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# Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

CHAPTER 4

## Model reference adaptive control of the process

with model of relative degree greater than one

The chapter presents the model reference control input synthesis with parameter update by
gradient law for the process (robot arm dynamics) with model of relative degree strictly
greater than one. Because, the reference model has to be of relative degree greater than one, it
can not be chosen SPR transfer function. To model reference adaptive control with parameter
update by a gradient law is necessary an augmented error synthesis as an identifier error.

Two augmented errors are defined and used as identifier errors to the parameter update laws.
The first augmented error leads to an error equation with SPR transfer function and gradient
update law (lemma 1. 2. 2). The second one leads to linear parameterized error equation and

Finally, a third identifier error is presented based on inverse system and which leads to a
linear parameterized error equation.

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

4. 1. Assumptions

As in the previous chapter, the following assumptions are necessary for control input
synthesis.

I1) Assumptions regarding the plant model. The plant motel is linear, time invariant,
system, with rational transfer function

Yp (s) N p (s)
H p (s) =  kp (4. 1. 1)
U(s) D p (s)

where Np(s) and Dp(s) are co-prime monic polynomials of known degree m p and n p ,
respectively. In time domain, by applying Laplace operator Hp(s) to the control input, the
plant output can be expressed as

y p  t   H p  s  u t   . (4. 1. 2)

It is denoted n*
the relative degree. The relative degree is strictly greater than one (
p

n *p  n p  m p ; n *p  2 ).
The coefficients of the plant model are unknown. At least is known the
sign of high frequency gain, k p (sign of k p is known). The plant model could be unstable
transfer function if the nominal plant is unstable. For achieving perfect tracking, the plant
model has to be a minimum phase transfer function.

I2) Assumptions regarding the reference model. The reference model is linear, time
invariant system with a stable and minimum phase rational transfer function

Ym (s) N (s)
H m (s) =  km m , (4. 1. 3)
R(s) D m (s)

where, Nm(s) and Dm(s) are co-prime monic polynomials of degree m m and n m . In time
domain, by applying the Laplace operator H m  s  to the reference input signal, the model
reference output can be expressed as

y m  t   H m  s  r t   . (4. 1. 4)

It is denoted with n *m its relative degree. The relative degree has to satisfy the inequality

n *m  n *p (4. 1. 5)

for achieving perfect tracking. The option being for the equality between the relative degrees
of plant and the reference models, the transfer function, H m(s), is of relative degree greater
than one and can not be chosen SPR.
I3) Assumptions concerning the reference input. The reference input signal is a time
bounded function, r  t  :     , piecewise continuous.

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

## The nominator N m  s  of the reference model is of degree mm strictly less than n m  1  n p  1 ,

being not possible the choosing of the pair (, h), so that det  sI     N m  s  . That is the
reason for choosing Hurwitz polynomial 1(s) of degree n p  m p  1  n m  m m  1 verifying
the equality

 s   N m  s  1 s  , (4. 2. 1)

## where   s   det  sI    is a polynomial of degree n m  1  n p  1 , with the roots are the

filters poles connected to the control input and to the plant output.

The filters respect the same dynamics as in the previous chapter with the pair   , h  in
controllable canonical form
.
v u  t    v u  t   hu  t  ;
. (4. 2. 2)
.
vy  t   v y  t  h yp  t

Let C(s) and D(s) be, polynomials of degree n p-2 and np-1, respectively, whose coefficients
are the elements of the vectors: u, y together with the scalar value, p.

The block schema from the reference input signal to the plant output becomes like in the
figure 4. 2. 1.

Figure 4. 2. 1. The block schema of the transfer from the reference input signal to the plant
output.

Making calculus, the loop transfer function from the reference input to the plant output has
the expression

 r k p N p  s  1  s  N m  s 
H 0  s  . (4. 2. 3)
D p  s     s   C s    k p N p  s  D  s 

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

The identity between the loop transfer function H o  s  and the reference model transfer
function H m  s  (the perfect tracking condition) leads to the polynomial identity

D p  s    s   C s    k p N p  s  D s   1 s  N p  s  D m  s  . (4. 2. 4)

The vectors  u ,  y of dimension np-1 and the scalar value  p hold the coefficients of
polynomials C(s) (  u ) and D(s) (  y and  p ). The following lemma, from algebraic
polynomial calculus, assures that.

Lemma 4. 1. 1. Let A(s) and B(s) be, co-prime polynomials of degree n 1 and n 2 ,
respectively. There are the polynomials M(s) and N(s) so that is satisfied the polynomial
identity

A s   M  s   B s   N s   A*  s  , (4. 2. 5)

## Applying the above polynomial identity for:

A*  s   1  s  N p  s  D m  s  , (4. 2. 6)

A s   D p  s  (4. 2. 7)
and
B s   k p N p  s  , (4. 2. 8)

## It can expressed the control input

u(t) = T (t)v(t)  T T
u (t) v u (t) +  y (t) v y (t) + p (t) y p ( t) + r (t)r(t) ,
(4. 2. 9)

## with the vectors: v,   R 2n p ,

  T T
u ,  y , p , r T , (4. 2. 10)

v(t) = vT  T
u ( t), v y ( t), y p ( t), r(t) , T (4. 2. 11)
so that the perfect tracking can be obtained.

Because, it can’t be chosen the reference model Hm(s) as a SPR transfer function, the lemma
1. 2. 2 can’t be applied. Non-zero tracking is obtained even if a gradient law is used as
parameter updating. For obtaining perfect tracking, an augmented error synthesis is
necessary. There are two modalities of augmented error synthesis. Below are presented both
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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

augmented errors. The first one allows the parameter update by simple gradient law for
achieving zero asymptotic tracking error. To the second one, for avoiding the parameter
instability, is used a normalized gradient law.

## 4. 3. Augmented error synthesis with SPR condition

The first type of augmented error is based on the choosing of a Hurwitz polynomial L(s), of
degree n m  1  n p  1 , so that Hm(s)L(s) becomes a SPR transfer function. It introduces the
vector   t   R 2n p

  t   L1  s   v t   ,. (4. 3. 1)

## and the auxiliary error ea

e a  t    T  t  L 1  s   v t    L 1  s   T  t  v t   
. (4. 3. 2)

  T  t    t   L 1  s   T  t  v t  
In the relationships (4. 3. 1) and (4. 3. 2), the expression L1  s    means the Laplace
operator L1 applied to a time function. The auxiliary error can be on-line computed because
the vectors  t  and v  t  are available. If the parameters vector  t  is replaced with the
true parameters vector,  o , then the auxiliary error becomes zero

0   oT L 1  s   v t    L1  s   oT v t    (4. 3. 3)

Making the difference between the both side members of (4. 3. 2) and (4. 3. 3), it obtains the
auxiliary error as a function of parameter estimation errors vector,   R 2n p ;  t    t   o

T T

e a  t     t   t   L 1  s    t  v t   . (4. 3. 4)

Let 1  R 2n p 1 be, the vector with the elements of the vector  without the last component
 r . The augmented error can be written

e c  t   e o  t   H m  s  L s  1r  t  e a  t   e c  t  1  t  1  t 
T
 . (4. 3. 5)

to which corresponds the block schema from the figure 4. 3. 1. It can observe that the
augmented error is an addition between the tracking error and the auxiliary error. The last one
is passed through a SPR transfer function

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

Figure 4. 3. 1. The block schema of the auxiliary and augmented errors. The general case
when the parameter  r is on-line updated.

On the figure, it can remark the parameter, 1r , on-line updated, too, defined as

## where 1r is its estimation error.

The supplementary (sometimes optionally) negative feedback, with the gain 1T 1 , has been
introduced for avoiding the sliding of the augmented error, e c , to an unstable region. It
obtains the following implicit expression

ec  t   H m  s  L s  T  t   t  / r  t   1r  t  ea  t   ec  t  1T  t  1 t   . (4. 3. 7)

Without the negative feedback, it can obtain the augmented error in the explicit form

e c  t   Hm  s  L s  T  t   t  / r  t   1r  t  e a  t   . (4. 3. 8)

If the augmented error follows a time stable evolution, in the absence of negative feedback,
then can be used this scheme for augmented error syntheses for increasing calculus speed.

The both augmented errors (implicit and explicit) can be on-line computed, because all loop
signals are available. By using a gradient law as parameter updating, the main component of
vector,  , and the supplementary parameter, 1r  respect the following dynamics:

.
 
u  t   sign k p e c  t   u  t  , (4. 3. 9)

 
 y  t   sign k p ec  t   y  t  , (4. 3. 10)

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

 
 p  t   sign k p ec  t   p  t  , (4. 3. 11)

 
 r  t   sign k p e c  t   r  t  , (4. 3. 12)

.
1r  t    e c  t  e a  t  , (4. 3. 13)

Remember that Hm(s)L(s) is SPR transfer function. Applying lemma 1. 2. 2, zero asymptotic
tracking error and zero augmented error are obtained. If the high frequency gain, k p , of the
plant model is completely known, then the control input parameter,  r , is not necessary to
be on-line updated. Therefore, is not necessary the parameter 1r . If the sign of the high
frequency gain is unchanged and known, during the dynamic evolution of the adaptive loop,
then it is replaced by its value in parameter update law (4. 3. 9)…(4. 3. 12).

Simulation 4. 3. 1. For the simulation studies, which will be presented below, was chosen
1
the plant model with the transfer function, H p  s  
 s  1 s  2  , and the reference model
1
with the transfer function, H m  s   2 . The parameters of the plant model are
s  1.2s  1
unknown. To the simulations, instead of a real process has been used the completely known
plant model. Can easy remark the plant model is both of order and relative degree two. The
reference model is both of order and relative degree, too. The same variable step reference
input signal (r(t)=1, for 0t5r(t)=-2, for 5t10r(t)=2, for 10t as in previous
simuations, has been taken in to account. The Hurwitz plynomial L(s) is o ၦ unitary degree.
Choo{ing ⁌(s)=s+1.2, assures H m  s  L s  to be a SRP transfer function. The pair  , h  has
been chosen in controllable canonical to the value (10, 1). The loop response to the adaptive
control input with the parameter updating by a gradient law is shown in the figure 4. 3. 2.
Due to the value chosen for gradient step size,  g  10 , the transitory response is
unsatisfactory with a big amplitude on the first step value of the reference input. The high
frequency gain of the plant model, k p , has been considered completely known and equal
with the high frequency gain of the reference model, k m . The control input parameter vector
is of dimension three.

Simulation 4. 3. 2. The loop response to adaptive control input with the parameter updating
by a gradient law and variable step external disturbance, (p(t)=-0.5, for 0t3p(t)=0.5, for
3tp(t)=-1, for 6tadditive on the plant output, is shown in the figure 4. 3. 3. The high
0.08s  0.8
frequency unmodeled dynamics has been H mn  s   . It can observe the stability
0.05s  1
of the loop but with big amplitude of the control input. Also, the transitory response has big
overshoot. The SIMULINK block schema of the adaptive closed loop, used for the
simulations, is given in the figure 4. 3. 4. On the figure, it can be observed the augmented
error synthesis. In the figure 4. 3. 5, is given the SIMULINK schema of the sub-block “param
y” which yields to the output the signals:  y v y and  y  y . The others sub-blocks are similar.

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

raspuns comanda
4 10

5
2
0

u(t)
0
-5
-2
-10

-4 -15
0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30
t[s] t[s]
parametrii comenzii eroarea de urmarire, eroarea crescuta
2 1.5

0 1

-2 0.5

-4 0

-6 -0.5
0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30
t[s] t[s]

Figure 4. 3. 2. The loop response to adaptive control input, gradient parameter update law,
(g=10), variable step reference input signal.

raspuns comanda
60 100

50
40
0
20
u(t)

-50
0
-100

-20 -150
0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30
t[s] t[s]
parametrii comenzii eroarea de urmarire, eroarea crescuta
20 60

40
0

20
-20
0

-40 -20
0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30
t[s] t[s]

Figure 4. 3. 3. The loop response to adaptive control input, gradient parameter update law,
(g=10), variable step reference input signal, variable step external disturbance additive
on the plant output, high frequency unmodeled dynamics.

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

update law, augmented error with SPR condition, external disturbance additive on the plant
output, multiplicative unmodeled dynamics

## 4. 4. Augmented error synthesis without SPR condition

For the second type of augmented error signal, which not require a SPR condition of the
transfer function from the reference input to the tracking error, the auxiliary error has the
following expression

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

 
e a  t    T  t  H m  s   v t    H m  s   T  t  v t  , (4. 4. 1)

## to which corresponds the block schema from the figure 4. 4. 1.

Figure 4. 4. 1. The block schema for the auxiliary and augmented errors. The general case
when the parameter  r is on-line updated.

Also, in this case the auxiliary error has two properties. The first one, the auxiliary error, e a ,
may be on-line computed if the control input parameters vector,  t  , and loop signals
vector, v  t  , are available. The second one, the auxiliary error, e a , depends of the time
variation of control input parameters vector,  t  . If the control input parameters vector,  t 
, is replaced with the true parameters vector, o , then the auxiliary error becomes zero as is
shown below

oT H m  s   v t    H m  s  oT v t   0 ,  (4. 4. 2)

e a  t   T  t  H m  s   v t    H m  s   T  t  v t  .  (4. 4. 3)

## The augmented error, e c , is obtained by addition to the tracking error, e o , a term

corresponding to the auxiliary error, e a , multiplied by supplementary parameter, 1r , on–
line updated, too

ec  t   e o  t   1r  t  ea  t  . (4. 4. 4)

The parameter 1r does not belong to the control input parameters and has the following
expression

## 1r  t   1 or  1r  t  , (4. 4. 4)

where 1r is its estimation error. The relationship (4. 4. 1), where the auxiliary error is
defined, together with the expression of tracking error (depending of parameter estimation
errors vector,  t  )

e o  t   H m  s  T  t  v t  / or  (4. 4. 5)
replaced in (4. 4. 4) leads to the augmented error

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

## where the vector  t   R 2n p is

 t   H m  s   v t   .. (4. 4. 7)

The relationship (4. 4. 6) shows the augmented error is linear parameterized, depending of the
estimation error vector,  t  , and the scalar error, 1r . If is used a normalized gradient
update law

  t   
 
sgn k p e c  t   t 
, (4. 4. 8)
1   T  t   t 

e c  t  e a  t 
 1r  t    , (4. 4. 9)
1   T  t   t 

## with  and  positive constants, zero asymptotic tracking error is obtained.

The SIMULINK block schema of the adaptive closed loop is shown in the figure 4. 4. 2. It
can be observed the augmented error synthesis following the way, above presented.

Figure 4. 4. 2. The SIMULINK block schema of the adaptive loop, augmented error without
SPR condition.
In the figure 4. 4. 3, is given the SIMULINK schema of the sub-block “param y” which
yields to the output the signals:  y v y and  y  y . The others sub-blocks are similar.

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

## 4.5. Identifier error synthesis based on the inverse system

A new type of identifier error is defined and used to the adaptive control input synthesis
algorithm. The synthesis of the identifier error is based on inverse system and leads to a linear
parameterized error equation which allows a normalized gradient update law.

## If H m  s  is a minimum phase transfer function of relative degree n *m , it can choose a

Hurwitz polynomial, L s  , of degree n *m , so that the inverse system

 H m  s  L  s   1 (4. 5. 1)

## has proper and stable transfer function.

Dividing the both sides of (4. 2. 4) by  s  D p  s  L s  , rearranging the terms, it obtains the
Laplace operators equation

C  1 D 1 
L1  L1  L  or  H m L   H p (4. 5. 2)
   

Applying both side operators to the control input signal, u  t  , the operators equation
becomes a signals equality

L1  u   L1
C
 
   
 u   L1 D y p  or  H m L  1 y p (4. 5. 3)

2 n p 1
Let v1 , 1 , 1o   be, the vectors, v, , and  o , respectively, without the last
component. The vector v1 , using Laplace transform applied to (4. 2. 2), can be written as

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

   sI      y , y
T
 T T 
v1    sI    1 h  u , 1
h p p . (4. 5. 4)
 

## Let w   2n p be the signals vector defined as

w  L1  v1  T ,  H m L  1 y p   T . (4. 5. 5)

Applying now the operator L1 to vector v1 , multiplying by 1o , and using (4. 5. 3), it
obtains

   C
1o L1  v1   L1 1o v1  L1   u  
D 
 
y p   L1  u   or  H m L  y p .
1
  (4. 5. 6)
   
With the vector w, from (4. 5. 5), (4. 5. 6) becomes

L1  u    oT w . (4. 5. 7)

The signal from the left side of (4. 5. 7) and the vector0w are available from measurements.
The right side is linear in the unknown control input parameters of vector,  . It can
introduce the identifier error by

L1  u  t     T  t  w  t   e i  t  (4. 5. 8)

Subtracting (4. 5. 7) from (4. 5. 8), can express the identifier error by parameter error vector,
     o , and the signals vector, w, as

ei  t   T  t  w t  . (4. 5. 9)

It may use a normalized gradient as parameter update law for getting zero asymptotic
tracking error

  t   
 
sgn k p e i  t  w  t 
, (4. 5. 10)
1  w T  t  w  t 

## Initial conditions are arbitrary, except

km
 r  0    r min  . (4. 5. 11)
k p max
It gives below the algorithm of the adaptive control input synthesis with identifier error,
above defined and parameter updating by a normalized gradient law. The plant model is of
relative degree strictly greater than one.

The algorithm of adaptive control input synthesis for the plant model of relative degree
strictly greater than one, the identifier error based on the inverse system

1) Assumptions:
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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

regarding the plant model: the plant model is a linear, time invariant, strictly proper and
minimum phase transfer function, H p  s  , of relative degree strictly greater than one, (
n*p  2 ). Plant model parameters are unknown. It is known the sign of high frequency gain,
sign ( k p ) ;

regarding the reference model: the reference model is a linear, time invariant, strictly
proper, stable and minimum phase transfer function, H m  s  , of relative equal with relative
degree of the plant model degree, ( n*m  n*p ). The reference model parameters are completely
known. Also, the high frequency gain, k m , is known and k p  k m ;

regarding the reference input signal: The reference input signal is a time bounded function,
r  t  :     , piecewise continuous.

2) Design elements:

Choose the Hurwitz polynomial 1(s) of degree n p  m p  1  n m  m m  1 , and the pair (,h)
in controllable canonical form, such that det  sI     N m  s  1 s  ;

## It chooses Hurwitz polynomial, L s  , of degree n *m , so that  H m  s  L s   1 is proper and

stable transfer function;

## 3) Controller structure and the control input:

v(t) = vT  T
u ( t), v y ( t), y p ( t), r(t) , T
  T  T
u ,  y , p , r T ,
.
v u  t    v u  t   hu  t 
. ,
v y  t   v y  t  h yp  t

u(t) = T (t)v(t)  T T
u (t) v u (t) +  y (t) v y (t) + p (t) y p ( t) + r (t)r(t) .

## 4) Parameter update law (on-line identifier):

w  L1  v1  T ,  H m L  1 y p   T ,
L1  u  t     T  t  w  t   e i  t  ,

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

  t   
 
sgn k p e i  t  w  t 
,
1  w T  t  w  t 

if  r   r min and  r  0
then set  r  0

Are given in the figures from 4. 5. 1 to 4. 5. 6, the SIMULINK schemas of the adaptive loop
s 1
with identifier error based on inverse system for the plant model, H p  s  
 s  1 s  2  , and
s  1 .2
the reference model, H m  s   2 .
s  1.2s  1

Figure 4. 5. 1. The SIMULINK bloc schema of the adaptive closed loop, on-line identifier
based on the inverse system.

Figure 4. 5. 2. SIMULINK sub-block schema “param r”, normalized gradient update law.

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Model reference adaptive control of the process with model of relative degree greater than one

Figure 4. 5. 3. SIMULINK sub-block schema “param vu”, normalized gradient update law.

Figure 4. 5. 4. SIMULINK sub-block schema “param vy”, normalized gradient update law

Figure 4. 5. 5. The SIMULINK sub-block schema of the “param yp”, normalized gradient
update law.

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