMAN charts can offer important indica- 185

tions of water behaviour in ICE; 186

• subsequent research using performant measurement 187

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devices will certainly bring scientific clarifications upon 188

the presence of the clusters in aqueous solutions, as well as 189

the cause and effects likely can conduct to extend the high 190
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frequency range to hundred of kilohertz of the applied 191

high voltage, in order to be used in wound treatments. 192


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Conflict of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of 193

interest. 194

195
References 196
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1. Venkataramanan, L., Song, Y., Hurlimann, M.: Solving Fredholm 197

integrals of the first kind with tensor product structure in 2 and 2.5 198

dimensions. IEEE Trans. Sign. Proc. 50, 1017–1026 (2002)


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199

2. Song, Y., Venkataramanan, L., Hurlimann, M., et al.: T1–T2 200

correlation spectra obtained using a fast two-dimensional Laplace 201

inversion. J. Magn. Reson. 154, 261–268 (2002) 202

3. Chelcea, R.I., Fechete, R., Culea, E., Demco, D.E., Blümich, B.: 203

Distributions of transverse relaxation times for soft-solids measured 204

in strongly inhomogeneous magnetic fields. J. Magn. Reson. 196, 205

Fig. 5 Dinamic of Ramana intensity determined by NMR test 178–190 (2009) 206
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208
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