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 Water Treatment

- is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a
specific end-use. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow
maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the
 Water treatment Plant
- refers to a plant or installation that is used to purify contaminated substances in the
 Water Treatment Process

1.) Coagulation and flocculation

- are often the first steps in water treatment.
- removes sediment and particles from the water with the help of coagulants.
Coagulants are chemicals that act like a magnet. They called the particles in the water
to stick together, this group of particle is called flocs.

2.) Sedimentation

- is the process of allowing particles in suspension in water to settle out under the
effect of gravity.

3.) Filtration

- collects the suspended impurities in water and enhances the effectiveness of

disinfection. The filters are routinely cleaned by backwashing.

4.) Disinfection

- is the removal, deactivation or killing of pathogenic microorganisms.

Microorganisms are destroyed or deactivated, resulting in termination of growth and
reproduction. Chlorine is used because it is a very effective disinfectant, and residual
concentrations can be maintained to guard against possible biological contamination in
the water distribution system.
1. Layout Plan and Section of Water Treatment Plant

Intake Pipe
Raw water from a surface water lake or reservoir is drawn into the plant
through intake structures. Large debris like logs are prevented from entering and
zebra mussel control is performed at the intake.

Smaller debris like fish, vegetation and garbage are removed from the raw
water by protective bar and traveling screens before the water enters the low lift
Low Lift Pump Well
These pumps lift the water to flow through the treatment processes by
Pre-oxidation & Primary Disinfection
Disinfectants or other oxidants are added to disinfect or control tastes and
odors. The specific processes used are determined by the chemical and biological
raw water characteristics.
Coagulants, rapidly add electrochemical charges that attract the small
particles in water to clump together as a “floc”. This initial charge neutralization
process allows the formed floc to agglomerate but remain suspended.
By slower mixing, turbulence causes the flocculated water to form larger
floc particles that become cohesive and increase in mass. This visible floc is kept
in suspension until large enough to settle under the influence of gravity.
Flocculated water is applied to large volume tanks where the flow speed
slows down and the dense floc settles. Settled floc is removed and treated as a
waste product that is discharged to the sewer system.
Relatively floc free, settled water flows through a media filter by
gravity. Filter media are made from layers of anthracite or granular activated
carbon and sand. Gravel or synthetic materials support the media. Physical
straining removes the remaining floc. Filters are periodically backwashed to
clean off accumulated floc and other trapped impurities.
Clear Well
Filtered water in the clear well is used to backwash filters and kept in
storage to ensure that disinfectants are in contact with the water long enough to
inactivate disease causing organisms.
Secondary Disinfection
Supplemental chlorine is added to maintain disinfection concentrations
while the water is pumped through the distribution system. The purpose is to
ensure minimum residual disinfectant levels at the farthest points of the system.
A process where silico fluoride compounds are added to treated drinking
water to artificially raise the fluoride concentration to within a specified range; for
example between 0.5 to 0.8 mg/L (ppm). Fluoridation is an optional public health
dental policy.
High Lift Pump Well
Treat drinking water is pumped through large pressure pumps to other
pumping stations, reservoirs or points of supply within the local distribution
Elevated Water Storage Towers and Ground Level Reservoirs
Water distributed to water towers and storage reservoirs ensures stable
water pressure. An adequate supply of water is maintained to meet peak water
demands or emergencies such as fires, water main breaks, power outages and
pump failures.
Distribution System
Distribution systems are comprised of large pipes known as trunk mains to
deliver drinking water. Smaller diameter branch mains feed individual streets.
Service connections to branch mains deliver water into residences. Pumping
stations are used to increase pressure and to maintain adequate supply flows.

 Raw Water Source

The various sources of water can be classified into two categories:

1. Surface sources, such as

a. Ponds and lakes;
b. Streams and rivers;
c. Storage reservoirs; and
d. Oceans, generally not used for water supplies, at present.
2. Sub-surface sources or underground sources, such as
a. Springs;
b. Infiltration wells; and
c. Wells and Tube-wells.

 Water Quality

The raw or treated water is analyzed by testing their physical, chemical and
bacteriological characteristics:

 Physical Characteristics:

1.) Turbidity
2.) Color
3.) Taste and Odor
4.) Temperature

 Chemical Characteristics:

1.) pH
2.) Acidity
3.) Alkalinity
4.) Hardness
5.) Chlorides
6.) Sulphates
7.) Iron
8.) Solids
9.) Nitrates

 Bacteriological Characteristics:

 Bacterial examination of water is very important, since it indicates the degree of

pollution. Water polluted by sewage contain one or more species of disease producing
pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic organisms cause water borne diseases, and many
nonpathogenic bacteria such as E.Coli, a member of coliform group, also live in the
intestinal tract of human beings. Coliform itself is not a harmful group but it has more
resistance to adverse condition than any other group. So, if it is ensured to minimize the
number of coliforms, the harmful species will be very less. So, coliform group serves as
indicator of contamination of water with sewage and presence of pathogens.

 The methods to estimate the bacterial quality of water are:

1.)Standard Plate Count Test

2.) Most Probable Number
3.) Membrane Filter Technique

 Estimation of raw water discharge

Methods available for measuring site discharge
1. Bucket and Stopwatch
2. Float Method
3. Manning’s Equation
1. Bucket and stopwatch
 Very easy method to estimate discharge is to simply measure the time it takes to fill a
container of a known volume.
 Only works for systems with fairly low flow volume.

 Its main limitation is that the discharge must fall from a pipe or ditch in such a way that
the bucket can be placed underneath it to capture all the discharge.

2. Float method
 Requires the measurement and calculation of the cross-sectional area of the channel as
well as the time it takes an object to “float a designated distance.
 Use in a discharge from a site that flows through an open ditch or channel

3. Manning’s equation
 Used for open channels and partially filled pipes when the flow moves by the force of
gravity only (not pressurized).
 Widely used for flow measurements

 Design Period
- it is the number of years in future for which the given facility is available to meet the
 Mostly water works are designed for design period of 20-30year Population
 Factors Considered for Selection of Design Period

1.) Life of the structure

 Life of structure is the number of years in future for which the design
period is physically suitable to provide the intended facility. So it should
be less than life of structure.
2.) Ease or difficulty in extension
 For the projects whose extension is easily possible, it is kept low. For
example, we can install new tube wells at any time, so we do not need to
install all tube wells which would be required after 20 years. But for the
projects whose extension is difficult, their design period is kept
greater. For example, dams and reservoirs cannot be extended easily.
3.) Rate of population growth
 If the rate of population growth is higher, then for that region shorter
design period is required.
4.) Lead time
 It is the time from the commencement of a project to its completion.
Design period should be greater than lead time.
5.) Economy of scale
 The decrease in average cost as the size of facility increase is known as
economy of scale. If the economy of scale is small, smaller design period
will be used. It is economical to build a large structure, for longer design
6. Performance time
 Structures are checked under working condition for some time, which
should not be considered in design period. During this time, it is not
providing facility to community.

 Treatment Plant Site Selection

A Suitable Location
 Is not likely to pose any health threat to the environment as well as the people.
 Large enough for locating central wastewater treatment plant(s).
 Accessible
 No negative aesthetic effect to the city
 Gain the support of the people

 Factors Considered in Site Selection of Treatment Plant

1.) Ecology – the consideration of impact on animals, plants and their
2.) Water – the consideration of impacts on the surface water environment.
3.) Air and Noise - the consideration of air and noise pollution.
4.) Cultural Heritage - the consideration of existing archaeological and built
5.) Soils, Geology and Hydrogeology – the consideration of impact on soils,
geology and hydrogeology.
6.) Landscape and visual – the consideration of landscape and visual impact.
7.) Agronomy – the consideration of impact on land based enterprise.
8.) People – the consideration of impacts on people.
9.) Planning – the consideration of planning and land use policy in relation to
proposed works.

10.) Engineering - the consideration of technical challenges associated with

proposed works.
11.) Traffic - the consideration of impact on traffic and road network.

 Selection of Treatment Train

 Treatment train

- is a sequence of multiple storm water treatments which are designed to

meet the needs of a particular environment, in order to maximize results.

Main factors to consider when SELECTING a wastewater treatment system

There are three main factors that will help choose the ideal wastewater treatment train:
1. What are the wastewater characterizations of the production facility?
2. What are the regulatory requirements for discharge from the plant?
3. What are the outcomes of a thorough wastewater treatability study and pilot test?
All these factors will determine what type of wastewater treatment system is needed.
For example, if a plant runs a plating operation, some of the issues often addressed
are pH stabilization and suspended solids and metals removal. A wastewater
treatment system in this case will usually have some type of physical/chemical
clarification and metals removal.

What are the regulatory requirements for discharge from the plant?
Releasing wastewater into the environment
Under the National Pollution Control Law (PD 984) which was repealed by the Clean
Water Act, discharge of untreated wastewater to any waterbody is prohibited.
Industrial wastewater is being regulated by Environment Management Bureau through
the permitting system and industries are required/mandated to treat wastewater through the
installation of wastewater treatment facility.

Discharging wastewater into the local area

Local Government Units are the key players in the Water Quality Management Areas
designated by Department of Environment and Natural Resources in accordance with
Sec. 5 of the Clean Water Act and its IRR.
LGUs shall share the responsibility in the management and improvement of water quality
within their territorial jurisdictions. (Sec. 20)

 When to use treatment trains

o Treatment trains are important when a treatment measure needs pre-treatments

to remove pollutants, such as nutrients and fine sediments, that would
otherwise impact its performance. For example, wetlands are designed to
remove nutrients (e.g. fertilizers) and heavy metals from storm water, but will
perform poorly if gross pollutants (litter) and coarse sediments (gravel and
sand) are not removed by a sediment pond upstream of the wetland.

 Typical combinations

o Select and order treatment measures appropriately to protect wetlands and

raingardens from gross pollutants and coarse sediments.
Group 1

Water Treatment Plant

1. Layout plan and section of water treatment plan
2. Estimation of raw water discharge for treatment plant
3. Design period
4. Factors considered for selection designed period
5. Treatment plant of site selection
6. Factors considered for treatment plant of site selection
7. Future stages of expansion
8. Selection of treatment train


Evina, Mary Rose B.

Padilla, Cherry Ann T.
Proelss, James Jey H.
Selmo, Bernard Sam L.