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Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5

Continuity and Differentiability

Exercise 5.1

Question 1:
Prove that the function f  x   5x  3 is continuous at x  0, x  3and at x  5.

Solution 1:
The given function is f  x   5x  3
At x  0, f (0)  5  0  3  3
lim f  x   lim  5x  3  5x 0-3=-3
x 0 x 0

 lim f  x   f  0 
x 0
Therefore, f is continuous at x  0
At x  3, f  3  5x  -3  3  18
lim f  x   lim f  5x  3  5x  -3  3  18
x 3 x 3

lim f  x   f  3
x 3
Therefore, f is continuous at x  -3
At x  5, f  x   f 5  5x5 3  25  3  22
lim f  x   lim5x  3  5x5-3  22
x5 x5

lim f  x   f  5
x 5
Therefore, f is continuous at x  5

Question 2:
Examine the continuity of the function f  x   2x2 1 at x  3 .

Solution 2:
The given function is f  x   2x2 1
At x  3, f  x   f 3  2x32 1  17

lim f  x   lim 2x 1  2 x 3 117


2 2

x3 x3

limf  x   f  3
x3
Thus, f is continuous, at x  3

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 3:
Examine the following functions for continuity.

a) f  x   x  5 1
b) f  x   ,x 5
x 5
x2  25 d) 𝑓(𝑥 ) = |𝑥 − 5|
c) f  x   ,x 5
x5

,
Solution 3:

a) The given function is f  x   x  5


It is evident that f is defined at every real number k and its value at k is k  5 .
It is also observed that lim f  x   lim f  x  5  k  k  5  f  k 
xk xk

lim f  x   f  k 
x k

Hence, f is continuous at every real number and therefore, it is a continuous function.


1
b). The given function is f ( x)  , x5
x 5
for any real number k  5 , we obtain
1 1
lim f  x   lim 
xk x k x  5 k 5
1
Also, f  k    As k  5
k 5
lim f  x   f  k 
x k

Hence, f is continuous at every point in the domain of f and therefore, it is a continuous


function.
x2  25
c). The given function is f ( x)  , x  5
x5
For any real number c  5 , we obtain
x2  25  x  5 x  5 
lim f  x   lim  lim lim  x  5   c  5
xc x c x5 xc x5 xc

Also, f  c  
 c  5 c  5  c c  5 as c  5
  
c5
lim f  x   f  c 
x c

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Hence f is continuous at every point in the domain of f and therefore. It is continuous function.
5  x, if x  5
d). The given function is f  x   x  5  
 x  5, if x  5
This function f is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a point on a real line. Then, c  5 or c  5 or c  5
case I : c  5
Then, f  c   5  c

lim f  x   lim5  x   5  c
x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all real numbers less than 5.


case II : c  5
Then, f  c   f  5  5  5  0

lim f  x   lim  5  x    5  5  0
x 5 x 5

lim f  x   lim  x  5  0
x 5 x 5

 lim f  x   lim f  x   f  c 
x c  x c 

Therefore, f is continuous at x  5
case III : c  5
Then, f  c   f  5  c  5

lim f  x   lim f  x  5  c  5
x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at real numbers greater than 5.


Hence, f is continuous at every real number and therefore, it is a continuous function.

Question 4:
Prove that the function f  x   xn is continuous at x  n is a positive integer.

Solution 4:
The given function is f  x   xn
It is evident that f is defined at all positive integers, n , and its value at n is n n .

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  n  lim f  x   n
n n
Then,
x n x n

lim f  x   f  n 
x n

Therefore, f is continuous at n , where n is a positive integer.

Question 5:
 x, if x  1
Is the function f defined by f  x   
5, if x  1
Continuous at x  0? At x  1? ,At x  2?

Solution 5:
 x, if x  1
The given function f is f  x   
5, if x  1
At x = 0,
It is evident that f is defined at 0 and its value at 0 is 0 .
Then, lim f  x   lim x  0
x0 x0

lim f  x   f  0
x 0

Therefore, f is continuous at x  0
At x  1 ,
f is defined at 1 and its value at is 1 .
The left hand limit of f at x  1 is,
lim f  x   lim
x1 x1
x1

The right hand limit of f at x  1 is,


lim f  x   lim f 5
x 1 x 1

lim f  x   lim f  x 
x 1 x 1

Therefore, f is not continuous at x  1


At x  2,
f is defined at 2 and its value at 2 is 5.
Then, lim f  x   lim f 5  5
x2 x2

lim f  x   f  2
x 2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Therefore, f is continuous at x  2

Question 6:
Find all points of discontinuous of f , where f is defined by
2 x  3, if x  2
f  x  
2 x  3, if x  2

Solution 6:
2 x  3, if x  2
The give function f is f  x   
2 x  3, if x  2
It is evident that the given function f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line. Then, three cases arise.
I. c2
II. c2
III. c2
Case i  c  2
Then, f ( x)  2x  3
lim f  x   lim 2x  3  2c  3
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points, x , such that x  2


Case ii  c  2
Then, f  c   2c  3

lim f  x   lim 2x  3  2c  3
x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  2


Case iii  c  2
Then, the left hand limit of f at x  2 is,
lim f  x   lim 2x  3  2x2  3  7
x2 x2
The right hand limit of f at x  2 is,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   lim 2x  3  2x2  3  1


x 2 x 2
It is observed that the left and right hand limit of f at x  2 do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  2
Hence, x  2 is the only point of discontinuity of f .

Question 7:
Find all points of discontinuity of f , where f is defined by
 x  3, if x  3

f  x    2 x, if  3  x  3
6 x  2, if x  3

Solution 7:
 x  3, if x  3

The given function f is f  x    2 x, if  3  x  3
6 x  2, if x  3

The given function f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  3 , then f  c   c  3

lim f  x   lim  x  3  c  3
x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  3


Case II :
If c  3, then f  3    3  3  6

lim f  x   lim  x  3  (3)  3  6


x 3 x 3

lim f  x   lim f  2 x   2x  -3  6


x 3 x 3

lim f  x   f  3
x 3

Therefore, f is continuous at x  3
Case III :

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

If 3  c  3, then f  c   2c and lim f  x   lim 2x   2c


xc x3c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous in  3,3 .


Case IV :
If c  3, then the left hand limit of f at x  3 is,

lim f  x   lim f  2x   2x3=-6


x3 x3

The right hand limit of f at x  3 is,


limf  x  limf  6x  2  6x3+2=20
x3 x3

It is observed that the left and right hand limit of f at x  3 do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  3
Case V :
If c  3 , then f  c   6c  2 and lim f  x   lim 6x  2 =6c+2
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  3


Hence, x  3 is the only point of discontinuity of f .

Question 8:
x
 , if x  0
Find all points of discontinuity of f , where f is defined by f  x    x
 0, if x  0

Solution 8:
x
 , if x  0
The given function f is f  x    x
 0, if x  0

It is known that, x  0  x   x and x  0  x  x
Therefore, the given function can be rewritten as

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 x x
   1 if x  0
 x x
f  x    0, if x  0
 x
 x
  1 if x  0
 x x
The given function f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  0 , then f  c   1

lim f  x   lim  1  1


x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x  0


Case II :
If c  0 , then the left hand limit of f at x  0 is,
lim f  x   lim 1  1
x0 x0

The right hand limit of f at x  0 is,


lim f  x  lim1  1
x0 x0

It is observed that the left and right hand limit of f at x  0 do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  0
Case III :
If c  0 , f  c   1

lim f  x  lim1  1
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Hence, x  0 is the only point of discontinuity of f .

Question 9:
x
 , if x  0
Find all points of discontinuity of f , where f is defined by f  x    x
1, if x  0

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Solution 9:
x
 , if x  0
The given function f is f  x    x
1, if x  0

It is known that, x  0  x   x
Therefore, the given function can be rewritten as
x
 , if x  0
f  x   x
1, if x  0

 f  x   1 for all xR
Let c be any real number. Then , lim f  x   lim 1  1
xc xc

Also, f  c   1  lim f  x 
xc

Therefore, the given function is continuous function.


Hence, the given function has no point of discontinuity.

Question 10:
 x  1 if x  1
Find all the points of discontinuity of f , where f is defined by f  x    2
 x  1, f x  1

Solution 10:
 x  1 if x  1
The given function f is f  x    2
 x  1, f x  1
The given function f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  1 then f  c   c2 1 and lim f  x   lim f  x  1  c2  1
2

xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c
Therefore , f is continuous at all points x , such that x  1
Case II :
If c  1 , then f  c   f 1  1  1  2
The left hand limit of f at x  1 is,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   lim x  1  12  1  2
2

x1 x1
The right hand limit of f at x  1 is,
lim f  x   lim  x  1  12  1  2
2

x 1 x 1

lim f  x   f  c 
x 1
Therefore, f is continuous at x  1
Case III :
If c  1 , then f  c   c  1

lim f  x   lim x  1  c  1
x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c
Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  1
Hence, the given function f has no points of discontinuity.

Question 11:
 x3  3, if x  2
Find all points of discontinuity of f , where f is defined by f  x    2
 x  1, if x  2

Solution 11:
 x3  3, if x  2
The given function f is f  x    2
 x  1, if x  2
The given function f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  2 , then f  c   c3  3 and lim f  x   lim x  3  c3  3
3

xc x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  2


Case II :
If c  2 , then f  c   f  2  23  3  5

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   lim  x  3   23  3  5
3

x  2 x  2

lim f  x   lim  x  1  22  1  5
2

x  2 x  2

 lim1 f  x   f  2 
x 2

Therefore, f is continuous at x  2
Case III :
If c  2 , then f  c   c2 1

lim f  x   lim  x  1  c2  1
2

x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  2


Thus, the given function f is continuous at every point on the real line.
Hence, f has no point of discontinuity.

Question 12:
 x10 1, if x  1
Find all points of discontinuity of f , where f is defined by f  x    2
 x , if x  1

Solution 12:
 x10 1, if x  1
The given function f is f  x    2
 x , if x  1
The given function f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  1, then f  c   c10 1 and lim f  x   lim x 1  c10 1
10

xc x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  1


Case II :
If c  1, then the left hand limit of f at x  1 is,

lim f  x   lim x 1  1010 1  1 1  0


10

x1 x1

The right hand limit of f at x  1 is,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   lim x   1 1
2 2

x 1 x 1

It is observed that the left and right hand limit of f at x  1 do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  1
Case III :
If c  1, then f  c   c2

lim f  x   lim  x   c
2 2

x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all pints x , such that x  1


Thus, from the above observation, it can be concluded that x  1 is the only point of
discontinuity of f .

Question 13:
 x  5, if x  1
Is the function defined by f  x    a continuous function?
 x  5, if x  1

Solution 13:
 x  5, if x  1
The given function is f  x   
 x  5, if x  1
The given function f is defined at all the points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  1 , then f (c)  c  5 and limf  x   lim x  5  c  5
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  1


Case II :
If c  1 , then f 1  1  5  6
The left hand limit of f at x  1 is,
lim f  x   lim x  5  1 5  6
x1 x1

The right hand limit of f at x  1 is,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f ( x)  lim( x  5)  1  5  4
x 1 x 1

It is observed that the left and right hand limit of f at x  1 do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  1
Case III :
If c  1 , then f  c   c  5 and limf  x   lim x  5  c  5
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  1


Thus, from the above observation, it can be concluded that x  1 is the only point of discontinuity
of f .

Question 14:
 3, if 0  x  1

Discuss the continuity of the function f , where f is defined by f  x    4, if 1  x  3
5, if 3  x  10

Solution 14:
 3, if 0  x  1

The given function is f  x    4, if 1  x  3
5, if 3  x  10

The given function is defined at all points of the interval 0,10.
Let c be a point in the interval 0,10.
Case I :
If 0  c  1, then f  c   3 and lim f  x   lim3  3
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous in the interval [0,1).


Case II :
If c  1, then f  3  3
The left hand limit of f at x  1 is,
lim f  x   lim3  3
x1 x1

The right hand limit of f at x  1 is ,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   lim 4  4
x1 x1

It is observed that the left and right hands limit of f at x  1 do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  1
Case III :
If 1  c  3, then f  c   4 and lim f  x   lim 4  4
xc x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points of the interval 1,3 .


Case IV :
If c  3, then f  c   5
The left hand limit of f at x  3 is,

lim f  x   lim 4  4
x3 x3

The right hand limit of f at x  3 is,


lim f  x  lim5  5
x3 x3

It is observed that the left and right hand limit of f at x  3 do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  3
Case V :
If 3  c  10, then f  c   5 and lim f  x   lim5  5
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points of the interval  3,10.


Hence , f is not continuous at x  1 and x  3 .

Question 15:
2 x, if x  0

Discuss that continuity of the function f , where f is defined by f  x    0, if 0  x  1
4 x, if x  1

Solution 15:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

2 x, if x  0

The given function is f  x    0, if 0  x  1
4 x, if x  1

The given function is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  0 , then f  c   2c

lim f  x   lim  2x   2c
x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Case II :
If c  0 , then f  c   f  0  0
The left hand limit of f at x  0 is,

lim f  x   lim 2x   2 x 0=0


x0 x0

The right hand limit of f at x  0 is,


lim f  x  lim 0 =0
x0 x0

lim f  x   f  0
x 0

Therefore, f is continuous at x  0
Case III :
If 0  c  1, then f  x   0 and lim f  x   lim 0  0
xc x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points of the interval  0,1 .


Case IV :
If c  1, then f  c   f 1  0
The left hand limit of f at x  1 is ,
lim f  x  lim 0 =0
x1 x1

The right hand limit of f at x  1 is,


limf  x   lim 4x  =4 x1= 4
x1 x1

It is observed that the left and right hand limits of f at x  1 do not coincide.

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Therefore, f is not continuous at x  1


Case V :
If c  1, then f  c   4c and lim f  x   lim 4x   4c
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  1


Hence, f is not continuous only at x  1

Question 16:
2, if x  1

Discuss the continuity of the function f , where f is defined by f  x   2 x, if  1  x  1
 2, if x  1

Solution 16:
2, if x  1

The given function f is f  x   2 x, if  1  x  1
 2, if x  1

The given function is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a point on the real line.
Case I :
If c  1, then f  c   2 and lim f  x   lim 2  2
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  1


Case II :
If c  1, then f  c   f  1  2
The left hand limit of f at x  1 is,
lim f  x   lim 2  2
x1 x1

The right hand limit of f at x  1 is,


lim f  x  lim  2 x  -1  2
x1 x1

lim f  x   f  1
x 1

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Therefore, f is continuous at x  1
Case III :
If 1  c  1, then f  c   2c

lim f  x   lim 2x   2c
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points of the interval  1,1 .


Case IV :
If c  1, then f  c   f 1  2x1= 2
The left hand limit of f at x  1 is,
lim f  x  lim 2x   2 x1=2
x1 x1

The right hand limit of f at x  1 is,


lim f  x   lim 2  2
x 1 x 1

lim f  x   f  c 
x 1

Therefore, f is continuous at x  2
Case V :
If c  1, f  c   2 and lim f  x   lim  2  2
x2 x2

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points, x , such that x  1


Thus, from the above observations, it can be concluded that f is continuous at all points of the
real line.

Question 17:
 ax  1, if x  3
Find the relationship be a and b so that the function f defined by f  x    is
bx  3, if x  3
continuous at x  3 .

Solution 17:
 ax  1, if x  3
The given function f is f  x   
bx  3, if x  3
If f is continuous at x  3, then

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   lim f  x   f  3 …..(1)


x3 x3

Also,
lim f  x   lim f  ax  1  3a  1
x3 x3

lim f  x   lim f bx  1  3b  3


x3 x3

f 3  3a 1
Therefore, from (1), we obtain
3a  1  3b  3  3a  1
 3a  1  3b  3
 3a  3b  2
2
 a b
3
2
Therefore, the required relationship is given by , a  b 
3

Question 18:
  x  2 x  , if x  0
 2

For what value of  is the function defined by f  x    continuous at



 4 x  1, if x  0
x  0? what about continuity at x  1?

Solution 18:

The given function f is f  x   


  
 x  2 x , if x  0
2

 4 x  1, if x  0

If f is continuous at x  0 , then
lim f  x   lim f  x   f  0 
x  0 x 0

 lim   x  2 x   lim  4 x  1    02  2 x0 
2
x 0 x 0

   0  2 x0   4 x0+1=0
2

 0=1=0, which is not possible


Therefore, there is no value of  for which f is continuous at x  0
At x  1 ,
f 1  4x  1  4 x 1 + 1  5
lim  4x 1  4x1+1=5
x1

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   f 1
x1

Therefore, for any values of  , f is continuous at x  1

Question 19:
Show that the function defined by g  x   x   x is discontinuous at all integral point.
Here  x  denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x .

Solution 19:
The given function is g  x   x   x
It is evident that g is defined at all integral points.
Let n be a integer.
Then,
g  n   n   n  n  n  0
The left hand limit of f at x  n is,
lim g  x   lim  x   x  lim  x   lim  x  n   n 1  1
xn xn xn xn

The right hand limit of f at x  n is,


lim g  x   lim  x   x  lim  x   lim  x  n  n  0
xn xn xn xn

It is observed that the left and right hand limits of f at x  n do not coincide.
Therefore, f is not continuous at x  n
Hence, g is discontinuous at all integral points.

Question 20:
Is the function defined by f  x   x2  sin x  5 continuous at x  ?

Solution 20:
The given function is f  x   x2  sin x  5
It is evident that f id defined at x  
At x   , f  x   f     2  sin   5   2  0  5   2  5


Consider lim f  x   lim x2  sin x  5
x x

Put x    h

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

If x   , then it is evident that h  0


lim f  x   lim  x2  sin x   5 )
x x

 lim   h   sin   h   5


2

h0  
 lim   h   limsin   h   lim5
2

h0 h0 h0

   0  limsin  cosh cos   sinh   5


2

h0

   limsin  cosh limcos  sinh 5


2
h0 h0

   sin  cos0  cos  sin 0  5


2

  2  0 x 1-  -1 x0+5
2 5
lim f  x   f  
xx

Therefore, the given function f is continuous at x  

Question 21:
Discuss the continuity of the following functions.
a) f  x   sin x  cos x
b) f  x   sin x  cos x
c) f  x   sin x x cosx

Solution 21:
It is known that if g and h are two continuous functions, then g + h, g - h and g  h are also
continuous.
It has to proved first that g  x   sin x and h  x   cos x are continuous functions.
Let g  x   sin x
It is evident that g  x   sin x is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x =c  h
If x  c , then h  0
g  c   sin c
lim g  x   lim g sin x
x c x c

 limsin  c  h 
h0

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 limsin c cosh cos c sinh 


h0

 lim  sin c cosh   lim  cos c sinh 


h0 h0

 sin c cos0  cos c sin 0


 sin c  0
 sin c
lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore , g is a continuous function.


Let h  x   cos x
It is evident that h  x   cos x is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  h
If x  c , then h  0
h  c   cos c
lim h  x   limcos x
xc x c

 limcos  c  h 
h0

 limcos c cosh sin c sinh 


h0

 limcos c cosh  limsin c sinh


h0 h0

 cos c cos0  sin c sin0


 cos c x 1 - sinc x 0
=cosc
lim h  x   h  c 
h0

Therefore, h is a continuous function.


Therefore, it can be concluded that
a) f  x   g  x   h  x   sin x  cos x is a continuous function
b) f  x   g  x   h  x   sin x  cos x is a continuous function
c) f  x   g  x  x h  x   sin x x cosx is a continuous function

Question 22:
Discuss the continuity of the cosine, cosecant, secant and cotangent functions.

Solution 22:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

It is known that if g and h are two continuous functions, then


h  x
i. , g  x   0 is continuous
g  x
1
ii. , g  x   0 is continuous
g  x
1
iii. , h  x   0 is continuous
h  x
It has to be proved first that g  x   sin x and h  x   cos x are continuous functions.
Let g  x   sin x
It is evident that g  x   sin x is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  h
If x  c, then h  0
g  c   sin x
lim g  c   limsin x
xc x c

 limsin  c  h 
h0

 limsin c cosh cos c sinh 


h0

 lim  sin c cosh   lim  cos c sinh 


h0 h0

 sin c cos0  cos c sin 0


 sin c  0
 sin c
lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, g is a continuous function.


Let h  x   cos x
It is evident that h  x   cos x is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  h
If x  c, then h  0 x
h  c   cos c
lim h  x   limcos x
xc x c

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 lim cos  c  h 
h 0

 lim  cos c cosh  sin c sinh 


h 0

 lim cos c cosh  lim sin c sinh


h 0 h 0

 cos c cos 0  sin c sin 0


 cos c x 1 - sinc x 0
= cos c
lim h  x   h  c 
xc

Therefore, h  x   cos x is continuous function.


It can be concluded that,
1
cos ec x  ,sin x  0 is continuous
sin x
 cos ec x , x  n  n  Z  is continuous
^
Therefore, secant is continuous except at X  np, n I Z
1
sec x  , cos x  0 is continuous
cos x

 sec x, x   2n  1 n  Z  is continuous
2

Therefore, secant is continuous except at x   2n  1 n  Z 
2
cos x
cot x  , sin x  0 is continuous
sin x
 cot x, x  n  n  Z  is continuous
ˆ
Therefore, cotangent is continuous except at x  np, nIZ

Question 23:
 sin x
 , if x  0
Find the points of discontinuity of f , where f  x    x
 if x  0
 x  1,

Solution 23:
 sin x
 , if x  0
The given function f is f  x    x
 x  1, if x  0

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

It is evident that f is defined at all points of the real line.


Let c be a real number.
Case I :

and lim f  x   lim 


sin c sin x  sin c
If c  0 , then f  c   
c x c x c
 x  c
lim f  x   f  c 
xc

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Case II :
If c  0 , then f  c   c  1and lim f  x   lim  x  1  c  1
xc xc

lim f  x   f  c 
xc

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Case III :
If c  0 , then f  c   f  0  0  1  1
The left hand limit of f at x  0 is,
sin x
lim f  x   lim 1
x0 x0 x
The right hand limit of f at x  0 is,
lim f  x   lim  x  1  1
x0 x0

 lim f  x   lim f  x   f  0
x0 x0

Therefore, f is continuous at x  0
From the above observations, it can be conducted that f is continuous at all points of the real
line.
Thus, f has no point of discontinuity.

Question 24:
 2 1
 x sin , if  0
Determine if f defined by f  x    x is a continuous function?
 if x  0
 0,

Solution 24:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 2 1
 x sin , if  0
The given function f is f  x    x
 if x  0
 0,
It is evident that f is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
1
If c  0 , then f  c   c2 sin
c
 1

 1
lim f  x   lim  x 2 sin   lim x 2  limsin   c 2 sin
x c x c
 x  xc  xc x
1
c
 lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at all points x  0


Case II :
If c  0 , then f  0  0
 1  1
lim f  x   lim  x2 sin   lim  x2 sin 
x0 x0  x x 0  2
1
It is known that, 1  sin  1, x  0
x
1
  x2  sin  x2
x
 1
x 0
 
 lim  x2  lim  x2 sin   lim x2
x 0
 x  x0
 1
 0  lim  x 2 sin   0
x 0
 x
 1
 lim  x 2 sin   0
x 0
 x
 lim f  x   0
x 0

 1  1
Similarly, lim f  x   lim  x2 sin   lim  x2 sin   0
x 0 x 0  x  x0  x
 lim f  x   f  0  lim f  x 
x0 x0

Therefore, f is continuous at x  0
From the above observations, it can be concluded that f is continuous at every point of the real
line.
Thus, f is a continuous function.

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 25:
sin x  cos x, if x  0
Examine the continuity of f , where f is defined by f  x   
 1 if x  0

Solution 25:
sin x  cos x, if x  0
The given function f is f  x   
 1 if x  0
It is evident that f is defined at all points of the real line.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
If c  0, then f  c   sin c  cos c
lim f  x   lim  sin x  cos x   sin c  cos c
x c x c

lim f  x   f  c 
x c

Therefore, f is continuous at al points x , such that x  0


Case II :
If c  0, then f  0  1
lim f  x   lim  sin x  cos x   sin 0  cos 0  0 1  1
x o x o

lim f  x   lim  sin x  cos x   sin 0  cos 0  0 1  1


x o x o

 lim f  x   lim f  x   f  0
xo xo

Therefore, f is continuous at x  0
From the above observations, it can be concluded that f is continuous at every point of the real
line.
Thus, f is a continuous function.

Question 26:
Find the values of k so that the function f is continuous at the indicated point.

 k cos x if x 
 , 
f  x    2x 2 atx 
 3, if x   2
2

Solution 26:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability


 k cos x if x 
 ,
The given function f is f  x     2 x 2
 
 3, if x 
2
 
The given function f is continuous at x  , it is defined at x  and if the value of the f at
2 2
 
x equals the limit of f at x  .
2 2
 
It is evident that f is defined at x  and f    3
2 2
 k cos x
lim f  x   lim
x 2 x 2
  2x

Put x  h
2

Then, x  h0
2
 
k cos   h 
 lim f  x   lim
k cos x
 lim  2 
x   2 x h  0   
x
2 2   2  h
 2 
 sinh k sinh k k
 k lim  lim  .1 
h0 2h 2 h0 h 2 2
 
 lim f  x   f  
x
2
2
k
 3
2
k 6
Therefore, the required value of k is 6 .

Question 27:
Find the values of k so that the function f is continuous at the indicated point.
kx2 , if x  2
f  x   at x  2
 3, if x  2

Solution 27:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

kx2 , if x  2
The given function is f  x   
 3, if x  2
The given function f is continuous at x  2 , if f is defined at x  2 and if the value of f at
x  2 equals the limit of f at x  2
It is evident that f is defined at x  2 and f  2  k  2  4k
2

lim f  x   lim f  x   f  2 
x  2 x 2

 lim  kx 2
  lim 3  4k
x 2 x  2

 k x 2  3  4k
2

 4k  3  4k
 4k  3
3
k 
4
3
Therefore, the required value of k is .
4

Question 28:
Find the values of k so that the function f is continuous at the indicated point.
kx  1, if x  
f  x   at x  
 cos x, if x  

Solution 28:
kx  1, if x  
The given function is f  x   
 cos x, if x  
The given function f is continuous at x   and, if f is defined at x   and if the value of f
at x   equals the limit of f at x  
It is evident that f is defined at x   and f    k  1

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim f  x   lim f  x   f  
x   x 

 lim  kx  1  lim cos x  k  1


x  x 

 k  1  cos   k  1
 k  1  1  k  1
 k  1  1  k  1
2
k 

2
Therefore, the required value of k is  .

Question 29:
Find the values of k so that the function f is continuous at the indicated point.
 kx  1, if x  5
f  x   at x  5
3x  5, if x  5

Solution 29:
 kx  1, if x  5
The given function of f is f  x   
3x  5, if x  5
The given function f is continuous at x  5 ,if f is defined at x  5 and if the value of f at x  5
equals the limit of f at x  5
It is evident that f is defined at x  5 and f  5  kx  1  5k  1
lim f  x   lim f  x   f  5 
x 5 x 5

 lim  kx  1  lim  3x  5   5k  1
x 5 x 5

 5k  1  15  5  5k  1
 5k  1  10
 5k  9
9
k 
5
9
Therefore, the required value of k is .
5

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 30:
 5, if x  2

Find the values of a and b such that the function defined by f  x   ax  b, if 2  x  10 is a
 21 if x  10

continuous function.

Solution 30:
 5, if x  2

The given function f is f  x   ax  b, if 2  x  10
 21 if x  10

It is evident that the given function f is defined at all points of the real line.
If f is a continuous function, then f is continuous at all real numbers.
In particular, f is continuous at x  2 and x  10
Since f is continuous at x  2 , we obtain
lim f  x   lim f  x   f  2 
x  2 x 2

 lim  5  lim  ax  b   5
x 2 x 2

 5  2a  b  5
 2a  b  5 ….(1)
Since f is a continuous at x  10 , we obtain
lim f  x   lim f  x   f 10 
x 10 x 10

 lim  ax  b   lim  21  21


x 10 x 10

 10a  b  21  21
10a  b  21 …..(2)
On subtracting equation (1) from equation (2), we obtain
8a  16
a 2
By putting a = 2 in equation (1), we obtain
2  2 + b =5
 4b  5
 b 1
Therefore, the values of a and b for which f is a continuous function are 2 and 1 respectively.

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 31:
 
Show that the function defined by f  x   cos x2 is a continuous function.

Solution 31:
The given function is f  x   cos x2  
This function f is defined for every real number and f can be written as the composition of two
functions as,
f  g o h, where g  x   cos x and h  x   x2
  goh x   g  h  x    g  x2   cos  x2   f  x 
 
It has to be first proved that g  x   cos x and h  x   x2 are continuous functions.
It is evident that g is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number.
Then, g  c   cos c
Put x  c  h
If x  c, then h  0
lim g  x   lim cos x
x c x c

 lim cos  c  h 
h 0

 lim  cos c cosh  sin c sinh 


h 0

 lim cos c cosh  lim cinc sinh


h 0 h 0

 cos c cos 0  sin c sin 0


 cos c x 1- sin c x 0
=cosc
 lim g  x   g  c 
x c

Therefore, g  x   cos x is a continuous function.


h  x   x2
Clearly, h is defined for every real number.
Let k be a real number, then h  k   k 2
lim h  x   lim x2  k 2
x k x k

lim h  x   h  k 
x k

Therefore, h is a continuous function.


It is known that for real valued functions g and h , such that  g o h  is defined at c , it g is

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

continuous at c and it f is continuous at g  c  , then  f o h  is continuous at c .

 
Therefore, f  x    g o h  x   cos x3 is a continuous function.

Question 32:
Show that the function defined by f  x   cos x is a continuous function.

Solution 32:
The given function is f  x   cos x
This function f is defined for every real number and f can be written as the composition of two
functions as,
f  g oh, where g  x   x and h  x   cos x
  goh  x   g  h  x   g  cos x   cos x  f  x 
It has to be first proved that g  x   x and h  x   cos x are continuous functions.
g  x   x , can be written as
 x, if x  0
g  x  
 x if x  0
Clearly, g is defined for all real numbers.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
If c  0, then g  c   c and lim g  x   lim   x   c
xc xc

lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, g is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Case II :
If c  0, then g  c   c and lim g  x   lim x  c
xc xc

lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, g is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Case III :
If c  0, then g  c   g  0  0
lim g  x   lim   x   0
x0 x0

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

lim g  x   lim  x   0
x0 x0

 lim g  x   lim g  x   g  0
xc x c

Therefore, g is continuous at x  0
From the above three observations, it can be concluded that g is continuous at all points.
h  x   cos x
It is evident that h  x   cos x is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  h
If x  c, the h  0
h  c   cos c
lim h  x   lim cos x
x c x c

 lim cos  c  h 
h 0

 lim  cos c cosh  sin c sinh 


h 0

 lim cos c cosh  limsin sinh


h 0 h 0

 cos c cos 0  sin c sin 0


 cos c x 1  sin c x 0
 cos c
 lim h  x   h  c 
x c

Therefore, h  x   cos x is a continuous function.


It is known that fir real valued functions g and h , such that  g o h  is defined at c , if g is
continuous at c and if f is continuous at g  c  ,then  f o g  is continuous at c .
Therefore, f  x    goh  x   g  h  x    g  cox   cos x is a continuous function.

Question 33:
Examine that sin x is a continuous function.

Solution 33:
Let f  x   sin x
This function f is defined for every real number and f cane be written as the composition of
two functions as,
f  g o h, where g  x   x and h  x   sin x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

  goh x   g  h  x   g sin x   sin x  f  x 


It has to be prove first that g  x   x and h  x   sin x are continuous functions.
g  x   x can be written as
 x, if x  0
g  x 
 x if x  0
Clearly, g is defined for all real numbers.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
If c  0 g  c   c and lim g  x   lim( x)  c
xc xc

lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, g is continuous at all points x , that x  0


Case II :
If c  0, then g  c   c and lim g  x   lim x  c
xc xc

lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, g is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Case III :
If c  0, then g  c   g  0  0
lim g  x   lim   x   0
x  0 x 0

lim g  x   lim  x   0
x  0 x 0

 lim g  x   lim  x   g  0 
x 0 x 0

Therefore, g is continuous at x  0
From the above three observations, it can be concluded that g is continuous at all points.
h  x   sin x
It is evident that h  x   sin x is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number. Put x  c  k
If x  c , then k  0
h  c   sin c
lim h  x   limsin x
xc x c

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 limsin  c  k 
k o

 lim sin c cos k  cos c sin k 


k o

 lim  sin c cos k   lim  cos c sin k 


k o h o

 sin c cos 0  cos c sin 0


 sin c  0
 sin c
lim h  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, h is a continuous function,


It is known that for real valued functions g and h , such that  g o h  is defined at c , if g is
continuous at c and if f is continuous at g  c  , then  f o h  is continuous at c .
Therefore, f  x    goh  x   g  h  x    g  sin x   sin x is a continuous function.

Question 34:
Find all the points of discontinuity of f defined by f  x   x  x  1 .

Solution 34:
The given function is f  x   x  x  1 .
The two functions, g and h , are defined as
g  x   x and h  x   x  1
Then, f  g  h
The continuous of g and h is examined first.
g  x   x can be written as
 x, if x  0
g  x  
 x, if x  0
Clearly, g is defined for all real numbers.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
If c  0, then g  c   g  0  c and lim g  x   lim   x   c
xc xc

lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, g is continuous at all points x , such that x  0

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Case II :
If c  0, then g  c   c lim g  x   lim x  c
xc xc

lim g  x   g  c 
xc

Therefore, g is continuous at all points x , such that x  0


Case III :
If c  0, then g  c   g  0  0
lim g  x   lim   x   0
x  0 x 0

lim g  x   lim g  x   0
x  0 x 0

 lim g  x   lim  x   g  0 
x 0 x 0

Therefore, g is continuous at x  0
From the above three observations, it can be concluded that g is continuous at all points.
h  x   x  1 can be written as
  x  1 , if , x  1
h  x  
 x  1, if , x  1
Clearly, h is defined for every real number.
Let c be a real number.
Case I :
If c  1, then h  c     c  1 and lim h  x   lim   x  1    c  1
xc xc

lim h  x   h  c 
xc

Therefore, h is continuous at all points x ,such that x  1


Case II :
If c  1, then h  c   c  1and lim h  x   lim  x  1   c  1
xc x c

lim h  x   h  c 
xc

Therefore, h is continuous at all points x , such that x  1


Case III :
If c  1, then h  c   h  1  1  1  0
lim h  x   lim   x  1    1  1  0
x1 x1

lim h  x   lim  x  1   1  1  0
x1 x1

 lim h  lim h  x   h  1


x1 x1

Therefore, h is continuous at x  1

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

From the above three observations, it can be concluded that h is continuous at all points of the
real line.
g and h are continuous functions. Therefore, f  g  h is also a continuous function.
Therefore, f has no point of discontinuity.

Exercise 5.2

Question 1:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
sin  x2  5

Solution 1:
 
Let f  x   sin x2  5 , u  x   x2  5, and v  t   sin t

  
Then,  vou  x   v u  x   v x2  5  tan x2  5  f  x  
Thus, f is a composite of two functions.
Put t  u  x   x2  5
Then, we obtain
  sin t   cos t  cos  x 2  5 
dv d
dt dt
  x  5   x 2    5  2 x  0  2 x
dt d 2 d d
dx dx dx dx

Therefore, by chain rule.


df dv dt
 
 .  cos x2  5 x 2x  2 x cos x2  5
dx dt dx
 
Alternate method
d 
dx   
sin x2  5   cos x2  5  
d 2
dx

x 5  
d 
 cos  x 2  5 .   x 2    5 
d
 dx dx 
 cos  x 2  5 . 2 x  0
 2 x cos  x 2  5

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 2:
Differentiate the functions with respect of x.
cos  sin x 

Solution 2:
Let f  x   cos sin x  , u  x   sin x, and v  t   cos t
Then,  vou  x   v u  x   v sin x   cos sin x   f  x 
Thus, f is a composite function of two functions.
Put t  u  x   sin x
dv d
   cos t    sin t   sin  sin x 
dt dt
dt d
  sin x   cos x
dx dx
df dv dt
By chain rule, , .   sin sin x  .cos x   cos x sin sin x 
dx dt dx
Alternate method
d d
cos  sin x    sin  sinx  . sin x    sin sin x   cos x   cos x sin sin x 
dx dx

Question 3:
Differentiate the functions with respect of x .
sin  ax  b 

Solution 3:
Let f  x   sin  ax  b  , u  x   ax  b, and v  t   sin t
Then,  vou  x   v u  x   v  ax  b   sin  ax  b   f  x 
Thus, f is a composite function of two functions u and v .
Put t  u  x   ax  b
Therefore,
dv d
  sin t   cos t  cos  ax  b 
dt dt
dt d d d
  ax  b    ax    b   a  0  a
dx dx dx dx
Hence, by chain rule, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

df dv dt
 .  cos  ax  b   a  a cos  ax  b 
dx dt dx
Alternate method
d d
sin  ax  b    cos  ax  b  .  ax  b 
dx dx
d d 
 cos  ax  b  .   ax    b  
 dx dx 
 cos  ax  b  .  a  0 
 a cos  ax  b 

Question 4:
Differentiate the functions with respect of x.
  x 
sec tan

Solution 4:
Let f  x   sec tan   x  , u  x   x , v  t   tan t , and w  s   sec s

    
Then,  wovou  x   w v u  x    w v x   w tan x  sec tan x  f  x 
  
Thus, f is a composite function of three functions, u , v and w .
Put s  v t   tan t and t  u  x   x
dw d
Then,   sec s   sec s tan s  sec  tan t  .tan  tan t   s  tan t 
ds ds
 sec(tan x ).tan tan x   [t  x ]
ds d
  tan t   sec2 t  sec 2 x
dt dt
d  1  1 1 1
dt d

dx dx
 
x   x2   . x2 
dx   2
1
2 x
Hence, by chain rule, we obtain
dt dw ds dt
 . .
dx ds dt dx
  
 sec tan x tan tan x x sec2 x x  1
2 x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability


1
2 x

sec2 x tan x tan tan x   

sec2 x sec tan  x  tan  tan x 
2 x
Alternate method
d 
dx    
sec tan x   sec tan x .tan tan x .

d
dx
tan x    
  
 sec tan x .tan tan x .sec 2 x .
d
dx
x .    
  
 sec tan x .tan tan x .sec 2 x .
1
2 x
  
sec  tan x  .tan  tan x  .sec  x 
2


2 x

Question 5:
Differentiate the functions with respect of X.
sin  ax  b 
cos  cx  d 

Solution 5:
sin(ax  b) g ( x)
The given function is f ( x)   , where g  x   sin  ax  b  and
cos(cx  d ) h( x)
h  x   cos  cx  d 
g ' h  gh'
f 
h2
Consider g  x   sin  ax  b 
Let u  x   ax  b , v  t   sin t
Then  vou  x   v u  x   v  ax  b   sin  ax  b   g  x 
 g is a composite function of two functions, u and v .
Put t  u  x   ax  b

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dv d
  sin t   cos t  cos  ax  b 
dt dt
dt d d d
  ax  b    ax    b   a  0  a
dx dx dx dx
Therefore, by chain rule, we obtain
dg dv dt
g'   .  cos  ax  b  . a  a cos  ax  b 
dx dt dx
Consider h  x   cos  cx  d 
Let p  x   cx  d , q  y   cos y
Then,  qop  x   q  p  x   q  cx  d   cos  cx  d   h  x 
 h is a composite function of two functions, p and q .
Put y  p  x   cx  d
dq d
  cos y    sin y   sin  cx  d 
dy dy
dy d d d
  cx  d    cx    d   c
dx dx dx dx
Therefore, by chain rule, we obtain
dh dq dy
h'   .   sin  cx  d  xc=  c sin  cx  d 
dx dy dx
a cos  ax  b  .cos  cx  d   sin  ax  b c sin cx  d 
f'
cos  cx  d  
2

a cos  ax  b  sin  cx  d  1
  c sin  ax  b   x
cos  cx  d  cos  cx  d  cos  cx  d 
 a cos  ax  b  sec  cx  d   c sin  ax  b  tan  cx  d  sec  cx  d 

Question 6:
Differentiate the function with respect to x.
cos x3  sin 2  x5 

Solution 6:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

cos x3  sin 2  x5 

cos x3 .sin 2  x5   sin 2  x5  x  cos x3   cos x3 x sin 2  x5 


d  d d
dx  dx dx
 sin 2  x5  x  -sin x3  x  x3   cos x3  2sin  x5  . sin x5 
d d
The given function is dx dx
 sin x3 sin 2  x5  x 3x 2  2sin x5 cos x3 .cos x5 x x 
d 5
dx
 3x 2 sin x3 .sin 3  x5   2sin x5 cos x5 cos x3 . x 5x 4
 10 x 4 sin x5 cos x5 cos x3  3x 2 sin x3 sin 2  x5 

Question 7:
Differentiate the functions with respect to x.
2 cot  x 2 

Solution 7:
d 

dx 
2 cot x2   
cot  x 
1 d 
 2. x 
2 cot x2   dx

sin  x 2

x-cosec  x  x  x 
d
 2 2 2

cos  x 2
dx

sin  x 2
1
 x x  2x 
cos  x  sin  x 
2 2 2

2 x

cos x2 sin x2 sin x2
2 2 x

2sin x 2 cos x 2 sin x 2
2 2 x

sin x 2 sin 2 x 2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 8:
Differentiate the functions with respect to x
cos  x
Solution 8:
Let f  x   cos  x
Also, let u  x   x
And, v  t   cos t
Then,  vou  x   v u  x  

v  x
 cos x
 f  x
Clearly, f is a composite function of two functions, u and v, such that
t  u  x  x
Then,
d  12 
dt d

dx dx
 x  x 
dx  
1  12 1
x 
2 2 x
dv d
And,   cos t    sin t   sin x
dt dt

By using chain rule, we obtain


dt dv dt
 .
dx dt dx
  sin x . 1
2 x

1
2 x
 
sin x

sin  x 

2 x
Alternate method

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

d 
dx 
cos  x    sin  x  . dxd  x 
d  12 
  sin   x x x 
dx  
1  12
  sin x x x
2
 sin x

2 x

Question 9:
Prove that the function f given by
f  x   x 1 , xR is not differentiable at x  1.

Solution 9:
The given function is f  x   x 1 , xR
It is known that a function f is differentiable at a point x  c in its domain if both
f c  h  f c f c  h  f c
lim and lim are finite and equal.
k 0 h h0 h
To check the differentiability of the given function at x  1,
Consider the left hand limit of f at x  1
f 1  h   f 1 f I  h 1 1 1
lim  lim
h0 h h0 h
h 0 h
 lim
h 0 h
 lim
h 0 h
 h  0  h  h
 1
Consider the right hand limit of f at x  1

f 1  h   f 1 f I  h 1  1 1
lim  lim
h0 h h0 h
h 0
 lim
h 0 h
 lim
h 0
h
h
 h  0  h  h
1
Since the left and right hand limits of f at x  1 are not equal, f is not differentiable at x  1

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 10:

Prove that the greatest integer function defined by f   x    x ,0  x  3 is not differentiable at


x  1 and x  2 .

Solution 10:
The given function f is f   x    x ,0  x  3
It is known that a function f is differentiable at a point x  c in its domain if both
f c  h  f c f c  h  f c
lim and lim are finite and equal.
h0 h h0 h
To check the differentiable of the given function at x  1, consider the left hand limit of f at
x 1

lim
f 1  h   f 1
 lim
1  h  1
h 0 h h 0 h
0 1 1
 lim  lim  
h 0 h h 0 h

Consider the right hand limit of f at x  1

lim
f 1  h   f 1
 lim
1  h1
h 0 h h 0 h
1 1
 lim  lim 0  0
h 0 h h 0

Since the left and right limits of f at x  1 are not equal, f is not differentiable at x  1
To check the differentiable of the given function at x  2 , consider the left hand limit of f at
x2

lim
f  2  h   f  2
 lim
 2  h    2
h 0 h h 0 h
1 2 1
 lim  lim 
h 0 h h 0 h

Consider the right hand limit of f at x 1

lim
f  2  h   f  2
 lim
 2  h    2
h 0 h h 0 h
1 2
 lim  lim 0  0
h 0 h h 0

Since the left and right hand limits of f at x  2 are not equal, f is not differentiable at x  2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Exercise 5.3

Question 1:
dy
Find : 2 x  3 y  sin x
dx

Solution 1:
The given relationship is 2x  3 y  sin x
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
d d
 2x  3 y   sin x 
dy dx
d d
  2 x    3 y   cos x
dx dx
dy
 2  3  cos x
dx
dy
 3  cos x  2
dx
dx cos x  2
 
dy 3

Question 2:
dy
Find : 2 x  3 y  sin y
dx

Solution 2:
The given relationship is 2x  3 y  sin y
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
d d d
 2x   3 y   sin y 
dx dx dx
dy dy
 2  3  cos y By using chain rule
dx dx
dy
 2=  cosy-3
dx
dy 2
 
dx cos y  3

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 3:
dy
Find : ax  by 2  cos y
dx

Solution 3:
The given relationship is ax  by  cos y
2

Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain


d
dx
d
 d
 ax   by2   cos y 
dx dx
 a b
d 2
dx
 d
y   cos y 
dx …(1)
d 2
 y   2y
dy d
 cos y   sin y
dy
Using chain rule, we obtain dx dx and dx dx ……….(2)
From (1) and (2), we obtain
dy dy
a  bx 2 y   sin y
dx dx
dy
 (2by  sin y )  a
dx
dy a
 
dx 2by  sin y

Question 4:
dy
Find : xy  y 2  tan x  y
dx

Solution 4:
The given relationship is xy  y 2  tan x  y
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
d
dx
 xy  y 2    tan x  y 
d
dx
  xy    y 2    tan x  
d d d dy
dx dx dx dx
 d dy  dy dy
  y .  x   x .   2 y  sec2 x  [ using product rule and chain rule ]
 dx dx  dx dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dy dy dy
 y.1  x  2 y  sec2 x 
dx dx dx
dy
  x  2 y  1  sec2 x  y
dx
dy sec x  y2
 
dx  x  2 y  1

Question 5:
dy 2
Find : x  xy  y 2  100
dx

Solution 5:
The given relationship is x2  xy  y 2  100
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain

d 2
x  xy  y 2   100 
d
dx dx
Derivative of constant function is 0
  x    xy    y   0
d 2 d d 2
dx dx dx
 d dy  dy
 2 x   y.  x   x.   2 y  0  Using product rule and chain rule
 dx dx  dx
dy dy
 2 x  y.1  x.  2 y  0
dx dx
dy
 2x  y   x  2 y   0
dx
dy 2x  y
 
dx x  2y

Question 6:
dy 2 2
Find : x  x y  xy 2  y3  81
dx

Solution 6:
The given relationship is x2  x2 y  xy 2  y3  81
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain

dx

d 3 2 d
x  x y  xy 2 y3  81
dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability


d 3
dx
 x    x2 y    xy    y3   0
d
dx
d
dx
2 d
dx
 d dy   d 
 3x 2   y  x 2   x 2    y 2  x   x  y 2    3 y 2
d dy
0
 dx dx   dx dx  dx
 dx   dy  dx
 3x2   y.2 x  x2    y 2 .1  x.2 y.   3 y 2 0
 dy   dx  dy
  x2  2 xy  3 y 2    3x2  2 xy  y 2   0
dy
dx
dy   3x  2 xy  y 
2 2

 
dx  x2  2 xy  3 y 2 

Question 7:
dx
Find : sin 2 y  cos xy  
dy

Solution 7:
The given relationship is sin 2 y  cos xy  
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
d
dx
 sin 2 y  cos xy   ( )
d
dx
…..(1)
  sin y    cos xy   0
d 2 d
dx dx
Using chain rule, we obtain
d
dx
  d
sin 2 y  2sin y  sin y   2sin y cos y
dx
dy
dx
….(2)
 cos xy    sin xy  xy    sin xy  y  x   x 
d d d dy
dx dx  dx dx 
 dy  dy
  sin xy  y.1  x    y sin xy  x sin xy …..(3)
 dx  dx
From (1) ,(2) and (3), we obtain
dy dy
2sin y cos y  y sin xy  x sin xy  0
dx dx
dy
  2sin y cos y  x sin xy   y sin xy
dx
dx
  sin 2 y  x sin xy   y sin xy
dy

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dx y sin xy
 
dy sin 2 y  x sin xy

Question 8:
dy
Find : sin 2 x  cos2 y  1
dx

Solution 8:
The given relationship is sin 2 x  cos2 y  1
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
dy
dx
 sin 2 x  cos 2 y   1
d
dx
  sin 2 x    cos 2 y   0
d d
dx dx
d d
 2sin x.  sin x   2 cos y.  cos y   0
dx dx
dy
 2sin x cos x  2 cos y   sin y  .  0
dx
dy
 sin 2 x  sin 2 y  0
dx
dx sin 2 x
 
dy sin 2 y

Question 9:
dy  2x 
Find : y  sin 1  2 
dx  1 x 

Solution 9:
 2x 
The given relationship is y  sin 1  2 
 1 x 
 2x 
y  sin 1  2 
 1 x 
2x
 sin y 
1  x2
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 sin y    2 
d d 2x
dx dx  1  x 
……….(1)
dy d  2 x 
 cos y   
dx dx  1  x 2 
2x u
The function , is of the form of .
1 x 2
v
Therefore, by quotient rule, we obtain

d  2x  
1  x 2   2 x   2 x. 1  x 2 
d d
 dx dx
 2 
dx  1  x  1  x 
2
…….(2)


1  x  .2  2 x 0  2 x  2  2 x  4 x
2 2 3

2 1  x 2

1  x  2 2
1  x 2 2
1  x 
2 2

2x
Also, sin y 
1  x2
 2x 
 cos y  1  sin y  1   2

2
1  x   4 x
2 2 2

2 
 1 x  1  x  2 2

…………(3)


1  x  2 2


1 x 2

1  x  2 2 1  x2
From (1)(2) and (3), we obtain
1  x 2 dy 2 1  x 
2

x 
1  x 2 dx 1  x 2 2
dy 2
 
dx 1  x 2

Question 10:
dx  3x  x 3  1 1
Find : y  tan 1  2 
, x
dy  1  3x  3 3

Solution 10:
 3x  x3 
The given relationship is y  tan 1  2 
 1  3x 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 3x  x3 
1
y  tan  2 
 1  3x  ……..(1)
3x  x3
 tan y 
1  3x 2
y y
 tan 3
3 tan
It is known that, tan y  3 3 ……(2)
y
1  3 tan 2
3
Comparing equations (1) and (2), we obtain
y
x  tan
3
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain

 x    tan 
d d y
dx dx  3
y d  y
 1  sec2 .  
3 dx  3 
y 1 dy
 1  sec2 . .
3 3 dx
dy 3 3
  
dx sec2 y 1  tan 2 y
3 3
dx 3
 
dy 1  x 2

Question 11:
dy  1  x2 
Find : y cos1  2 
,0  x  1
dx  1 x 

Solution 11:
The given relationship is,

 1  x2 
1
y  cos  2 
 1 x 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

1  x2
 cos y 
1  x2
y
1  tan 2
2 1  x2
 
y 1  x2
1  tan 2
2
On comparing L.H.S. and R.H.S. of the above relationship, we obtain
y
tan  x
2
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
y d  y d
sec2 .     x 
2 dx  2  dx
y 1 d
 sec2 x 1
2 2 dx
dy 2
 
dx sec2 y
2
dy 2
 
dx 1  tan 2 y
2
dy 1
 
dx 1  x 2

Question 12:
dy  1  x2 
Find : y  sin 1  2 
,0  x  1
dx  1 x 

Solution 12:
 1  x2 
The given relationship is y  sin 1  2 
 1 x 
 1  x2 
y  sin 1  2 
 1 x 
1  x2
 sin y 
1  x2
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
d d  1  x2 
 sin y     ……(1)
dx dx  1  x2 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Using chain rule, we obtain


d dy
 sin y   cos y.
dx dx
2
 1  x2 
cos y  1  sin y  1  
2
2 
 1 x 


1  x   1  x 
2 2 2 2


4x2

2x
1  x  2 2
1  x 2 2 1  x2
d 2x dy
 sin y   2 …….(2)
dx 1  x dx
d  1  x  1  x 1  x   1  x 1  x 
'
2 2 2 ' 2 2

  using quotient rule


dx  1  x  1  x  2 2
2

=
1+x   2 x   1  x   2 x 
2 2

1  x  2 2

2 x  2 x3  2 x  2 x3

1  x 
2 2

4 x
 …..(3)
1  x2 
2

From (1),(2), and (3), we obtain


2 x dy 4 x

1  x dx 1  x 2 2
2

dy 2
 
dx 1  x 2
Alternate method

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 1  x2 
y  sin 1  2 
 1 x 
1  x2
 sin y 
1  x2
 1  x 2  sin y  1  x 2
 1  sin y  x 2  1  sin y
1  sin y
 x2 
1  sin y
2
 y y
 cos  sin 
 x2  
2 2
2
 y y
 cos  sin 
 2 x
y y
cos  sin
x 2 2
y y
cos  sin
2 2
y
1  tan
x 2
y
1  tan
2
  
 x  tan   
4 2
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
d   y 
 x   . tan   
d
dx dx   4 2 
 y  d  y 
 1  sec2    .   
 4 2  dx  4 2 
   y   1 dy 
 1  1  tan 2    .   . 
  4 2   2 dx 
 1 dy 
 1  1  x 2    
 2 dx 
dx 2
 
dy 1  x 2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 13:
dy  2x 
Find : y  cos1  2 
, 1  x  1
dx  1 x 

Solution 13:
 2x 
The given relationship is y  cos1  2 
 1 x 
 2x 
y  cos 1  2 
 1 x 
2x
 cos y 
1  x2
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x, we obtain
 cos y   .  2 
d d 2x
dx dx  1  x 

dy 
1  x 2  .  2 x   2 x. 1  x 2 
d d
  sin y.  dx dx
dx 1  x 
2 2

dy 1  x  x 2-2x.2x
2

  1  cos y  2

1+x 2 
2
dx

  2 1 x 2 
2 x   dy  
2
   
  1  2 
  1  x   dx  1  x2 2 
   


1  x   4x dy  2(1  x )
2 2 2 2

1  x  dx (1  x )
2 2 2


1  x  dy  2 1  x 
2 2 2

1  x  dx 1  x 
2 2 2 2

1  x dy 2 1  x 
2 2

 . 
1  x dx 1  x  2 2
2

dy 2
 
dx 1  x 2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 14:
Find
dy
dx

: y  sin 1 2 x 1  x2 , 
1
2
x
1
2

Solution 14:
Relationship is y  sin 1 2 x 1  x2  

y  sin 1 2 x 1  x 2 
 sin y  2 x 1  x 2
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain
cos y 
dy
dx
 d
 2 x
 dx

1  x2  1  x2  
dx 
dx 
dy  x 2 x 
 1  sin 2 y  2 .  1  x2 
dx  2 1 x 
2

 
  x2  1  x2 
2
dy
 1  2x 1  x  2
2

dx  1 x 
2

 1  2 x2 
 1  4 x2 1  x2 
dy
 2 
dx  1 x 
2

dy  1  2 x2 
 1  2x   2
2

dx  1 x 
2

 1  2 x2 
 1  2 x2   2 
dy

dx  1 x 
2

dy 2
 
dx 1  x2

Question 15:
dy  1  1
Find : y  sec1  2  ,0  x 
dx  2x 1  2

Solution 15:
 1 
The given relationship is y  sec1  2 
 2x 1 
 1 
y  sec1  2 
 2x 1 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

1
 sec y 
2x2 1
 cos y  2 x 2  1
 2 x 2  1  cos y
y
 2 x 2  2 cos 2
2
y
 x  cos
2
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain

 x    cos 
d d y
dx dx  2
y d  y
 1  sin .  
2 dx  2 
1 1 dy
 
y 2 dx
sin
2
dy 2 2
  
dx sin y y
1  cos 2
2 2
dy 2
 
dx 1  x2

Exercise 5.4

Question 1:
ex
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x :
sin x

Solution 1:
ex
Let y 
sin x
differentiating w.r.t x, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

sin x  e x   e x  sin x 
d d
dy dx dx
 2
dx sin x
sin x.  e   e .  cos x 
x x


sin 2 x
e x  sin x  cos x 
 , x  n , n Z
sin 2 x

Question 2:
1
Differentiating the following esin x

Solution 2:
1
Let y  esin x
differentiating w.r.t x , we obtain
dy d sin 1 x

dx dx
e 
dy d
 
1
  esin x . sin 1 x
dx dx
1 1
 esin x .
1  x2
e sin 1 x

1  x2
1

dy esin x
  , x   1,1
dx 1  x2

Question 3:
3
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : e x

Solution 3:
Let y  ex
3

By using the quotient rule, we obtain


dy d
  ex  ex .
dx dx
3 3

 
d 3
dx
3
 
x  e x .3x2  3x2e x
3

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 4:
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : sin tan1 e x  
Solution 4:

Let y  sin tan 1 e x 
By using the chain rule, we obtain
dy d 

: sin tan 1 e x 
dx dx


 cos tan 1 e x .
d
dx
 
tan 1 e x 

 cos tan 1 e x .
1
 .
d x
e  
 
2
1  e x dx
cos  tan 1 e x  d
 2 x
.e x . x
1 e dx
e cos  tan 1 e x 
x

 x  -1
1  e2 x
e x cos  tan 1 e x 

1  e2 x

Question 5:
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : log cos e x  
Solution 5:
Let y  log cos ex  
By using the chain rule, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

log  cos e x  
dy d 

dx dx 
.  cos e x 
1 d
 x
cos e dx

x 
.  sin e x  .  e x 
1 d

cos e dx
 sin e xx
 .e
cos e x

 e x tan e x , e x   2n  1 , n  N
2

Question 6:
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : ex  ex  ...  ex
2 5

Solution 6:

dx

d x x2
e  e  ...  ex
5



d x
dx
 
e 
d x2
dx
e 
d x3
dx
 
e 
d x4
dx
e    d x5
dx
e    
 2 d   3 d   4 d   5 d 
 e x  e x x  x 2     e x x  x 3     e x x  x 4     e x x  x 5  
 dx   dx   dx   dx 
  
 ex  ex x2x  ex x3x2  e x x4x3  e x x5x4
2 3

  4

  5


3
 ex  2xex  3x2ex  4x3ex  5x4ex
2 4 5

Question 7:
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : e x ,x 0

Solution 7:
Let y  e x

Then, y 2  e x

By Differentiating this relationship with respect to x , we obtain


y2  e x

By applying thechain rule


 2y
dy
dx
e x d
dx
  x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dy 1 1
 2y e x
.
dx 2 x
dy e x
 
dx 4 y x
x
dy e
 
dx 4 e x
x
dy e x
  ,x 0
dx 4 xe x

Question 8:
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : l og l og x  , x  1

Solution 8:
Let y  l og l og x 
By using the chain rule, we obtain
dy d
 l og  l og x 
dx dx 
1 d
 .  l og x 
l og x dx
1 1
 .
l og x x
1
, x 1
x log x

Question 9:
cos x
Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : ,x 0
log x

Solution 9:
cos x
Let y 
log x
By using the quotient rule, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

d d
dy dx 
cos x  x log x - cos x x  log x 
 dx
 log x 
2
dx
1
 sin x log x  cos x x
 x
 log x 
2

  x log x.sin x  cos x 


 ,x 0
x  log x 
2

Question 10:

Differentiating the following w.r.t. x : cos log x  e x , x  0 
Solution 10:

Let y  cos log x  e x 
By using the chain rule, we obtain
y  cos  log x  e x 

  sin log x  e x  .  log x  e x 


dy d
dx dx
d 
 sin  log x  e x  .   log x    e x 
d
 dx dx 
1 
  sin  log x  e x  .   e x 
x 
1 
   e x  sin  log x  e x  , x  0
x 

Exercise 5.5

Question 1:
Differentiate the following with respect to x .
cos x.cos 2x.cos3x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Solution 1:
Let y  cos x.cos 2x.cos3x
Taking logarithm or both the side, we obtain
log y  log  cos x.cos 2 x.cos3x 
 log y  log  cos x   log  cos 2 x   log(cos3x)
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dy 1 d 1 d 1 d
 .  cos x   .  cos 2 x   .  cos 3x 
y dx cos x dx cos 2 x dx cos 3x dx
dy  sin x sin 2 x d sin 3x d 
  y   .  2x   .  3x  
dx  cos x cos 2 x dx cos 3x dx 
dy
   cos x.cos 2 x.cos 3x  tan x  2 tan 2 x  3tan 3x 
dx

Question 2:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
 x 1 x  2
 x  3 x  4 x  5

Solution 2:

Let y 
 x 1 x  2
 x  3 x  4 x  5
Taking logarithm or both the side, we obtain
 x 1 x  2
 x 3 x  4 x 5
log y  log
1   x  1 x  2  
 log y  log  
2   x  3 x  4  x  5  
log{ x  1 x  2   log  x  3 x  4   x  5 }
1
 log y 
2
1
 log y  log  x  1  log  x  2   log  x  3  log  x  4   log  x  5  
2
Differentiating both sides with respect to , we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 1 d 1 d 1 d 
 .  x  1  .  x  2  .  x  3 
1 dy 1 x  1 dx x  2 dx x  3 dx
  
y dx 2  1 d 1 d 
 .  x  4  .  x  5
 x  4 dx x  5 dx 
dy y  1 1 1 1 1 
       
dx 2  x  1 x  2 x  3 x  4 x  5 


dy 1

 x  1 x  2   1  1  1  1  1 
dx 2  x  3 x  4  x  5  x  1 x  2 x  3 x  4 x  5 

Question 3:
Differentiate the function with respect to x.
 log x 
cos x

Solution 3:
Let y   log x 
cos x

Taking logarithm or both the side, we obtain


log y  cos x.log  log x 
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dy d d
.   cos x  x log  log x   cos x x log  log x  
y dx dx dx
1 dy 1 d
 .   sin x log  log x   cos x x .  log x 
y dx logx dx
dy  cos x 1 
  y   sin x log  log x  
log x x 
x
dx 
dy cos x  cos x 
   log x    sin x log  log x  
dx  x log x 

Question 4:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
x x  2sin x

Solution 4:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Let y  x x  2sin x
Also, let x x  u and 2sin x  v
y  u v
dy du dv
  
dx dx dx
u  xx
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain
log u  x log x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 du  d d 
   x  x logx + x x  log x 
u dx  dx dx 
du  1
  u 1 x log x  x x 
dx  x
du
  x x  log x  1
dx
du
  x x 1  log x 
dx
v  2sin x
Taking logarithm on both the sides with respect to x , we obtain
log v  sin x.log 2
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dv d
.  log 2.  sin x 
v dx dx
dv
  v log 2cos x
dx
dv
  2sin x cos x log 2
dx
dy
  x 2 1  log x   2sin x cos x log 2
dx

Question 5:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
( x  3)2  ( x  4)3  ( x  5)4

Solution 5:
Let

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

y  ( x  3)2  ( x  4)3  ( x  5)4


Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.
log y  log  x  3  log  x  4  log  x  5
2 3 4

 log y  2log  x  3  3log  x  4  4log  x  5


Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dy 1 d 1 d 1 d
.  2. .  x  3  3. .  x  4  4. .  x  5
y dx x  3 dx x  4 dx x  5 dx
dy  2 3 4 
  y  
dx  x  3 x  4 x  5 
dy  2 3 4 
  ( x  3)2 ( x  4)3 ( x  5) 4    
dx  x  3 x  4 x  5 
dy  2( x  4)( x  5)  3( x  3)( x  5)  4( x  3)( x  4) 
  ( x  3)2 ( x  4)3 ( x  5) 4   
dx  ( x  3)( x  4)( x  5) 
dy
  ( x  3)( x  4) 2 ( x  5)3   2( x 2  9 x  20)  3( x 2  9 x  15)  4( x 2  7 x  12) 
dx
dy
  ( x  3)( x  4) 2 ( x  5)3 (9 x 2  70 x  133)
dx

Question 6:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
x  1
 1 1 
x   x
 x

 x

Solution 6:
x  1
 1 1 
Let y   x    x x 
 x
x  1
 1 1 
Also, let u   x   and v  x x 
 x
y  u v
dy du dv
   …….(1)
dx dx dx
x
 1
Then, u   x  
 x
Taking log on both sides

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

x
 1
 log u  log  x  
 x
 1
 log u  x log  x  
 x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 du d  1 d   1 
 ( x)  log  x    x  log  x  
u dx dx  x dx   x 
1 du  1 1 d  1
  1x log  x    xx . x 
u dx  x  1  dx  x
x 
 x
 
du   1 x  1 
  u log  x    x  x  2 
  x  1
x  
dx x 
  
 x
  1 
x  x  
 1  1
  x   log  x    
du x
 
dx  x   x  1 
  x  x 
 
  1  x2  1
x
du  1
 x     
x  x 2  1 
log x
dx  x  
du  1   x2  1  1 
   x   2  log  x   ….(2)
dx  x   x 1  x 
 1
 x 
v  x x 
Taking log on both sides, we obtain
 1
1 
log v  log x  x

 1
 log v  1   log x
 x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

1 dv  d  1    1 d
.   1    x log x  1   . log x
v dx  dx  x    x  dx
1 dv  1   1 1
    2  log x  1   .
v dx  x   x x
1 dv log x 1 1
  2   2
v dx x x x
dv   log x  x  1
  v 
dx  x2
 1
dv 1   x  1  log x 
  x x    ………(3)
dx  x2 
Therefore, from (1),(2)and (3), we obtain
 
dy  1   x2 1  1   x x   x  1  log x 
x 1

  x    2  log  x    x  
dx  x  x   x   x2 

Question 7:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
 log x   xlog x
x

Solution 7:
Let y   log x   xlog x
x

Also, let u   log x  and v  xlog x


x

y  u v
dy du dv
   ……..(1)
dx dx dx
u   log x 
x

 log u  log  log x  


x
 
 log u  x log  log x 
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

1 du d d
 ( x) x log(log x)  x. [log(log x)]
u dx dx dx
du  1 d 
  u 1x log(log x)  x. . (log x) 
dx  log x dx 
du  x 1
  (log x) x log(log x) 
log x x 
.
dx 
du  1 
  (log x) x log(log x) 
dx  log x 
du  log(log x).log x  1 
  (log x) x  
dx  log x 
du
  log x  1  log x.log  log x 
x 1
……(2)
dx
v  xlog x
 log v  log  xlog x 
 log v  log x log x   log x 
2

Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain


1 dv d
.  (log x) 2 
v dx dx
1 dv d
 .  2(log x). (log x)
v dx dx
dv log x
  2 xlog x
dx x
dv
  2 xlog x1.log x ….(3)
dx
Therefore, from (1),(2), and (3), we obtain
dy
 (log x) x 1[1  log x.log(log x)]  2xlog x 1  log x
dx

Question 8:
Differentiate the function with respect to x
(sin x) x  sin 1 x

Solution 8:
Let y  sin x   sin 1 x
x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Also, let u   sin x  and v  sin 1 x


x

y  u v
dy du dv
   ……..(1)
dx dx dx
u   sin x 
x

 log u  log  sin x 


x

 log u  x log  sin x 


Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 du d d
   x  x log sin x   x x log sin x 
u dx dx dx 
du  1 d 
  u 1.log  sin x   x. .  sin x  
dx  sin x dx 
du x  x 
   sin x  log  sin x   .cos x 
dx  sin x 
du
   sin x   x cot x  logsin x 
x
…..(2)
dx
v  sin 1 x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
dv

1
.
d
x  
dx
 
2 dx
1 x
dv 1 1
  .
dx 1 x 2 x
dv 1
  …..(3)
dx 2 x  x2
Therefore, from (1), (2) and (3), we obtain
dy 1
  sin x   x cot x  logsin x  
2

dx 2 x  x2

Question 9:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
xsin x   sin x 
cos x

Solution 9:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Let y  xsin x   sin x 


cos x

Also u  xsin x and v  sin x 


cos x

y  u v
dy du dv
   ……(1)
dx dx dx
u  xsin x
 log u  log  xsin x 
 log u  sin x log x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 du d d
  sin x  .log x  sin x.  log x 
u dx dx dx
du  1
  u  cos x log x  sin x  
dx  x
du  sin x 
  xsin x cos x log x  ……(2)
dx  x 
v  sin x 
cos x

 log v  log  sin x 


cos x

 log v  cox log  sin x 


Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dv d d
  cos x  xlog  sinx   cos xx log  sin x  
v dx dx dx
dv  1 d 
  v   sin x.log  sin x   cos x. .  sin x  
dx  sin x dx 
dv cos x  cos x 
   sin x    sin x log sin x  cos x 
dx  sin x 
dv
   sin x    sin x log sin x  cot x cos x 
cos x

dx
dv
   sin x  cot x cos x  sin x logsin x
cos x
….(3)
dx
Therefore, from (1), (2) and (3), we obtain
dy  sin x 
 xsin x  cos x log x     sin x  cos x cot x  sin x logsin x
cos x

dx  x 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 10:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
x2  1
x x cos x
 2
x 1

Solution 10:
x2  1
Let y  x x cos x 
x2  1
x2  1
Also, let u  x x cos x and v 
x2 1
dy du dv
  
dx dx dx
y  u v
u  x x cos x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 du d d d
  x  .cos x log x  x.  cos x  .log x  x cos x.  log x 
u dx dx dx dx
du  1
  u 1.cos x.log x  x.   sin x  log x  x cos x. 
dx  x
du
  x x cos x  cox log x  x sin x log x  cos x 
dx
du
  x x cos x cos x 1  log x   x sin x log x  ….(2)
dx
x2  1
v 2
x 1
 log v  log  x2  1  log  x2 1
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dv 2x 2x
  2  2
v dx x  1 x 1
dv  2 x  x 2  1  2 x  x 2  1 
  v 
dx   x2  1 x2  1 
dv x 2  1  -4x 
  2 x 2 
dx x  1   x  1 x 2  1 
 
dv 4 x
  …….(3)
dx  x2  12

Therefore, from (1), (2) and (3), we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dy 4x
 x x cos x cos x 1  log x   x sin x log x  
 x 1
2
dx 2

Question 11:
Differentiate the function with respect to x .
1
 x cos x    x sin x  x
x

Solution 11:
1
Let y   x cos x    x sin x  x
x

1
Also, let u   x cos x  and v   x sin x  x
x

y  u v
dy du dv
   ….(1)
dx dx dx
u   x cos x 
2

 log u  log  x cos x 


x

 log u  x log  x cos x 


 log u  x  log x  log cos x 
 log u  x log x  x log cos x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 du d d
 ( x  log x)  ( x logcos x)
u dx dx dx

du  d d   d d 
  u log x.  x   x.  log x   log cos x.  x   x.  log cos x 
dx  dx dx   dx dx 
du  1  1 d 
  ( x cos x) x  log x.1  x.   logcos x  1  x   (cos x) 
dx  x  cos x dx 
du  1  1 d 
  ( x cos x) x  log x 1  x    logcos x 1  x  . (cos x) 
dx  x  cos x dx 
du x   x 
   x cos x   log x  1  log cos x  .   sin x 
dx   cos x 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

du
   x cos x  1  log x    log cos x  x tan x 
x

dx
du
   x cos x  1  x tan x   log x  log cos x 
x

dx
du
   x cos x  1  x tan x  log  x cos x 
x
……(2)
dx
1
v   x sin x  x
1
 log v  log  x sin x  x
1
 log v  log  x sin x 
x
1
 log v   log x  log sin x 
x
1 1
 log v  log x  log sin x
x x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dv d  1  d 1 
  log x    log  sin x  
v dx dx  x  dx  x 
1 dv  d 1 1 d   d 1 1 d 
  log x.    .  log x    log  sin x  .    . log  sin x 
v dx  dx  x  x dx   dx  x  x dx 
1 dv   1  1 1   1  1 1 d 
  log x.   2   .   log  sin x  .   2   . .  sin x  
v dx   x  x x   x  x sin x dx 
1 dv 1  log(sin x) 1 
  2 (1  log x)     .cos x 
 
2
v dx x x x sin x
1 dv 1 1 1  log x  log  sin x   x cot x 
  2  x sin x  x   2
 
v dx x  x x2 


dv
  x sin x  x 
 
1 1  log x  log sin x  x cot x 


dx  x2 


dv
  x sin x  x 
 
1 1  log x sin x  x cot x 
………(3)
2 
dx  x 
Therefore, from (1), (2) and (3), we obtain
dy
  x cos x  1  x tan x  log  x cos x    x sin x  x 
2  
1  x cot x  1  log x sin x 

2 
dx  x 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 12:
dy
Find of function.
dx
xy  yx  1

Solution 12:
The given function is x y  y x  1
Let x y  u and y x  v
Then, the function becomes u  v  1
du dv
  0 ……….(1)
dx dx
u  xy
 log u  log  x y 
 log u  y log x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 du dy d
 log x  y.  log x 
u dx dx dx
du  dy 1
  u log x  y. 
dx  dx x
du  dy y 
  x y  log x  
dx  dx x 
…….(2)
v  yx
 log v  log( y x )
 log v  x log y
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dv d d
  log y  ( x)  x  (log y )
v dx dx dx
dv  1 dy 
  v  log y  1  x   
dx  y dx 
dv  x dy 
  y x  log y 
dx  y dx 
…..(3)
Therefore, from (1), (2) and (3), we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 dy y x x dy 
x y  log x    y  log y  0
 dx x  y dx 

  x 2  log x  xy y 1 
   yx y 1  y x log y 
dy
dx
y 1
dy yx  y log y
x
  y
dx x log x  xy x 1

Question 13:
dy
Find of function y x  x y
dx

Solution 13:
The given function is y x  x y
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.
x log y  y log x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
d d d d
log y.  x   x.  log y   log x.  y   y.  log x 
dx dx dx dx
1 dy dy 1
 log y.1  x. .  log x.  y.
y dx dx x
x dy dy y
 log y   log x 
y dx dx x
x  dy y
   log x    log y
y  dx x
 x  y log x  dy y  x log y
  
 y  dx x
 x  y log x  dy y  x log y
  
 y  dx x
dy y  y  x log y 
   
dx x  x  y log x 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 14:
dy
of function  cos x    cos y 
y x
Find
dx

Solution 14:
The given function is  cos x    cos y 
y x

Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.


y  logcos x  x logcos y
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
dy d d d
logcos x   y  (logcos x)  logcos y  ( x)  x  (logcos y)
dx dx dx dx
dy 1 d 1 d
 log cos x.  y. .  cos x   log cos y.1  x. .  cos y 
dx cos x dx cos y dx
dy y x dy
 log cos x  .   sin x   log cos y    sin y  .
dx cos x cos y dx
dy dy
 log cos x  y tan x  log cos y  x tan y
dx dx
dy
  log cos x  x tan y   y tan x  log cos y
dx
dy y tan x  log cos y
 
dx x tan y  log cos x

Question 15:
dy
Find of function xy  e x y 
dx

Solution 15:
The given function is xy  e x y 
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.
log  xy   log  ex y 
 log x  log y   x  y  log e
 log x  log y   x  y  1
 log x  log y  x  y
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

d d d dy
 log x    log y    x  
dx dx dx dx
1 1 dy 1
   1
x y dx x
 1  dy x  1
 1   
 y  dx x
dy y( x  1)
 
dx x( y  1)

Question 16:
  
Find the derivative of the function given by f  x   1  x  1  x2 1  x4 1  x8 and hence find 
f ' 1

Solution 16:
 
The given relationship is f  x   1  x  1  x2 1  x4 1  x8  
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.
log f  x   log 1  x   log 1  x2   log 1  x4   log 1  x8 
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 d
f  x  dx
d
dx
d
dx

d
dx
 d

.  f  x   log 1  x   log 1  x 2  log 1  x 4  log 1  x8
dx
  
. 1  x 2   . 1  x 4   . 1  x8 
1 1 d 1 d 1 d 1 d
 . f '  x  . 1  x  
f  x 1  x dx 1  x dx
2
1  x dx
4
1  x dx
8

 1 1 1 1 
 f '  x  f  x   .2 x  .4 x3  .8x 7 
1  x 1  x 1 x 1 x 
2 4 8

 1 8x7 
 f '  x   1  x  1  x 2 1  x 4 1  x8  
2x 4 x3
   8
1  x 1  x 1  x 1  x 
2 4

 1 2x1 4x13 8x17 


Hence, f ' 1  1  1 1  12 1  14 1  18      8
1  1 1  1 1  1 1  1 
2 4

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

1 2 4 8
 2x2x2x2     
2 2 2 2
 1+2+4+8 
 16x  
 2 
15
 16x  120
2

Question 17:
  
Differentiate x2  5x  8 x3  7 x  9 in three ways mentioned below
i. By using product rule.
ii. By expanding the product to obtain a single polynomial
iii. By logarithm Differentiate
Do they all given the same answer?

Solution 17:
 
Let y  x2  5x  8 x3  7 x  9 
(i) Let x  x2  5x  8 and u  x3  7x  9
 y  uv
dy du dv
  .v  u.  By using product rule
dx dv dx
  x  5 x  8 .  x3  7 x  9    x 2  5 x  8  .  x3  7 x  9 
dy d 2 d

dx dx dx
  2 x  5  x3  7 x  9    x 2  5 x  8  3x 2  7 
dy

dx
 2 x  x3  7 x  9   5  x 3  7 x  9   x 2  3x 2  7   5 x  3x 2  7   8  3x 2  7 
dy

dx
  2 x 4  14 x 2  18 x   5 x3  35 x  45   3x 4  7 x 2   15 x3  35 x  24 x 2  56
dy

dx
dy
  5x4  20 x3  45x2  52x  11
dx

(ii)

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

y   x 2  5 x  8 x3  7 x  9 
 x 2  x3  7 x  9   5 x  x3  7 x  9   8  x3  7 x  9 
 x5  7 x3  9 x 2  5 x 4  35 x 2  45x  8x3  56 x  72
 x5  5 x 4  15 x3  26 x 2  11x  72

   x5  5 x 4  15 x3  26 x 2  11x  72 
dy d
dx dx
  x5   5  x 4   15  x3   26  x 2   11  x    72 
d d d d d d
dx dx dx dx dx dx
 5 x  5 x 4x  15 x 3x  26 x 2x  11 x 1  0
4 3 2

 5 x 4  20 x3  45 x 2  52 x  11
(iii) Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.
log y  log  x2  5x  8  log  x3  7 x  9
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dy d
 d

 log x 2  5 x  8  log x3  7 x  9
y dx dx dx
 

1 dy
 2
1
y dx x  5 x  8 dx
.
d 2

x  5x  8  3
1
 .
d 3
x  7 x  9 dx
x  7x  9  
 
x  3x 2  7  
dy 1 1
  y 2 x  2x-5   3
dx  x  5x  8 x  7x  9 
 2x  5 3x  7 
  x 2  5 x  8 x3  7 x  9   3
2
dy
  3 
dx  x  5x  8 x  7 x  9 
  2 x  5 ( x3  7 x  9)   3x 2  7  x 2  5 x  8  
  x  5 x  8 x  7 x  9  
dy
 2 3

dx   x 2  5 x  8    x3  7 x  9  

 2 x  x3  7 x  9   5  x3  7 x  9   3x 2  x 2  5 x  8   7  x 2  5 x  8 
dy

dx
  2 x 4  14 x 2  18 x   5 x3  35 x  45   3x 4  15 x 3  24 x 2    7 x 2  35 x  56 
dy

dx
dy
  5 x 2  20 x3  45 x 2  52 x  11
dx
dy
From the above three observations, it can be concluded that all the result of are same.
dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 18:
d du dv dw
If u, v and w are functions of x , then show that u.v.w  v.w  u .w  u.v
dx dx dx dx
In two ways-first by repeated application of product rule, second by logarithmic differentiation.

Solution 18:
Let y  u.v.w  u. v.w
By applying product rule, we obtain
dy du d
 .  v.w   u.  v.w 
dx dx dx
dy du  dv dv 
 Again applying product rule
  v.w  u  .w  v. 
dx dx  dx dx 
dy du dv dw
  v.w  u. .w  u.v
dx dx dx dx
By taking logarithm on both sides of the equation y  u.v.w, we obtain
log y  log u  log v  log w
Differentiating both sides with respect to x , we obtain
1 dy d d d
.   log u    log v    log w
y dx dx dx dx
1 dy 1 du 1 dv 1 dw
 .   
y dx u dx v dx w dx
dy  1 du 1 dv 1 dw 
  y   
dx  u dx v dx w dx 
dy  1 du 1 dv 1 dw 
  u.v.w    
dx  u dx v dx w dx 
dy du dv dw
  .v.w  u. .w.  u.v.
dx dx dx dx

Exercise 5.6

Question 1:

If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter,
dy
find
dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

x  2at 2 , y  at 4

Solution 1:
The given equations are x  2at 2 and y  at 4
Then,
dx d d
 (2at 2 )  2a. (t 2 )  2a.2t  4at
dt dt dt
dy d d
 (at 4 )a  (t 4 )  a  4  t 3  4at 3
dx dt dt
 dy 
dy  dt  4at 3
    t2
dt  dx  4at
 
 dt 

Question 2:

If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
x  a cos , y  b cos 

Solution 2:
The given equations are x  a cos  and y  b cos 
dx d
Then,   a cos   a( sin )  a sin 
d d
dy d
 (b cos )  b( sin )  b sin 
d d
 dy 
dy  d   b sin  b
   
dx  dx  a sin  a
 d 
 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 3:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
x  sin t, y  cos2t

Solution 3:
The given equations are x  sin t and y  cos2t
dx d
Then,  (sin t )  cos t
dt dt
dy d d
 (cos 2t )   sin 2t  (2t )  2sin 2t
dt dt dt
 dy 
dy  dx  2sin 2t 2  2sin t cos t
     4sin t
dx  dx  cos t cos t
 dt 
 

Question 4:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
4
x  4t , y 
t

Solution 4:
4
The equations are x  4t and y 
t
dx d
 (4t )  4
dt dt
dy d  4  d 1  1  4
    4    4 2   2
dt dt  t  dt  t  t  t
 dy   4 
dy  dt   t 2  1
    2
dx  dx  4 t
 
 dt 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 5:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
x  cos   cos2, y  sin   sin 2

Solution 5:

The given equations are x  cos   cos2 and y  sin   sin 2


dx d d d
Then,  (cos   cos2)  (cos )  (cos2)
d d d d
  sin sin2  sin2  sin
dy d d d
 (sin   sin 2)  (sin )  (sin 2)
d d d d
 cos   2cos 
 dy 
dy  d   cos   2cos 
  
dx  dx  2sin 2  sin 
 
 d 

Question 6:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
x  a(  sin ), y  a(1  cos )

Solution 6:
The given equations are x  a(  sin ) and y  a(1  cos )
dx d d 
Then,  a  ()  (sin )   a(1  cos )
d  d d 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dy d d 
 a  (1)  (cos )   a[0  ( sin )]  a sin 
d  d  d  
 dy    
dy  d   a sin  2sin cos  cos
    2 2 2   cot 
dx  dx  a(1  cos )   2
 d  2sin 2 sin
  2 2

Question 7:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
sin3 t cos3 t
x ,y
co x2t cos2t

Solution 7:
sin 3 t cos3 t
The given equations are x  and y 
cos 2t cos 2t
dx d  sin3 t 

dt dt  cos2t 
Then,

d d
cos2t  (sin3 t )  sin 3 t  cos2t
 dt dt
cos2t
d 1 d
cos2t  3sin 2 t  (sin t )  sin 3 t x  (cos2t )
dt 2 cos2t dt

cos2t
sin 3 t
3 cos 2t  sin 2 t cos t   (2sin 2t )
 2 cos 2t
cos 2t cos 2t
3cos 2t sin t cot t  sin 2 t sin 2t
2

cos 2t cos 2t
dy d  cos3 t 

dt dt  cos2t 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

d
cos2t 
dt
(cos3 t )  cos3 t 
d
dt

cos2t 

cos2t
d 1 d
cos2t 3cos2 t  (cos t )  cos3 t   (cos2t )
dt 2 cos2t dt

cos2t
1
3 cos2t cos2 t ( sin t )  cos3 t.  (2sin 2t )
 cos2 t
cos2t
3cos2t.cos2 t.sin t  cos3 t sin 2t

cos2t  cos2t
 dy 
dy  dt  3cos 2t  cos 2 t  cos3 t sin 2t
  
dx  dx  3cos 2t sin 2 t cos t  sin 3 t sin 2t
 
 dt 
3cos 2t.cos 2 t sin t  cos3 t (2sin t cos t )

3cos 2t sin 2  cos t  sin 3 t (2sin t cos t )
sin t cos t[3cos 2t  cos t  2cos3 t ]

sin t cos t[3cos 2t sin t  2sin 3 t ]
3(2cos2 t  1)cos t  2cos3 t 
 cos2t  (2cos2 t  1) 
  
3(1  2sin t )sin t  2sin t  cos2t  (1  2sin t ) 
2 3 2

4cos3 t  3cos t cos3t  4cos3 t  3cos t 


 
3sin t  4sin3 t sin3t  3sin t  4sin t 
2

 cos3t

sin 3t
  cot 3t

Question 8:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
 t
x  a  cos t  log tan  , y  a sin t
 2

Solution 8:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 t
The given equations are x  a  cos t  log tan  and y  a sin t
 2
dx d d t 
Then,  a   (cos t )   log tan 
dt  dt dt  2 
 
 1 d t 
 a  sin t   tan 
t dt  2 
 tan
 2 
 t t d  t 
 a   sin t  cot  sec2    
 2 2 dt  2  
 t 
 cos 1 1 
 a   sin t  2  
t t 2
 sin cos 2 
 2 2 
 
 1 
 a   sin t 
t t
 2sin cos 
 2 2
 1 
 a   sin t  
 sin t 
  sin 2 t  1 
 a 
 sin t 
cos2 t
a
sin t
dy d
 a (sin t )  a cos t
dt dt
 dy 
dy  dt  a cos t sin t
     tan t
dx  dx   cos t  cos t
2

  a 
 dt   sin t 

Question 9:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
x  a sec, y  b tan 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Solution 9:
The given equations are x  a sec and y  b tan 
dx d
Then,  a  (sec )  a sec  tan 
d d
dy d
 b  (tan )  b sec2 
d d
 dy 
dy  d   b sec2  b b cos  b 1 b
   sec  cot      cosec 
dx  dx  a sec  tan  a a cos  sin  a sin  a
 
 d 

Question 10:
If x and y are connected parametrically by the equation, without eliminating the parameter, find
dy
dx
x  a(cos   sin ), y  a(sin    cos )

Solution 10:
The given equations are x  a(cos   sin ) and y  a(sin    cos )
dx d d   d d 
Then,  a  cos   ( sin )  a  sin    (sin )  sin  () 
d  d d   d d 
 a[ sin    cos   sin ]  a cos 
dx d d    d d 
 a  (sin )  ( cos )   a cos    (cos )  cos   () 
d  d d    d d  
 a[cos    sin   cos ]
 a sin 
 dy 
dy  d   a sin 
    tan 
dx  dx  a sin 
 
 d 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 11:
dy y
If x  asin 1 t , y  acos 1t , show that 
dx x

Solution 11:
The given equations are x  asin 1t and y  acos 1t
x  asin 1t and y  acos 1t

 
1
 x   asin 1t  and y  acos 1t 2

1 1
sin 1t cos 1t
 x  a2 and y  a 2
1
sin 1t
Consider x  a 2
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.
1
log x  sin 1 t log a
2
1 dx 1 d
   log a  (sin 1 t )
x dt 2 dt
dx x 1
  log a 
dt 2 1 t2
dx x log a
 
dt 2 1  t 2

Then, consider
1
cos1 t
ya 2

Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain.


1
log y  cos1 t log a
2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 log a   cos 1 t 
1 dy 1 d
 
y dx 2 dt
dy y log a  1 
   
dt 2  1 t 
2

dy  y log a
 
dt 2 1  t 2

 dy    y log a 
 
dy  dt   2 1  t 2 
 y
   
dx  dx   x log a  x
 dt   
   2 1 t2 
Hence proved.

Exercise 5.7

Question 1:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. x2  3x  2

Solution 1:
Let y  x2  3x  2
Then,
dy d 2 d d
 ( x )  (3x)  (2)  2 x  3  0  2 x  3
dx dx dx dx
2
d y d d d
 2  (2 x  3)  (2 x)  (3)  2  0  2
dx dx dx dx

Question 2:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. x 20

Solution 2:
Let y  x20
Then,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dy d 20
 ( x )  20 x19
dx dx
d2y d d
 2  (20 x19 )  20 ( x19 )  20  19  x18  380 x18
dx dx dx

Question 3:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. x  cos x

Solution 3:
Let y  x  cos x
Then,
dy d d d
  x  cos x   cos x  ( x)  x (cos x)  cos x  1  x( sin x)  cos x  x sin x
dx dx dx dx
2
d y d d d
 2  cos x  sin x   (cos x)  ( x sin x)
dx dx dx dx
 d d 
  sin x  sin x  ( x)  x  (sin x) 
 dx dx 
  sin x  (sin x  cos x)
 ( x cos x  2sin x)

Question 4:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. log x

Solution 4:
Let y  log x
Then,
dy d 1
 (log x) 
dx dx x
d y d  1  1
2
 2    2
dx dx  x  x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 5:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. x3 log x

Solution 5:
Let y  x3 log x
Then,
dy d 3 d d
  x log x   log x  ( x3 )  x3   log x 
dx dx dx dx
1
 log x  3x 2  x3   log x  3x 2  x 2
x
 x (1  3log x)
2

d2y d 2
   x (1  3log x) 
dx 2 dx 
d d
 (1  3log x)  ( x 2 )  x 2 1  3log x 
dx dx
3
 (1  3log x)  2 x  x3 
x
 2 x  6log x  3x
 5 x  6 x log x
 x(5  6log x)

Question 6:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. ex sin5x

Solution 6:
Let y  e x sin5x
dy d x d d
 (e sin 5 x)  sin 5 x (e x )  e x (sin 5 x)
dx dx dx dx
d
 sin 5 x  e x  e x  cos5 x  (5 x)  e x sin 5 x  e x cos5 x  5
dx
 e (sin 5 x  5cos5 x)
x

d2y d
 2  e x (sin 5 x  5cos5 x) 
dx dx
d d
 (sin 5 x  5cos5 x)  (e x )  e x . (sin 5 x  5cos5 x)
dx dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 d d 
 (sin5x  5cos5x)e x  e x cos5x  (5x)  5( sin5 x)  (5 x) 
 dx dx 
 e (sin5x  5cos5x)  e (5cos5 x  25sin5 x)
x x

Then, ex (10cos5x  24sin5x)  2ex (5cos5x 12sin5x)

Question 7:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. e6 x cos3x

Solution 7:
Let y  e6 x cos3x
Then,
dy d 6 x d d
 (e cos3x)  cos3 x  (e6 x )  e6 x  (cos3 x)
dx dx dx dx
d d
 cos3x  e6 x  (6 x)  e6 x  ( sin 3 x)  (3 x)
dx dx
 6e cos3x  3e sin3x ……(1)
6x 6x

d2y d d d
 2  (6e6 x cos3x  3e6 x sin3x)  6  (e6 x cos3x)  3  (e6 x sin3x)
dx dx dx dx
 d d 
 6  6e6 x cos3x  3e6 x sin3x   3  sin3x  (e6 x )  e6 x  (sin3x)  [using (1)]
 dx dx 
 36e cos3x  18e sin 3x  3 sin 3x  e  6  e  cos3x  3
6x 6x 6x 6x

 36e6 x cos3x  18e6 x sin 3x  18e6 x sin 3x  9e6 x cos3x


 27e6 x cos3x  36e6 x sin 3x
 9e6 x (3cos3x  4sin 3x)

Question 8:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. tan 1 x

Solution 8:
Let y  tan 1 x
Then,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dy d 1
 (tan 1 x) 
dx dx 1  x2
d2y d  1  d d 1 2x
 2   2 
 (1  x 2 )1  (1)  (1  x 2 ) 2  (1  x 2 )   2x  
dx  1  x  dx 1  x2  (1  x 2 )2
2
dx dx

Question 9:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. log(log x)

Solution 9:
Let y  log(log x)
Then,
dy d 1 d 1
 [log(log x)]   (log x)   ( x log x) 1
dx dx log x dx log x
d2y d d
 2  ( x log x)1   (1)  ( x log x) 2 ( x log x)
dx dx dx
1  d d 
  log x  ( x)  x  (log x) 
2 
( x log x)  dx dx 
1  1  1(1  log x)
  log x  1x   
( x log x)2  x ( x log x) 2

Question 10:
Find the second order derivatives of the function. sin(log x)

Solution 10:
Let y  sin(log x)
Then,
dy d d cos(log x)
 sin(log x)  cos(log x)  (log x) 
dx dx dx x
d y d  cos(log x) 
2
 2   
dx dx  x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

d d
x [cos(log x)]  cos(log x)  ( x)
 dx dx
2
x
 d 
x   sin(log x)  (log x)   cos(log x)  1
  dx 
2
x
1
 x sin(log x)   cos(log x)
 x
x2
[sin(log x)  cos(log x)]

x2

Question 11:
d2y
If y  5cos x  3sin x, prove that  y0
dx 2

Solution 11:
It is given that, y  5cos x  3sin x
Then,
dy d d d d
 (5cos x)  (3sin x)  5 (cos x)  3 (sin x)
dx dx dx dx dx
 5( sin x)  3cos x  (5sin x  3cos x)
d2y d
 2  [(5sin x  3cos x)]
dx dx
 d d 
  5  (sin x)  3  (cos x) 
 dx dx 
 [5cos x  3( sin x)]
 [5cos x  3sin x]
 y
d2y
 2  y0
dx
Hence, proved.

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 12:
d2y
If y  cos1 x, find in terms of y alone.
dx2

Solution 12:
It is given that, y  cos1 x
Then,
1
dy d 1
 (cos1 x)   (1  x2 ) 2
dx dx 1  x2
d2y d  2 2 
1
  1  x  
dx2 dx  
3
 1 d
     (1  x )  (1  x2 )
2 2

 2 dx
1
  (2 x)
1  x 
2 3

d2y x
 2
 ….(i)
dx (1  x2 )3
y  cos1 x  x  cos y
Putting x  cos y in equation (i), we obtain
d2y  cos y

dx2
1  cos y 
2 3

d2y  cos y
 2 
dx
sin y 
2 3

 cos y
sin 3 y
 cos y 1
  2
sin y sin y
d2y
 2  cot y  cosec2 y
dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 13:
If y  3cos(log x)  4sin(log x), show that x2 y2  xy1  y  0

Solution 13:
It is given that, y  3cos(log x)  4sin(log x) and x2 y2  xy1  y  0
Then,
d d
y1  3 
dx
 cos(log x)  4  sin(log x) 
dx
 d   d 
 3    sin(log x)  (log x)   4  cos(log x)  (log x) 
 dx   dx 
3sin(log x) 4cos(log x) 4cos(log x)  3sin(log x)
 y1   
x x x
d  4cos(log x)  3sin(log x) 
 y2   
dx  x 

x
4cos(log x)  3sin(log x)' 4cos(log x)  3sin(log x)( x)'
x2
 4cos(log x)  3sin(log x) '  4cos(log x)  3sin(log x) 1
x
x2

x
4sin(log x)  (log x)' 3cos(log x)(log x)'  4cos(log x)  3sin(log x)
x2
 1 1
4sin(log x) x  3cos(log x) x   4cos(log x)  3sin(log x)
x
x2
4sin(log x)  3cos(log x)  4cos(log x)  3sin(log x)

x2
 sin(log x)  7cos(log x)

x2
 x 2 y2  xy1  y
  sin(log x)  7cos(log x)   4cos(log x)  3sin(log x) 
 x2    x   3cos(log x)  4sin(log x)
   
2
x x
  sin(log x)  7cos(log x)  4cos(log x)  3sin(log x)  3cos(log x)  4sin(log x)
0
Hence, proved.

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 14:
d2y dy
If y  Aemx  Benx , show that 2
 (m  n)  mny  0
dx dx

Solution 14:
It is given that, y  Aemx  Benx
Then,
dy d d d d
 A  (emx )  B  (enx )  A  emx  (mx)  B  enx  (nx)  Amemx  Bnenx
dx dx dx dx dx

 
2
d y d d d
2
 Amemx  Bnenx  Am  (emx )  Bn  (enx )
dx dx dx dx
d d
 Am  emx  (mx)  bn  enx  (nx)  Am 2emx  Bn 2enx
dx dx
d2y dy
 2  (m  n)  mny
dx dx
 Am e  Bn e  (m  n)  ( Amemx  Bnenx )  mn( Aemx  Benx )
2 mx 2 nx

 Am2exmx  Bn2enx  Am2exmx  Bmnenx  Amnemx  Bn2emx  Amnemx  Bmnenx


0
Hence, Proved.

Question 15:
d2y
If y  500e7 x  600e7 x , show that  49 y
dx 2

Solution 15:
It is given that, y  500e7 x  600e7 x
Then,
dy d d
 500  (e7 x )  600  (e7 x )
dx dx dx
d d
 500  e7 x  (7 x)  600  e7 x  (7 x)
dx dx
7 x
 3500e  4200e
7x

d2y d d
 2
 3500  (e7 x )  4200  (e7 x )
dx dx dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

d d
 3500  e7 x  (7 x)  4200  e7 x  (7 x)
dx dx
7 x
 7  3500  e  7  4200  e
7x

 49  500e7 x  49  600e7 x
 49  500e7 x  600e7 x 
 49 y
Hence, proved.

Question 16:
2
d 2 y  dy 
If e ( x  1)  1, show that
y

dx2  dx 

Solution 16:
The given relationship is e y ( x  1)  1
e y ( x  1)  1
1
 ey 
x 1
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain
1
y  log
( x  1)
Differentiating this relationship with respect to x, we obtain
dy d  1  1 1
 ( x  1)    ( x  1)  
dx dx  ( x  1)  ( x  1) 2
x 1
d2y d  1   1  1
 2      2 

dx dx  x  1   ( x  1)  ( x  1)
2

d 2 y  1 
2

 
dx 2  x  1 
2
d 2 y  dy 
 2  
dx  dx 

Hence, proved.

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 17:
 
2
If y  (tan1 x)2 , show that x2  1 y2  2x( x2  1) y1  2

Solution 17:
The given relationship is y  (tan1 x)2
Then,
d
y1  2 tan 1 x (tan 1 x)
dx
1
 y1  2 tan 1 x 
1  x2
 
 1  x 2 y1  2 tan 1 x

Again differentiating with respect to x on both sides, we obtain


 1 
 
1  x2 y2  2 xy1  2  2 
1 x 
 1  x2  y2  2 x(1  x2 ) y1  2
Hence, proved.

Exercise 5.8

Question 1:
Verify Rolle’s Theorem for the function f ( x)  x2  2x  8, x [4,2]

Solution 1:
The given function, f ( x)  x2  2x  8 , being polynomial function, is continuous in [4,2] and
is differentiable in  4,2 .
f (4)  (4)2  2 x(4)  8  16  8  8  0
f (2)  (2)2  2  2  8  4  4  8  0
 f (4)  f (2)  0
 The value of f ( x) at 4 and 2 coincides.
Rolle’s Theorem states that there is a point c  (4,2) such that f (c)  0

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

f ( x)  x 2  2 x  8
 f ( x)  2 x  2
 f (c)  0
 2c  2  1
 c  1
c  1  (4, 2)

Hence, Rolle’s Theorem is verified for the given function.

Question 2:
Examine if Rolle’s Theorem is applicable to any of the following functions. Can you say some
thing about the converse of Roller’s Theorem from these examples?
i. f ( x)  [ x] for x [5,9]
ii. f ( x)  [ x] for x [2,2]
iii. f ( x)  x2  1 for x [1,2]

Solution 2:
By Rolle’s Theorem, for a function f :[a, b]  R , if
a) f is continuous on [a, b]
b) f is continuous on (a, b)
c) f (a)  f (b)
Then, there exists some c  (a, b) such that f (c)  0
Therefore, Rolle’s Theorem is not applicable to those functions that do not satisfy any of the
three conditions of the hypothesis.
(i) f ( x)  [ x] for x [5,9]
It is evident that the given function f ( x) is not continuous at every integral point.
In particular, f ( x) is not continuous at x = 5 and x = 9
 f ( x) is not continuous in [5, 9].
Also f (5)  [5]  5 and f (9)  [9]  9
 f (5)  f (9)
The differentiability of f in (5, 9) is checked as follows.
Let n be an integer such that n  (5,9)
The left hand limit limit of f at x = n is.
f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] n 1  n
lim  lim  lim  lim0  0
x 0 h x  0 h x  0 h x 0

The right hand limit of f at x = n is,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] nn


lim  lim  lim  lim0  0
h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h h 0

Since the left and right hand limits of f at x = n are not equal, f is not differentiable at x = n
 f is not differentiable in (5, 9).
It is observed that f does not satisfy all the conditions of the hypothesis of Rolle’s Theorem.
Hence, Rolle’s Theorem is not applicable for f ( x)  [ x] for x [5,9] .
(ii) f ( x)  [ x] for x [2,2]
It is evident that the given function f(x) is not continuous at every integral point.
In particular, f(x) is not continuous at x  2 and x  2
 f  ( x) is not continuous in [2,2]
Also, f (2)  [2]  2 and f (2)  [2]  2
 f (2)  f (2)
The differentiability of in (2,2) is checked as follows.
Let n be an integer such that n  (2,2) .
The left hand limit of f at x = n is,
f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] n 1  n 1
lim  lim  lim  lim  
h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h

The right hand limit of f at x = n is,


f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] nn
lim  lim  lim  lim0  0
h 0 h h  0 h h  0 h h 0

Since the left and right hand limits of f at x = n are not equal, f is not differentiable at x = n
 f is not continuous in (2,2) .
It is observed that f does not satisfy all the conditions of the hypothesis of Rolle’s Theorem.
Hence, Roller’s Theorem is not applicable for f ( x)  [ x] for x [2,2]
.
(iii) f ( x)  x  1 for x [1,2]
2

It is evident that f, being a polynomial function, is continuous in [1, 2] and is differentiable in


(1, 2).
f (1)  (1)2  1  0
f (2)  (2)2  1  3
 f (1)  f (2)
It is observed that f does not satisfy a condition of the hypothesis of Roller’s Theorem.
Hence, Roller’s Theorem is not applicable for f ( x)  x2  1 for x [1,2] .

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 3:
If f :[5,5] R is a differentiable function and if f ( x) does not vanish anywhere, then prove
that f (5)  f (5) .

Solution 3:
It is given that f :[5,5] R is a differentiable function.
Since every differentiable function is a continuous function, we obtain
a) f is continuous on [5,5] .
b) f is continuous on (5,5) .
Therefore, by the Mean Value Theorem, there exists c  (5,5) such that
f (5)  f (5)
f (c) 
5  (5)
 10 f (c)  f (5)  f (5)
It is also given that f ( x) does not vanish anywhere.
 f (c)  0
 10 f (c)  0
 f (5)  f (5)  0
 f (5)  f (5)
Hence, proved.

Question 4:
Verify Mean Value Theorem, if f ( x)  x2  4x  3 in the interval [a, b], where a = 1 and b = 4.

Solution 4:
The given function is f ( x)  x2  4x  3
f, being a polynomial function, is a continuous in [1, 4] and is differentiable in (1, 4) whose
derivative is 2x  4
f (1)  12  4  1  3  6, f (4)  42  4  4  3  3
f (b)  f (a) f (4)  f (1) 3  (6) 3
    1
ba 4 1 3 3
Mean Value Theorem states that there is a point c  (1,4) such that f (c)  1
f (c)  1
 2c  4  1
5 5
 c  , where c   (1, 4)
2 2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Hence, Mean Value Theorem is verified for the given function.

Question 5:
Verify Mean Value theorem, if f ( x)  x2  5x2  3x in the interval [a, b], where a = 1 and b =
3. Find all c  (1,3) for which f (c)  0

Solution 5:
The given function f is f ( x)  x2  5x2  3x
f, being a polynomial function, is continuous in [1, 3], and is differentiable in (1, 3)
Whose derivative is 3x2  10x  3
f (1)  12  5 12  3  1  7, f (3)  33  3  3  27
f (b)  f (a) f (3)  f (1) 27  (7)
    10
ba 3 1 3 1
Mean Value Theorem states that there exist a point c  (1,3) such that f (c)  10
f (c)  10
 3c 2  10c  3  10
 3c 2  10c  7  0
 3c 2  3c  7c  7  0
 3c(c  1)  7(c  1)  0
 (c  1)(3c  7)  0
7 7
 c  1, where c   (1,3)
3 3
7
Hence, Mean Value Theorem is verified for the given function and c   (1,3) is the only point
3
for which f (c)  0

Question 6:
Examine the applicability of Mean Value Theorem for all three functions given in the above
exercise 2.

Solution 6:
Mean Value Theorem states that for a function f :[a, b]  R , if

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

a) f is continuous on [a, b]
b) f is continuous on (a, b)
f (b)  f (a)
Then, there exists some c  (a, b) such that f (c) 
ba
Therefore, Mean Value Theorem is not applicable to those functions that do not satisfy any of
the two conditions of the hypothesis.
(i) f ( x)  [ x] for x [5,9]
It is evident that the given function f (x) is not continuous at every integral point.
In particular, f (x) is not continuous at x = 5 and x = 9
is not continuous in [5, 9].
The differentiability of f in (5, 9) is checked as follows,
Let n be an integer such that n  (5,9) .
The left hand limit of f at x = n is.
f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] n 1  n 1
lim  lim  lim  lim 
h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h

The right hand limit of f at x = n is.


f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] nn
lim  lim  lim  lim 0  
h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h h 0

Since the left and right hand limits of f at x = n are not equal, f is not differentiable at x = n
 f is not differentiable in (5, 9).
It is observed that f does not satisfy all the conditions of the hypothesis of Mean Value Theorem.
Hence, Mean Value Theorem is not applicable for f ( x)  [ x] for x [5,9]
(ii) f ( x)  [ x] for x [2,2]
It is evident that the given function f (x) is not continuous at every integral point.
In particular, f (x) is not continuous at x  2 and x  2
 f ( x) is not continuous in [2,2] .
The differentiability of f in (2,2) is checked as follows.
Let n be an integer such that n  (2,2) .
The left hand limit of f at x = n is.
f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] n 1  n 1
lim  lim  lim  lim  
h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h

The right hand limit of f at x = n is.


f (n  h)  f (n) [n  h]  [n] nn
lim  lim  lim  lim 0  
h 0 h h 0 h h 0 h h 0

Since the left and right hand limits of f at x = n are not equal, f is not differentiable at x = n
 f is not differentiable in (2,2) .
It is observed that f does not satisfy all the conditions of the hypothesis of Mean Value Theorem.
Hence, Mean Value Theorem is not applicable for f ( x)  [ x] for x [2,2] .

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

(iii) f ( x)  x2  1 for x [1,2]


It is evident that f, being a polynomial function, is a continuous in [1, 2] and is differentiable in
(1, 2)
It is observed that f satisfies all the conditions of the hypothesis of Mean Value Theorem.
Hence, Mean Value Theorem is applicable for f ( x)  x2  1 for x [1,2]
It can be proved as follows.
f (1)  12  1  0, f (2)  22  1  3
f (b)  f (a) f (2)  f (1) 3  0
   3
ba 2 1 1
f ( x)  2 x
 f (c)  3
 2c  3
3
 c   1.5, where 1.5  [1,2]
2

Miscellaneous Exercise

Question 1:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
3x  9 x  5
2 9

Solution 1:
Let y  (3x2  9x  5)9
Using chain rule, we obtain
dy d
  (3x 2  9 x  5)9
dx dx
d
 9(3x 2  9 x  5)8  (3x 2  9 x  5)
dx
 9(3x  9 x  5)  (6 x  9)
2 8

 9(3x 2  9 x  5)8  3(2 x  3)


 27(3x 2  9 x  5)8 (2 x  3)

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 2:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
sin3 x  cos6 x

Solution 2:
Let y  sin3 x  cos6 x
dy d d
  (sin 3 x)  (cos6 x)
dx dx dx
d d
 3sin 2 x  (sin x)  6cos5 x  (cos x)
dx dx
 3sin x  cos x  6cos x  ( sin x)
2 5

 3sin x cos x(sin x  2cos 4 x)

Question 3:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
(5x)3cos 2 x

Solution 3:
Let y  (5x)3cos 2 x
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain
log y  3cos2x log5x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 dy  d d 
 3 log5 x  (cos 2 x)  cos 2 x  (log5 x) 
y dx  dx dx 
dy  d 1 d 
  3 y log5x( sin 2 x)  (2 x)  cos 2 x   (5 x) 
dx  dx 5 x dx 
dy  cos 2 x 
  3 y  2sin x log5 x 
dx  x 
dy  3cos 2 x 
  3y   6sin 2 x log5 x 
dx  x 
dy  3cos 2 x 
  (5 x)3cos 2 x   6sin 2 x log5 x 
dx  x 

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 4:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
 
sin 1 x x , 0  x  1

Solution 4:
Let y  sin 1 x x  
Using chain rule, we obtain
dy d
 sin 1 x x
dx dx
 

1

d
x x  
 dx

3
1 x x

1d  12 
  x 
1  x3 dx  
1 3 1
   x2
1  x3 2
3 x

2 1  x3
3 x

2 1  x3

Question 5:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
x
cos1
2 , 2  x  2
2  7

Solution 5:
x
cos1
Let y  2
2  7
By quotient rule, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

dy
2x  7
d  1 x   1 x  d
 cos
dx 
   cos
2 

2  dx
 2x  7 

 
2
dx 2x  7
 
 
 1 d  x    1 x  1 d
2x  7 
2 dx  2   
 cos   2x  7
     2  2 2 x  7 dx
 1 x 
   
 2

2x  7
1  x 2
2x  7   cos1 
4 x 
2 2  2 2x  7

2x  7
x
cos1
 2x  7 2
 
4  x x  2x  7
2

2x  7  2x  7 
 x 
 1 cos1 
   2
3 
 4  x 2 x  7 (2 x  7) 2 
2

 

Question 6:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
 (1  sin x)  (1  sin x)  
cot 1   ,0  x 
 (1  sin x)  (1  sin x)  2

Solution 6:
 (1  sin x)  (1  sin x) 
Let y  cot 1   …….(1)
 (1  sin x)  (1  sin x) 
 (1  sin x)  (1  sin x) 
Then,  
 (1  sin x)  (1  sin x) 

 
2
1  sin x  1  sin x

 1  sin x  1  sin x  1  sin x  1  sin x

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

(1  sin x)  (1  sin x)  2 (1  sin x)  (1  sin x)



(1  sin x)  (1  sin x)
2  2 1  sin 2 x

2sin x
1  cos x

sin x
x
2cos 2
 2
x x
2sin cos
2 2
x
 cot
2
Therefore, equation (1) becomes
 x
y  cot 1  cot 
 2
x
y
2
dy 1 d
  ( x)
dx 2 dx
dy 1
 
dx 2

Question 7:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
(log x)log x , x  1

Solution 7:
Let y  (log x)log x
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain
log y  log x  log(log x)
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

1 dy d
 log x  log(log x)
y dx dx
1 dy d d
  log(log x)  (log x)  log x  [log(log x)]
y dx dx dx
dy  1 1 d 
  y log(log x)   log x   (log x) 
dx  x log x dx 
dy 1 1
  y  log(log x)  
dx x x
dy  1 log(log x) 
  (log x)log x   
dx x x

Question 8:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
cos(a cos x  b sin x) , for some constant a and b.

Solution 8:
Let y  cos(a cos x  b sin x)
By Using chain rule, we obtain
dy d
 cos  a cos x  b sin x 
dx dx
dy d
   sin  a cos x  b sin x    a cos x  b sin x 
dx dx
  sin  a cos x  b sin x    a   sin x   b cos x 
  a sin x  b cos x   sin  a cos x  b sin x 

Question 9:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
 3
(sin x  cos x)(sin x cos x) ,  x 
4 4

Solution 9:
Let y  (sin x  cos x)(sin x cos x)
Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

sin x  cos x  
log y  log  sin x  cos x 
 
 log y   sin x  cos x   log sin x  cos x 
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 dy d
 (sin x  cos x)  log(sin x  cos x) 
y dx dx
1 dy d d
  log(sin x  cos x)  (sin x  cos x)  (sin x  cos x)  log(sin x  cos x)
y dx dx dx
1 dy 1 d
  log(sin x  cos x)  (cos x  sin x)  (sin x  cos x)   (sin x  cos x)
y dx (sin x  cos x) dx
dy
  (sin x  cos x)(sin x  cos x ) (cos x  sin x)  log(sin x  cos x)  (cos x  sin x) 
dx
dy
  (sin x  cos x)(sin x  cos x ) (cos x  sin x) 1  log(sin x  cos x) 
dx

Question 10:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
x x  xa  a x  aa , for some fixed a > 0 and x > 0

Solution 10:
Let y  x x  xa  a x  aa
Also, let x x  u , xa  v, a x  w and aa  s
y  u  v  w s
dy du dv dw ds
    …….(1)
dx dx dx dx dx
u  xx
 log u  log x x
 log u  x log x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 du d d
 log x  ( x)  x  (log x)
u dx dx dx
du  1
  u log x  1  x  
dx  x
du
  x x log x  1  x x (1  log x) ….(2)
dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

v  xa
dv d
  ( xa )
dx dx
dv
  axa 1 …..(3)
dx
w  ax
 log w  log a x
 log w  x log a
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 dw d
  log a  ( x)
w dx dx
dw
  w log a
dx
dw
  a x log a ……(4)
dx
s = aa
Since a is constant, aa is also a constant.
ds
 0 …….(5)
dx
From (1), (2), (3), (4), and (5) , we obtain
dy
 x x (1  log x)  axa 1  a x log a  0
dx
 x x 1  log x   axa 1  a x log a

Question 11:
Differentiate the function w.r.t x
3
 ( x  3) x , for x  3
2 2
xx

Solution 11:
3
Let y  x x  ( x  3) x
2 2

3
Also, let u  x x and v  ( x  3) x
2 2

y  u v
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
dv du dv
  …….(1)
dx dx dx
3
u  xx
2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 log u  log x x  2
3

log u   x 2  3 log x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 du
u dx
 log x 
d 2
dx
 d
 
x  3  x 2  3   log x 
dx


1 du
u dx
 log x  2 x  x 2  3 
1
3
 
du x 3
2

  x x 3    2  log x 
2

dx  x 
Also,
v  ( x  3) x
2

 log v  log( x  3) x
2

 log v  x 2 log( x  3)
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 dv
  log( x  3) 
v dx
d 2
dx
d
 
x  x 2  log( x  3) 
dx
1 dv 1 d
   log( x  3)  2 x  x 2    x  3
v dx x  3 dx
dv  x 2

  v  2 x log( x  3)   1
dx  x3 
x2  x 
2
dv
   x  3   2 x log( x  3) 
dx x3 
du dv
Substituting the expressions of and in equation (1), we obtain
dx dx
x2  3  x  3  2 x 
2 2
dy
x   2 x log x   ( x  3) x   2 x log( x  3) 
dx  x  x 3 

Question 12:
dy  
Find , if y  12(1  cos t ), x  10(t  sin t ),  t 
dx 2 2
 
 t 
2 2

Solution 12:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

It is given that y  12(1  cos t ), x  10(t  sin t )


dx d d
  10(t  sin t )  10  (t  sin t )  10(1  cos t )
dt dt dt
dy d d
 [12(1  cos t )]  12  (1  cos t )  12  [0  ( sin t )]  12sin t
dx dx dt
 dy  t t
dy  dt  12sin t 12  2sin  cos
    2 2  6 cot t
dx  dx  10(1  cos t ) 10  2sin 2
t 5 2
 
 dt  2

Question 13:
dy
Find , if y  sin 1 x  sin 1 1  x2 , 1  x  1
dx

Solution 13:
It is given that y  sin 1 x  sin1 1  x2
dy d  1
  sin x  sin 1 1  x 2 
dx dx  


dy d
 (sin 1 x) 
dx dx
d
dx
sin 1 1  x 2 

dy

1

1

d
1  x2  
dx 1 x 2
1 1  x 2 dx  
dy 1 1 1 d
     (1  x 2 )
dx 1 x 2 x 2 1  x dx
2

dy 1 1
   (2 x)
dx 1 x 2
2 x 1  x2
dy 1 1
  
dx 1 x 2
1  x2
dy
 0
dx

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 14:
dy 1
If x 1  y  y 1  x  0, for 1  x  1, prove that 
dx (1  x)2

Solution 14:
It is given that,
x 1 y  y 1 x  0
x 1 y  y 1 x
Squaring both sides, we obtain
x 2 (1  y )  y 2 (1  x)
 x 2  x 2 y  y 2  xy 2
 x 2  y 2  xy 2  x 2 y
 x 2  y 2  xy ( y  x)
 ( x  y )( x  y )  xy ( y  x)
 x  y   xy
 (1  x) y   x
x
y
(1  x)

Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain


x
y
(1  x)
d d
(1  x) ( x)  x (1  x)
dy dx dx (1  x)  x 1
  
dx (1  x) 2
(1  x) 2
(1  x) 2
Hence , proved.

Question 15:
3
  dy 2  2
1    
  dx  
If ( x  a)2  ( y  b)2  c2 , for some c > 0, prove that  is a constant independent of
d2y
dx 2
a and b

Solution 15:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

It is given that, ( x  a)2  ( y  b)2  c2


Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
d d d
( x  a)2   ( y  b) 2   (c 2 )
dx dx dx
d d
 2( x  a)  ( x  a)  2( y  b)  ( y  b)  0
dx dx
dy
 2( x  a)  1  2( y  b)  0
dx
dy ( x  a)
  ......(1)
dx y b
d 2 y d  ( x  a ) 
 
dx 2 dx  y  b 
 d d 
( y  b)  dx ( x  a)  ( x  a)  dx ( y  b) 

( y  b) 2
 dy 
 ( y  b)  ( x  a)  dx 
  
 ( y  b) 2 
 
  ( x  a )  
 ( y  b)  ( x  a )   
  y  b 
 [using (1)]
 ( y  b) 2 
 
 
  y  b 2  ( x  a ) 2 
  
 ( y  b) 2 
3 3 3
  dy 2  2  ( x  a ) 2   2  ( y  b) 2  ( x  a ) 2  2
1      1  2   
  dx     ( y  b)    ( y  b) 2 
  
 d2y   ( y  b) 2  ( x  a ) 2   ( y  b) 2  ( x  a ) 2 
 dx 2       
   ( y  b)3   ( y  b )3 
3
 c 2
 2

 ( y  b) 2  c2
 
c2 ( y  b) 3
 
( y  b)3 c2

( y  b) 3
=-c, which is constant and is independent of a and b

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Hence, proved.

Question 16:
dy cos2 (a  y)
If cos y  x cos(a  y) with cos a  1, prove that 
dx sin a

Solution 16:
It is given that, cos y  x cos(a  y)
d d
   cos y   [ x cos(a  y )]
dx dx
dy d d
  sin y  cos(a  y )  ( x)  x  cos(a  y ) 
dx dx dx
dy dy
  sin y   cos(a  y )  x    sin(a  y )
dx dx
dy
  x sin(a  y)  sin y   cos(a  y) ……..(1)
dx
cos y
Since cos y  x cos(a  y), x 
cos(a  y)
Then, equation (1) reduces to
 cos y  dy
 cos(a  y)  sin(a  y)  sin y  dx  cos(a  y)
 
dy
 cos y.sin  a  y   sin y.cos  a  y  .  cos2  a  y 
dx
dy
 sin(a  y  y )  cos 2 (a  b)
dx
dy cos (a  b)
2
 
dx sin a
Hence, proved.

Question 17:
d2y
If x  a(cos t  t sin t ) and y  a(sin t  t cos t ) , find
dx2

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Solution 17:
It is given that, x  a(cos t  t sin t ) and y  a(sin t  t cos t )
dx d
  a  (cos t  t sin t )
dt dt
 d d 
 a   sin t  sin t  (t )  t  (sin t ) 
 dt dt 
 a   sin t  sin t  t cos t   at cos t
dy d
 a  (sin t  t cos t )
dt dt
  d d 
 a cos t  cos t  (t )  t  (cos t ) 
  dt dt 
 a cos t  cos t  t sin t  at sin t
 dy 
dy  dt  at sin t
    tan t
dx  dx  at cos t
 
 dt 
d 2 y d  dy  d dt
Then,     (tan t )  sec2 t 
dx 2
dx  dx  dx dx
1  dx dt 1 
 sec2 t    at cos t  
at cos t  dt dx at cos t 
sec3 t 
 ,0t 
at 2

Question 18:
If f ( x) | x |3 , show that f ( x) exists for all real x, and find it.

Solution 18:
 x, if x  0
It is known that, | x | 
 x, if x  0
Therefore, when x  0, f ( x) | x |3  x3
In this case, f ( x)  3x2 and hence, f ( x)  6 x
When x  0, f ( x) | x |3  ( x3 )  x3
in this case, f ( x)  3x2 and hence, f ( x)  6 x
Thus, for f ( x) | x |3 , f ( x) exists for all real x and is given by,

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 6 x, if x  0
f ( x)  
6 x, if x  0

Question 19:
d n
Using mathematical induction prove that ( x )  nx x 1 for all positive integers n.
dx

Solution 19:
d n
To prove: P(n) : ( x )  nx x 1 for all positive integers n.
dx
For n = 1,
d
P(1) : ( x)  1  1  x11
dx
 p(n) is true for n  1
Let p(k ) is true for some positive integer k.
d k
That is , p(k ) : ( x )  kxk 1
dx
It is to be proved that p (k + 1) is also true.
Consider
dx
 x   ( x  xk )
d k 1 d
dx
d d
x k  ( x)  x  ( x k )
dx dx
 x  1  x  k  x k 1
k

 x k  kx k
 (k  1)  x k
 (k  1)  x ( k 1) 1
Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Therefore, by the principal of mathematical induction, the statement P(n) is true for every
positive integer n.
Hence, proved.

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

Question 20:
Using the fact that sin( A  B)  sin Acos B  cos Asin B ant the differentiation, obtain the sum
formula for cosines.

Solution 20:
sin( A  B)  sin Acos B  cos Asin B
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
d d d
dx
 sin( A  B)  (sin A cos B)  (cos A sin B)
dx dx
d d d
 cos( A  B)  ( A  B)  cos B  (sin A)  sin A  (cos B)
dx dx dx
d d
 sin B  (cos A)  cos A  (sin B)
dx dx
d d dB
 cos( A  B)  ( A  B)  cos B  cos A  sin A( sin B)
dx dx dx
dA dB
 sin B( sin A)   cos A cos B
dx dx
 dA dB   dA dB 
 cos( A  B)     (cos A cos B  sin Asin B)   
 dx dx   dx dx 
 cos( A  B)  cos A cos B  sin A sin B

Question 21:
Does there exist a function which is continuous everywhere but not differentiable at exactly two
points? Justify your answer.

Solution 21:
Consider f ( x) | x |  | x  1|
Since modulus function is everywhere continuous and sum of two continuous function is also
continuous.
Differentiability of f ( x) : Graph of f ( x) shows that f ( x) is everywhere derivable except
possible at x  0 and x  1

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

At x = 0, Left hand derivative =


f ( x)  f (0) (| x |  | x  1|)  (1) ( x)  ( x  1)  1 2 x
lim  lim  lim  lim  2
x 0 x0 x 0 x x 0 x x 0 x
Right hand derivative =
f ( x)  f (0) (| x |  | x  1|)  (1) ( x)  ( x  1)  1 0
lim  lim  lim  lim  0
x 0 x0 x 0 x x 0 x x 0 x

Since L.H.D  R.H.D f(x) is not derivable at x = 0.

At x = 1
L.H.D :
f ( x)  f (1) (| x |  | x  1|) ( x)  ( x  1)  1 0
lim  lim  lim  lim 0
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x  1

R.H.D :
f ( x)  f (1) (| x |  | x  1| 1) ( x)  ( x  1)  1 2( x  1)
lim  lim  lim  lim 2
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1
Since L.H.D  R.H.D f(x) is not derivable at x = 1.

 f ( x) is continuous everywhere but not derivable at exactly two points.

Question 22:
 f ( x) g ( x) h( x)   f ( x) g( x) h( x) 

If y  l m 
n  , prove that
dy 
 l m n 
 dx
 a b c   a b c 

Solution 22:

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

 f ( x) g ( x) h( x) 
y   l m n 
 a b c 
 y  (mc  nb) f ( x)  (lc  na) g( x)  (lb  ma)h( x)
dy d d d
Then,  (mc  nb) f ( x)  (lc  na) g ( x)  (lb  ma)h( x)
dx dx dx dx
 (mc  nb) f ( x)  (lc  na) g( x  (lb  ma)h( x)
 f ( x) g( x) h( x)
  l m n 
 a b c 
 f ( x) g( x) h( x) 
dy 
Thus,  l m n 
dx
 a b c 

Question 23:
a cos1 x d2y dy
If y  e ,  1  x  1, show that (1  x ) 2  x  a2 y  0
2

dx dx

Solution 23:
1
It is given that, y  ea cos x

Taking logarithm on both sides, we obtain


log y  a cos1 x log e
log y  a cos1 x
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain
1 dy 1
 ax
y dx 1  x2
dy ay
 
dx 1  x2
By squaring both the sides, we obtain

5. Continuity and Differentiability


Class XII - NCERT – Maths Chapter 5
Continuity and Differentiability

2
 dy  a2 y2
 dx   1  x 2
 
2
 dy 
 1  x     a 2 y 2
2

 dx 
2

1  x2   dy 
 a y
dx 
2 2

Again, differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain


d  dy  
2 2
 dy  d
 dx  dx
 
(1  x 2
)  (1  x 2
)      a
dx  dx  
2 d
 
dx
y2

2
 dy  dy d 2 y dy
   (2 x)  (1  x 2 )  2  2  a 2   y 
 dx  dx dx dx
 dy 
2
dy d y
 x  (1  x 2 ) 2  a 2  y   0
dx dx  dx 

 1  x2 
d2y dy
2
 x  a2 y  0
dx dx
Hence, proved.

5. Continuity and Differentiability