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TUGAS

KIMIA TERAPAN
LATIHAN SOAL BUKU NEIL BRADY

DOSEN PENGAJAR
Edwin Azwar, S.T., Pgd, .M.T.A., Phd

Disusun oleh
1. Nico Afriano (1915041017)
2. Dwi Tarisa Mastur (1915041015)
3. Achma Rafi Novrandi (1955041057)
4. Ela Fadila (1955041013)
5. Hidekel Tambunan (1955041007)
6. Audhea Yolandha Kania (1955041001)

KELAS GANJIL
JURUSAN TEKNIK KIMIA
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG 2019
REVIEW QUESTION CHAPTER 4

4.101. Write the equation that expresses in acceptable chemical shothand the following
statement: “Iron can be made to rezct with molecular oxygen to give iron(III) oxide.”

Answers:

4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Fe2O3(s)

4.102. The conversion of one air pollutant, nitrogen monoxide, produced in vehicle engines,
intoanother pollutant, nitrogen dioxide, occurs when nitrogen monoxide reacts with molecular
oxygen in the air. Write the balanced equation for this reaction.

Answers:

2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g)

4.125. Some of the acid in acid rain is produced by the following reaction:
3NO2( g) + H2O(l ) → 2HNO3(aq) + NO( g)
If a falling raindrop weighing 0.050 g comes into contact with 1.0 mg of NO2( g), how many
milligrams of HNO3 can be produced?

Answers:
First calculate the number of moles of water that are needed to react completely with the given
amount of NO2:
1 MOL NO2 1 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝐻2𝑂 18.02𝑔 𝐻2𝑂
g H2O = 0,0010g NO2 ( )( )( )= 1,3×10-4g H20
46.01𝑔 𝑁𝑂2 3 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝑁𝑂2 1 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝐻2𝑂
Since this is less than the amount of water that is supplied, the limiting reactant must be NO2.

Therefore, to calculate the amount of HNO3:

1 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝑁𝑂2 2 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝐻𝑁𝑂3 63,02𝑔 𝐻𝑁𝑂3


g HNO3 = 0.0010g NO2 ( )( )( )= 0,913mg HNO3
46,01𝑔 𝑁𝑂2 3 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝑁𝑂2 1 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝐻𝑁𝑂3

4.126. Phosphorus pentachloride reacts with water to give phosphoric acid and hydrogenchloride
according to the following equation.

PCl5 + 4H2O → H3PO4 + 5HCl

In one experiment, 0.360 mol of PCl5 was slowly added to 2.88 mol of water.

(a) Which reactant, if either, was the limiting reactant?

(b) How many grams of HCl were formed in the reaction?


Answers:

a) First calculate the number of moles of water that are needed to react completely with the
given amount of PCl5:
4 𝑀𝑂𝐿𝐸 𝐻2𝑂
mol H2O = (0.450 mol PCl5) ( ) = 1,80 mol H2O
1 𝑀𝑂𝐿𝐸𝑆 𝑃𝐶𝐿5
Since this is less than the amount of water that is supplied, the limiting reactant must
be PCl5. This can be confirmed by the following calculation:
1 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝑃𝐶5
mol PCl5 = (3.80 mol H2O) ( ) = 0.950 mol PCl5
4 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝐻2𝑂
which also demonstrates that the limiting reactant is PCl5
5 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 36,46𝑔 𝐻𝐶𝑙
b) g HCl = (0.450 mol PCl5) ( )( ) = 82.0 g HCl
1 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝑃𝐶𝑙5 1 𝑀𝑂𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝐿
CHAPTER 5-7

32. Suppose you wanted to prepare 50 mL of 0.2 M Sr(NO3)2 solution. Using the kind

of approximate arithmetic we employed in the Is the Answer Reasonable step in Example

5.12, estimate the number of grams of Sr(NO3)2 required. (Hint: How many moles of

Sr(NO3)2 would be in one liter of the solution?)

Answers:

If we were working with a full liter of this solution, it would contain 0.2 mol of Sr(NO3)2. The
molar mass of the salt is 211.62 g mol–1, so 0.2 mol is slightly more than 40 g. However, we are
working with just 50 mL, so the amount of Sr(NO3)2 needed is slightly more than a twentieth of
40 g, or 2 g. The answer, 2.11g, is close to this, so it makes sense.

1 𝐿 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 0.2 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆𝑟(𝑁𝑂3)2 211,62𝑔 𝑆𝑟(𝑁𝑂3)2


g Sr(NO3)2 = 50 Ml ( ) ( )( )=
1000 𝑚𝐿 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 1 𝐿 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆𝑟(𝑁𝑂3)2
2.11 g Sr(NO3)2

33. How many grams of AgNO3 are needed to prepare 250.0 mL of 0.0125 M AgNO3
solution?

Answers:

1 𝐿 𝑠𝑜𝑙’𝑛 0.0125 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐴𝑔𝑁𝑂3 169.9 𝑔 𝐴𝑔𝑁𝑂3


g AgNO3 = (250 mL sol'n) ( )( )( )=
1000 𝑚𝐿 𝑠𝑜𝑙’𝑛 1 𝐿 𝑠𝑜𝑙’𝑛 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐴𝑔𝑁𝑂3
0.531 g AgNO3

CHAPTER 11-13
1. A 9.46 g sample of neon at 25.0 °C and a pressure of 748 torr is kept at 25.0 °C as it is
allowed to expand to a final volume of 25.4 L. What is the final pressure?
Answers:

PV = nRT
P = ? torr
V = 25.4 L
n = mass / molar mass = 9.46 g / 20.18 g/mol = 0.46878 mol
R = gas constant = 62.36367 torr L mol^-1 K^-1
T = 25.0 deg C = 298.15 K
P = nRT / V
= 0.46878 mol x 62.36367 torrLmol^-1K^-1 x 298.15 K / 25.4 L
= 343 torr

2. An 8.95 L sample of nitrogen at 25.0 °C and 1.00 atm is compressed to a volume of


0.895 L and a pressure of 5.56 atm. What must its final temperature be?
Answers:

3. What is the chemical symbol of a gaseous element if 6.45 g of it occupies 1.92 L at 745
torr and 25.0 °C?
Answers:

4. What is the molar mass of a gaseous element if at room temperature it effuses through a
pinhole 2.16 times as rapidly as xenon? Which element is it?
Answers:

𝑅𝐼 𝑀2 1 𝑀2
=√ ( ) = (√ ) M2 = 28,14g/mol
𝑅2 𝑀1 2,16 131,29𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

5. If a gas in a cylinder pushes back a piston against a constant opposing pressure of 3.0 ×
105 pascals and undergoes a volume change of 0.50 m3, how much work will the gas do,
expressed in joules?
Answers:

6. A sample of oxygen-enriched air with a volume of 12.5 L at 25.0 °C and 1.00 atm
consists of 45.0% (v/v) oxygen and 55.0% (v/v) nitrogen. What are the partial pressures
of oxygen and nitrogen (in torr) in this sample after it has been warmed to a temperature
of 37.0 °C and its volume is changed to 10.7 L?
Answers:

7. How many milliliters of dry CO2, measured at STP, could be evolved in the reaction
between 20.0 mL of 0.100 M NaHCO3 and 30.0 mL of 0.0800 M HCl?
Answers:
8. How many milliliters of Cl2 gas, measured at 25 °C and 740 torr, are needed to react with
10.0 mL of 0.10 M NaI if the I- is oxidized to IO3- and Cl2 is reduced to Cl-?
Answers:

9. Potassium hypobromite converts ammonia to nitrogen by a reaction in which


hypobromite ion is reduced to bromide ion. To prepare 475 mL of dry N2, when
measured at 24.0 °C and 738 torr, what is the minimum number of grams of potassium
hypobromite required?
Answers:

10. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is decomposed by potassium permanganate according to the


following reaction.
5H2O2 + 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 → 5O2 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
What is the minimum number of milliliters of 0.125 M KMnO4 required to prepare 375
mL of dry O2.
Answers:

11. A sample of 248 mL of wet nitrogen gas was collected over water at a total gas pressure
of 736 torr and a temperature of 21.0 °C. (The vapor pressure of water at 21.0 °C is 18.7
torr.) The nitrogen was produced by the reaction of sulfamic acid, HNH2SO3, with 425
mL of a solution of sodium nitrite according to the following equation.
NaNO2 + HNH2SO3 → N2 + NaHSO4 + H2O
Calculate what must have been the molar concentration of the sodium nitrite.

Answers:

12. One way to make chlorine gas is to let manganese(IV) oxide react with hydrochloric acid
in which the manganese is reduced to Mn2+. What is the minimum volume (in mL) of
6.44 M HCl needed to prepare 525 mL of dry chlorine when the gas is obtained at 24.0
°C and 742 torr?
Answers:

13. Hexanitroethane, C2(NO2)6, decomposes explosively if heated above 140 °C. It is


estimated that DH °f for C2(NO2)6(s) is +96 kJ mol-1. (a) Calculate DH ° for the
decomposition of C2(NO2)6 according to the equation
C2(NO2)6(s) → 2NO2( g) + 4NO( g) + 2CO2( g)

(b) Suppose 1.26 g of C2(NO2)6(s) is placed in a 200.0 cm3 vessel where it is detonated.
The heat capacities, Cv, at 25 °C for the gases formed are as follows: CO2, 28.5 J mol-1
K-1; NO, 21.5 J mol-1 K-1; NO2, 29.5 J mol-1 K-1. Assuming the heat capacities don’t
change and all the heat liberated in the reaction remains in the container, what will be the
pressure of the mixture of gases after detonation?
Answers:

14. Consider the molecule POCl3, in which phosphorus is the central atom and is bonded to
an oxygen atom and three chlorine atoms.
(a) Draw the Lewis structure of POCl3 and predict its geometry.
(b) Is the molecule polar or nonpolar? Explain.
(c) What kinds of attractive forces would be present between POCl3 molecules in the
liquid?
Answers:
REVIEW QUESTION CHAPTER 3

3.119 .Explore the Internet and find a reliable source of physical properties of elements and
compounds. Justify how you decided the site was reliable.

ANSWER:

it can be one of the site that can be relieable.Because That the site was created not by just
anyone. and the site is not blogspot or the like. The contents of the site are also quite
accurate, so we believe that this site can be one of the sources in the physical properties
of elements and compounds.

3.120. Spreadsheet applications such as Microsoft Excel can display data in a variety of ways,
some of which are shown throughout this book. What method of displaying periodic
trends (for example, line graphs, tables, bar graphs, 3-D views, etc.) is most effective for
your learning style? Explain your answer by stating why your chosen display is better
than the others.

ANSWER:

In displaying data, we prefer in the form of Tables. why? because delivering data in
tabular form is easier to understand and does not take up too much space if we want to
write the data in our records(notebook)

4.99 A balanced chemical equation contains the term “2Ba(OH)2 ⋅ 8H2O.” How many atoms of
each element does this represent in the molecular view? How many moles of each element
does this represent on the laboratory scale?

ANSWER

2 Ba(OH)2•8H2O contains:

(a) 2 atoms of Ba, 20 atoms of O, and 36 atoms of H

(b) 2 moles of Ba, 20 moles of O, and 36 moles of H

4.100 A balanced chemical equation contains the term “3Ca3(PO4)2.” How many atoms of each
element does this represent in the molecular view? How many moles of each element
does this represent on the laboratory scale?

ANSWER

3Ca3(PO4)2 contains: 9 atoms of Ca, 6 atoms of P, and 24 atoms of O.

There are 9 moles of Ca, 6 moles of P, and 24 moles of O present.


CHAPTER 5- 7

16. Berapa gram CO2 yang harus dilarutkan dalam 300 mL larutan Na2CO3 0,100 M untuk
mengubah zat terlarut sepenuhnya menjadi NaHCO3?

17. Salah satu cara untuk mempersiapkan yodium adalah dengan bereaksi natrium iodat, NaIO3,
dengan asam hidroodik, HI. Reaksi berikut terjadi. NaIO3 + 6HI → 3I2 + NaI + 3H2O
Hitung jumlah mol dan jumlah gram yodium yang dapat dibuat dengan cara ini dari 16,4 g
NaIO3.

18. Pembakaran metana (komponen utama gas alam) mengikuti persamaan CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g)
→ CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g) DH ° untuk reaksi ini adalah -802,3 kJ. Berapa gram metana yang
harus dibakar untuk menyediakan panas yang cukup untuk menaikkan suhu 250 mL air dari
25,0 ° C menjadi 50,0 ° C?

19. Pembersih toilet tertentu menggunakan NaHSO4 sebagai bahan aktifnya. Dalam analisis,
0,500 g pembersih dilarutkan dalam 30,0 mL air suling dan diperlukan 24,60 mL NaOH
0,105 M untuk netralisasi lengkap dalam titrasi. Persamaan ion bersih untuk reaksi adalah
HSO4- + OH- → H2O + SO42 Berapa persentase berat NaHSO4 dalam pembersih

20. Ketika 0,6484 g cetyl palmitate, C32H64O2 (lilin buah), dibakar dalam kalorimeter bom
dengan kapasitas panas 11,99 kJ / ° C, suhu kalorimeter naik dari 24,518 ° C ke 26,746 ° C.
Hitung panas molar pembakaran setil palmitat dalam kJ / mol.

21. Padatan putih dikenal sebagai bentuk anhidrat dari natrium karbonat atau natrium bikarbonat.
Keduanya bereaksi dengan asam klorida untuk menghasilkan natrium klorida, air, dan
karbon dioksida, tetapi proporsi mol tidak sama.

(a) Tulis persamaan yang seimbang untuk setiap reaksi.

(b) Ditemukan bahwa 0,5128 g padatan bereaksi dengan 47,80 mL 0,2024 M HCl, dan
bahwa penambahan lebih banyak asam menyebabkan pembentukan tidak ada lagi
karbon dioksida. Lakukan perhitungan yang menetapkan identitas benda padat yang
tidak diketahui.

22. Putrescine, zat berbau busuk yang dihasilkan oleh daging yang membusuk, memiliki struktur
kimia yang ditunjukkan di bawah ini. Berapa mililiter 0,166 M HCl yang diperlukan untuk
bereaksi sepenuhnya dengan 1,07 g senyawa ini?
23. Sampel 10,1 g amonium nitrat dilarutkan dalam 125 g air dalam kalorimeter cangkir kopi.
Suhu berubah dari 24,5 ° C menjadi 18,8 ° C. Hitung panas larutan ammonium nitrat dalam
kJ / mol. Asumsikan bahwa pertukaran energi hanya melibatkan larutan dan panas spesifik
larutan adalah 4,18 J / g ° C.

24. Tong kalorimeter di mana motor pengaduk, termometer, dan "bom" direndam menyerap
panas yang dilepaskan oleh pembakaran 0,514 g asam benzoat. Persamaan termokimia
untuk pembakarannya adalah sebagai berikut. 2C7H6O2 (s) + 15O2 (g) → 14CO2 (g) +
6H2O (l) DH ° = -7048 kJ Suhu kalorimeter naik dari 24.112 ° C ke 24.866 ° C. Berapa
kapasitas kalorimeter ini dalam kJ / ° C?

25. Untuk persamaan tidak seimbang berikut, tuliskan reaktan dan produk dalam bentuk yang
seharusnya muncul dalam persamaan ionik. Kemudian tulis persamaan ionik bersih
seimbang dengan menerapkan metode ion-elektron.

(a) K2Cr2O7 + HCl → KCl + Cl2 + H2O + CrCl3

(b) KOH + SO2 + KMnO4 → K2SO4 + MnO2 + H2O

26. Panas standar pembakaran eicosane, C20H42 (s), komponen khas dari lilin, adalah 1,332 ×
104 kJ / mol ketika terbakar dalam oksigen murni dan produk didinginkan hingga 25 ° C.
Satu-satunya produk adalah CO2 (g) dan H2O (l). Hitung nilai panas standar pembentukan
eikosana (dalam kJ / mol) dan tulis persamaan termokimia yang sesuai.

27. Hitung standar panas pembentukan kalsium karbida, CaC2 (s), dalam kJ / mol menggunakan
termokimia beriku0074z persamaan.

Ca (s) + 2H2O (l) → Ca (OH) 2 (s) + H2 (g) DH ° = -414,79 kJ

2C (s) + O2 (g) → 2CO (g) DH ° = -221,0 kJ CaO (s) + H2O (l) → Ca (OH) 2 (s) DH °
= -65,19 kJ 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l)

DH ° = -571,8 kJ CaO (s) + 3C (s) → CaC2 (s) + CO (g) DH ° = +462,3 kJ


28. Selesaikan dan seimbangkan persamaan berikut jika terjadi reaksi.

(a) Sn (s) + HCl (aq) →

(b) Cu (s) + HNO3 (conc.) →

(c) Zn (s) + Cu2 + (aq) →

(d) Ag (s) + Cu2 + (aq) →

29. Campuran Bordeaux secara tradisional dibuat dengan mencampurkan tembaga (II) sulfat dan
kalsium hidroksida dalam air. Suspensi yang dihasilkan dari tembaga (II) hidroksida
disemprotkan pada pohon dan semak untuk melawan penyakit jamur. Fungisida ini juga
tersedia dalam persiapan komersial. Dalam analisis satu produk tersebut, sampel dengan
berat 0,238 g dilarutkan dalam asam klorida. Kelebihan larutan KI kemudian ditambahkan,
membentuk CuI dan I2, dan yodium yang terbentuk dititrasi dengan larutan Na2S2O3
0,01669 M menggunakan pati sebagai indikator yang menghasilkan produk I- dan SO42-.
Titrasi tersebut membutuhkan 28,62 mL larutan tiosulfat. Berapa persentase berat tembaga
dalam sampel campuran Bordeaux?

30. Misalkan 237 mL 0,556 M HCl ditambahkan ke 622 mL 1,05 M HCl. Berapa molaritas HCl
dalam campuran akhir?

31. Densitas larutan asam fosfat pekat adalah 1,689 g larutan / mL larutan pada 20 ° C. Ini
mengandung 144 g asam fosfat per 1,00 × 102 mL larutan.

(a) Hitung konsentrasi molar asam fosfat dalam larutan ini.

(B) Hitung jumlah gram larutan ini yang diperlukan untuk mengandung 50,0 g asam fosfat.
REVIEW QUESTION CHAPTER 3

3.28 Tren apa — perubahan reguler dalam fisik atau kimia properti — dalam tabel periodik
telah disebutkan dalam Bab ini?

Jawab:

kelenturan, warna, dan kerapuhan adalah beberapa tren yang disebutkan dalam
halperpindahan dari logam ke nonlogam melintasi tabel periodik, atau memindahkan
grup dari nonlogam ke logam.

3.29 Temukan tabel periodik di Internet yang berisi daftar fisik properti elemen. Dapatkah
Anda membedakan tren di tabel periodik berdasarkan pada (a) titik lebur, (b) titik didih,
atau (c) kepadatan?

Jawaban:

a) Secara umum, titik lebur menurun dari kiri ke kanan melintasi tabel periodik dan
meningkat dari atas ke bawah.

B) Secara umum, titik didih menurun dari kiri ke kanan melintasi tabel periodik dan
meningkat dari atas ke bawah.

C) Secara umum, kepadatan memiliki maksimum di tengah tabel periodik dan jatuh ke
kanan dan kiri.

3.117 Bayangkan sebuah dunia di mana, untuk beberapa alasan, hidrogen dan helium belum
ditemukan. Apakah Mendeleev punya cukup informasi untuk memprediksi keberadaan
mereka?

Jawab:

3.118 Sekitar tahun 1750 Benjamin Franklin mengetahui dua hal yang berlawanan jenis muatan
listrik, diproduksi dengan menggosok batang gelas atau batang kuning dengan bulu.
Dia memutuskan bahwa tuduhan itu berkembang pada batang kaca harus menjadi
muatan "positif", dan dari ada biaya didefinisikan. Apa yang akan berubah? jika
Franklin memutuskan batang ambar adalah positif biaya?
CHAPTER 1-4

33. Prinsip apa yang membentuk dasar untuk pengaturan elemen dalam tabel periodik? Jika
tabel periodik disusun dalam bentuk spiral, elemen apa yang ada di kanan helium, neon,
argon, kripton, dan radon, masing-masing?

Jawab:

CHAPTER 5-7

1. Berapa banyak molekul (CH3) 2NH yang dibutuhkan untuk bereaksi sepenuhnya dengan 2,00
mg H2C2O4?

Jawab:

2. Tulis persamaan kimia yang menunjukkan reaksi format asam, HCHO2, dengan air.

Jawab:

3. Tulis persamaan molekuler, ionik, dan netik untuk reaksi tersebut yang terjadi ketika
larutan asam format ditambahkan ke dalam larutan metilamin, CH3NH2. Jelaskan apa
yang terjadi konduktivitas listrik dari larutan selama penambahan.

Jawaban:

Metilamina dibuat secara komersial melalui reaksi amonia dengan metanol dengan
adanya katalis aluminosilikat. Dimetilamina dan trimetilamina diproduksi bersama;
kinetika reaksi dan rasio reaktan menentukan rasio dari ketiga produk tersebut. Produk
yang paling disukai oleh kinetika reaksi adalah trimetilamina

CH3OH + NH3 → CH3NH2 + H2O

Kuantitas ion terlarut ditentukan dengan berbagai macam analisa,salah satunya adalah
dengan mengukur daya hantar listrik larutan.Semakin besar hantaran listriknya, berarti
ion yang terlarut makin banyak.
4. Methylamine, CH3NH2, adalah basa lemah. Tulis bahan kimia persamaan menunjukkan
reaksinya dengan air.

Jawab:

5. Tulis persamaan molekul, ion, dan net untuk reaksi itu terjadi ketika larutan yang
mengandung asam klorida adalah ditambahkan ke larutan basa lemah, metilamin
(CH3NH2).

Jawab:

HCl04(aq) + NaCHO2(aq) = HClO(aq) + NaClO2(aq)

= NaCl2HO6(aq)

6. Tuliskan persamaan molekul, ion, dan ion bersih untuk setiap reaksi yang akan terjadi di
antara pasangan komunikasi berikut pound. Jika tidak ada reaksi, tulis "N.R."

(a) CuCl2 (aq) dan (NH4) 2CO3 (aq)

(b) HCl (aq) dan MgCO3 (s)

(c) ZnCl2 (aq) dan AgC2H3O2 (aq)

(d) HClO4 (aq) dan NaCHO2 (aq)

(e) MnO (s) dan H2SO4 (aq)

(f) FeS (s) dan HCl (aq)

Jawab:

7. Tulis persamaan kimia untuk netralisasi lengkap asam fosfat oleh natrium hidroksida.

Jawab:

8. Oksida-oksida berikut mana yang bersifat asam dan mana yang basa: P4O6, Na2O, SeO3,
CaO, PbO, SO2?

Jawab:

-P406,Na20,Ca0,Se03 :bersifat basah


-Pb0,s02: bersifat asam

9. Tuliskan formula dan nama semua garam yang mungkin dibentuk oleh reaksi asam berikut
dengan kalium hidroksida: (a) H2SO3, (b) asam nitrat, (c) HBrO2, (d) fosfat asam phoric, (e)
asam karbonat.

Jawab:

10. Sampel 84,3 mg asam diprotik yang hanya terdiri dari karbon, hidrogen, dan oksigen
dilarutkan dalam air dan dititrasi dengan 52,7 mM (milimolar) NaOH. Titrasi diperlukan 21,31
mL untuk menetralkan asam sepenuhnya. SEBUAH bagian terpisah dari asam dengan berat
725,0 mg dibakar dalam oksigen murni menghasilkan 850,4 mg CO2 dan 261,1 mg H2O. Apa
rumus molekul asam?

Jawab:

Mol asam diprotik :

84,39 g: 52,7M= 1,60132827 mol

Mol NaOH yang dibutuhkan :

CO3 + H2O = CH2O2

Perbandingan mol = 1 : 2

1,60132827 Asam mol x 2 = 3,20265654 M


Molaritas larutan NaOH :

(3,20265654 mol) ( 21,31 ml) = 68,2486109 mol NaOH

maka konsentrasi asam diprotik tersebut adalah 0,0466 M

11. Harus berapa mililiter barium klorida 0,200 M ditambahkan ke 27,0 mL 0,600 M natrium
sulfat untuk memberikan lakukan reaksi antara zat terlarut mereka?

Jawab:

12. Untuk menetralkan asam dalam 10,0 mL dari 18,0 M H2SO4 itu secara tidak sengaja
tumpah di atas bangku laboratorium, natrium padat bikarbonat digunakan. Wadah natrium
bikarbon- makan diketahui memiliki berat 155,0 g sebelum penggunaan ini, dan dari rasa ingin
tahu massanya diukur 144,5 g sesudahnya. Apakah cukup natrium bikarbonat yang digunakan?
Tentukan batasannya reaktan dan menghitung hasil maksimum dalam gram natrium sulfat.

Jawab:

13. Berapa massa magnesium hidroksida akan terbentuk saat 30,0 mL larutan 0,200 M
magnesium klorida dicampur dengan 25,0 mL larutan 0,420 M natrium hidroksida? Apa

akan menjadi konsentrasi molar dari ion yang tersisa di larutan?

Jawab:

14. Methanethiol, CH3SH, adalah gas berbau busuk yang diproduksi di saluran usus oleh
bakteri yang bekerja pada albumin tanpa kehadiran udara. Jika 4,28 g CH3SH dibakar dalam
persediaan yang berlimpah oksigen, apa yang akan menjadi total massa produk reaksi?

Jawab:
15. Berapa gram HNO3 6,00 M dengan kepadatan 1,19 g cm-3 harus ditambahkan ke 200 mL
air untuk diberikan 0,150 M HNO3?

Jawab:
REVIEW QUESTION CHAPTER 3

3.24 Which physical property of metalloids distinguishes them

from metals and nonmetals?

They are semiconductors.

3.25 Sketch the shape of the periodic table and mark off

those areas where we find

(a) metals, (b) nonmetals, and (c) metalloids.

3.26 Most periodic tables have a heavy line that looks like a

staircase starting from boron down to polonium. What information

does this line convey?

Answer :

The heavy line separates the metals from the nonmetals, and the metalloids border the line.

3.27 Which metals can you think of that are commonly used to

make jewelry? Why isn’t iron used to make jewelry? Why

isn’t potassium used?

Answer :
Metals which are used to make jewelry are those that do not corrode, silver, gold, and platinum.
Iron would be useless for jewelry because it is susceptible to rusting. Potassium reacts violently
with water to form hydrogen and potassium hydroxide.

CHAPTER 1-4

17. Which of the following are binary substances: Al2O3, Cl2, MgO,

NO2, NaClO4? Which are molecular and which are ionic?

Answer:

 Binary: NaClO4
 Mocleculer : Al2O3
 Ionic : No2

18. If 2.56 g of chlorine, Cl2, will be used to prepare dichlorine

heptaoxide, how many moles and how many grams of molecular

oxygen are needed?

Answer :

2,56 g chlorine (Cl2)

mol Cl2 = massa/ Ar

= 2,56 gram / 2(35,5) g/mol

= 0,0360 mol

Jumlah atom = n × 6,02 × 10²³

= 0,0360 mol × 6,02 × 10²³

= 0,216 × 10²³ atom

19. How many grams of O2 are consumed in the complete combustion

of 25.0 mL of ethylene glycol, C2H4(OH)2, which

has a density of 1.11 g mL-1? The products of the combustion

are CO2 and H2O. How many molecules of CO2 are


formed in the reaction?

Answer :

20. A sample of 0.5866 g of nicotine was analyzed and found to

consist of 0.4343 g C, 0.05103 g H, and 0.1013 g N. Calculate

the percentage composition of nicotine.

Amswer :

21. A compound of potassium had the following percentage composition:

K, 37.56%; H, 1.940%; P, 29.79%. The rest was

oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula of this compound

(arranging the atomic symbols in the order K H P O.)

Answer :

Hitung jumlah %O dengan cara :

%K + %P+ %H + %O = % total

37,56% + 29,79% + 1,940% + %O = 100

69,29% + %O = 100

%O = 100 – 69,29

%O = 30,71

Hitung Rumus empiris dengan cara :

mol C = massa C/ Ar K

= 37,56 / 39

= 0,96 mol
mol N = massa N / Ar P

= 29,79 / 31

= 0,96mol

mol H = massa H/ Ar H

= 1,940/ 1

= 1,940 mol

mol O = massa O/ Ar O

= 30,71/ 16

= 1,91 mol

Rumus empiris = mol K : mol P : mol H : mol O

= 0,96 : 0,96 : 1,940 : 1,91 × 100

= 096: 096 : 1940 : 191 ÷ 119

= 0: 0 : 1 : 1

Rumus empiris = KHP101

22. How many milliliters of pure nitric acid, HNO3, are needed

to react with 2.56 mol of Cu in the following reaction? The

density of nitric acid is 1.51 g cm-3.

3Cu + 8HNO3 ?? 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

Answer :
3Cu + 8HNO3 ==> 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O
Find moles of HNO3 needed to react with 9.35 g of Cu:
9.35 g Cu x 1 mol Cu/63.5 g x 8 mol HNO3/3 mol Cu = 0.393 moles HNO3 required
If this were 100% pure, calculate mass needed:
0.393 mol HNO3 x 63.01 g/mol = 24.7 g HNO3 if were 100% pure
Since it is only 27.0% (0.270) pure, the mass = 24.7 g /0.270 = 91.5 g
Now using density, find the volume:
91.5 g x 1 ml/1.19 g = 76.9 ml

23. Under the right conditions, ammonia can be converted to

nitrogen monoxide, NO, according to the following unbalanced

equation.

NH3 + O2 ?? NO + H2O

How many moles and how many grams of O2 are needed to

react with 56.8 g of ammonia by this reaction?

Answer :

24. Dolomite is a mineral consisting of calcium carbonate and

magnesium carbonate. When dolomite is strongly heated, its

carbonates decompose to their oxides (CaO and MgO) and

carbon dioxide is expelled.

(a) Write the separate equations for the decomposition of

calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.

(b) When a dolomite sample with a mass of 5.78 g was heated

strongly, the residue had a mass of 3.02 g. Calculate the

masses in grams and the percentages of calcium carbonate


and magnesium carbonate in this sample of dolomite.

Answer :

25. Adipic acid, C6H10O4, is a raw material for making nylon,

and it can be prepared in the laboratory by the following

reaction between cyclohexene, C6H10, and sodium dichromate,

Na2Cr2O7, in sulfuric acid, H2SO4.

3C6H10(l ) + 4Na2Cr2O7(aq) + 16H2SO4(aq) ??

3C6H10O4(s) + 4Cr2(SO4)3(aq) + 4Na2SO4(aq) + 16H2O

There are side reactions. These plus losses of product during

its purification reduce the overall yield. A typical yield of

purified adipic acid is 68.6%.

(a) To prepare 12.5 g of adipic acid in 68.6% yield requires

how many grams of cyclohexene?

(b) The only available supply of sodium dichromate is its dihydrate,

Na2Cr2O7 · 2H2O. (Since the reaction occurs in

an aqueous medium, the water in the dihydrate causes no

problems, but it does contribute to the mass of what is

taken of this reactant.) How many grams of this dihydrate

are also required in the preparation of 12.5 g of adipic acid

in a yield of 68.6%?

Answer :
26. One of the ores of iron is hematite, Fe2O3, mixed with other

rock. One sample of this ore is 31.4% hematite. How many tons

of this ore are needed to make 1.00 ton of iron if the percentage

recovery of iron from the ore is 91.5% (1 ton = 2000 lb)?

Answer :

27. Gold occurs in the ocean in a range of concentration of 0.1 to

2 mg of gold per ton of seawater. Near one coastal city the

gold concentration of the ocean is 1.5 mg/ton.

(a) How many tons of seawater have to be processed to obtain

1.0 troy ounce of gold if the recovery is 65% successful?

(The troy ounce, 31.1 g, is the standard “ounce” in the

gold trade.)

(b) If gold can be sold for $1152.84 per troy ounce, what is the

breakeven point in the dollar cost per ton of processed seawater

for extracting gold from the ocean at this location?

28. C.I. Pigment Yellow 45 (“sideran yellow”) is a pigment used

in ceramics, glass, and enamel. When analyzed, a 2.164 g

sample of this substance was found to contain 0.5259 g of Fe

and 0.7345 g of Cr. The remainder was oxygen. Calculate the


empirical formula of this pigment. What additional data are

needed to calculate the molecular mass of this compound?

Answer:

29. When 6.584 mg of one of the hydrates of sodium sulfate

was heated so as to drive off all of its water of hydration, the

residue of anhydrous sodium sulfate had a mass of 2.889 mg.

What is the formula of the hydrate?

Answer:

30. In an earlier problem we described the reaction of ammonia

with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide, NO:

NH3 + O2 ?? NO + H2O (unbalanced)

How many moles and how many grams of NO could be

formed from a mixture of 45.0 g of NH3 and 58.0 g of O2?

How many grams of which reactant would remain unreacted?

Answer:

31. A sample of 14.0 cm3 of aluminum, in powdered form, was

mixed with an excess of iron(III) oxide. A reaction between them

was initiated that formed aluminum oxide and metallic iron.

How many cubic centimeters of metallic iron were formed?

Answer :
32. Give the balanced equation for the reaction shown below. Is

there a limiting reactant? How many molecules of the excess

reactant are left?

Answer :
REVIEW QUESTION CHAPTER 3

3.20 Sebutkan lima sifat fisik yang biasanya kita amati logam?

Answer :

Sifat fisik logam diantaranya titik leleh dan titik didih tinggi, dayantar listrik dan panas yang baik,
dapat ditempa, dibengkokan, dan ditarik, serta mengkilap.

3.21 Mengapa merkuri digunakan dalam termometer? Mengapa tungsten digunakan dalam bola lampu?

Answer :

Merkuri digunakan dalam termometer karena merupakan cairan, dan tungsten digunakan dalam
bola lampu karena memiliki titik leleh yang tinggi.

3.22 Yang bukan logam yang muncul sebagai gas monoatomik (yaitu, gaspartikel siapa yang terdiri dari
atom tunggal)?

Answer:

Gas mulia: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, dan Rn

3.23 Dua elemen mana yang ada sebagai cairan pada suhu kamar dan tekanan?

Answer:

Merkuri dan bromin

CHAPTER 1-4

1. Blok seng persegi panjang ditemukan memiliki lebar 24,6 cm,Tinggi 0,35140 m, dan dalam 7.424 mm.

(a) Berapa banyak angka signifikan dalam setiap pengukuran?

24,6 memiliki 3 angka penting, 0,32540 memiliki 5 angka penting sedangkan 7.424 memiliki 4
angka penting

(B) Hitung volume blok dalam satuan cm. Pastikan untuk mengungkapkan jawaban Anda ke jumlah
angka penting yang benar.

0,35140 m= 3,5140 cm

7.424mm = 0,7424 cm
Volume balok = 3,5140 cm x0,7424 cm x 24,6 cm = 64,1763,2256 cm 3

karna angka penting yang paling sedikit 1 angka dibelakang koma maka volume balok ditulis 64,2 cm3

(c) Hitung volume blok seng dalam kaki kubik.

1 cm3= 3,531 x 10-5 f3 maka volume balok = 0,0023 f3

(D) Seng memiliki kepadatan 7,140 g / cm3. Berapa massa balok dalam kilogram?
𝑚
ρ=
𝑣

𝑚
7,140 g / cm3 =
64,2

m = 64, x 7, 140

= 458.388 g

=0,458388 kg

(e) Berapa mol seng yang terkandung di dalam blok?


𝑔𝑟
n=
𝐴𝑟

0,458388
n= 65,39

n = 0,07

(f) Jika semua seng dikonversi menjadi seng fosfat, berapa gram senyawa ini yang akan diperoleh?
𝑔𝑟
n = 𝑚𝑟

𝑔𝑟
0,07 =
386,17

gr= 27.0319

2. Apa perbedaan antara atom dan molekul? Apa perbedaan antara molekul dan mol? Jika Anda
membentuk faktor konversi, hubungan apa yang ada antara molekul dan mol?

Answer:

Partikel kecil dari unsur kimia, yang mungkin atau mungkin tidak ada secara independen disebut
atom.molekul adalah gabungan dari atom kalau mol satuan untuk menghitung jumlah molekul
atau atom pervolume suatu zat.

4. What isthepercentagecompositionbymassofthesubstanceshownbelow? Howmanymolecules are in


12.0 g ofthissubstance?
Berapa persentase komposisi berdasarkan massa zat yang ditunjukkan di bawah ini? Berapa banyak
molekul dalam 12,0 g zat ini?

Answer :

-Molekulnya adalah

-Berat = 62,13 g

-Persentasi komposisi : x 100% = 19,3%

5. Whenthesubstanceshownbelowburns in oxygen, theprod- ucts are carbondioxideandwa ter.


Howmanygramsofwater are obtainedfromburning 4.76 g ofthissubstance?

Ketika zat yang ditunjukkan di bawah ini terbakar dalam oksigen, produknya adalah karbon dioksida
dan air. Berapa gram air yang diperoleh dari pembakaran 4,76 g bahan ini?

Jawab:

Jumlah air yang akan dihasilkan oleh pembakaran 0.27 mol CH3OH diperoleh dengan menggunakan
rasio molar antara CH3OH dan H2O dari 2 menjadi 4.

7.Turunkan faktor konversi tunggal yang akan memungkinkan Anda untuk mengubah volume 3,14 ft3
menjadi sentimeter kubik (cm3).

Jawab:

1 ft= 12 inchi, 1inchi= 2,54 cm

3,14 ft3x12inchi3/1ft3 x 2,54 cm3/1inchi3 = 95,7072cm

8. Larutan perak nitrat ditambahkan ke larutan berair 1,223 g senyawa besi-klorin. Saat dikeringkan dan
ditimbang, perak klorida yang terbentuk memiliki berat 3,243 g. Apa nama senyawa besi-klorin?

Answer :

FeCl3

11. HowdidDalton’satomictheoryaccountforthelawofcon- servationofmass?


Howdiditexplainthelawofdefinite properti ons?

Bagaimana teori atom Dalton menjelaskan hukum konservasi massa? Bagaimana itu menjelaskan
hukum properti yang pasti?

Answer:

Dapat menyimpulkan bahwa jika semua atom dari sebuah unsur tertentu massanya sama dan
satuan-satuan atom dalam senyawa mempunyai perbandingan tetapi (asumsi keempat), maka
persentase susunan senyawa harus mempunyai nilai tertentu. Teori atom Dalton itu dapat
menjelaskan Hukum Perbandingan Tetap dari Proust.

Jika dua unsur bersenyawa membentuk lebih dari satu senyawa, maka massa-massa unsur yang
bersenyawa dengan unsur lain yang bermassa tertentu akan berbanding sebagai bilangan bulat
sederhana.

10. Ethanol, C2H5OH, is a renewableenergyresourcethatisaddedtogasolinetohelpreducethe U.S.


dependenceonforeignoilimports. Howmanymoleculesofethanol are in 1.00
fluidounceoftheliquid? The densityofethanolis 0.798 g/mL (1 fluidoz = 29.6 mL).
Howmanygramsof O2 are neededforthecompletecombustionof 1.00 gallonsofethanoltogive CO2
and H2O?

Etanol, C2H5OH, adalah sumber energi terbarukan yang ditambahkan ke bensin untuk
membantu mengurangi ketergantungan AS terhadap impor minyak asing. Berapa banyak
molekul etanol dalam 1,00 cairan dari cairan? Densitas etanol adalah 0,798 g / mL (1 ons cairan
= 29,6 mL). Berapa gram O2 yang dibutuhkan untuk pembakaran sempurna 1,00 galon etanol
untuk menghasilkan CO2 dan H2O?

JAWAB :

Densitas = 0,798 g/mL

Volume = 1,00 fluidounce = 28,413 mL

0,798 g/mL = Massa / 28,413 mL

Massa = 22,67 gr

Mol = gr / Mr = 22,67 / 46 = 0,49

Noof moles (Molekul etanol dalam 1,00 fluidounce) = 22,67 gr / 0,49 = 46,26

C2H5OH + 3O2 -> 2CO2 + 3H2O

Temukan mol dari C2H5OH : 1.00 gallon x 3,785 L/gallon = 3,785 L

3,785 L x 1000mL/L x 0,789 g/mL x 1 mol/46,07 g/mol = 64,8 mol

Temukan mol dari O2 yang dibutuhkan :

Dari persamaan yang sudah disetarakan, didapat 1 mol ethanol memerlukan 3 mol O2

Mol O2 yang dibutuhkan = 64,8 mol ethanol x 3 mol O2 / mol ethanol = 194 mol

Konversikan mol O2 ke massa O2 :

Mol O2 yang dibutuhkan : 194 mol O2 x 32 g/mol = 6208 g O2 dibutuhkan = 6,21 kg


13. Atom-atom dari salah satu isotop plutonium, Pu, mengandung 94 proton, 110 neutron, dan 94
elektron. Tulis simbol untuk isotop ini yang menggabungkan nomor massa dan nomor atomnya.
Tulis simbol untuk isotop plutonium yang berbeda.

Jawab:

Massa atom= proton+ neutron= 94+110= 204 isotop plutonium= 94Pu204 94Pu244

14. Givechemicalformulasforthefollowing

g. aluminumselenide

h. copper(II) perchlorate

> Berikan formula kimia untuk hal-hal berikut

(g.)aluminium selenide

(h) tembaga (II) perklorat

Jawab:

(g) Al2Se3

(h) Cu(ClO4)2·6H2O

15. Givechemicalnamesforthefollowing.

d) AlP

e. ICl3

Jawab:

(d) Alkalinephosphatase

e) Iodinetriklor

16. For eachofthefollowing, indicatewhetheritispossibletoseethe item specifiedwiththenakedeye. If not,


explain.

c) A moleculeofwater
> Untuk masing-masing hal berikut, tunjukkan apakah mungkin untuk melihat item yang ditentukan
dengan mata telanjang. Jika tidak, jelaskan.

c) Molekul air

Jawab:

c) Mengaktifkan molekul air dalam tubuh. Hal ini disebabkan karena inframerah
mempunyai getaran yang sama dengan molekul air. Sehingga, ketika molekul tersebut
pecah maka akan terbentuk molekul tunggal yang dapat
meningkatkan cairan tubuh.Meningkatkan sirkulasi mikro.
CHAPTER 11-13

15.What kindsof attractive forces, including chemical bonds, would be present between the
particles in.
(a). HO(l ) (d). BrCl(l )
(b). CCl2(l ) (e). NaCl(s)
(c). CH43OH(l ) (f). Na(s)

16.Trimethylamine (CH3)32SO4N, is a substance responsible in part for the smell of fish. It has
a boiling point of 3.5 °C and a molecular weight of 59.1. Dimethylamine, (CH3)NH, has a
similar odor and boils at a slightly higher temperature, 7 °C, even though it has a somewhat
lower molecular mass (45.1). How can this be explained in terms of the kinds of attractive forces
between their molecules?

17. Methanol, CHOH, commonly known as wood alcohol, has a boiling point of 64.7 °C.
Methylamine, a fishy-smelling chemical found in herring brine, has a boiling point of -6.3 °C.
Ethane, a hydrocarbon present in petroleum, has a boiling point of 88°C. H9C9O9HHH
methanol b.p. 64.7 °C3H9C9N9HHHH methylamineb.p. – 6.3 °CH9C9C9HHHHH ethane
b.p. –88 °C Each has nearly the same molecular mass. Account for the large differences in their
boiling points in terms of the attractive forces between their molecules.

18. Based on what you’ve learned in these chapters, explain:


(a) Why a breeze cools you when you’re perspiring.
(b) Why droplets of water form on the outside of a glass of cold soda on a warm, humid day.
(c) Why you feel more uncomfortable on a warm, humid day
than on a warm, dry day.
(d) The origin of the energy in a violent thunderstorm.
(e) Why clouds form as warm, moist air flows over a
Mountain range
.
19. Aluminum has a density of 2.70 g cm -3 and crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice. Use
these and other data to calculate the atomic radius of an aluminum atom.

20. What is the difference between the closest-packed structures identified as ccp and hcp? In
each of these structures, how many atoms are in contact with anygiven atom?

21. Tin tetraiodide [tin(IV) iodide] has the formula SnI. It forms soft, yellow to reddish crystals
that melt at about 143 °C. What kind of solid does SnI form? What kind of bonding occurs in
SnI44 ?

22. Sketch the phase diagram for a substance that has a triple point at 25 °C and 100 torr, a
normal boiling point of 150 °C, and a melting point at 1 atm of 27 °C. Is the solid more dense or
less dense than the liquid? Where on the curve would the critical temperature and critical
pressure be? What phase would exist at 30 °C and 10.0 torr?
23. How many grams of 4.00% (w/w) solution of KOH in water are needed to neutralize
completely the acid in 10.0 mL 0.256 M H2SO ?

24. Calculate the molar concentration of 15.00% (w/w) Na4 solution at 20.0 °C given that its
density is 1.160 g/mL. 42CO3 Bringing It Together ?

25. The solubility of pure oxygen in water at 20.0 °C and 760 torris 4.30 × 10-2gO2 per liter of
HO. When air is in contact with water and the air pressure is 585 torr at 20 °C, how many grams
of oxygen from the air dissolve in 1.00 L of water? Theaverage concentration of oxygen in the
air is 21.1% (v/v).2

26. If the element gallium, Ga, is added to germanium, which


kind of semiconductor (n or p) will result? Explain your
answer
.
27. Compound XY is an ionic compound that dissociates as it dissolves in water. The lattice
energy of XY is -600 kJ/mol. The hydration energy of its ions is -610 kJ/mol.
(a) Writethe thermochemical equations for the two steps inthe formation of a solution of XY in
water.
(b) Write the sum of these two equations in the form of a thermochemical equation, showing the
net DH.
(c) Draw an enthalpy diagram for the formation of this solution.

28. At 20 °C a 40.00% (v/v) solution of ethanol in water has a density of 0.9369 g/mL. (Such a
solution could be prepared, for example, by mixing 40.00 mL of ethanol with enough water to
give 100.00 mL of solution.) The density of pure
ethanol at this temperature is 0.7907 g/mL and that of water is 0.9982 g/mL.
(a) Calculate the molar concentration and the molal concentration of ethanol in this solution.
(b) Calculate the concentration of ethanol in this solution in mole fractions and mole percents.
(c) The vapor pressure of ethanol at 20 °C is 41.0 torr and of water is 17.5 torr. If the 40.00%
(v/v) solution were ideal, what would be the vapor pressure of each component over the
solution?

29. Estimate the boiling point of 1.0 molal Al(NO3), assuming that it dissociates entirely into
Al3+ and NO3- ions in solution.

30. Squalene is an oil found chiefly in shark liver oil but is alsopresent in low concentrations in
olive oil, wheat germ oil, and yeast. A qualitative analysis disclosed that its molecules consist
entirely of carbon and hydrogen. When a sample of squalene with a mass of 0.5680 g was burned
in pure oxygen, there was obtained 1.8260 g of carbon dioxide and 0.6230 g of water.
(a) Calculate the empirical formula of squalene.
(b) When 0.1268g of squalene was dissolved in 10.50 g3 of molten camphor, the freezing point
of this solutionwas 177.3 °C. (The melting point of pure camphor is
178.4 °C, and its molal freezing point depression constant is 37.5 °C kg camphor 1.) Calculate
the formula mass of squalene and determine its molecular formula.
REVIEW QUESTION CHAPTER 4

4.143 For a research project, a student decided to test the effect of the lead(II) ion (Pb2+) on the
ability of salmon eggs to hatch. This ion was obtainable from the water so luble salt, lead(II)
nitrate, Pb(NO3), which the student decided to make by the following reaction. (The desired
product was to be isolated by the slow evaporation of the water.) PbO(s) + 2HNO32(aq) →
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + H Losses of product for various reasons were expected, and a yield of 86.0%
was expected. In order to have 5.00 g of product at this yield, how many grams of PbO should be
taken? (Assume that sufficient nitric acid, HNO, would be used.)

4.144 Chlorine atoms cause chain reactions in the stratosphere that destroy ozone that protects
the Earth’s surface from ultraviolet radiation. The chlorine atoms come from
chlorofluorocarbons, compounds that contain carbon, fluorine, and chlorine, which were used for
many years as refrigerants. One of these compounds is Freon-12, CF2Cl2. If a sample contains
1.0 × 10-9 g of Cl, how many grams of F should be present if all of the F and Cl atoms in the
sample came from CF2Cl23 molecules?

4.145 Lime, CaO, can be produced in two steps as shown in the equations below. If the
percentage yield of the first step is 83.5% and the percentage yield of the second step is 71.4%,
what is the expected overall percentage yield for producing CaO from CaCl ?
CaCl2(aq) + CO2( g) + H2O → CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + H2O(g).