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Motivations

CHAPTER 1

Introduction in to variable structure

model reference adaptive control.

Motivations

The topic of the book is focused on the variable structure, model reference adaptive control

(VS-MRAC) used in robots arms accurate positioning and fast process control. Mainly, are

presented synthesis algorithms of the adaptive control input laws, with pointing out the

aspects concerning the improvement of transitory and asymptotic performances. It is

presented a significant casuistic by numerical simulation.

It is made an overview of the reasons for the using variable structure and compound

parameter update laws to the model reference adaptive control and an evaluation of the

advantages versus disadvantages. Several concepts, used in synthesis and analysis of the VS-

MRAC closed loops, are presented.

7

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

compound model reference adaptive control

Theoretical researches regarding synthesis of new structures and algorithms for adaptive and

variable structure control, to refer applications in a wide scale of fields, are a necessity. The

fast process control and robots arms exact positioning are the most important applications. In

area of model reference adaptive control, are well established the synthesis methodologies of

the adaptive control laws for plant model of relative degree one and greater than one. In the

first case, reference model may be chosen a strictly positive real (SPR) transfer function. In

second case, reference model cannot be chosen a SPR transfer function, and for that, an

augmented error synthesis is necessary. Even in the second case, a SPR condition could be

verified. Two types of augmented errors are known. Using, to control input parameter

updating, a gradient law, zero tracking error can be achieved. Adaptive control synthesis

methodologies by passing trough SPR condition can be applied for multivariable process

(multiple-input, multiple-output, MIMO).

It is known, also, synthesis methodology of the control law for model reference adaptive

control without SPR condition, based on inverse system. This methodology leads to an on-

line identification error equation that allows utilization both gradient and least squares update

laws. That method does not require a classification after relative degree of the plant model. In

all cases, zero tracking error is guaranteed. Also, this synthesis method can be applied in

MIMO case. Synthesis procedure, in MIMO case, does not require a prior uncoupling

operation of the plant model. The parametric space size of the control input depends on

observable indices of each measured output.

All the aspects despite the syntheses of new algorithms for adaptive control by gradient, least

squares, or variable structure (including a switching function) update law. Their asymptotic

properties (stability and parameter convergence), represent an area of interest for the

international competencies.

Have been established many adaptive control algorithms, for which have been proofed

remarkable asymptotic properties, as parameter convergence and stability. The stability study,

by bounded input-bounded output (BIBO) formalism, is a strong tool for analysis of the

adaptive loops, which are non-linear systems.

Actually, it researches on the behavior field of adaptive systems in the presence of bounded

external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. Therefore, the robustness of the adaptive

loops is a field of interest. The adaptive closed loops, obtained by the procedures mentioned

above, have high robustness properties to bonded external disturbances and unmodeled

dynamics. For robustness increasing, have been introduced modified update laws, but with

the dropping perfect tracking objective. The increasing of the persistent excitation degree for

the loop signals, by an appropriate choosing of the exogenous frequency bandwidth, is

another way for robustness increasing.

However, the adaptive control algorithms are not well behaved in transient response. By the

transient response, it understands the learning interval, in which the on-line identifier training

can be achieved. It does not mean a certain limit for tracking error or identifier error to the

modification of the reference input signal or external disturbances.

8

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

Therefore, the background of the book will be synthesis of new algorithms for model

reference adaptive and variable structure control that can lead to an improvement of the

transient response and an increasing of the robustness degree. The practical implications are

majors in fast process control and accurate positioning of robots arms.

Variable structure control, where control law has a sign switching function, is also well

known and rich refereed in automatic control bibliography. Since, the variable structure

control is based on a switching function of the state variables that are used to create a sliding

mode on a sliding surface. When this surface is reached, the switching function keeps the

trajectory on the surface. Have been published results regarding discontinuous control

techniques where switching functions are enclosed in on-line adjustment laws, so that control

law synthesis follows the same steps as in adaptive synthesis. The main future of such

systems is the fast transient response, due to the sliding mode. The invariance of the sliding

mode, with respect time-varying plant parameters and external disturbances, is also a feature

of adaptive variable structure loops. Since, the robustness to external disturbances is assured.

Also, in the presence of additive or/and multiplicative unmodeled dynamics (model

uncertainties) in a certain frequency bandwidth (especially in high frequency), adaptive

variable structure loops have robustness qualities.

As the earlier contributions, the authors have been involved by theoretical and applicative

research on field of adaptive and variable structure control. A set of adaptive variable

structure and compound control laws has been synthesized. The properties of stability and

parameter convergence have been taken in to account. Have been proofed remarkable

robustness qualities to external disturbances and high frequencies unmodeled dynamics.

Theoretical results have been validated by numerical simulation and applied in fast process

control from electrical drives and naval devices. The results have been published and

communicated at many international meetings from our country or abroad. Many research

contracts with enterprises have been developed on the field of adaptive and variable structure

control.

During the last years, the authors have performed implementation research, which use in

adaptive loop the good transitory properties of the discontinuous control law. The asymptotic

performances will be assured by classical adaptive control methods. In sliding mode the

response of the system is fast and smooth. To adaptive variable structure control, switching

function is presented in parameter update law, together with maximum values, a priori

known, for control parameters. Therefore, variable structure adaptive control (with maximum

positive values for control parameters) not assures parameter convergence. Due to the

measured noise, the solutions of the adaptive loop are not well behaved around of the

equilibrium point, defined by zero tracking error or zero augmented error. In practice, the

solutions are found to chatter around of the equilibrium point.

Taking in to account the advantages and disadvantages of the variable structure adaptive

control, the basic idea is to additive compound, in control input law, two modalities of the

parameter updating. To the first one, a gradient or least squares law makes parameter

updating. To the second one, parameters update law encloses a switching function (a sign

function). For a well asymptotic behavior and an easy stability analysis, will be chosen an

approximate switching function, named k-sigmoid function.

9

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

updating, named -modification, so that they become time depending functions. In

compound adaptive control, this modification leads variable structure component to a small

weight in control law. The variable structure component has an important influence in

transitory time. At its turn, the -modification can be constant or time depending. When is

time depending, the parameter vector norm represents a condition for the time function. It is

denoted adaptive -modification.

Beginning from this idea, we consider as the main contributions in VS-MRAC systems the

followings:

i)-Compound control inputs synthesis for the model reference and variable structure adaptive

control. This objective was solved in several steps. First step will be treated the plant model

of relative degree one, for that the reference model can be chosen SPR. Follow, in second

step, the variable structure and compound update laws. The plant model is of relative degree

greater than one, and an augmented error signal is involved. In third step, will be proposed

compound adaptive control inputs synthesis without SPR-condition, known as input error

synthesis based on inverse system. As fourth step, will be the variable structure and

compound adaptive control applied to MIMO process;

ii)-The stability property analysis by using BIBO technique and parameter convergence by

using average theory, which can leads to interesting conclusions regarding the behavior of the

adaptive loops in frequency domain;

iii)-The robustness to external disturbances of the adaptive loops with variable structure and

compound control input, by the using of the modified update laws (constant or adaptive). Will

be shown higher robustness qualities of adaptive loops where the on-line updating follows a

variable structure law. Also, the adaptive loops have greater robustness degree if is used the

-modification in parameter update law. To the compound control input, the adaptive loop

has good asymptotic performances (taken from the gradient update component) and smooth

transitory response and robustness to external bounded disturbances and high frequency

uncertainties (taken from the variable structure component);

iv)-The robustness of variable structure and compound adaptive loops to additive and

multiplicative unmodeled dynamics. The unmodeled dynamics can worsen system stability

and tracking performances. It will be considered the robustness increasing by persistent

excitation of the signals from adaptive loops. This is possible by introducing supplementary

frequencies in the reference input signal.

The book was focused to continuous time model reference adaptive control with the direct

updating of control input parameters. Method developments and proposed algorithms can be

easy applied to discrete time systems.

Discontinuous control techniques can be used, also, in adaptive self-tuning systems, which

are based on variable time switching hyper-surfaces in state space. The self-adaptive

strategies, briefly described here, have time-varying switching hyper-planes and this requires

the analysis of systems with non-linear switching hyper-surfaces. If arises a switching hyper-

surface, the parameter updating does not do by action of the sign switching function. It is

introduced a -modification in upper positive values of the control parameters, which

rotates in state space, that hyper-surface with an angle depended of . If the sliding motion

10

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

occurs on the current switching hyper-plane, the next position of the switching hyper-plane is

chosen to be just ahead of the state point on its trajectory in the state space by -

modification of the control parameters. The state point can be shown to move from the initial

conditions to a certain sliding boundary surface on which it remains until the state origin is

reached. The self-adaptive controller identifies at a given time instant, during the sliding

phase, the local position of the non-linear surface, which is a function of the chosen state

variables and the plant parameters. The sliding boundary surface is the boundary between the

sliding and non-sliding regions of the state space. The sliding boundary surface can itself be

defined as a hyper-surface with its equation depends of state space variables and plant

parameters. Checking this equation it can be forced the system to comeback in sliding region.

The system evolution to the origin it can do in the neighborhood of the non-sliding region.

Therefore the self-tuning adaptive control law leads the system, in finite time, to the origin.

Therefore, the methods and algorithms that will be proposed, for robustness increasing, will

be obtained based on an upper bound of the external disturbances without to consider a

determinist or stochastic parameterization. These remarks support the reasons that the

variable structure and compound control inputs synthesis can be applied to a wide typology

of adaptive control, with model reference or self-tuning, continuous time or discrete time,

determinist or stochastic systems.

The research on this field has to continue the previous works to the main ways, below

specified:

1) New algorithm developments for variable structure and compound adaptive control. To the

last one, control parameters will be obtained by the addition of two terms. The first one has a

gradient or least squares updating law. The second one has a variable structure updating law

enclosing a k-sigmoid switching function and a constant or time variable -modification, for

alleviating chattering and increasing robustness;

2) Synthesis procedures extension to MIMO plants and possibility analysis of the sliding

modes occur due the using of a k-sigmoid switching function in parameter update law;

3) Modified parameter update laws using, which need small prior information about external

signals and parameter norm for increasing robustness degree of VS-MRAC adaptive loops. A

modified update law has a supplementary term which is depended of parameter vector norm;

4) General methodology established for frequency analysis of the stability and parameter

convergence from obtained adaptive loops, as an alternative to frequency synthesis

procedures, H techniques;

5) Using previous theoretical results and enclosing new contributions, the new algorithms can

successfully used to the robots arms positioning, fast electrical drive process and naval

systems control. The goal is to obtain adaptive control laws which can be easily applied in

electrical drive process control and fine positioning of robots arms.

11

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

updating by gradient or variable structure law

In this section, some concepts about real positive systems and passive systems, concepts used

in synthesis of the adaptive control algorithms will briefly present. Follow some definitions:

positive real (PR) and strictly positive real (SPR) systems, as well as lemmas and theorems

about them, without the proof side, which can be found in the indicated references.

Definition 1. 2. 1. (PR and SPR functions). A rational transfer function H(s) of complex

variable s j is RP if

H R , R

and

Re H j 0, 0, 0 .

most proper, is SPR, if and only if the following two conditions are simultaneously satisfied:

ii) The real part of complex function H(s) is positive along to the imaginary axe j , i.e.

0, Re H j 0 .

The above theorem suggests a sum of necessary conditions for a transfer function H(s) to be

SPR:

The Nyquist of H j has to be entirely situated in right half complex plane;

H(s) has to be minimum phase (H(s) has all zeros in the left side half complex plane and

has not dead time).

The difference between a PR and SPR transfer function is that a PR transfer function may has

poles on imaginary axe, against SPR not. The following theorem yields necessary and

sufficient conditions for a transfer function to be SPR.

Theorem 1. 2. 2 (Positive real transfer function). A transfer function is PR, if and only if

the following conditions are simultaneously satisfied:

12

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

The poles of the transfer function H(s) situated on imaginary axe are simple poles with

real and positive associated residues;

Re H j 0, 0 , so that j is not a pole for the transfer function, H(s).

function). Let A, b, c T be a minimal realization for a stable, strictly proper, rational

transfer function H(s). The following statements are equivalents:

i) H(s) is SPR;

ii) There are positive definite matrices P and Q which check the following equations:

PA A T P Q

. (1. 2. 1)

Pb c

controllable system. There is the alternative (known as lemma Meyer-Kalman-Yakubovich),

where the system is necessary to be only stabilizable. Given an asymptotically stable system,

in steady state space representation A, b, cT , the constant 0 , and the positive definite

matrix L, if the transfer function

H s c T sI A 1 b (1. 2. 2)

2

is SPR, then are 0 , the vector q and the positive definite symmetric matrix P such that

A T P PA qq T L (1. 2. 3)

and

Pb c q . (1. 2. 4)

y cT x u. (1. 2. 5)

2

For the strictly stable linear system, in steady state space representation, (A, B, C), with

associated Lyapunov function

1 T

V x Px , (1. 2. 6)

2

x T P Ax Bu x T PBu 1 x T Qx

V (1. 2. 7)

2

13

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

has the first term which proof the connection between stability and passivity, due to Kalman-

Yakubovich-Popov lemma.

It is well known, that the Lyapunov function, as a square form, represents the total energy

stored in the dynamical system. Intuitively, can be supposed the additive compound of

Lyapunov functions associated to subsystems, however is their coupling. Passivity theory

formalizes that the intuition gives some rules for choosing Lyapunov functions for the

systems in closed loop. So, the derivate function of the energy stored in the system is the

algebraic sum of the external input power and the internal generated power. The external

input power could be the scalar product, y T u , between the input, u, and the output, y.

Let S1 and S 2 be, systems connected in negative feedback loop. The derivate Lyapunov

functions fulfill the equations

t yT tu t g t

V (1. 2. 8)

1 1 1 1

and

t yT t u t g t ,

V (1. 2. 9)

2 2 2 2

Figure 1. 2. 1. Negative feedback loop of two systems, with associated Lyapunov functions,

V1 and V2, respectively and the generated internal powers, g1, and g2, respectively.

Taking in to account the differential equations of energy stored in each subsystem, then for

the feedback loop is valid the equation

d

V1 t V2 t g1 t g 2 t . (1. 2. 10)

dt

if

t 0 g1 t g 2 t 0 ,

14

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

g1 t g 2 t dt ;

0

g1 t g 2 t 0 , for t ;

particularly, if g1(t) and g2(t) are non-negative and uniform continuous, then both go to

zero for t ;

g1 t g 2 t 0 , for t .

The first system is lower bounded, with g1 0 , and the Lyapunov function, V1, verifies the

differential equation of the stored energy. It says that the system is passive, or is passive

function between the input u1 and the output y1.

y1 t u1 t dt 0 y1 t dt 0 .

T

0 0

It can proof that a strictly stable MIMO system is passive, if and only if

0, Re H j 0 .

Lemma 1. 2. 2. (Error equation of SPR transfers function and gradient update law). Let

e, e o be, two error signals, let R 2n be, an error vector, satisfying the following equations:

e t Ae t b T t v t

, (1. 2. 11)

e o t c e t

T

e o t H s k T t v t , (1. 2. 12)

t sgn k e t v t

, (1. 2. 13)

o

where H(s) is a SPR transfer function of degree n, with steady state space minimal realization

A, b, c T , let k be, an unknown constant with known sign, let be a positive constant,

and let v(t) be a vector of dimension 2n. Then the signals eo t and t are globally

bounded

e o t , t L ,

15

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

e t , e o t L 2 .

In fact the signal e o t represents the response of the linear system, with SPR transfer, H(s),

to the input kT t v t and respects block schema from figure 1. 2. 2. The L 2 and L are

functional spaces where there are the norms

f

2

f 2 d (1. 2. 14)

0

and

f sup f t

t 0

. (1. 2. 15)

p

f p p f d

0

f t t s

fs t

0 t s

and the extended L p can be defined as

L pe f s , f s L p

In the relationship (1.2.12), the transfer function, H(s), is Laplace operator applied to a time

function. In (1.2.13) the vector R 2 n represents parameter estimation error,

t t o , with o the vector of true parameters. Therefore, in the left side of the

differential equation (1.2.13), it can be introduced derivate vector t instead of vector

derivate t .

v(t) eo(t)

H(s)

sgn k v t

16

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

Figure 1. 2. 2. Block schema of the error equation, SPR transfer function, gradient parameter

update law.

If, instead of the update law (1. 2. 13), is used a switching law with a sign function, then

parameter update law becomes

where R 2 n is a vector with known positive elements. Choosing the Lyapunov function

V e T Pe (1. 2. 17)

and making its time derivate along the solution of equation (1. 2. 11), it obtains the

inequality

o e o k1 e k 2 v

eoe , (1. 2. 18)

For

v t >c>0,

e o eo 0, t T .

Consequently,

e t 0 ,

eo cT e 0

appears a sliding mode. The surface is reached in finite time, for t s T and

e o t 0, t t s .

Definition 1. 2. 2. (Equivalent control). The equivalent control for the system (1. 2. 11) can

be obtained making

e 0

u eq T v eq T v eq 0T v c T b 1 c T Ae t 0T v (1. 2. 19)

For an ideal sliding mode (switching function without any delays in commutation, high speed

in control input calculus, no any model uncertainties)

e t e o t ,

17

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

e

I b cT b

1 T

c Ae

(1. 2. 20)

with initial condition

c T e o 0 0 .

u eq T v eq oT v c T b 1 c T Aeo t . (1. 2. 21)

If

eo t 0

v

T

eq oT v; for t . (1. 2. 22)

positive constants, 1, 2 , 0 , so that

t0

2 I v v T d 1I, t 0 0 (1. 3. 1)

t0

space rotation so that the integration of the matrix v v T is uniform positive definite over

any time interval of length . In scalar form, the PE condition is

to 2

2 v x d 1 , t o 0, x 1 (1. 3. 2)

to

Theorem 1. 3. 1 Let the vector v : R R 2n be and A, b, c T a steady state space minimal

realization for a SPR transfer function H(s). If v is PE and v, v L ),

are bounded ( v, v

then the system with the equation (1. 2. 13) is global exponentially stable.

Lemma 1. 3. 1. (PE through a linear system). Let the vector v : R R 2n be. If v is PE,

v, v L , and H(s) is a stable, minimum phase transfer function, then H(s)[v(t)] (the output

of the system) is PE.

18

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

Follows the conditions which to have satisfied by reference signal r(t), from the input of

MRAC loop, so that the signal vector, v(t), of 2n-dimension ( v v T T

u , v y , yp , r

T

, vu the

filtered control input, v y the filtered plant output, both of them of dimension 2n-1, y p the

process output, r the reference signal, both scalar signals), be PE, for reaching exponential

convergence of error estimation parameter vector, , with respects the relationship (1. 2.

13).

Supposing the input reference signal, r(t), is stationary and the transfer vector, H vr s , from

the reference signal, r, to the loop signals, v, is stable, then v is stationary, too. The PE

property of the signals vector v is direct linked of the positive definiteness of its auto-

covariance matrix R v 0 .

stationary signals. The vector v is PE if and only if R v 0 0 .

Follows the linkage of PE condition for the signals vector, v, with its frequency content given

by the relationship

R v 0 S v d , (1. 3. 3)

R v 0 H vr jH T

vr j S r d . (1. 3. 4)

The first one is the transfer vector, H vr s , from the reference input signal to the loop signals

vector. The second one is the spectral measure Sr d of the reference signal. Also, the

above relationship represents the connection between frequency content of reference signal, r,

and PE property of loop signals vector, v.

suficiently rich (in frequencies) if the spectral density support, Sr d , has at least 2n points

(there are 2n-spectral lines).

Theorem 1. 3. 3. (PE and a signal 2n-suficiently rich). Let v t R 2n be the signals vector

as the multiple output linear system with the transfer vector, H vr s , and the input stationary

signal, r(t). Assume the vectors H vr j1 , , H vr j2n are linear independents in the space

C 2 n , for 1, , 2 n R . The vector v is EP, if and only if, the input signal, r, is 2n-

suficiently rich.

reference signal, r, from the input of a MRAC loop with plant model of order n (the loop

signals vector is of 2n-dimension), is 2n-suficiently rich in frequency, then the control input

T

parameter vector, R 2n , Tu , Ty , p , r , has an exponential convergence to the true

19

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

parameter vector 0T R 2n (the exponential convergence of the control input parameter

vector is equivalent with exponential stability of errors parameter estimation vector

R 2n ,

ˆ 0 , from the differential equation (1. 2. 13)).

x f t , x , x t o x o , (1. 4. 1)

which describe the dynamics of a system (in general, non-linear). The function f t , x is

piecewise continuous with respect to t. Therefore, there are a finite number of discontinuity

points in any compact set. Let B 0, r be, the closed ball centered at 0 in n , of radius r.

i) locally, if true for all x o in some ball B 0, r ;

ii) globally, if true for all x o n ;

iii) in any closed ball, if true for all x o B 0, r , with r arbitrary;

iv) uniformly, if true for all t o 0 .

some r 0 , there is l 0 (denoted Lipschitz constant) such that:

f t , x1 f t , x 2 l x1 x 2 , (1. 4. 2)

for all x1 , x 2 B 0, r , t 0 .

in x, then it is Lipschitz.

f t, x 0 , (1. 4. 3)

for all t 0 .

is piecewise continuous with respect to t, Lipschitz in x with constant l, then the solution,

x t , of (1. 4. 1) satisfies the inequality

as long x t remains in B 0, r .

point, if the trajectory, x t , remains close to 0 if the initial condition, x o , is close to zero.

20

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

equilibrium point of (1. 4. 1), if, for all t o 0 and 0 , t o , such that

x o t o , x o x t , t t o , (1. 4. 5)

equilibrium point of (1. 4. 1), if, in the definition 1. 4. 4, can be chosen independent of t o .

equilibrium point of (1. 4. 1), if

i) x 0 is a stable equilibrium point of (1. 4. 1)

ii) x 0 is attractive , that is, for all t o 0, t o , so that

x o lim x t 0 . (1. 4. 6)

t

asymptotic stable equilibrium point of (1. 4. 1), if

ii) the trajectory, x t , converges to 0 uniformly in t o . More precisely, 0 and a

function , x o : n such that

lim , x o 0 x o (1. 4. 7)

and

x o x t t t o , x o t 0 . (1. 4. 8)

The previous definitions are local, since they concern neighborhoods of the equilibrium point.

Global asymptotic stability is defined as follows.

asymptotic stable equilibrium point of (1. 4. 1), if it is asymptotically stable and

lim x t 0 , (1. 4. 9)

t

for all x o n .

equilibrium point of (1. 4. 1), if m, 0 so that the solution x t satisfies the inequality

21

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

x t me t t o x o x o B 0, h , t t o 0 , (1. 4. 10)

K ), if it is continuous, strictly increasing, and 0 0 .

V t , x : n is denoted locally positive definite function if, for some r 0 and

some K

A locally positive definite function is locally like en energy function. The functions which are

globally like energy functions are denoted positive definite functions.

V t , x : is denoted positive definite function, if for some K

n

V t ,0 0, and V t , x x

p

descrescent, if there is a function K so that

V t , x x (1. 4. 12)

Follows the basic stability theorem, denoted as Lyapunov theorem, which states that when

V t , x is a positive definite function, or a locally positive definite function and its derivate

satisfies the inequality

dV t , x

0 (1. 4. 13)

dt

then it can conclude the stability of the equilibrium point. The derivate of V is taken along the

trajectories of the system (1. 4. 1) (denoted the total derivate) and that is

dV t , x V t , x V t , x

f t, x (1. 4. 14)

dt t x

22

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

function continuously, differentiable, associated to the system (1. 4. 1), then

state point x 0 is stable equilibrium point;

ii) if V t , x is locally positive definite function descrescent and V t, x 0

locally, then the state point x 0 is uniformly stable equilibrium point

iii) if V t , x is locally positive definite function and V t , x locally positive

definite function, then the state point x 0 is asymptotically stable equilibrium

point;

iv) if V t , x is locally positive definite function descrescent and V t , x locally

positive definite function, then the state point x 0 is uniform asymptotic stable

equilibrium point;

v) if V t , x is positive definite function descrescent and V t , x positive definite

function, then the state point x 0 is globally uniform asymptotic stable

equilibrium point.

Theorem 1. 4. 2. (Bounds of the Lyapunov function and its derivates). Assume that

V t , x : n has continuous and bounded first partial derivates in x and is

piecewise continuous in t for all x B 0, r , t 0 . Then, the following statements are

equivalent:

i) x 0 is an exponential stable equilibrium point of the system x f t , x x t o x o ;

ii) there is a function, V t , x , and some strictly positive constants r ' , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 such

that:

V t , x 2 x

2 2

1 x , (1. 4. 15)

dV t , x 2

3 x , (1. 4. 16)

dt

V t , x

4 x , (1. 4. 17)

x

for al

x B 0, r ' , t 0.

The derivative in (1. 4. 16) is taken along the trajectories of the system (1. 4. 1). That means

the total derivate given in (1. 4. 14). The Lyapunov function, V t , x ) , can be interposed as

an average of the squared norms of the state along the solutions of the system (1. 4. 1).

Theorem 1. 4. 3. (Exponential stability). If there is a Lyapunov function, V t , x ) , and

strictly positive constants , 1 , 2 , 3 such that:

V t , x 2 x

2 2

1 x , (1. 4. 18)

dV t , x t

0, (1. 4. 19)

dt

23

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

t dV , x

d 3 x t ,

2

(1. 4. 20)

t d

x A t x x t o x o , (1. 4. 21)

Definition 1. 4. 14. (State transition matrix). The state transition matrix, t, t o nxn

associated with A t is the unique solution of the matrix differential equation

d t, t o

A t t , t o , t o , t o I . (1. 4. 22)

dt

The trajectory can be written

x t t , t o x t o . (1. 4. 23)

Theorem 1. 4. 4. (Uniform asymptotic stability of linear time variant systems). The state

point x 0 is a uniform asymptotic stable equilibrium point of the system (1. 4. 21), if and

only if the point x 0 is stable, which is guaranteed by

sup sup t , t o

(1. 4. 24)

t o 0

tto

t

uniformly in t o .

Theorem 1. 4. 5. (Exponential stability of linear time variant systems). The state point

x 0 is a exponentially stable equilibrium point of the system (1. 4. 21), if and only if

t , t o me t t o , (1. 4. 26)

systems). The state point x 0 is a uniform asymptotic stable equilibrium point of the

system (1. 4. 21), if and only if x 0 is an exponentially stable equilibrium point of (1. 4.

21).

24

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

x t A t x t

y t C t x t

, (1. 4. 27)

functions.

uniform complete observable if there are positive constants: 1 , 2 , such that, for all

to 0

to

N t o , t o , t o C C , t o d

T T

(1. 4. 29)

to

statements are equivalent:

i) the state point x 0 is an exponentially stable equilibrium point of the system (1.

4. 21);

ii) for all C t pxn (with p arbitrary) such that the pair C t , A t is uniform

complete observable, there is a symmetric matrix P t nxn and some strictly

positive constants 1 , 2 such that

2 I P t 1I (1. 4. 30)

t A T t P t P t A t C T t C t (1. 4. 31)

for all t 0 ;

iii) for some C t pxn (with p arbitrary) such that the pair C t , A t is uniform

complete observable, there is a symmetric matrix P t nxn and some strictly

positive constants 1 , 2 , such that (1. 4. 30) and (1. 4. 31) hold.

x Ax x t o x o . (1. 4. 32)

If the system is linear, local and global stability properties are identical, and since is time

invariant, all properties are uniformly in t o .

Theorem 1. 4. 8. (Lyapunov theorem for linear time invariant systems). The following

statements are equivalent:

i) all eigenvalues of A are in the open left half plane;

25

Introduction in to variable structure model reference adaptive control. Motivations

ii) for all C pxn (with p arbitrary) such that the pair C, A is observable, there is

a symmetric matrix P nxn satisfying

A T P PA C T C ; (1. 4. 32)

iii) for some C pxn (with p arbitrary) such that the pair C, A is observable, there

is a symmetric matrix P nxn satisfying (1. 4. 32).

The original variant of the Lyapunov theorem is stated with the matrix Q positive definite,

replacing C T C (which is only positive semi-definite), and the verifying the equation

A T P PA Q . (1. 4. 33)

26

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