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Introduction to Information Technology

Chapter one
1. An overview of information and communication technology

Information and Society

Society refers to a group of people who share a defined territory and a culture. Society is often
understood as the basic structure and interactions of a group of people. Historically there has
been a move through the ages from one type of society to another. Each of these types are
categorized by the dominant economic force of the period. There is Moving from the land, on to
manufacturing and then to service.
I Agrarian Society
 Agrarian society is a social system where there is concentration of most active
population, production, and capital in agriculture and extraction from nature.
 Agrarian societies are also called Pre-modern, or Pre-industrial society.
 Agrarian societies are societies in which the primary means of subsistence is the
cultivation of crops using a mixture of human and non-human means (i.e., animals and/or
machinery). Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber, and other desired
products by the cultivation of plants and the raising of domesticated animals.
Historical Developments of agricultural society: the agricultural society by itself can be
divided in to three stages of development:

1. Hunting, Fishing, and Gathering Societies

2. Horticultural Societies
3. Agrarian Society
 Before the 1800 people lived in partnership with the land
 Majority of the workers / people were farmers whose lives revolved around agriculture
 Entire families worked hard to provide enough food for themselves

 Industrial society is a social system whose mode of production focuses primarily on
finished goods with the aid of machinery.
 Industrial society is a social system where there is concentration of most active
population, production, and capital in Industry and manufacturing.
 An industrial society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is industry.
Industry is a system of production focused on mechanized manufacturing of goods.
 Freedom of information became one of the corner stone of democracy in industrial
society. Citizens being able to exchange information freely

Introduction to Information Technology
 Because of the spread of literacy and scientific knowledge, modern information became a
new collective property.
 In 1800s came the industrial age , first to England .
o This time, machines began assisting people with their work extending workers
capabilities and the partnership became one between people and machine
o Machines became the primary tools for majority of workers
o Process were gradually simplified through mechanization and automation resulting in the
number of workers in the industry area


Information society is a social system in which the economy is highly dependant on gathering,
Processing and transmission of information. The historical background of the information society
goes back to the 1970s when saturation in the industrial world was at its peak. Manufacturers
have started to overproduce and look for new markets in the world. The information age is the
period that began in 1960 in which the majority of workers were involved in the creation
distribution and application of information.
 Workers involved in the creation ,distribution , and application of information are
commonly referred to as knowledge workers ;
 These workers are mostly involved in information related activities

A post-industrial society/information society is a society in which the primary means of

subsistence is derived from service-oriented work, as opposed to agriculture or industry.
 It is characterized by:-
 High degree of computerization
 Large volume of electronic data transmission.
 Economic profile dominated by: Industries and occupations related to information
production and distribution.
 Information society consists two major processes:-
 Production of information.
 Consumption of information.
 Information age began in 1960 with knowledge workers
o In 1957, in USA , the number on of white collar workers outnumbered the number blue
collar workers
o This date marked the beginning of the information age
o In the information age the partnership is between people and the principal tool is
information technology

Introduction to Information Technology

Agricultural age Industrial age Information age

Time period Pre 1800 1800s to 1957 1957 to present
Majority of workers Farmers Factory workers Knowledge workers
Partnership People and land People and machines People and people
Principal tool Hand tools Machines Information technology

Information Hierarchy / Knowledge Spectrum

The objective of this chapter is to make students understand the difference between data and
information, processing data and information as well as describe the knowledge spectrum. Most
people use data and information interchangeably, however these terms are different. In order to
clearly understand what information, data, and knowledge are? The knowledge spectrum is good
way of expression. This hierarchical growth shows what, where and when information can be

Data is a Collection of merely symbols which do not have meaning by them selves. They are
facts or figures to be processed.

Information is a processed form of data so that it is meaning full to the person receiving it.
Information is data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human

• Information extends the concept of data in a broader context - collection of facts

organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves
• When data are processed to be useful; to provide answers to "who", "what", "where",
and "when" questions
• Data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection (say cause and effect
relationship). Data with context by the way of relational connections.
• Data about a particular subject, put in a context
Introduction to Information Technology
• Filtered data
• Useful for decision making
• Its value depends on its perceiver
Information: Clusters of facts those are meaningful and useful to human beings in the processes
such as making decisions.

Knowledge comprises strategy, practice, method, or approach (how).

 is organized information or piece of information that can be used for decision making.

In short, knowledge= Information + understanding of the pattern

When a pattern relation exists beyond the data and information, the pattern has the potential to
represent knowledge. It only becomes knowledge, however, when one is able to realize and
understand the patterns and their implications

• All the information, facts, truths, and principles learned throughout time, experience or
• Once you spend some time interpreting and understanding a body of information, then you
have knowledge.
• Creating knowledge still takes brains, thought and time - especially today when there is so
much more information available to paddle through
• Accumulation of data and information acquired through time and requires deep thought
that provides prediction of the future

Wisdom is the most abstract and exists in the smallest quantity. It is the maturity of mind that
directs its intelligence to desirable goals. Intelligence can be constructed as the ability to draw
inferences from the available knowledge. Wisdom is the ability to understand the fundamental
principles that govern the patterns representing knowledge.

Wisdom arises when one understands the foundational principles responsible for the patterns
representing knowledge being what they are. And wisdom, even more so than knowledge, tends
to create its own context

• The knowledge and experience needed to make sensible decisions and judgments, or the
good sense shown by the decisions and judgments made.
• Accumulated knowledge of life or in a particular sphere of activity that has been gained
through experience.
• An opinion that almost everyone seems to share or express.
• "Wisdom is not a product of schooling but of the lifelong attempt to acquire it.” Albert
• Our grandparents may perhaps have been short on book smarts (“knowledge”) but long
on wisdom. In an “information age,” technology cannot confer wisdom: wisdom takes
more time to develop and cultivate than even knowledge does (how many people do you
know with advanced degrees who lack wisdom or wise judgment? And vice versa?).

Introduction to Information Technology
• Wisdom comes from: the ability to synthesize various streams of knowledge, the ability
to spot patterns and trends.
• The accumulated body of knowledge over a long period of time that generally leads to a
sound decision making and enables to make reasonable judgments, acceptable and
sharable among the constituents
• embodies principle, insight, moral, or archetype (why).

 Data is not information.
 A collection of information is not knowledge.

 A collection of knowledge is not wisdom.

 A collection of wisdom is not truth.

1.1What is ICT?

Information and communications technology (ICT) refers to the use of electronic computers
and the telecommunications network to create, store, process, send, and receive information from
anywhere, anytime.
Hence, it refers to both computer and communication technologies

Information Technology is the use of modern technology to aid the capture, processing, storage
and retrieval, and communication of information, whether in the form of numerical data, text,
sound, or image.
It refers to a wide variety of items and abilities used in the creation, storage, and dispersal of
It is the study of information handling and its use in society by means of modern technology.
This includes the acquisition, processing, storage and communication of information in any form
by appropriate means
1.2 Components of IT.
Information technology is divided into three primary components. These are
 computers,
 communications networks, and
 know-how.
1. Computers
• Computer, in simple terms, is an electronic machine that can be instructed to accept, process,
store, and present data and information
• Computer is a device that enables you to process information automatically and in accordance
with instructions that you give it.
• Computers have become part of the day-to-day activities of people around the globe. It is
difficult to think any field that does not involve or is not affected by computers.
2. Communications Network
An integral part of IT is the ability to communicate: to send and receive data and information
over a communication network.
A communications network is the connection of stations at different locations through a medium
that enables people to send and receive data and information.
Introduction to Information Technology
o Telephone wires and cables are common communication media.
Data communication is the transmission of data and information over a communications
3. Know-how
Although computers and data communication are very important parts of IT, an equally critical
part of IT is the ability to draw on the power of IT to solve problems and to take advantages of
the opportunities it creates.
Therefore IT requires or implies know-how, knowing how to do something well.
Know- how includes
 familiarity with the tools of IT
 the skills needed to use these tools
 Understanding when to use IT to solve a problem
1.3 Functions and application of IT
1.3.1Functions of IT
Information Technology using computers has the following functions:
A. Capture
It is often useful to compile detailed records of activities.
Data capture is performed when IT users expect the data to be useful later.
When a book is checked out of the library, the name & ID. No. of the borrower, the title, author
& call number of the book is captured.
A doctor records the pulse, heart rate, and WBC count of hospital patients.
The voice and data recorders in aircraft cockpits capture the pilot's conversations and record
flight data about the aircraft’s location and performance.
B. Processing
• is most often associated with computers.
• is the main reason to buy computers
• entails converting, analyzing, computing and synthesizing all forms of data or information.
• Information/data may come in different forms
• text ports, correspondence
• sound voice, music
• images visual information (Charts, graphs, drawings etc.)
Multimedia systems
• are systems that process multiple types of information simultaneously. other types of
processing are
Word processing Word processing is the creation of text-based documents, including reports
newsletter etc.
Image processing
can be managed within a computer system.
• A process called scanning converts a print or film image into a form that a computer can use.
Voice processing is the processing of spoken information
C. Generation
• Generating information means organizing data & information into a useful form whether as
text, sound or image.
D. Storage and Retrieval
• Through information storage, computers keep data and information for later use.
• Stored data & information all placed in a storage medium that the computer can read.
• Retrieval entails locating and copying stored data or information for further processing or for
transmission to another user.
Introduction to Information Technology
E. Transmission
• the sending of data or information from one location to another
• Modern communications networks enable us to send information down the hall or around the
world in an instant.
1.3.2 Application of IT
The main areas of applications can be listed as follows:
In education
As learning Aids
Example: learning toys, programs range from simple arithmetic to calculus, from English
grammar to creative writing and foreign language, and from basic graphics to engineering design
In educational activities On the other hand, computers can be used in educational activities to
assist both the learner and the teacher. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) helps the learning-
teaching process in schools and colleges. Computers can be used to deliver lectures using
presentation software. Computers can also be used in educational administration such as:
- keeping records of students,
- keeping inventories of books in the library, text books, chemicals in the laboratory and safety
information, and other instructional materials,
- setting timetables for subjects, and
- delivering lectures.
An important application of computers in the education sector is distance education, also called
distance learning (e-learning)
Distance learning is a method of teaching in which students are not required to be physically
present in a school or a university.
Written material, videos, audiotapes, and CD-ROMs are sent to the student. The student sends
back answers to exercises and assignments. Nowadays the Internet can be used for distance
learning. Websites can be set up with information for the learner and e-mail can be used to
communicate with a tutor.
Examples: Games
Commercial or business applications
Computers are needed to perform business operations that require handling large amounts of
data. Several computer applications are available to assist business in working with large
volumes of data.
Examples are:
 Text processing
 Accounting and Finance management
 Inventory control
 Database management
 Statistical analysis
Scientific – engineering and research applications
Using computers for scientific research, complex mathematical calculations, design
work, and analysis and control of physical systems.

Examples are:
 Space technology
 Meteorological observatory systems
 Astronomical investigations
Introduction to Information Technology

 Design of machines and

 Control of manufacturing process
Electronic Banking and Service:
Example: Teller Machine (customers are issued cards that permit them to use other banks teller
Online banking (A bank customer can use his/ her computer to check account balances, transfer
funds, pay bills)
Shopping from Home
Individual may now shop by computer in the comfort of their home.
Household Control
A growing number of the newer houses hold devices are computers controlled. For example:
Security systems, refrigerators, microwave ovens, washers, stereos, and televisions. This
computer controlled home security system monitors movements, broken glass, unlawful entry
without a security code, and so on, and alerts the local police department.
Weather and Environment
Computer equipment may show temperature ranges , precipitation levels and wind flow and can
used in weather forecasting. Computer can also helped in overcoming environmental hazards.
Computers have affected almost every kind of transportation. Many aircraft can fly under the
control of the computer; in this situation, the captain simply serves as a manger by telling the
computer what to do. In Cars, computers have provided functional controls such as spark and
fuel control.
Medical and Health Care
Computers have long been used by hospitals for routine record keeping. Today, however, many
people owe their lives to the computer. Computers are used in hospitals as sensors (device that
detect changes in blood pressure, heart rate, temperature), testing (scan the body and provide 3-D
figure), patient treatment.
Routine and Dangerous Tasks
Computers are used in routine tasks. And they can perform task in environments to dangerous for
human workers.
Consultant (Expert system)
An Expert system is a computer program, which can solve problems from a specific knowledge
base. These systems don't replace expert humans because the knowledge base of expert system is
given from the skilled specialist.
Example: Mycin (a medical diagnostic program by using sophisticated decision making process).

1.4 Information and data processing

Data processing is the handling of data and transforming them into information.
E.g. calculating the balance in a check book.
Information processing is a general term for a computer activity that entails processing any
type of information and transforming it into a different type of information

Data processing can be done manually, where brain, paper, and pencil are used. It can be done
with the aid of electro-mechanical devices such as a calculator. It can also be done electronically
using a computer as a tool. In the rest of this note, data processing is assumed to be done using

Introduction to Information Technology
The objective of data processing is “getting the right information to the right person at the right
time”. Hence, if the information is to be valuable, a data processing system must meet some
Accuracy: The individual steps in the processing of data must be accurate.
The input data to the processing system must also be accurate.
There is a saying “Garbage In, Garbage Out or GIGO” to express that wrong input data generate
wrong and useless results.
Timeliness: The right information delivered too late can be as useless as no information at all,
i.e., the data processing system has to be fast.
Meaningfulness: The information produced by the data processing system must be meaningful to
the people using the information. i.e.
the information must be appropriate and relevant to the user’s needs.
the report presented must be compressible. Both the format and the content of the report must
be easy to read and understand.

Attributes of Quality Information

Information will be considered a quality if it fulfills the following triple dimensions. These
dimensions limit the Value of Information. This value is also relative, not absolute. These are
(time, content and form)

Timing (timeliness, currency, frequency, time period)

– Knowing last weeks lottery numbers are of little value to most peoplkl
– Delays can impact value; however old information may have historical value so
timeliness refers to time on your need of information.

Content (accuracy, completeness, relevance, scope, performance, and conciseness)

– Reliability and correctness of the information based on the user’s evaluation technique.
– What is the source of information?
Gossip – Not very reliable
– Weekly World News – Fact vs. Exaggeration
Form (clarity, detail, order, presentation, and media)
- The information must be delivered with the appropriate media, or form. This increases
accessibility. Any information produced should be accessed by those that need it. E.g. A
text may not be good for blinds.

Information features(characteresticcsa)
• Is a value added resource: the more you utilize information the more its value will be
• Is a shared resource. Land labour and capital are not sharable resources. Nowadays the
other vital resource is information, what make information special is that it is sharable.
You can share information having you share in you hands. Where as the other resources
mentioned can not be shared, or will be minimized at the time you share them.
• Its value depends upon its use: you can easily use information for any thing you have.
Its value depends if and only if you use it.
Introduction to Information Technology
• Has a high rate of obsolescence: the very unique feature on information is it is up-to-
date-ness. It becomes meaningless if it time passes. i. e shortest duration of relevancy
• Vulnerable to security risks: information is easily vulnerable like cash is a liquid asset
for business information needs even a strong security. i. e sensitive with regard to its
• Involves cost: information is not a free resources it needs initial cost. i. e cost of
production, dissemination, etc
Data processing: is the process of converting data into information. The following are basic
data processing activities.
1. Data collection: data processing activity that involves getting data from the origin to the
2. Data recording: the process of expressing data in a form that is recognizable by either a
person or a machine.
3. Data classification: a process of categorizing all items of data according to common
characteristics and features.
4. Data sorting: the arrangement of data items in a desired sequence.
5. Data store: retaining the data for future reference.
6. Retrieving data: refers to finding a specific stored data.
7. Summarizing data: is the process of condensing data.
8. Data communication: distributions of information to the specific end users.

1.4.1 Data Processing Cycle

As defined earlier, data processing is the process of converting data into information. It involves
three steps: input, processing, and output as shown in the following figure.

Input Processing Output

In general, a computer gets input through an input device such as a mouse or a keyboard,
processes it according to the set of instructions given to it, and generates an output.
Input: refers to anything that is given to a computer for processing. It may take various forms
such as numbers for calculation, text to be printed, etc.
Processing: The computer has to be told what to do with the input. That means a computer must
be programmed with the set of instructions it is required to perform.
Output: refers to the result of data processing such as a printed text. Once the computer
processes the input using the instructions given to it, it produces an output using an output device
such as a screen or a printer. The output may take different forms. It may be a printout of the
results of students, playing music using speakers attached to the computer, etc.
As discussed earlier, one of the criteria for a data processing system is accuracy of the result.
This in turn requires input data accuracy. When data is given as input to the computer, we have
to make sure that it is correct and meaningful so that the result or the output of the data

Introduction to Information Technology
processing is also meaningful. Ensuring data accuracy means the input data is not in any way
wrong. This can be done using two techniques: Data Verification and Data Validation.

1.4.3 Data Verification and Validation

Data Verification and Validation are checks to make sure that data entered into a computer is
When entering data onto a system it is important that this data is accurate. There is a term in
computing: Garbage In, Garbage Out (GIGO). What this means is that if you put wrong
information into a computer you will get wrong information out of a computer. Data verification
and validation have been developed to make sure that the data entered is accurate

Information system:
An information system is a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that
are designed to generate information that supports the day-to-day, short-range, and long-range
activities of users in an organization.
An Information system is a set of inter-related components that collects (or retrieves), process,
store and distribute information to support decision-making and control, coordination, and
visualization in an organization. An information system is a set of the following components
• Hardware – computer components and network devices
• Software – programs applications, operating systems or specific software
• Data – an input to be processed for decision making
• People – professionals who process and interpret the result on a given condition and users
who accept the result of the system
• Procedural – list of instructions that people must follow while processing data on this
These components intended to provide the right data and information to the right person at the
right time.
 Problems of information systems
 Lack of Infrastructure
 Lack of management confidence on the use of it
 Inaccurate information leads to wrong decision
 Low status and recognition of IT Professional
 Lack of conceptualization i.e. no/less knowledge of its importance

Introduction to Information Technology

Chapter two
2. Evolution and types of computers
2.1. History of Computers

The invention of Computers is dated back to 3000 B.C. when the first computing device Abacus
was created.
The French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal developed the first
mechanical adding machine in 1642 to help his father, a civil servant in tax calculations.
Blaise’s adding machine used gears with teeth to represent numbers.

In 1842 an English mathematician, Charles Babbage was attempting to develop an automatic

computing device for calculation called “Difference engine” but it was never finished. With the
aid of lady August Ada Lovelace, Babbage turned his talents to the development of an analytical
machine to compute astronomical tables for the Navy. The analytical machine was to be a digital
machine capable of one addition per second with data entered from punched cards and a built in
storage unit. Though the project suffered from financial & tooling limitations (it was 100 years
head of its time). Babbage & Lovelace left special schematic symbols, sketches and detailed
drawing of the machine.

The 1880 census had taken over seven years to complete by manual method and by then the
young country’s population had increased nearly 24 percent. It was at this time, Herman
Hollerith, a government statician provided the solution with a punched card system of collecting
and tabulating the data. His strong and tabulating equipment or machine was extremely
successful and allowed the 1890 census to be completed in less than two years. Hollerith
continued to develop his card methods for railroad accounting and founded the tabulating
machine company which later changed to International Business Machine Corporation (IBM).

In 1945, two University of Pennsylvania scientists, John Mauchly & Presper Eckert, designed the
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC), the first general purpose electronic
digital computer. It had over 18,000 vacuum tubes and 500,000 soldered joints and it weighed
more than 30 tones and it occupied over 15,000 Ft 2. It consumes enormous amounts of power
(140 Kilowatts of power).

 ENIAC did not use internally stored programs. Programs were wired on boards
similar to a telephone switch board.
 One of the major drawbacks of ENIAC was that it had to be programmed manually
by setting switches and plugging and unplugging cables.

Eckert and Mauchly subsequently developed the UNIVAC-I (Universal Automatic computer),
the first electronic computer offered as a commercial product.

John Von Neuman, a mathematician genius at Princeton, is sometimes called the intellectual
father of computer. He has been credited with developing highly significant stored program
theory, and his 1946 paper entitled “A preliminary discussion of the logical design of an
Electronic computing instruments” is the authoritative statement on storing data and instruction

Introduction to Information Technology
in computers. He also defined and promoted flowcharts as logic aids.
TABLE: Starting of modern Computer Age(1909-1951)
Year Computing Device And Usefulness
1909 First Accounting Machine -was capable of sorting, recording the
(Charles Kattering, National data
Case register company-
1938 ZI(K, Zuse, Germany) -Design first program controlled
computer and was purely a mechanical
1941 Z3(K, Zuse, Germany) -support to be the first computer of the
world and was destroyed in second world
war bombing.
1944 Harvard Mark-1 (Haward -First successful general purpose digital
Aikan, Harvard university, computer.
1946 ENIAC -was full fleged electronic computer and
(Electronic Numeric used cathod ray tube for storage purpose.
Integrator and Calculator)
-John w.Mauchly an J.
Presfer Eckert at
pennysloania Univ.
1949 EDSAC Was the first computer to utilities stored
(Electronic Delay Storage program concept and mercury delay lines
Automatic Computer – were used for storage and paper tape for
M.V. Wilkes Cambridge input and output.
1950 EDVAC
(Electronic Discrete
Variable Automated
Computer –M.V. Wilkes
Cambridge University)
1950 ACE First computer to use two address
(Automatic Computer code(one to signify the location of the
Engine – National Physical data to be operated on and the other for
Laboratory) the address of the next instruction).
1951 LEO -world’s first commercial computer
Lyon’s Electronic office – which made the concept of office
M.V. Wilkes, J. Lyons & automation a reality.
1951 UNIVAC I -Developed for Commercial data
(Universal Accounting processing.
Company Set up by Eckert
& Mauchly)

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2.2. Generation of Computers

Although computer professionals do not agree on exact dates or specifics, computer

developments are often categorized by generations. Actually there are four generations and
major characteristics that distinguish these generations are the following;

 Dominant type of electronic circuit elements used.

 Major secondary storage media used.
 Computer language used.
 Types or characteristic of operating system used.
 Memory access time (a time to store or retrieve a word or data from memory).

Computer generations are usually categorized by dramatic improvement in the hardware,

typically tenfold or better increases in speed and reliability.

First generation (1950s)

This generation computers used vacuum tubes as components for the electronic circuit. Punched
cards were the main source of inputs, and magnetic grams were used for internal storage. They
operate in a speed of milliseconds (thousands of a second) and could handle more than 10,000
additions each second. Most applications were scientific calculations.

Second generations (early 1960s)

Transistors were the main circuit components. Invented by Bell Labs, the transistor was smaller,
faster and more reliable than the vacuum tube. Magnetic cores, used for main storage, could be
concerned in microseconds (millionths of a second) with more than 200,000 additions possible
each second. Business applications become more common place, with large data files stored on
magnetic tape and disk.

The most widely used second generations were

Examples (IBM/ International Business marketing series)
IBM 1620 –small scientific computers
IBM 1401 –small to medium commercial computers
IBM 7094 –large scientific computer
High level languages COBOL and FORTRAN were introduced during this period. Batch
operating systems are used that permitted rapid processing of magnetic tape files.

Third generation (late 1960s, early 1970s)

It was characterized by solid-state logic and integrated circuit (IC). Computer storage switched
from magnetic cores to integrated circuit boards that provide modularity (expandable storage)
and compatibility (interchangeable equipment). Software become more important with
sophisticated operating systems, improved programming languages, and new input/output
methods such as optical scanning and plotters.

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 IBM system /360 was the dominant
 IBM 1130

Fourth generation (late 1970s,early 1989s,)

It has greatly expanded storage capabilities and improved circuitry. It has large scale integrated
circuits (LSI) which has several hundred thousands transistors placed on one tiny silicon chip.
Computer memory operates at speeds of nano-seconds (billionths of a second) with large
computers capable of adding 15 million numbers per second.

The fifth generation computer

It is in progress. An architecture, which makes use of the changes in technology and allows a
simple and natural methodology for solving problems is being sought.
These computers will have:
 Intelligent processors, i.e., processors which can draw inferences.
 Users will also be able to interact with them in natural languages such as English, German
Japans are working intensively on the project for developing the 5 th generation.

2.3 Characteristics of Computers

The characteristics of a computer shows the capability and the potential of the computer for
processing data. This saves time, space, money, labor etc.
There are four basic characteristics of computer.
 Speed
The most important characteristic of a computer is its speed. Computer works only one
step at a time.
It’s speed is measured by the amount of time it took to perform or carry out a basic
operation. Computer speed measured in terms of micro second (10 -6 one millionths), nano
second (10-9 one billionths), and pico second (10 -12 one trillionths).
 Storage
You can image how much space a paper of seconds or data of a census it needs. Not only
the space, also the time it took to get or retrieve a specific information from such vast
amount of data is not negligible.

But a computer can store such amount of information in a few numbers of disks. And the
time it took to retrieve or process a single information is not more than a micro or a nano
seconds. In general a computer has a capacity to store a very large amount of information
in organized manner so that accessing information is very fast.
 Accuracy

Now a days computers are being used for surgical purposes which needs almost hundred
percent accuracy. From this we can understand that computer is accurate and consistent.
Unless there is an error in the input data or unreliable program the computer processes
with a very accurate.

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 Automatic
Once necessary information and program is feed to the computer, it performs processing
without human intervention.
 Versatility
Computer has the potential to perform or solve varieties of tasks and problems, as long as
the problem or the task can be put or reduced in the form of logical steps.
2.3. Types of Computers
There are different types of computers. Their differences depends on different categories of
Classification by the method of operation (processing)
Computers are classified by the type of data they are designed to process. They are classified into
Analog, Digital and hybrid Computers
Analog computers operate by measuring. They deal with continues variables, they don’t compute
directly with numbers, rather, they operate by measuring physical magnitude such as pressure,
temperature, voltage, current etc.
 Thermometer
 Voltmeter
 Speedometer
 Gasoline pomp – Contains an analog Computer that converts the flow of pumped fuel
into two measurements the price of the delivered gas and the quantity of pumped fuel.
They are special purpose computers.
However, analog computers have limited accuracy
Digital Computers
Digital computers deal with discrete variables, they operate by counting rather than measuring.
They operate directly up on numbers (or digits) that represent numbers, letters, or other special
 Abacus
 Desk & pocket computers
 The general purpose computers
Digital computers have very high accuracy and speed than the analog ones.

Hybrid computers
The best features of analog and digital computers can be combined into a single device to form a
hybrid computer. Hybrid computers processes the information by collecting input data with
analog method, converts it into digital quantities, processes the digital values and convert the
output from digital to analog form.
In hospital insensitive-care unit analog devices may measure a patient’s heart function,
temperature and other vital signs. These measurements may then be converted into
numbers and supplied to a digital component in the system. This component is used to
monitor the patient’s vital signs and to send an immediate signal to the nurse’s station if
any abnormal readings are detected.

Introduction to Information Technology
Classification by purpose of application
Computers can be applied or used for different purposes. Based upon their application, they are
classified as special purpose or general purpose computers.
Special purpose computers
They are designed to solve a single type of problem, that is their components and their functions
are uniquely adapted to a specific situation involving specific application.
 The public telephone box
 Traffic control system
 Ticket machines (used in grocery, super market etc.)
 Pocket-calculators etc.
 Counters
Most analog computers are special purpose computers.
General purpose computers
They are designed to solve variety of problems through the use of “store program concept”. A
program or set of instructions designed to solve a problem is read and stored into the memory
and then executed by the computer one by one. The same computer can be applied to solve
another set of problem using different program. General computers are more flexible and
 Micro computers
 Mini computers
 Super computers etc.
Classification by physical size, price, capacity and performance
At this stage, by a computer, we mean a general-purpose digital computer. General-purpose
digital computers are then classified as follows by their capacity and size.
Super computer
Are the fastest, largest and most potential type of computer. They have speed of hundreds of
millions of operation per second, a primary memory capacity of about 80 million characters, a
secondary memory of capacity of about 20 times its primary memory. They are multi-user
systems in intercontinental range. They can carry out enormously complex scientific
calculations. They are used to process huge amount of data and are commonly used in space
technology centers, meteorology stations, and astronomical observatories, intercontinental
communications, airline organizations.
Mainframe computers
Smaller than in size and capacity, lower in speed & memory capacity than the super computers.
However they are multi-user systems and handle hundreds of users, usually used in large
organizations. The older ones used punched card for data input.
Mini computers
have relatively lower speed, can handle multi-users, are smaller in size than the mainframe
computers. They use terminals for inputs and output. Mini computers are used in small
Micro computers
are the most widely used type of computers. They are single users, can fit on desktops, are of varying capacity and
easy to handle. Microcomputers are sometimes referred as personal computers. They have video display unit for
output purpose. Data is entered through the keyboard and by the help of floppy disk.

Introduction to Information Technology

Chapter Three
The Computer System

The computer system refers to the computer itself and all the components interconnected to it.
Basically the computer system is categorized into two components
The hardware-the physical device
The software-the programs or instructions that control the hardware
Hardware is the general term for the physical devices that carry out the activities of capturing,
processing, storing, and communicating data and information.

The computer hardware falls into four categories:

Input devices
Output devices
Storage devices
Input devices

An input device is any machine or device that feeds data into a computer.
Input devices are the part of computer hardware that is used to convert data or information into
electronic machine-readable form.
A cursor, a blinking line on the computer screen, indicates the point at which data or
information will be input. The following are some of the devices that are commonly used to
input data to the computer:
• Keyboard
• Mouse
• Voice recognition devices
• scanning devices
• Digital computer cameras
• Optical data readers
• Automatic teller machines, etc.
is an input device consisting of a set of typewriter-like keys that enable one to enter data into a
Input devices other than the keyboard are sometimes called alternate input devices.
The keys on the keyboard are often classified as follows:
Alphanumeric keys - Letters and numbers
Punctuation keys - comma, period, semicolon, etc.
Special keys- function keys, control keys, arrow keys, caps lock, etc.
In detail the following are descriptions of the keyboard.
Escape key - Generally used to abort some actions.
Function keys - functions vary from program to program.
Enter key - used to enter commands and to create blank lines in a document.
Backspace key - used to move the cursor backwards, deleting backward.

Introduction to Information Technology

Tab key - used to access tab stop.

Caps lock key - works like the shift lock. Key on a typewriter.
Shift key - used to produce upper case letters and sometimes to invoke commands
Control key & Alt key - commonly used in combination with other keys to enter commands e
g. Control home.
Insert key - used to enter characters.
Arrow keys - used to move the cursor around the display screen.
Delete keys - used to delete characters.
Number lock keys - used to activate the numeric keypad.
Print screen keys - used to print the contents of the screen.
The standard layout of letters, numbers, and punctuation is known as a QWERTY keyboard
because the first five keys on the top row of letters spell Q, W, E, R, T, and Y.
Considering the layout of the keys, keyboards can be designed in a different manner.
Ergonomic keyboards - are designed to reduce the strain while typing with the aim to prevent
stress related injuries. E.g. Microsoft’s natural keyboard.
Ergonomics - is the study of how human bodies interact with equipment in the work place.
Computer keyboards differ in four important ways.
a. Characters - depend on the country in which the keyboard is used. E.g. in Japan symbolic
keyboard containing the characters of the kanji language is widely used.
b. key arrangement
• The arrangement of the keyboard's key may differ. The most common in English- speaking
countries is the QWERTY keyboard.
• The other type of keyboard layout is the Dvorak Keyboard that uses an arrangement where by
the most commonly used letters are placed in the most accessible places. The home keys are the
five English vowel letters A, O, E, U, I (for the left hand) & the five most often used consonants
(D, H, T, N, S) are the home keys for the right hand.
• The next most frequently used letters are on the keys one row up, the next easier position to
c. Special purpose keys
The uses of the special function keys vary from program to program.
d. Detachability - Most desktop computers have keyboards that can be detached from the rest of
the computer systems; while laptops have built- in keyboard.
Mouse is a hand-operated device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a
display screen. It is a small object that can be rolled along a rough flat surface.
Its name is derived from its shape, which looks a bit a mouse; it’s connecting wire that one can
imagine to be the mouse’s tail and the fact that one must make it survey, along a surface.
Mouse can have as many as three buttons whose function depends on what program is running
Mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart of Stanford Research center in 1963. It is one of the
great breaks through in computer ergonomics because it fees the user to a large extent from using
the keyboard.
Types of mouse
a. Mechanical - has a rubber or metal ball on its underside that can roll in all directions.
Mechanical sensors within the mouse detect the direction the ball is rolling and move the
screen pointer accordingly.

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b. Opto-mechanical - same as mechanical mouse, but uses optical sensors to detect motion of
the ball.
c. Optical-uses a laser to detect the mouse’s movement.
• One must move the mouse on a special mat with a grid so that the optical mechanism will have
a frame of reference
Mouse is connected to computer in one of three ways.
• Serial Mice - connect directly to serial port or a PS/2 port. This is the simplest type of
o Port is that part of a computer through which a peripheral device may communicate; plug-
in/socket on the back of the computer for connecting cables for peripherals.
o Serial port is input/output port in a computer through which data are transmitted and
received one bit at a time. That is, handling of data is in a sequential fashion, bit by bit.
o Parallel transmits information 8 or more bits at one time:
Bus mice connect to the bus through an interface card.
o This is somewhat more complicated since one needs to configure and install an expansion
Cordless mice aren’t physically connected at all.
• Instead they rely on infrared (sing rays) or radio waves to communicate with the computer.
Mouse pad - is a pad on which you can move a mouse. It provides more traction than smooth
surfaces such as glass & wood, so they make it easier to move a mouse accurately.
• are input devices that can read text or illustrations printed on paper & translate the information
into a form that a computer can use.
Bar code scanners
• A bar code is a computer readable code consisting of bars or lines of varying widths or lengths
• Bar code system called Universal Product Code is used in supermarkets.
Speech recognition devices
• often used in multimedia systems
• capture the voice or sounds for use in computer processing
• converts a person’s input into digital form
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) & Memory
At the center of computer hardware is the CPU, sometimes called the processor, which executes
program instructions and performs the computer’s processing actions.
• It is the part of a computer hardware that executes program instructions.
• The CPU is the collection of electronic circuits made up of millions of transistors placed onto
integrated circuits.
• Integrated circuits are also called chips or microchips.
• Each transistor is an electrical switch that can be in one of two states: “on” or “off”
• Small transistors allow more transistors to be packed on to one chip. This process, called
integrating, brought about “PC revolution” in the 1980’s.
• Integrating means more of the CPU components can be placed onto a single chip, thus,
eliminating the need for separate chips.
• Computer processing is electronic. Hence we don’t see what is happening inside even if the
cover is removed. No moving parts are observed.

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The CPU has two major components.
• The Control Unit
• The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)

The control unit

The control unit is like the human brain and it oversees and controls all of the activities of the
All computer activities are carried out according to instructions the control unit issues Selects
& interprets program instructions and supervises that they are executed.
Has special purpose registers and a decoder to perform these activities
The special purpose registers; instruction registers, and the program control register hold the
current instruction and the next instruction, respectively.
The decoder has the necessary circuitry to decode and interpret the meaning of each and every
instructions supported by the CPU.
Each instruction is accompanied by microcode—very elementary and basic directions that tell
the CPU how to do the instruction.
The control unit serves as the central nervous system but it doesn’t actually execute
instructions or perform mathematical calculations.
The CPU manages and coordinates the entire computer system including the input and out put
Instructions are detailed descriptions of the actions to be carried out during input, processing,
output, storage and transmission.
The control unit does not actually execute the instructions (just as the braid does not do the
walking or the talking); rather it instructs directs other processing elements to do so.
Arithmetic/Logic unit (ALU)
is the other component of the CPU which contains the electronic circuitry that performs the
two activities that underline all computing capabilities: arithmetic operations and logical
Arithmetic operations include
addition, subtraction, multiplication &, division
Logical operations
Compares one element of information with the other. The comparison determines whether one
piece of information is greater than, less than or equal to the other.
Every CPU has built in ability to execute a particular set of machine instructions, called its
Instruction Set.
Most CPU have 200 or more instructions (such as add, subtract, compare) in their instruction
As each processor has a unique instruction set, machine Language programs written for one
computer will generally not run on another computer with a different CPU.
CPU’s made by different manufactures have different instruction sets.
Mostly manufactures tend to group their CPUs into families that have similar instructors set.
When a new CPU is developed, it is ensured that its instruction set include all the instruction
set of its predecessor CPU, plus some new ones. Thus manufacturing strategy is known as
upward compatibility and the new CPU is said to be upward compatible with its predecessors.

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Execution of Instruction
At the machine level execution of instruction has two phases: instruction phase (I-phase) and
execution phase (E-phase). These two phases are further decomposed to four steps.
In fact, all the functions of processing data are directed by the control unit which works with
ALU & memory to perform the following four steps.
1. Fetch Instruction
• The instruction to be executed is accessed from the memory by the control unit.
2. Decode Instruction
• The instruction is translated into individual commands so the central processor can understand
what is to be done.
• Relevant data is moved from memory to the register storage area.
• The location of the next instruction is identified.
These two steps, in which instructions are obtained and translated, are called instruction cycle
(I-cycle) and the time it takes to execute the first two steps is referred to as I - time.
3. Execute Instruction
The ALU does what it is instructed to do by the control unit. This could involve arithmetic
operations or logical comparisons.
4. Store Results.
The results of the execution are stored in registers or in the memory.
The last two steps that produce processing results are the execution cycle (E-cycle) and the
time it takes to perform the last two steps is known as Execution time (E-time).
The four steps or the two cycles together are known as machine cycle
After a machine cycle is completed for one instruction; it will be repeated for the second,
instruction, etc.
Some CPU’s can speed up processing by using pipelining.
Pipelining is a process where the CPU gets one instruction, decodes another, and executes the
third at the same time.
Are high-speed storage areas used to temporally hold small units of program instructions and
data immediately before, during and after execution by the CPU.
As instructions are integrated and executed by the CPU; there is a moment of integration
between the various units of the computer systems.
To handle these processes properly and to facilitate the speed of information transfer CPU uses
special memory units called registers.
Registers are used to hold information on a temporary basis and are part of the CPU (not main
The length of a register equals the number of bits it can store.
CPU contains the necessary circuitry for data processing and controlling the other components
of the computer system but it does not have sufficient space to store programs and data that are
needed during data processing.
Although CPU has registers for storing data and instructions; they are very small areas that can
hold few data and information at a time.
If instruction and data are to reside in the secondary storage area, it requires loading one by one
into the registers of the

Introduction to Information Technology
CPU as the program execution proceeds. This leads to making the CPU idle as the processing
speed of the CPU is much faster than the speed at which data can be transferred from disk to
CPU registers.
Memory also known as primary storage, main memory or internal memory is physically
located close to the CPU (to decrease access time).
The CPU interacts closely with memory - referring to it both for instructions and data and
information. However memory is separate from the CPU.
Memory provides the CPU with a working storage area for program instructions and data. The
chief feature of memory is that it rapidly provides the data and instructions to the CPU.
Memory space is used in five different ways.
• to hold the computers operating system program (DOS, Windows, etc.) that oversees
processing and acts as an interface between the hardware and the application programs.
• to hold applications programs - word processing, spreadsheet, etc.
• to hold data and information temporarily, receiving from input devices and sending them to
output devices during processing.
• to store other data or information needed in processing in the working storage area.
• to provide additional space for programs or data, as needed.
Memory size (storage capacity)
• Like the CPU, memory devices contain thousands of circuits imprinted on a silicon chip. By
representing data as a combination of on or off circuit states, the data is stored in memory.
• Computers vary widely in the amount of internal (primary) memory they have. The size of
memory is measured by the number of storage locations it contains. Each storage location or byte
has a predetermined capacity
• A byte is the amount of memory required to store one digit, letter or character. A byte is equal
to eight bits. Bytes are generally measured by
o kilobyte (kb, k-byte)
Although accepted as approximately one thousand, actually means 210 or 1,024. A storage
device with 640 KB capacity can hold 640 X 1,024 (or 655,360) bytes.
o megabyte (mb, M-byte) millions of bytes.
Accepted as approximately one million, actually equals 1,048,576 (1,024 X1,024 or 220)
o gigabytes (gb,G-bytes) billions of bytes
Accepted as approximately one billion, actually equals 1,073,741,824 (1,024 X 1,024 X 1,024,
or 230)
o terabyte (tb, T-byte) trillions of bytes
Accepted as approximately one trillion, actually equals 1,099,511,627,776 (1,024 X 1,024 X
1,024 X 1,024 or
RAM (Random Access Memory)
Random access means that data and information can be written to or read from the any memory
address at any time and randomly.
In main memory, bytes are identified by a memory address that allows the computer to
determine where an element of data or information is stored.
Stores data and instructions temporarily
It is volatile in that its contents exist as long as electric current is maintained.
RAM chips lose their contents if electric current is turned off or disrupted.

Introduction to Information Technology

RAM chips are directly mounted on the computer’s main circuit board on chips mounted on
peripheral cards that plugs into the computer’s main circuit board.
RAM chips consist of millions of switches that are sensitive to changes in electric current.
.ROM (Read Only Memory)
Provides random access to a memory location
Holds data and information even after the electrical current is turned off—it is non volatile.
Unlike the contents of RAM chips, the contents of ROM chips can not be changed—it provides
permanent storage.
Secondary Storage Devices
The term storage or secondary storage refers to the parts of a computer that retain data
permanently, even after turning off the computer. Examples of storage devices would be floppy
disk, hard disk, Compact Disk (CD), Digital Versatile Disk (DVD), and magnetic tape.
Commonly used secondary storage devices can be grouped as magnetic or optical. Magnetic
devices use magnetic technology to write and read data from the storage surface. This category
includes hard disk, floppy disk, and magnetic tape. On the other hand, optical storage devices use
laser technology. CD and DVD fall under this second category.
a) Magnetic Storage Devices
Floppy Disk
A storage medium that is made from a disk of flexible plastic (the "floppy" part) covered with a
magnetic material. The floppy disk is many decades old. The standard floppy disk can hold
1.44MB of data and has 3.5 inch diameter. Floppy disks are slow, unreliable and can hold much
less data than the other storage devices.
Hard Disk
A hard disk contains both the disk and the drive (the slot) that is used to read and write data on
the disk. A hard disk uses rigid turning disks to store data and programs. They have read/write
heads which can read data from the hard disk and write data to the hard disk. The hard disk drive
is sealed. This protects the hard disk drive internals from dust, condensation, and other sources of
contamination. Hard disks can store much more data than floppy disks, and access and transmit it
faster. Currently an average hard disk can store 60 to 80 GB of data. For both hard disks and
floppy disks, data is stored on the surface in sectors and tracks.
Magnetic Tape
A tape drive, also known as a streamer, is a device that reads data from and writes data to a
magnetic tape. It is typically used for archiving or backing up of data stored on hard disks.
Magnetic tapes are long lasting and inexpensive storage media.
b) Optical Storage Devices
Optical storage is a newer storage technology using a high-power laser beam to burn small holes
in a disk's surface coating. Data is represented by the presence and absence of holes in the disk’s
Optical media are more durable than tape and less vulnerable to environmental conditions. On
the other hand, they tend to be slower than typical hard disks, and hold less data.
Compact Disk (CD)
A compact disc (CD) is an optical disk used to store digital data.
It was originally developed for storing digital audio.

Introduction to Information Technology
Types of CDs
The different types of CDs include: CD-ROM, CD-R, and CD-RW:
CD-ROM (Compact Disc – Read Only Memory): is a version of the CD that allows the
information to be stored so that the user can only read from the disks. Once data is recorded on a
CD-ROM, new data cannot be stored and the disc cannot be erased.
Although CD-ROMs look like music discs, they can only be used with a computer equipped with
a CD-ROM drive.
CD-R (Compact Disc - Recordable): refers to compact disks that can be recorded only once, but
read many times. If the recorded content is no longer wanted, additional material can be recorded
only on the remaining space on the disk. The disks themselves are constructed differently from
ordinary CDs.
CD-RW (Compact Disc - Rewritable): is an extension of CD-R whereby you can rewrite data or
audio to the same CD many times. Not all CD drives can read CDRWs.
Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)
DVD is an optical disc storage media that can be used for storing data, including movies with
high video and sound quality. DVDs resemble CD: their physical dimensions are the same – 12
cm or the mini 8cm - but they are encoded in a different format. This enables DVDs to store
more data than that of CDs. A typical DVD can often hold more data than 6 CDs. DVDs can
store an entire movie, or several hours of audio.
Common Types of DVDs
DVD-ROM: These DVDs are read-only disks. They are accessed using a special DVD drive
attached to a personal computer. They are often used for movies (which are more specifically
referred to as DVD-Video) and computer games.
DVD-R: It offers a write-once, read-many time’s storage format similar to CDR, but can hold
more information than a CD-R.
DVD-RW: A recordable DVD format similar to CD-RW.
Output Devices
Output Devices are parts of the computer that are designed to receive output from the computer
and provide it to the user. Examples of output devices are monitors, speakers, and printers.
A monitor is an output device similar to a television screen that receives video signals from the
computer and displays the information for the user. It is the most commonly used output device
for displaying text and graphics from a computer.
Today's monitors have much better quality displays than any TV. There are two main types of
CRTs (Cathode Ray Tubes): have a large part at the back and are most common on desktop
LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays): are flat screens and are commonly used on laptops and some
desktop systems.
Monitors differ in several ways. However, the major differences are the resolution and the
number of colors it can produce at those resolutions.
Resolution refers to how clear the image on the monitor is. It is a width times height
measurement of computer monitor display capabilities in pixels. Pixels are individual dots that
are used to display an image on a computer monitor. The more pixels a screen can show, the
higher the quality.

Introduction to Information Technology
Resolution refers to how clear the image on the monitor is. It is measured in pixels, which are
individual dots that are used to display an image on a computer monitor.
The more pixels a screen can show, the higher the quality.

A printer is a device that produces a paper copy, sometimes called a hard copy, of data stored in
a computer. Broadly speaking, there are two types of printers: impact printers and non-impact
Impact Printer
With this type of printer, a pin or a hammer strikes the paper and the ribbon together to form a
character, like a typewriter. Impact printers are less expensive but they are noisy and have low
print quality.
Non-Impact Printers
This type of printer does not involve actually striking the paper. Instead, it uses ink spray or
toner powder. It has low noise and can print graphics and often a wider variety of fonts than
impact printers. However they are more expensive. There are three types of non-impact printers,
Ink Jet, thermal and laser printers:
Ink Jet Printer: Sprays ink onto paper to form characters and graphics. Most color printers are
ink jet.
Thermal Printer: Uses heat on chemically treated paper to form characters. Fax machines that
use rolls of paper are of this type.
Laser Printer: Works like a copy machine, using toner and a heat bar. It is faster and more
expensive than the other printers.
A speaker is an output device that allows you to hear voice, music, and other sounds from your
computer. There are usually two of them and they come in various sizes.
Computer software
Software is a term for computer programs. A program is a set of instructions that enables a
computer to operate or instructions that tell the computer how to perform a specific task.
Computer software has two major categories:
 System software
 Application software
Systems software
Systems software includes the computer's basic operating system and language software. The
term also usually covers any software used to manage the computer and the network. Thus we
can say that systems software includes operating systems, device drivers, programming tools,
utilities and more.
Operating Systems
An operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-
purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems
perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display
screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such
as disk drives and printers.
For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a
traffic policeman - it makes sure those different programs and users running at the same time do

Introduction to Information Technology
not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that
unauthorized users do not access the system.
As of 2005, the major operating systems in widespread use have consolidated into two main
families: the Unix-like family and the Microsoft Windows family.
The Unix-like family is commonly used to refer to many operating systems, which resemble an
operating system called UNIX. The Microsoft Windows family contains operating systems such
as Windows 9x, Windows 2000, and Windows XP.
Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other application programs can
run. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system.
Your choice of an operating system, therefore, determines the applications you can use.
Applications Software
Applications software allows a user to accomplish one or more specific tasks. Typical
applications software includes office suites, business software, educational software, databases
and computer games. The uses of computers discussed in section 4 of Unit 1 use applications
software. The following are examples of application software:
Word processing: WordPerfect, Open Office, AmiPro, and MS-Word.
Desktop Publishing: MS-Publisher, Quark Press, and Adobe InDesign.
Spreadsheet: Lotus 1-2-3, MS-Excel, and Corel Quattro Pro.
Database management: MS-Access, MySQL, and Oracle.
Presentation: MS-PowerPoint, Freelance Graphics, and Adobe Persuasion.

Introduction to Information Technology

Computer System Architecture

o to know the different layers of a computer system
o to know the basic building blocks of computer and how they work

Hierarchical structuring of a computer system Architecture

Actually a computer system composed of many layers of software and hardware. But for
simplicity we see the computer in Abstract way. This avoids details and make the user to
concern about the outer layer which is easy for the user to communicate with the computer.
Generally modern computers consists of multi-layers or levels. The following figure
shows the different levels.

7 Application level Language depends on application program

6 Machine-independent programming language

High-order languages level
5 Assembly language
Assembly level

4 Operating system level Operating system cause

3 Machine level Machine language

2 Micro programming level Micro instructions and register transfer

Logic gate level Boolean algebra & truth tables

Device level
0 Transistors, capacitors & resistors

Fig. The level structure of a typical computer system.

Programs written in there languages instruct the computer to perform certain operations. A
program to perform a specific task can be written at any one of the levels.

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When computers were invented, only levels 1 and 3 were present. A human communicated with
these machines by programming them in machine language at the machine level. Machine
language is great for machines but is ledious and in convenient for a human programmer level 4
is developed to manage the resource of the computer.

A truth table is a table that shows the output of a logical function for all possible combinations
of input values.

A gate is a mathematical abstraction of a physical device that we can boiled to perform the
function of a truth table.

In the early days, every time a company introduced a new computer model, the programmers had
to learn the assembly language for that model. All their programs written for the old machine
would n ’t work on the new machine. High order languages at level 6 were invented so
programs could be transferred from one computer to another with little modification and because
programming at a lower level. Level 7, the application level allows to use the computer as a too
( without) knowing the operational details at the lower levels.

Logic elements and Boolean Algebra.

In the hierarchical structuring of a computer the logic gate level is above the device level. A gate
is a circuit with one or more input signals but only one output signal. Gates are digital ( two
state) circuits because the input or output signals are either low or high voltages. Gates are often
called logic circuits because they can be analyzed with Boolean algebra.

Inverter ( Not Gate)

An inverter is a gate with only one input signal and one output signal; the output state is always
the opposite of the input state. An inverter is also called a Not Gate because the output is not the
same as the input. The output is sometimes called the complement (opposite) of the input.


Logic symbol of NoT gate

Truth table of inverter

x x
0 1
1 0

The OR gate has two or more input signals but only one output signal. If any input signal is high
(1), the output signal is high. Logic symblos of OR gate:

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Y X+Y Y X +Y+Z
(a) a2-input OR gate (b) a 3-input OR gate

(c) a 4-input OR gate

Truth table of
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

Truth table of
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1

The AND gate has tow or more input signals but only one output signal. All inputs must be high
to get a high output.
Y X+Y Y X +Y+Z

a) 2 input AND gate b) 3-Input AND gate

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c)4-Input AND gate=
Truth table of
2-input AND gate
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1

Truth table of
2-input AND gate
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1

NAND Gates
The logic symbol for NAND gate is:

The truth table of NAND gate is

0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

NOR Gates
The logic symbol for NOR gate is

The logic symbol for NOR gate is

X X+Y X +Y or X X+Y

The truth table for NOR Gate

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0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0

The Exclusive OR Gate ( XOR)

The logic symbol of the exclusive OR Gate is


The truth table of exclusive OR gate is

0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

Boolean Algebra

For centuries mathematicians felt there was a connection b/n mathematics and logic, but no one
before George Boole fould find this missing line.

In 1854 he invented symbolic logic, known to day as Boolean algebra. Each variable in Boolean
algebra has either of two values: true or false. The original purpose of this two- state algebra
was to solve logic problems. Today Boolean algebra is the backbone of Computer circuit
analysis and design . In Boolean algebra a variable can be either a 0 or a1. For digital circuits,
this means that a signal voltage can be either low or high.

Gate is a logic circuit with one or more input signals but only one output signal.

Logic circuit a circuit whose input and output signals are two-state, either low or high voltages.
The basic logic circuits are OR, AND and NOT gates.

Truth table a table that shows all input and output possibilities for a logic circuit. The input who
words are listed in binary progression.

A Boolean function is described as follows:

F: x Y where X and Y are sets of 0 and1.

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A Boolean function with n input variables can operate on 2n possible combinations.

There are 3 basic Boolean operators NOT, AND, OR

( -, . ,+)

A complex logic circuits can be constructed using the basic logic circuits. Any logic circuit can
be represented by a Boolean function and viceversal.

Rules of the Boolean ( equation) operators.

x. 0 =0 x+1=1 Null
x. x =x x+x=1 Idempotent
x. x =0 x+x=1 Inverse
x. 1 =x x +o =x Identity
x(x +y)=x x+ x . y =x Absorption
x .y =y .x x +y = y +x Commutative
(x .y) .z =x.(y. z) (x +y) +z+ x+(y +z) Associative
A(Ã +B) = AB A + ÃB = A + B

x.(y +z) = x. y + x. z(x +y) (x +z) =x +y z distributive

x.y= x+y x +y = x . y D. e Horgan’s

x=x x =x Double Negative

A +AB =A
A(A +B)= A
A + AB = A + B
Even though the have different types of gates for construction we use some basic gates, and the
reset can be constructed using the basic gates. The NAND or NOR gates can be used to contract
the other gates.

The NOT using NAND The NOT using NOR

X x X X

AND using NAND AND using NOR

X x
x. y x. y X
Y y x .y

OR using NAND OR using NOR

X x x
X+y x +y

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Y y y x+y

The X OR can be derived from the And, Not and OR operations

i. e x +y = x. y + x. y ( draw the circuit)

To construct the logic circuit of a Boolean equation first we have to simplify the Boolean
function using the rules of the operators ( theorems)

Ex. Construct the logic circuit of

X +y + x y + ( x+ y) x y
First we have to simplify the equation

x +y + x y + ( x+ y) x y = x+ y + x y ( 1+x+y) = x+ y + x y

Now we construct the circuit of the above equation.

X +Y +x y

To construct a circuit for a given Boolean function ( equation).

 First construct the truth table of the function

 Find all possible combinations of the variables
 Find the inverse of all the variables
 Find the row product of the variables with And operator
 Construct a Boolean equation the Ors all products of variables resulting in a 1. This type of
equation written directly from the truth table is called the sum of products ( sop)form.

Simplification: A preliminary guide for comparing the simplicity of one logic circuit with
another is to covet the number of input gate leads; the circuit with fewer input gate leads is
usually easier to build.

Factoring to simplify

Ex1;- Y= AB +AB draw the circuit for both

Y = A(B + B) = A
Ex2:- Y = AB + AC + BD + CD

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Y Ex21 = Y= ( A +D) ( B+C)


Ex 2: Draw the logic circuit for this boolean equation

Y = AB C D + AB CD + AB C D + ABCD
= BCD ( A + A) + ABCD + ABCD
= CDC (B + AB) + ABCD

Now the logic circuit is

B CD ( B + AB)




Exercise 1. Draw the circuit for


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2. Draw the circuit for

3. What is the Boolean equation of the following table

0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1

Adders and Flip Flops

Half adders

The simplest form of electronic binary arithmetic is performed in a half adder circuit. A half
adder adds 2 bits and generals sum and carry- out bits. Although Boolean gates are used to
perform binary operation the half –adder is designed to perform true binary rather than logical

A B S Co
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1

S= A + B – sum output
Co = AB – carry output

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Carry B S=A + B
Co = A.B



The half-adder can’t perform the binary ( addition) operation if there is a carry-in transferred to
the next higher significant bit column.

Ex 1011

For the above example there is a carry from column 1 to column 2 and from column 2 to column
3 so in such cases the half-adder fails so we need another adder that is called a full adder. A full
adder is a circuit that performs a complete binary addition. It accepts three separate inputs bits,
the two bits to be added and a carry in.

Sum = A + B + C
Carry = AB + AC + BC

Truth table

A B Ci Carry Sum
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1

Exercise Construct a binary adder of 4-bits

Ex 1 1001 A3A2A1AD
1011 B3B2B1A0

10100 C4S3S2S1S0

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A3 A2 A1 A0
B3 B2 B1 B0


S3 S2 S1 S0

Do for the above exercise.

Flip Flops
Computer circuits store data for various periods of time, and gate circuits can be adapted for
storage. Gates must perform short and long term memory functions. Feedback converts gates to
data storage devices.
Pencil and paper calculation yields an answer. Besides displaying an answer, the sheet of paper
serves other functions in solving problem. A piece of paper contains original data, calculations,
intermediate results and finally an answer.
Computer requires separate circuits for each step in the problem solving process. An input
circuit, arithmetic circuit, storage circuit, and output circuit are needed to accomplish what can
be done on piece of paper to solve problems.
A memory circuit must:
 Accept input data signals
 Store data until needed
 Present the data whenever necessary
Combinational circuits are circuits whose output is determined by the current input (signal)
sequential circuits are circuits whose output is determined by the current input (signal) and the
previous state of the circuits so sequential circuits have memory to store their previous state.
The basic computer storage element is the latch, a circuit capable of storing a single bit. If the
last signal presented to the latch is 1, the latch stores 1, and if its is 0, then the latch stores 0.
Both states are stable, and therefore latch is bistable device.
OR gate latch


AND gate latch

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A flip fop is a devices with to two stable states (bistable): it remains in one of these states center
triggered into the into the other. Flip flops are the building blocks of sequential circuits. They
are used to construct memories and registers. There are different types of flip flops. The
simplest flip flop is the SR-latch ( S-set and R-Reset) type of the SR-latch can store 1-bit of

Set-sets to one
Rest-sets to zero
RS latch using NOR



S Q’ S Q’

Logic Diagram Block Diagram


Truth table
R S Q Q’ Comment
0 0 Previous output are stored
0 1 Set
1 0 Reset
1 1 Must be prevented

0 0 NC
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 1 *
From the truth table we can see that when r = S= 0 Q = NC that means there will not be any
change that can occur in the output that is the circuit remains latched in the last state.

When R= 0 and S = 1, the circuit sets the Q output to 1. On the other hand, if R= 1 and S= 0 the
Q output resets to 0, if R= S=1 is never used because it leads to in predictable operation.

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S= 1 Q=0, Q =o
R=1 Q=0 Q =0
But Q can’t be equal to Q

S=1 Q=1 Q=0

R=1, Q=0 Q=0

There fore S =R =1 is illegal ( in valid) input ( signal)

Application of Gates
Complement generator
Used to produce complement of a binary number.

A digital comparator is a circuit which compares the value of two words of equal length. EORs can be used to
construct a comparator and a 3-bit compartor is shown below

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Chapter four
4.Data representation and computer arithmetic
4.1 Units of Data Measurement and Representation
This section discusses how data is represented in the computer system. It also deals with
measuring units of the size of memory and storage devices.

Digital computers store data using two state components. With two such states, we can
represent exactly two different values. These two values correspond to the two digits used
by the binary number system. As such, the computer employs the binary number system.
The binary number system works just like the decimal number system, with two
exceptions: the binary number system allows only the values 0 and 1 (rather than 0- 9),
and the binary number system uses powers of two rather than powers of ten.
Bits, Bytes, KB, MB
A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data; it represents one binary digit (0
or 1). However, computers usually do not operate on single bits, rather they store and
manipulate a fixed number of bits. Most often, the smallest unit or number of bits a
computer works with is eight bits. These eight bits make up a byte. A byte is a group of
eight bits that usually make up a single character - letter, number, or special character.
Most coding standards use eight bits, and the eight bits represent a single character, such
as the letter “A” or the number “7”. Thus, the computer can store and manipulate an
individual byte (a single character) or a group of bytes (several characters, a word) at a
time. These individual bytes, or groups of bytes, form the basic unit of memory. The
memory size can be measured in Kilobytes (KB), Megabytes (MB), Gigabytes (GB), etc.
The common units are shown in the following table:

Equivalent Quantity

1 Byte 8 bits =1 character

1 Kilobyte (KB) 210 =1,024 bytes

1 Megabyte (MB) 220 = 1,048,576 bytes

1 Gigabyte (GB ) 230 = 1,073,741,824 bytes

1 Terabyte (TB) 240 =1,099,511,627,776 bytes

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 It is possible to represent any of the character in our language in a way as a series of

electrical switches in arranged manner;
 These switch arrangements can therefore be coded as a series of an equivalent
arrangements of bits

There are different coding systems, that convert one or more character sets into computer
codes. Some are: EBCDIC pronounced as “Eb-see-dick” and stands for Extended Binary
Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

 It is an 8-bit coding scheme; (00000000 – 11111111)

 It accommodates to code 28 or 256 different characters
 It is a standard coding scheme for the large computers.

Coding Examples

Character Zone Digit
a 1000 0001
b 1000 0010
A 1100 0001
B 1100 0010
0 1111 0000
9 1111 1001

BCD (6-bits)

 Stands for Binary Coded Decimal

 It uses 6-bits to code a Character

Coding Examples

Character Zone digits
A 11 0001
Q 10 1000
8 00 1000
9 00 1001

 ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange
 Used widely before the introduction of ASCII-8 (the Extended ASCII)
 Uses 7 bits to represent a character;
 With the seven bits, 27( or 128) different characters can be coded (0000000-1111111)
 It has a zone and digit bits positions

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Coding examples:

Character Zone digit
$ 010 0100
% 010 0101
A 100 0001
a 110 0001
b 110 0010

The ASCII System

 Also referred as ASCII-8 or Extended ASCII

 It is the most widely used type of coding scheme for Micro Computer system
 ASCII uses 8-bits to represent alphanumeric characters(letters, digits and special
 With the 8-bits, ASCII can represent 28 or 256 different characters(00000000-

Coding Examples

Character Binary representation in ASCII

a 01100001
b 01100010
A 01000001
B 01000010
? 00111111
+ 00101011
1 00110001
0 00110010
1 00110011


 When data is stored, processed or communicated within the computer system, it is

packed in units;
 Arranged from the smallest to the largest, the units are called bit, byte and word;
 These units are based on the binary number system;

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 Bits are the smallest units and can convey only two possible states 0 or 1;
 bit stands for binary digits;
 A bit is a single element in the computer, on a disk that stands for either “ON”
indicating 1 or “OFF” indicating 0;
 In the computer “ON” is represented by the existence of current and “OFF” is
represented by the non existence of current
 On a magnetic disk, the same information is stored by changing the polarity or
magnetized particles on the disk’s surface;

 Bits can be organized into large units to make them represent more and meaningful
 This large unit is called a byte and is the basic “unit of data representation” in a
computer system;
 The commonly used byte contains 8 bits;
 Since each bit has two states and there are 8 bits in a byte, the total amount of data
that can be represented is 28 or 256 possible combinations;
 Each byte can represent a character(a character is either a letter, a number or a special
symbol such as +,-,?,*, $, etc
 A byte is then used as a unit of measurement in the computer memory, processing
unit, external storage and during communication;
 If the computer memory is 524288 byte, this is expressed in short by saying 512KB,
where KB stands for kilobyte.
 1 Kilobyte(1KB) is 210 or 1024 bytes
 1 Megabyte(MB) is 220 bytes or 210 kilobytes
 1 Gigabyte(GB) is 230 bytes or 220 kilobytes or 210 megabytes

 Word refers the number of bits that a computer process at a time or a transmission
media transmits at a time
 Although bytes can store or transmit information, the process can even be faster if
more than one byte is processed at a once;
 A combination of bytes, then form a “word”
 A word can contain one, two, three or four bytes based on the capacity of the
 Word length is usually given in bits
 We say that a computer is an 8-bits, a 16 bit, a 32 bit or a 64 bit computer to indicate
that the amount of data it can process at a time;
 The large the word length a computer has the more powerful and faster it is.

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Computer Arithmetic
Number systems
There are different number systems. Some of are:
 Decimal number systems
 Binary number systems
 Octal number systems
 Hexadecimal number systems

Decimal number systems (base 10)

 It is the common and widely used number system
 It uses 10 symbols to represent or count things
 Probably it was invented because we have 10 fingers with which we count and add.
 For numbers greater than 9 it uses the symbols 0-9 to represent the number example
10 which is a combination of 1 and 0 and so on.

Binary number system (base 2)

 What if we had only two fingers we might use 0,and 1 and for numbers greater than 1
we might use 10 and so on.
 It uses 2 symbols 0,and 1 for rest it represents them in terms of 0 and 1 example 2 as
10 and so on.

Octal number System (base 8) (Oct)

 Again what would happened if we had only 8 fingers off course we would have used
the 8 symbols (0-71 and for numbers greater than we would represented them in terms of
the first 8 symbols example for 8,10 and so on.
 It uses 8 symbols 0-7 to represent numbers

Ex. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 100
1 11 21 31 " " " "
2 12 22 32 " " " "
3 13 23 33 " " " "
4 14 24 34 " " " "
5 15 25 35 " " " "
6 16 26 36 " " " "
7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77

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When we compare the octal with the decimal 0-7 in octal is the same as 0-7 in decimal
but 10 in octal is not the same as 10 in decimal because 10 in octal holds the position of
8 in decimal, off course 10 in octal is the same as 8 in decimal.
Hexadecimal number system (16) (hex)
 Suppose we had 16 fingers instead of 10 in case of 10 fingers they invented new
symbols until they exhausted all their fingers. Now they would have to invent new
symbols because there would have be some more fingers left un represented .
These extra symbols are usually represented by the letters at the beginning of the
English alphabet.

 It uses 16 symbols to represent numbers. But for the numbers greater than 15
they represented in terms of the 16 symbols example 16 as 10 and so on.

 When we compare the hexadecimal with decimal 0-9 in hexadecimal is the

same as 0-9 in decimal but 10 in hexadecimal is not the same as 10 in decimal, off
course 10 in hexadecimal is equal to 16 in decimal because it holds the position of
16 in decimal.

0 A 15 1F 30
1 B 16 20 31
2 C 17

Conversion from one Base to Another

The values that members have within given number systems are largely determined by
their positional notation. Positional notation means that the position of one symbol
relative to other symbols in a given number system determines the value of that symbol.
For example, these symbols 1 & 7 can represent either 1 or 7 or 71 depending upon their
relative position to one another.

The decimal number 135 may be expanded as:

(135) 10 = 1*102+3*101+5*100

 The subscript 10 is used to indicate that 135 is a base 10 number.

 The number 10 in binary is not the same as 10 in decimal because the value of 1 in
the binary is not the same as the value of the 1 in the decimal.

 The binary number 1101 may be expanded as

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11012 = 1*23+1*22+0*21+1*20
= (1*8)+(1*4)+(0*2)+(1*1)
= 8+4+0+1
= 1310

*A number X1 X2 X3 …Xn is bas M can be expanded as

(X0 X1 X2 X3 ..Xn)m=X1*mn-1+X2*mn-2X3*mn-3+ …X1*mn-1+Xnm0

Conversion from decimal (base 10) to other base (base M)

(Base 10……….Base M)

To convert a decimal number X to a number in base m, divide X by m, find the

remainder, again divide the result by M, find the remainder, continue until the result is 0 .
And concatenate (collect) the remainders starting from the last up to the first.

Ex.1 Convert 5610 to base (binary) X=56 M=2

5610 =1110002

EX.2 Convert 7810 to base 8 (Octal)


EX. 3. Convert 3010 to base 16 (hexadecimal)


Convert 1610 to base 16 (hexadecimal)


Conversion from base M to base 10 (decimal)

To convert a number X consists of digits X 1 X2 X3 …Xn in base m to decimal, simply

expand the number with base M. That is

(X1X2X3…Xn)m =X1*mn-1+X2*mn-2 +X3*mn-3+ …. + XI*mn-i+… Xn-1m1+Xn*m0


Example 1. Convert (1001001)2 to decimal

2. convert (234)8 to decimal
3. convert (101)8 to decimal

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4. convert (A1B) 16 to decimal
= 2587
5. covert (101)16 to decimal
Conversion from binary (base2) to Octal (base 8) or hexadecimal (base16) and vice
To convert a number in binary to octal group three binary digits together starting from
the last digit (right and if there are no enough digits add zeros in fron , (left) and find
the corresponding Octal of each group.

Example. Convert 1001001 to octal

= 1118
convert 101101001 to octal

To convert binary to hexadecimal group four binary digits together starting from right
and if there are no enough digits add zeros at the left.

EX. Convert 111100100 to hexadecimal

= 1 14 4
= 1E416
To convert from Octal to binary , convert each octal digit to its equivalent 3 bit binary
starting from right.

EX. Convert (675)8 to binary

6758 =110 111 101

Convert 2318 to binary
2318 = 010 011 001

To convert from Hexadecimal to binary convert each hex. Digit to its equivalent 4-bit
binary starting from right.
Ex. Convert 23416 to binary
23416 =0010 0011 0100
= 10001101002
Convert 2AC to binary
2AC16 =0010 1010 1100

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Conversion from Octal to hexadecimal and Vice versa

To convert from Octal to hexadecimal, first we have to convert to binary and the binary
to hexadecimal. To convert from hexadecimal to Octal, first we have to convert to binary
and then the binary to Octal.

EX.1. Convert 2358 to hexadecimal

2388=010 011 101
=0000 1001 1101
= 0 9 13
Convert 1A to Octal
1A=0001 1010
=000 011 010
=0 3 2
Summary of conversion from One base to another base

From base To base Method

2 10 Expand binary number in powers of 2
10 2 Factor the decimal number by 2
2 8 Group 3 binary digits together
8 2 Each Octal digit is converted to 3 binary digits
2 16 Group 4 binary digits together
16 2 Each hexadecimal digit is converted to 4 binary digits
8 10 Go from 8…….2…….10
10 8 Go from 10 … ..2……..8
16 10 Go from 16 …….2…….10
10 16 Go from 10 …….2…….16
8 16 Go from 8 …….2…….16
16 8 Go from 16 …….2…….8

Converting decimal number to BCD equivalence

To convert a decimal number to its equivalent BCD simply convert each decimal digit to
its 40bit binary and combine the groups together

EX. Convert 432 to BCD

432=0100 0011 0010

 To convert BCD to decimal group into four & find its corresponding decimal.

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Converting decimal number which contains fractions to Binary and Binary with
fraction to decimal.

 First change the integer part to its equivalent binary.

 Multiply the fractional part by 2 and take out the integer value, and again multiply
the fractional part of the result by 2 and take out the integer part, continue this until the
product is 0.
 Collect the integer values from top to bottom & concatenate with the integer part.

Ex. Convert 25.34 to binary first part.

Convert 12.2510 to binary

To convert a binary number Y1Y2Y3Y4Yn.d1d2d3..dm to decimal first convert the integer

part to decimal by using
y1 y2 y3 y4…yn=y1*2n-1+y2*2n-2+….yj*2n-j+….+yn-1*21+yn*20=Q and convert the
fractional part to decimal by using
then decimal equivalence of y1 y2 y3 y4…..yn.d1d2…dm will be Q+R where Q is the
integer part and R is the fractional part.

Ex1 : Convert 11001-0101 to decimal

11001 = 1x24 + 1x23 +0x22+0x21+1x20= 16+8+1= 25= Q
0101= 0x2-1+1x2-2+0x2-3+1x2-4= 0+¼+0+1/16 = 0.3125 = R
11001.0101 = 25.3125.

Ex 2: Convert 1000.1 to decimal

1000 = 1+23 +0+0+0=8
1= 1x2-1=½ = 0.5
1000 ½ = 8.510

conversion from Binary with fraction to Octal or hexadecimal

 Group three/ four digits together starting from the last of the integer part, and if there
are no enough digits add some zeros in the front.
 Group three/ four digits together starting from the first of the fractional part, and if
there are no enough digits add some zeros to the last.
 Covert each group of the integer and the fractional part to their equivalent Octal/hexa
and collect the results by adding point (.) to separate the integer part from the fractional
Ex 1:- Covert 1010.01112 to octal
Ex2:- Covert 1110101.101112 to hexa

Conversion from Octal or hexadecimal with fraction to binary.

 Convert each Octal/hexa digit to its equivalent 3-bit/ 4-bit binary.
 Collect the binary sequences by separating the integer part binaries from the
fractional part binaries with point (.)

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conversion from Octal with fraction to hexa and hexa with fraction to octal and
octal/hexa with fraction to decimal.
 To convert from Octal to hexa, first convert the Octal to binary and then the binary to
 To convert from hexa to Octal, first convert the hexa to binary and then the binary to
 To convert from Octal/hexa to decimal, first convert to binary and –then the binary to

 BCD numbers are useful whenever decimal information is transferred into or out of a
digital system. Examples of BCD systems are electronic ousters, digital voltmeter, and
digital clocks; their circuits can work with BCD numbers.

 BCD’s are easy for conversion but slower for processing than binary. And they have
limited numbers because with BCD we can represent only numbers 0000 for 0 and 100
for 9 and ,1010,1011,1100,1101,1110, 1111 can’t be used because 1010 represent 10 in
decimal at 10 in decimal is 1010 0000 in BCD.

 Hexadecimals are used for computation and memory addresses.

Binary Arithmetic

Computer understands only the language of binary numbers. Therefore, the machine
performs what is called binary arithmetic (binary computation).

Binary addition
Binary addition operates by the same rule as decimal addition, except that it is simpler. A
carry to the next higher order ( or more significant) position occurs when the sum is
decimal 2, that is, binary 10. Therefore, the binary addition rules may be written as
1+1=0 plus a carry of 1 into the next position
1+1+1=1 plus a carry of 1 into the next position.

The last case occurs when the two binary digits in a certain position are 1s and there is a
carry from the previous position.
Decimal = Binary Ex3 10011
6 + 110 11111
7 111 1010
13 1101 1001

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Ex2 100101 Ex4 1101.1101

11111 10.0100
1000100 10000.0001

Binary Subtraction
It operates by the same rule as decimal subtraction. The rule is as follows;
11100 101101 11001.011
- 11010 - 111 - 111.110
00010 101100 10001.101

Binary Multiplication:

- It is a very simple process that operates by the following obvious rulers:

(a) Multiplying any number by 1 rules the multiplicand unchanged


(b) Multiplying any number by 0 produces 0


Binary division

That is, the process for dividing one binary number (the dividend) by another
(the divisor) is based on the rules for binary subtraction and multiplication and

Similar to decimal division

Ex 1111101 11001
11001 101
1111101 ÷ 11001 = 101

Representation of Negative numbers

There are different ways of representing negative numbers in a computer.

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I. Sign- magnitude representation.

In signed binary representation, the left-most bit is used to indicate the sign of the
number. Traditionally, 0 is used to denote in positive number and 1 is used to denote a
negative number. But the magnitude part will be the same for the negative and positive
values. For example 11111111 represents-127 while, 01111111 represents + 127. We
can now represent positive and negative numbers, but we have reduced the maximum
magnitude of these numbers to 127.

In a 5- bit representation we use the first bit for sing and the remaining 4- bits for the
magnitude. So using this 5r bit representation the range of number that can be
represented is from -15 (11111) to 15(11111)

Ex1 represent-12 using 5-bi sign magnitude representation

- first we convert 12 to binary i. e 1100
Now -12 = 11100
Ex2 Represent –24 using 8-bits
-24 = 1001100
In general for n-bit sign –magnitude representation the range of values that can be
represented are –(2 n-1-1 ) to (2 n-1-1).

i.e. 2 n-1 + 1 to 2 n-1 –1

Note: In sign magnitude representation zero can be represented as 0 or -0
This representation has two problems one is it reduces the maximum magnitude, and the
second one is speed efficiency.
To see the second problem let us perform addition in the signed binary representation.
We want to add +7 and –5
+7 represented by 00000111
-5 represented by 10000101
The binary sum is = 10001100, or-12
This is not the correct result. The correct result is +2. We have neglected the fact that in
order to use this representation, special actions must be taken, depending on the sign.
This results in increased complexity and reduced performance. In other words, the binary
addition of signed numbers does not “Work Correctly”.

The solution to this problem is called the two’s complement representation.

i. One’s complement.
In one’s complement representation, all positive integers are represented in their correct
binary format. For example +3 is represented as usual by 00000011. However, its
complement, -3, is obtained by complementing every bit in the original representation.
Each 0 is transformed into a1 and each 1 into a0. In our example, the one’s complement
representation of -3 is 11111111.

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Ex: +2 is 00000010
-2 is 11111101
Note that in this representation positive numbers start with a 0 on the reft, and negative
numbers start with a 1 on the left.
Ex1. Add -4 and +6
- 4 is 11111011
+ 6 is 00000110
the sum is (1) 00000001

Where 1 indicates a carry. The correct result should be 2 or 00000010.

-3 is 11111100
-2 is 11111101
(1) 11111001
or-6 plus a carry. The correct result is -5. The representation of –5 is 11111010. This
representation does represent positive and negative numbers: however, the result of an
ordinary addition does not always come out correctly. We will now use another
representation. It is evolved from the one’s complement and is called the two’s
complement representation.

ii. Two’s Complement Representation

In two’s complement representation, positive numbers are represented, as usual, in singed
binary, just like in one’s complement. The difference lies in the representation of
negative numbers. A negative number represented in two’s complement is obtained by
first computing the one’s complement and then adding one.

Ex: +3 is represented in signed binary as 00000011

Its one’s complement representation is 11111100.
The two’s complement is obtained by adding one.
It is 11111101.
Ex let’s try addition.
- (3) 00000011
+ (5) +00000101
(8) 0001000
The result is correct
Ex2. Let’s try subtraction
(3) 00000011
(-5) + 111111011
Ex2 add +4 and -3(the subtraction is performed by adding the two’s complement).
+4 is 00000100
-3 is 111111101
The result is [1] 000000001

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If we ignore the carry the result is 00000001 ( i. e 1 In decimal). This is the correct
result. In two’s complement, it is possible to add or subtract signed numbers, regardless
of the sign. Using the usual rules of binary addition, the result comes out correct,
including the sign. The carry is ignored. One’s complement may be used, but if one’s
complement is used, special circuitry is required to “ correct the result”.

Carry and overflow

Ex (128) 10000000
+(129) 10000001
[257] =(1) 00000001
Where 1 indicates a carry. The result requires a ninth bit (bit 8, since the right- most bit
is 0). It is the carry bit.

If we assume that the carry is the ninth bit of 100000001= 257. However, the carry must
be recognized and handle with care. Inside the microprocessor, the registers used to hold
information are generally only eight bits wide. When storing the result, only bits 0 to 7
will be preserved.
Bit 7 bit 6

Ex1 (64) 01000000

(65) 01000001
(-12+1 100000001
In internal carry has been generated from bit 6 into bit 7. This called an overflow. The
result is now negative by “ accident’. This situation must be detected, so that it can be

Ex2 (-1) 11111111

(1) 11111111
(-2) (1) 11111110
The rules of two’s complement arithmetic specify that this carry should be ignored. The
result is then correct. This is because the carry from bit 6 to bit 7 didn’t change the sign

The carry from bit 6 into bit 7 is not an overflow condition.

Overflow will occur in four situations, including:-

1/ The addition of large positive numbers.
2/ The Ex1 addition of large negative numbers.
Ex (-64) 11000000
(-65) 10111111
(+127)0 (1) 01111111

It is carry but the result is incorrect b/se as bit 7 has been changed.

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3/ the subtraction of a large positive number from a large negative numbers.

4/ the subtraction of a large negative number from a large positive number.

Overflow indicates that the result of an addition or subtraction requires more bits than are
available in the standard 8-bit register used to contain the result.

Fixed format representation: We now know how to represent signed integers: however,
we have not yet resolved the problem of magnitude. If we want to represent large
integers, we will need several bytes. In order to perform arithmetic operations efficiently,
it is necessary to use a fixed number of bytes, rather than a variable number. Therefore,
once the number of bytes is chosen, the maximum magnitude of the number that can be
represented is fixed.

Subtraction by use of complements.

 Complements are mainly used for representing negative numbers and subtraction.
 In performing binary subtraction or addition of negative number by use of binary
complements only one procedure, addition, is needed as one can subtract by adding its
 To subtract any number, positive or negative, substitute the required complement for
the numbers to be subtracted and then add.
If the result is
a) An ( n+1)-bit number, and the arithmetic is in
i) Ones complement the (n+1) th bit, a carry, is added to the right most bit of the
result. This process is called an end-around carry.
ii) Tow’s complement discard the (n+1) th bit.

b) An n-bit number and the arithmetic is in

i) Ones complement, to read the binary value calculate the ones complement of
the magnitude bits and place a minus sign front of it.
ii) Two’s complement, to read the binary value calculate the two’s complement
of the magnitude bits and place a minus sign in front of it.
Perform the following in ones and two’s complements in 5-bits.
A. 12-6
B. 6-12
C. -12-6
A= 12 B=6, A=01100 B=00110
Ones complement of -A=10011 & -B=11001
Two’s complement of - A= 10100 & -B= 11010

Example C Is wrong this is because the occurrence of overflow. Arithmetic overflow is

that part of the result of an operation which is lost because of the resulting value exceeds
the capacity of the intended storage location.
* Arithmetic overflow occurs when the sign bits of A and B are the same but
the sign bit of the result is different.

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Floating Point Numbers

Floating-Point Representation

In this representation decimal numbers are represented with a fixed length format. In
order not to waste bits, the representation will normalize all the numbers. For example,
0.000123 wastes three zeroes on the left before non -zero digits. There zeroes have no
meaning except to indicate the position of the Decimal point. Normalizing this number
result in .123x10-3 .123 is the normalized mantissa; -3 is the exponent. We have
normalized this by eliminating all the meaningless zeroes to the left of the first non-zero
digit and by adjusting the exponent.

Ex1: 22.1 is normalized as .221x102.

The general form of floating point representation is Mx10 E where M is the mantissa, and
E is the exponent . It can be seen that a normalized number is characterized by a
mantissa less then 1 and greater than or equal to.1 all cases when the number is not zero.

Ex2 111.01 is normalized as .11101x23.

The mantissa is 11101. The exponent is 3.

The general structure of floating point is

Sign Exponent Mantissa

Example:- Subtract 110.1001 from 1010.100 using 8-bits of two’s complement.

In representing a number in floating point we use 1 bit for sing, some bits for exponent
and the remaining bit for mantissa.

In floating point representation the exponent is represented by a biased exponent


Biased exponent = true exponent + excess 2 n-1, where n is the number of bits representing
the exponent.

Represent –234.375 in floating point using 7 bit for exponent and 16 bit for mantissa.
First we have to change to normalized binary
i. e 234 = 11100010
0.375= 0.011
234.375 = 11100010.011 = 0.11100010011x2 8

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true exponent = 8
excess 2 n-1 = 2 7-1= 26= 64
Biased exponent = 8+26 8+64 = 72
= 100 1000 2
Therefore –234.375 is represented as
1 1001000 1110001001100000

Sign 7-bits 16 bits

Ex2. Represent 34.25 in floating point using 7 bit for exponent and 24 bits
for mantissa.
34.25 = 1000 10.0 12
The normalized form of 34.25 = .10001001x 2 6
True exponent = 62 n-1 = 2 7-1= 6+26
70 = 10001102

Therefore, 34.25 is represented as

0 1000110 100010010000…..0

To represent a number in floating point:

 Represent the number in normalized binary form.
 Find the biased exponent
 Change the biased exponent to binary
 Write the sing, the exponent in the exponent part and the mantissa in the mantissa
 If there are fewer digits in the exponent add zeros to the left and for mantissa add
zeros to the right.

Floating-point Arithmetic
To perform floating-point arithmetic.
 First correct the numbers to normalized binary of the same exponent
 Apply the operator
 If necessary normalize the result

Ex1. Find 23.375+ 41.25 using 7-bit for exponent and 10 bit for mantissa.

23.375 = 10111.0112 = 0.1011101x25 = 0.010111011x26

41.25 = 111001.012 = 0.11100101x26

23.37+41.25 = 0.01011101x26+0.1110010x26
= (0.010111011+0.11100101)26
= 0.1010000101x26

Introduction to Information Technology

Chapter Five
Problem Solving Using Computers
Steps Program development

Computer solves varieties of problems that can be expressed in a finite number of steps
leading to a precisely defined goal by writing different programs. A program is not
needed only to solve a problem but also it should be reliable, (main trainable) portable
and efficient. This is met by program design using techniques of software engineering.
Computer programming is the art of conceiving a problem in terms of the steps to its
solution and expressing those steps as instructions for a computer system to follow.
There are five stages of program development: -

a) Analysis:- this stage concerns with a deep understanding of the problems,

 What input data are needed to the problem?
 What procedures needed to achieve the result?
 What outputs data are expected?

b) Algorithm design and flow chart

An algorithm is a finite set of well-defined rules for the solution of a
problem in a finite number of steps. To design an algorithm for a specific
problem first we break down the problem into simpler and manageable
tasks. For one problem there may be a lot of algorithms that help to solve
the problem, but the algorithm that we select must be powerful, easy to
maintain, and efficient (it doesn’t take too much space and time)

There are different ways of describing the algorithm but the most common ones are
structured English (using any of existing human languages), structure chart and flow

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Structure chart
Structure chart for payroll program
Main Drive

Calculate Calculate Calculate Update Print

Gross Pay Deduction Net Pay files Check

Hourly Salaried PayCheck Union Cahrity Retirement

Employees Employees Dues …. Fund

Gross Pay
Federal State Tax Local Tax Union Voluntary
Tax Dues Deduction

Regular Overtime Holiday Withholding Social Credit Charity Retirement

Pay Pay Pay Security Union Fund

United Red Cross


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Flow chart
A flow chart consists of an ordered set of standard symbols (mostly, geometrical shapes)
which represent operations, data flow or equipment. There are two types of flow charts.
System flow-charts the overall logic of data processing system. A program flow chart
shows the operations and logical decisions of a computer program.

The standard flowchart symbols and their meaning is given below.

Terminal-used to represent the Start and End of


Input/ output –used to represent data input or

data output from a computer

Processing-usually encloses operations or

(command black) a group of operations( a process)

Decision block – it usually contains a question within it :-

there are typically two output paths: one if the answer
to the question is yes ( true) , and the other if the answer
is no ( false)

Flow line:- is used to indicate the direction of logical flow

( a path from one operation to another)

On-page :- is used for connecting two points in connector

a flow chart without drawing flow lines In
one page.

Of page connector :- It is used an exit to or any entry from another part

of the flowchart on another page.

The advantage of flowchart is it doesn’t depend on any particular programming

language, so that it can used, to translate an algorithm to more than one programming
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Example 1:- Draw flow chart of an algorithm to add two numbers and display their

Algorithm description:-
 Read the rules of the two numbers ( a and b)
 Assign the sum of a and b to c
 Display the result ( c)

Now the flow chart is:-


Read a, b

C= a + b

Print C


Ex 2:- Write an algorithm description and draw a flow chart to find the
following sum.

Sum = 1+2+3+..+….
Ex2:- Write an algorithm description and draw a flow chart to check a number
is negative or not algorithm description.

1/ Read a number x
2/ If x is less than zero write a message negative
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else write a message not negative


Read x

X<0 Print message
write negative

Write not


Some times there are conditions in which it is necessary to execute a group of statements
repeatedly. Until some condition is satisfied. This condition is called a loop. Loop is a
sequence of instructions which is repeated until some specific condition occurs.

A loop normally consists of four part. There are:-

Initialization:- Setting of variables of the computation to their initial valves
and setting the counter for determining to exit from the loop.

Computation:- Processing

Test:- Every loop must have some way of exiting from it or else the
program would endlessly remain in a loop.

Incrementation:- Re initialization of the loop for the next loop.

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Input Employee
Employee <> 0
Calculate Gross Pay

Input employee record

Print Check
Last check printed

Ex:- Write the algorithmic description and draw a flow chart to find the
following sum.

Sum = 1+2+3+….. + 50

1. Initialize sum too and counter to 1

2. If the counter is less than or equal to 50
 Add counter to sum
 Increase counter by 1
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 Repeat step 2 Start

 Else
 Exit
Sum = 0
3. Write sum Counter = 1

Write sum
Counter 50 No

Sum = Sum + counter

Counter Counter + 1

Ex 2 :- find sum of the first N positive numbers.

Ex 3:- find n!

Exercise :- find the following sum

Sum = 1: +2! +3! +…….+n!

Ex4 . Draw a flow chart that accepts a salary of an individual and

calculate pension, income tax and net salary and display the results.

Pension – 10%
I.T- 0 - 120
10% 600
20 % 1200
30 % > 1200

c) Coding
The flow chart is independent of programming language. Now at this stage we translate
each steps described in the flow chart (algorithm description) to an equivalent instruction
of target programming language, that means, for example if we want to write in Pascal
program language, each step will be described by an equivalent Pascal instruction
d) Implementation
This is the final stage where the program is debugged for error, tested and documented.
e) Maintenance

Some time it may be needed to modify the program so that it accommodates new things
and it becomes efficient, and this can be done through maintaining the program.
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Types of instruction
A program is a set of instructions (steps) that a computer should follow to perform a
given task. The instructions should be written in a language (or can be translated to a
language) that can be understood by the computer. The language that is used to write
instructions is called a programming language. Depending on the function the instruction
performed, instructions are categorized as follows:

1/ Input/ output Instructions: These instructions perform interfacing ( communication)

b/n the user and the computer through the I/O peripherals Transfer data b/n peripherals
and memory, or between peripherals and accumulators.

2/ Arithmetic and Logic Instructions:- These instructions perform arithmetic operations

( addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) and logical comparison.

3/ Branch ( or control transfer) Instructions:- A branch instruction (also called a jump

instruction) alters the normal sequence of program execution and is used to create loops
that allow the same sequence of instructions to be executed many times. There are two
types of branch instructions, unconditional and conditional. An Unconditional branch
always causes the program to jump to the branch address. A conditional branch only if a
specified condition is met.

4/ Information Movement Instruction ( storage/ retrieval/:- This group of instructions

take on the task of moving information from one register ( or storage location) to another.

Every programming language has its own sets of instruction and it has its own way of
writing the instructions.

Generations of Programming Languages

1st. Since 1940s.
 MACHINE LANGUAGE: binary code
 zeros and ones

2nd. Since early 1950s.

 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: mnemonics for numeric code
 permitted some English-like acronyms and word to be used as computer
 Load, Add, Store

3rd. Since mid 1950s - 1970s

 Higher level language in which each higher-level statement generated multiple
commands at the machine level and required more efficient compilers and larger
computer memory
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4th. Since late 1970s - present

 involves packaged programs and even higher-level languages which eliminates or
minimize the need for application programmers
 Can be employed by end users
 Nonprocedural
 Can develop applications quickly
 Natural languages

List seven categories of fourth-generation tools

1. Query languages:
 Rapidly retrieve data
 Interactive
 On-line
 Support special requests for data from relational databases
2. Report generators:
 Create customized reports
 Wide range of formats
3. Graphics languages:
 Can manipulate drawings, graphs, photos, videos
 Presentation managers
4. Application generators:
 User specifies computer needs
 Generator creates logic and code for application
 Greatly reduces development time
5. Very high-level programming languages:
 Professional programmer productivity tool
 Uses fewer instructions
 Reduces development time
6. Software package: commercially available set of programs…
 Word processing
 Spreadsheets
 Data management
 Presentation management
 Integrated software packages now combine these to simplify learning and use

What is a high-level language?

High-level language
 Is one which uses English-language-like statements or mathematical expressions
which are removed from machine language
 Must be translated by a complier or interpreter into machine language
 Each high-level language statement generates multiple commands at the machine
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Name three high-level languages and describe their strengths and weaknesses
FORTRAN (formula translator). Scientific, engineering applications
 not good at input/output efficiency or at printing and working with lists
COBOL (common business oriented language). Predominant for transaction
 weak in mathematical functions but strong in processing large data files with
mixed alphabetic and numeric data, making it appropriate for business
BASIC (beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code). General purpose PC
 Used primarily for microcomputer programming, and requires only a small
 lack sophisticated control or data structures required by good programming
Pascal. Used to teach structured programming practices. Weak in file handling, input
/ output
Ada. Designed for weapon systems. Can be used on many platforms. Structured. Can
be used for business
C. Powerful pc language for developing applications. Efficient execution; cross

Artificial Intelligence Languages

 LISP (list processor). Began late ‘50s at MIT. Preferred in US. Require specially
configured machines
 Prolog. Began in early ‘70s. Preferred outside us. Cross platform
 Knowledge Prolog

Types of programming languages

We have seen that a computer system consists of different layers. It is possible to
communicate with the computer by writing a program at the different layers but basically
there are three types of programming languages:- Machine, low-level and high- level.

Machine language:- There is the only language that the computer understands directly
zero. A machine language is a set of machine instructions which consists of zeros and
one’s. a machine instruction contains two parts an operation code ( op code) and an
address. The OP code tells the microprocessor system what operation it should perform,
add, transfer, compare, or move data to output device, etc. the address identifies the
location ( memory, register) holding the required operands that is, the data to be operated
upon. The address part may contain one, two or more addresses that is , there may be one
( or single address, two( double) address, and three ( or triple) address instructions.

Low-level Languages:- In machine language we have seen that the OP code and the
address are represented as a binary sequence but it is difficult for the programmer to write
a big program using binary sequence and it is difficult to debug an error from such
program so instead of representing the OP code and the adders as a binary sequence we
can represent them in mnemonics ( terms). A low-level language is a programming
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language which uses mnemonics to write in program Low-level languages are machine

Ex: Assembly language

High-level language:- We have seen that writing a program in low-level languages is

easier and simple compare to machine languages. But still low-level languages have their
own draw bakes, that is they are machine dependent. So we need another type of
languages which are not machine dependent and more flexible there languages are called
high-level languages third generation languages.

Advantages of high-level languages:-

 Easier to learn and understand ( Look like English)
 Require less time to write and easier to debugge errors.
 Can be used on different machines with little modifications.

Ex:- Fortran, COBL, ALGOG 80, Basic, Scientific & engineering applications.

 Fortran:- Formula in Business data processing application

 COBL-:-Common business Oriented Language
 ALGOL 80:- ( Algorithmic Oriented Language)
 BASIC:- ( Beginners All-purpose symbolic Instruction code) simplest language
developed for solving numerical problem
 Pascal, L, Ada, Modula-2:- Used in teaching programming language.

There are also other languages which are still simplest and easier then high-level
languages which we called then fourth generation languages. These languages are
application oriented languages.
Ex:- Visual basic,

Translation and Execution

The only language that the computer understands is the machine language. Therefore any
program that is written in either low-level or high level language must be translated to
machine code so that the computer could process it.
A program written in high-level or low-level language is called source code program and,
the translated machine code is called the object code program. Programs that translate a
program written in high level language and low-level language to machine code program
are called translators.
Language Translation and Utility Software
Language Translation
 Source code: high-level language instructions
 Compiler: translates high-level code into machine language
 Object code: translated instructions ready for computer

Translation Process
What Is the Difference Between an Assemble, a Compiler, and an Interpreter?
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Language Translation
 For every modern language, there is a program that takes the source code and
produces object code in machine language
 The interpreter
 The compiler
 A set of programs that translate the source code of higher-level software
languages into machine language, or object code
Language Translation
 The compiler
 Translates source code once and produces a complete machine language program
 Advantages - fast
 Disadvantages - harder to write and debug
 Examples - pascal, C, FORTRAN, and openscript
 An assembler is a software tool for translating assembly language into machine
 An interpreter translates source code instructions, one instruction at a time, from a
higher level language such as BASIC into machine language
Language Translation
 The interpreter
 Translates a line of source code into one or more lines of object code and then
instructs the computer to perform those instructions until another line has to be
 Advantages - fairly easy to write, and easy to debug
 Disadvantage - SLOW
Examples - basic, lisp
There are three types of translators; assembler, interpreter, and compiler.

Assembler:- A program that translate in source program written in a how-level language

( assembly) to machine- code .

Interpreter:- A translator that accepts one line of a source program at a time, produces
the corresponding machine code instructions and execute them.

Compiler:-A program designed to translate a high-level language source program into a

machine code program. It translates the whole source program at once.
The translator not only translate the instructions into machine code but also it detects
whether the program fulfills the syntax of the programming language. A program passes
through different stages before it carries out its function. First the program will be
translate to object code( compilation time) , then it will be loaded to the memory and
finally it will be executed (run time) or carries out its function.
Source Assembler Object
program Or program
Introduction to Information Technology

Chapter six
Data Communication and Computer Networking
Data communication
The need of information has increased from time to time. This leads to the need of
sharing of information among different agents (individual). Which may be at different
places or locations Date communication is the exchange of information between two
agents. For exchange of information the information should be transmitted from one
point to another through a transmission media called Channel. The following figure
shows the different components of data communication.

Agent Input Transmi Output agent

device tter Transmiss Receiver device
1 2 3 4 5 6

Source System Destination system

An information is transmitted in a form of packets the information is divided into packets

and one packet is transmitted at a time. When a packet of information is transmitted the
sender must be sure that the receiver receives the information and the receiver must check
that it receives a correct information. The information is transmitted successfully the
receiver must send an acknowledgment to the sender.
Elements of communication
 Sender
 Receiver
 Transmission media
Communication=source + transmitter + transmission system + Receiver + Destination

Mode of transmission

The transmission medium may be physical (it connects the transmitter and receivers
through wire) or logical (Their are different mode of transmission)

Simplex transmission: - In this transmission signals are transmitted in only one

direction: One station is transmitter and the other is receiver
Half-duplex transmission:- In this transmission signals are transmitted in both direction,
both stations may transmit, but only one at a time.
Full-duplex transmission:- In this transmission signals transmitted in both direction,
both stations may transmit simultaneously. The medium carries signals in both directions
at the same time.
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Transmission Media
Transmission Medium is the physical path between transmitter and receiver in a data
communication system. The characteristics and quality of data transmission are
determined both by the characteristics of the medium and characteristics of the signal.
Media of data transmission:
1) Guided Transmission media- Data transmission is through solid medium
(wired system).
2) Unguided Transmission media– Data transmission through air /space (i.e
wireless system)
Commonly used guided media:
 Twisted pair

 Coaxial cable

 Optical fiber

Computer Networks

When a computer system is processing data all by itself, without any interaction or
interconnection with any other computer system, it is called a stand-alone computer
system. A Network System is a system of two or more computers that are connected to
each other for the purpose of data communication and sharing of resources.
A network also consists of communication channels that are responsible for connecting
devices with each other and transmitting information..
Some of the most important advantages of a computer network system are:
 Data sharing between different users of computers with certain amount of
data security and access control.
 Sharing of software application systems.
 Distribution of computing load on computers at distributed locations to
reduce peak load.
 Sharing or high power computing resources situated at a central location
on a need basis.
 Sharing of costly special devices by several computer users.
Types of Networks
Networks may be classified based on a number of parameters:
Span of Control
Geographical Span
1) According to Span of Control

Based on span of control computer networks can be classified into two major groups:
 Centralized Network
 Distributed Network
Introduction to Information Technology

I) Centralized Network

Centralized network has one main CPU that processes all information requests and
handles communication. The main CPU in a centralized network is usually a mainframe
or minicomputer capable of handling the processing workload of many people
simultaneously. People interface with the host computer by using terminals and other
input and output devices.
A terminal is a hardware device consisting of a keyboard and monitor. There are two
types of terminals:
 Dumb Terminals
 Intelligent Terminals
Terminals that have no storage or processing capabilities are called dumb terminals.
Because dumb terminals do not have any processing capabilities, they must be connected
to a host computer that can perform any processing functions necessary.
Intelligent terminals, on the other hand, do have limited storage and processing

I) Distributed Network
Distributed network is a collection of workstations connected to each other, along with
various shared storage and input and output devices (for example, scanners and printers).
In a distributed network each workstation can handle some, if not all, of its own
processing. Workstations in a distributed network also maintain local information and
Distributed Network can be either
 Client/Server, or
 Peer-to-Peer

A Client/Server network is a distributed network in which many workstations (called

Clients) are connected to a central host computer (called the Server). The clients are the
workstations in a Client/Server network that maintain local software and information and
do as much of the processing as possible.

F i l e S e r v e r
Introduction to Information Technology

A Peer-to-Peer network is a distributed network in which many

In a peer-to-peer network, workstations are connected to each other and do not rely on a
server for global software and data, data processing tasks, or communication within the
network. Basically, a peer-to-peer network consists of many workstations connected
together that can share resources and communicate with each other. Each workstation can
be a client at one time and a server at another time.

Peer to peer

2. According to Geographic Span:

Based on the geographic span of coverage, computer networks are broadly classified into
three major categories.
 Local Area Network
 Metropolitan Network
 Wide Area Network
i) Local Area Network (LAN)
 May be located within a single building or campus
ii) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
 A larger version of a LAN
 May span several corporate offices or an entire city
iii) Wide Area Network (WAN)
 May span a country, a continent or the entire globe


6.3 Network Topology (Bus, Star, Ring)

The way in which connections are made is called the topology of the network. Network
topology specifically refers to the physical layout of the network, especially the locations

Network Topologies
Introduction to Information Technology

The term topology, or more specifically, network topology, refers to the arrangement or
physical layout of computers, cables, and other components on the network. "Topology"
is the standard term that most network professionals use when they refer to the network's
basic design. In addition to the term "topology," you will find several other terms that are
used to define a network's design:
 Physical layout
 Design
 Diagram
 Map
A network's topology affects its capabilities. The choice of one topology over another
will have an impact on the:
 Type of equipment that the network needs
 Capabilities of the network
 Growth of the network
 Way the network is managed
Developing a sense of how to use the different topologies is a key to understanding the
capabilities of the different types of networks.

Before computers can share resources or perform other communication tasks they must
be connected. Most networks use cable to connect one computer to another. However, it
is not as simple as just plugging a computer into a cable connecting to other computers.
Different types of cable—combined with different network cards, network operating
systems, and other components—require different types of arrangements. To work well, a
network topology takes planning. For example, a particular topology can determine not
only the type of cable used but also how the cabling runs through floors, ceilings, and
walls. Topology can also determine how computers communicate on the network.
Different topologies require different communication methods, and these methods have a
great influence on the network.
There are four basic types of computer topology: bus, star, ring and mesh.
1 Bus Topology
The bus topology is often referred to as a "linear bus" because the computers
are connected in a straight line. This is the simplest and most common method of
networking computers. Figure 5 shows a typical bus topology. It consists of a single cable
called a trunk (also called a backbone or segment) that connects all of the computers in
the network in a single line.

Figure 5 – The bus topology

Introduction to Information Technology

Computers on a bus topology network communicate by addressing data to a particular

computer and sending out that data on the cable as electronic signals. To understand how
computers communicate on a bus, you need to be familiar with three concepts:
 Sending the signal
 Signal bounce
 Terminator
2. The Star Topology
The Star type topology has a controller at its centre that is connected in a star shape to
stations via dedicated transmission lines. The controller at the centre controls all
communications between stations. Accordingly, as and when the central controller fails, the
entire network communication will be disabled.



Central Server

Hub Workstation

Workstation Workstation


Star Topology Network

3. The Ring Topology

The ring type consists of a network configuration that connects nodes at certain intervals on
a ring-shaped, high-speed data transmission line. All nodes share the ring - the ring is
connected separately to the transmitting and receiving sections of each node. Data placed
on the ring by a station makes its round on the ring.
Each node receives the data and checks to see if the data is addressed to it. When the data
is received by the node to which it is addressed, the node accepts and responds accordingly.
Otherwise, the node reproduces and repeats the data for transmission to the next node.


Laser printer


Workstation Server

ASCII Printer


Ring Topology Network

Token ring access method can be described as follows:

• An idle token rotates around the ring

• A sending computer takes the token and attaches the message to be sent on it
• The token passes to the neighboring computer and so forth
Introduction to Information Technology

• The receiving computer takes the token and copies the message and leaves the
token to rotate
• The sender again takes the token and removes the massage from the token to
make the token empty
4. Mesh topology

 Mesh topology has multiple connection between each of the nodes on the network.
 Each computer connects with separate cabling.

Mesh fdfffsdf

Mesh topology

{ }The Internet
 The Internet is a term used to describe a worldwide
network of computer networks connecting millions of
computers around the world.
 The Internet is one of the largest, most widely used networks (in fact, a network of
networks) that has evolved and grown overtime. It is a group of two or more networks
that are :
o Interconnected physically
o Capable of communicating and sharing data with each other
o Able to act together as a single network.
 The Internet connects millions of computers globally and provides worldwide
communications to businesses, homes, schools, and governments.
Brief History{tc \l 2 "5.5 THE INTERNET "} of the Internet
The Internet has had a relatively brief, but explosive history so far. It grew out of an
experiment begun in the 1960's by the U.S. Department of Defense. Its goal was to create
a method for widely separated computers to transfer data efficiently even in the event of a
nuclear attack. If part of the network were damaged or destroyed, the rest of the system
still had to work. That network was ARPANET, which linked U.S. scientific and
academic researchers. It was the forerunner of today's Internet.
Today's Internet is made up of a loose collection of interconnected commercial and non-
commercial computer networks, including on-line information services to which users
subscribe. Servers are scattered around the world, linked to the Internet using modems,
phone lines, and satellite links.
From a handful of computers and users, today the Internet has grown to thousands of
regional networks that can connect millions of users. It has grown explosively in the
1990s to thousands of regional networks that can connect millions of users. There are
Introduction to Information Technology

millions of server computers on the Internet, each providing some type of information or
service. The number of users of the Internet is harder to measure.
Because the Internet is a world-wide distributed collection of computers rather than one
central computer that everyone ties into, there is no central, controlling agency, nor can
there ever be (No one is in charge of the Internet). There are organizations, which
develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it,
but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic
flows, is owned by private companies. Any computer on the Internet that is properly
configured can share information with any other computer found there
Advantages of the Internet
The Internet helps in various ways:
To get information
You could get information about people, products, organizations, research data,
electronic versions of the printed media, etc. from the Internet. You can get easy access to
a wealth of information and entertainment. As such it is often described as the prototype
for a world wide information "superhighway".
To provide information
Most of what you want to provide could be considered global advertising. The best and
most inexpensive way to let people know who you are, what you are doing/have done,
and how
Publishing: including full test articles, reports, abstracts, computer programs, and
Extension: in which some of the delays associated with the printed media,
may be reduced.
Teaching: The possibilities here include both distance learning and assistance for
Sharing/exchanging information with the outside world.
Ability to communicate

The Internet gives people the ability to communicate with other connected
computer users through electronic mail and real time typed conversations (bulletin
boards, databases, and discussion groups). Users will be able to use electronic mails
to transmit messages, announcements and document/file attachments to other users
within the Intranet or over the Internet.
How big is the Internet?
It's difficult to judge the size of the Internet. People and systems are being added
daily. However, it is estimated that in the United States alone, more than 27.5 million
people are connected to the Internet.
There are over 150,000 unique domain names in the US alone.
Some of the largest Internet Search Engines have over 30 million web documents
listed, with an annual growth rate exceeding 28%.
There are more than 65 countries currently connected to the Internet.
Introduction to Information Technology

Internet Connectivity
You can connect to the Internet in one of two basic ways, dialing into an Internet service
provider’s (ISP) computer, or with a direct connection to an Internet service provider.
The difference is mainly in the speed and cost. In most cases, you connect to your ISP
using a telephone line modem. This type of connection is called the Dial-up connection.
Sometimes you go in for a direct connection.
Dial-up Connection
To establish a conventional dial-up connection to the Internet, you will need the
 An account with an ISP ((a company that provides the Internet access)
 A telephone connection
 A computer
 Modem (external/internal)
 A communication software
Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) will install the following in your computer:
Telecommunications Software
A World Wide Web Browser.
An Email program.
An FTP Program (optional)
A Newsgroup Reader
With all this software installed, you will be ready to access the Internet. Your computer
will dial a local number, which is provided by your ISP. Once you have logged into your
ISP, you are connected to the Internet.
There are two classes of computers on the Internet, HOSTS and CLIENTS. Unless you
have a permanent link to the Internet and your machine is always connected and on-line,
then you are probably a client and not a host. Direct Connection
You can also get a direct connection to your ISP, where you have a fixed cable or a
dedicated phone line to the ISP. Often the dedicated line is an ISDN (Integrated Services
Digital Network) line that is a higher speed version of the standard phone line.
Applications and Services on the Internet
The Internet is actually very boring since it is nothing more than hardware connections. It
is the Internet applications and services that make the Internet come alive.
Internet applications include
World Wide Web (WWW),
Electronic mail,
File Transfer
Discussion Groups
Usenet (News Group),
Internet Relay Chat,
Search Services
World Wide Web
In simpler terms, the Web is an Internet-based computer network that allows users on one
computer to access information stored on another through the worldwide network.
Introduction to Information Technology

The WWW is an Internet service that provides a network of interactive documents and
the software to access them. It is based on documents called web pages that combine
text, pictures, forms, sound, animation and hypertext links called hyperlinks. To navigate
the WWW, users “Surf” from one page to another by pointing and clicking on the
hyperlinks in text or graphics.

EMAIL is the ability to write a message to someone, using a mail program, and use the
Internet as a means of delivering that message. Email is not a free service. The cost of your
email is covered in your service charge to your provider.
E-mail is the most popular application of computer communication system. For the purpose
of our discussion, we shall adopt the simplest definition of E-mail as follows:
Email (Electronic mail) refers to a computer-based system allowing two or more people to
communicate through the transmission of character coded or graphic information by
electronic means.
Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange
messages. Each user of e-mail has a mailbox address to which messages are sent.
Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a matter of seconds.
{ }{tc \l 3 ""}A typical electronic mail system requires:
Personal Computer/workstation (through which messages are created, edited, and
Communication software (which make electronic mail possible);
Telephone line (which links the sending and receiving computers);
Modem (to provide the communications link), and
Account: e-mail address and password (Mail box address and mail box ownership)
Just as a letter makes stops at different postal stations along its way, e-mail passes from
one computer, known as a mail server, to another as it travels over the Internet. Once it
arrives at the destination mail server, it is stored in an electronic mailbox until the
recipient retrieves it. This whole process can take seconds, allowing you to quickly
communicate with people around the world at any time of the day or night.
To send e-mail, you need a connection to the Internet and access to a mail server that
forwards your mail. The standard protocol used for sending Internet e-mail is called
SMTP, short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It works in conjunction with POP
servers. POP stands for Post Office Protocol.
When you send an e-mail message, your computer routes it to an SMTP server. The
server looks at the e-mail address (similar to the address on an envelope), then forwards it
to the recipient's mail server. Once the message arrives at the destination mail server, it's
stored until the addressee retrieves it. You can send e-mail anywhere in the world to
anyone who has an e-mail address. Remember, almost all Internet service providers and
all major online services offer at least one e-mail address with every account.
Telnet is a program that allows you to log into computers on the Internet and use online
databases, library catalogs, chat services, and more. To Telnet to a computer, you must
know its address. This can consist of words (locis.loc.gov) or numbers (
Introduction to Information Technology

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This is both a program and the method used to
transfer files between computers. Anonymous FTP is an option that allows users to
transfer files from thousands of host computers on the Internet to their personal computer
account. FTP sites contain books, articles, software, games, images, sounds, multimedia,
course work, data sets, and more.

C omputer Security and Computer Virus
Parts of a Disk

Boot sector
Hard disk drives, floppy diskettes, and logical drives (partitions) all have boot sectors
where critical drive information is stored.

Master Boot Record

On all PC fixed disks, the first physical sector is reserved for a short bootstrap program.
This sector is the master Boot (MBR). It also includes the partition table.
Partition Table

PC disks are often split in logical blocks known as partition. Information required to
access these partitions ,as well as a flag which indicates which partition should be used to
boot the system(the active partition) is stored in the Master Boot Record.
What is computer virus?
A virus is an independent program which reproduces itself. It may attach to other
programs; it may create copies of itself (see companion viruses). It may attach itself to
any executable code, including but not limited to boot sectors and /or partition sectors of
hard and/or floppy disks. It may damage, corrupt or destroy data, or degrade system

Types of viruses


A virus which able to infect both files and boot sectors is said to be multi-partite. Such
viruses are highly infectious.

Boot sector or MBR virus

A virus which infects the boot sector of a fixed or floppy disk. Any formatted disk (even
one that is blank, or only contains text data, for example ) may contain a boot sector
virus. An attempt to boot from a diskette infected with a boot sector virus will cause the
Introduction to Information Technology

virus to become active in memory. This type of virus will place a copy of itself on the
Master Boot Record(MBR) or the boot sector of the hard drive. Every time you boot
your system from that point on , you will have the virus active in memory. These are the
most common viruses. Any attempt to disinfect these viruses while a virus is active in
memory will be defeated since it will re- write itself to the disk as soon as you remove it.
Additionally, many of these are stealth viruses. For safety’s sake, you should always
attempt to disinfect these viruses after a cold boot to a write –protected diskette.

Circular infection

A type of infection that occurs when 2 viruses infect the boot sector of a disk, rendering
the disk unbootable. Removing one virus will generally causes a re-infection with the
other virus.

Companion Virus

A virus which infects executable files by creating a ‘companion’ file with the same name
but an .COM extension. Since DOS executes .COM files, followed by .EXE files, and
finally .BAT files, the virus loads before the executable file.

Cross-Linked Files

Cross-linking is a common phenomena rarely associated with viruses. It occurs when two
files appear to share the same clusters on the disk.


A dropper is a program containing a virus which has been compressed with PKLite, Diet,
LZExe, etc. it has been designed to deposit the virus onto a hard disk, floppy disk, a file,
or into memory. The children of this process are not droppers.


Among the most difficult to detect, encrypted viruses use a brief encryption loop at the
start of the program to make the rest of the program unintelligible. This means that
scanners relaying on signature files have only a few bytes to look for. The encryption key
also changes each time a polymorphic virus replicates.

False Positive

A false positive occurs when a scanner identifies a file as infected when in fact it is not.

File Stealth Virus

Introduction to Information Technology

In addition to redirection for the boot information, these viruses attack .COM and .EXE
(executable files) files when opened or copied and hides the file size changes from the
DIR command. The major problem arises when an attempt is made to use CHKDSK/F
and there appears to be a difference in the reported file size and the apparent size.
CHKDSK assumes this is the result of some cross-linked files and attempts to repair the
damage. The result is the destruction of the files involved. The FRODO or 4096 virus is
famous for this kind of damage.
See also Stealth Virus and Full Stealth Virus.

Full Stealth Virus

In this case, all normal calls to file locations are cached while the virus subtracts its own
length so that it appears clean.


A rule-based method of identifying new viruses. This method of scanning does not rely
on specific virus signatures. The advantage of the heuristic scan is that it is not fooled by
a new variant of an existing virus. However, it might occasionally report suspicious code
in normal programs. For example, the scanning of a program may generate the message:

F-PROT will issue a stronger warning based on the likelihood of a program really
containing a virus.

Integrity Checker

A program which checks for changes to files. Integrity checkers, when used correctly,
can provide an excellent second line of defense against new viruses or variants.

In the Wild

Viruses found “In the Wild” are viruses which are known to be spreading, as opposed to
viruses which are not currently spreading, but are confined “in the zoo.”

Joke Programs

F-PROT detects the presence of several well-known joke programs which can interrupt
the normal operation of a PC. While joke programs are generally not harmful in any way,
their side effects are often mistaken for those of a virus.

Macro Virus

A macro virus is a virus written in one of the many macro languages. The macro viruses
spread via infected files, which can be documents, spreadsheets, databases, or any
computer program which allows use of a macro language. At present these viruses can
Introduction to Information Technology

infect Microsoft Word and Lotus Ami Pro documents. See also Macro Virus information


A virus is said to be polymorphic if its code appears to be different every time it

replicates ( through generally each replication of the virus is functionally identical). This
is usually achieved by encrypting the body of the virus, and adding a decryption routine
which is different for each replication. When a polymorphic virus replicates, a portion of
the decryption code is modified. Additionally, random, do-nothing blocks of code can be
embedded in the program and are shuffled around to further vary the signature. In
essence, it looks like a different program to virus scanners.

Stealth Virus

These viruses actively hide themselves while running. The first common virus, the
BRAIN (discovered in the wide in 1986), was a stealth virus. It infects the boot sector of
a floppy diskette and any attempts to read the boot sector with BRAIN active would be
redirected to a copy of the original boot sector someplace else on the diskette.

Trojan, Trojan Horse

A Trojan (or Trojan Horse) is a program which carries out an unauthorized function
while hidden inside an authorized program. It is designed to do something other than
what it claims to, and frequently is destructive in its actions.

Virus Simulator

A virus simulator is a program which creates files that “look like” viruses. Such files are
questionable for testing purposes because they are not really infected. F-PROT will not to
be fooled by a simulator.

Virus Variant

A variant is a modification of a previously known virus, i.e. a variation.


A worm is a program, which reproduces by copying itself over and over, system to
system. Worms are self-contained and generally use networks to spread.

What is a computer security risk?

Computer security risks are action that causes loss of or damage to computer
system and/or information on your system. It is any event or action that
could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data,
information, or processing capability. It is caused specially by a cybercrime
Introduction to Information Technology

which is an online or Internet-based illegal act. The following are some of

the cybercrimes:
• Hackers
• Crackers
• Script Kiddies
• Corporate Spies
• Unethical Employees

Computer Security Risks

Computer risks may have different dimensions to occur on your system the
basic ones are caused by:
 External - Internet and Network Attacks. (unwanted programs or
other persons)
 Internal - System mulfunctionality due to hardware or software

Internet and Network Attacks (unwanted programs)

Information transmitted over networks has a higher degree of security risk

than information kept on an organization’s premises.
 The basic risks on internet and network attacks are Viruses, worms,
and Trojan horses.

 Virus: is a potentially damaging computer program - Can spread and

damage files. Computer Virus affects a computer negatively by altering
the way the computer works.
 Worm: Copies itself repeatedly, using up resources and possibly
shutting down the computer or network.
 Trojan horse: A malicious program that hides within or looks like a
legitimate program until triggered. It does not replicate itself on other
 Root kit: Program that hides in a computer and allows someone from a
remote location to take full control.
 Payload: (destructive event) that is delivered when you open file, run
infected program, or boot computer with infected disk in disk drive.

Your computer may be infected by either one or more of the above internet
and network attacks. You can easily identify that your computer is infected
by any of the above if you see one or more of the following symptoms:

• Operating system runs much slower than usual

Introduction to Information Technology

• Available memory is less than expected

• Files become corrupted
• Screen displays unusual message or image
• Music or unusual sound plays randomly
• Existing programs and files disappear
• Programs or files do not work properly
• Unknown programs or files mysteriously appear
• System properties change
• Operating system does not start up
• Operating system shuts down unexpectedly

How can you protect your system from a macro virus?

Users can take several precautions to protect their home and work computers
and mobile devices from these malicious infections. Some of the Tips for
preventing virus and other malware are:

1. Never start a computer with removable media inserted in the device or

plugged in the ports, unless the media are uninfected
2. Never open an e-mail attachment unless you are expecting it and it is
from a trusted source
3. Set the macros security in programs so that you can enable or disable
macros. Enable macros only if the document is from a trusted source and
you are expecting it. Macros are instructions saved in an application,
such as word processing or spreadsheet program.
4. Install antivirus programs on all of your computers. Update the software
and the virus signature regularly
5. Scan all downloaded programs for virus and other malware
6. If the antivirus program flags an e-mail attachment as infected, delete or
quarantine the attachment immediately
7. Before using any removable media, scan the media for malware. Follow
this procedure even for shrink-wrapped software from developers. Some
commercial software has been infected and distributed to unsuspecting
8. Install a personal firewall program
9. Stay informed about new virus alerts and hoaxes

What is an antivirus program?

 Identifies and removes computer viruses
 Most also protect against worms and Trojan horses
Introduction to Information Technology

A firewall is the best solution for such attacks. A firewall is Security system
consisting of hardware and/or software that prevents unauthorized network
access. Personal firewall utility is a Program that protects personal
computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions. The firewall Monitors
transmissions to and from computer and also informs you of attempted

How can companies protect against hackers?

Companies use Intrusion detection software that analyzes network traffic,

assesses system vulnerabilities, and identifies intrusions and suspicious
behavior. They can also use Access control defines who can access
computer and what actions they can take. Finally companies can apply Audit
trail records access attempts.

What are other ways to protect your personal computer?

If you suspect that you are under attack first and foremost disable file and
printer sharing on Internet connection. Secondly you can use is a user name
with a password. The username is unique combination of characters that
identifies user where as a Password is private combination of characters
associated with the user name that allows access to computer resources. You
can make your password more secure, by having longer passwords and
mixture of symbols numbers and characters. Besides to username and
password people use a possessed object which is Item that you must carry
to gain access to computer or facility. This Often used with numeric
password called personal identification
number (PIN). If you are in a more exposed area to attack you have another
option for your personal protection it is using a biometric device. This
device Authenticates person’s identity using personal characteristic such as
Fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, signature, and iris

What are hardware theft and hardware vandalism?

Hardware theft is act of stealing computer equipment such as Cables

sometimes used to lock equipment, where as Hardware vandalism is act of
defacing or destroying computer equipment. To help reduce the chances of
theft, companies and schools use a variety of security measures:
 Physical access controls
 Alarm systems
Introduction to Information Technology

 Cables to lock equipment

 Real time location system
 Passwords, possessed objects, and biometrics

What is software theft?

It is the act of stealing or illegally copying software or intentionally erasing

programs. Software piracy is illegal duplication of copyrighted software, this
includes Copying, loaning, borrowing, renting, or distributing software can
be a violation of copyright law. Besides to these Steals software media,
intentionally erases programs, and illegally registers and/or activates a
program can also be included.

What are some other safeguards against software theft?

Some software producers use product activation to protect and help the
software fully functional. Product activation allows user to input product
identification number online or by phone and receive unique installation
identification number.
Other software has a license agreement, which is the Right to use software.
A Single-user license agreement allows user to install software on one
computer, make backup copy, and sell software after removing from

Information Theft
Information theft occurs when someone steals personal or confidential
information. To Safeguards against information theft there exist different
alternatives the well known methods are encryption and digital signature.

 Encryption is a process of converting readable data (plaintext) into

unreadable characters (cipher text) to prevent unauthorized access. To
read the data, the recipient must decrypt, or decipher, the data that is
encrypted earlier.
Digital signature is an encrypted code that a person, Web site, or
organization attaches to an electronic message to verify the identity of the
sender. Digital signature often used to ensure that an impostor is not
participating in an Internet transaction. Web browsers and Web sites also
use encryption techniques
Introduction to Information Technology

System Failure

A system failure is the prolonged malfunction of a computer which can

cause loss of hardware, software, or data. A variety of factors can lead to
system failure some of the causes are:
– Aging hardware
– Natural disasters
– Electrical power disturbances/problems
• Noise—unwanted electrical signal
• Undervoltage—drop in electrical supply
• Overvoltage or power surge— significant increase in electrical
– Errors in computer programs
Two ways to protect from system failures caused by electrical power
variations include surge protectors (Protects computer and equipment from
electrical power disturbances) and uninterruptable power supplies (UPS)
(Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is surge protector that provides power
during power loss)
 Backup is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if
the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed. To back up a file means to
make a copy of it, Offsite backups are stored in a location separate
from the computer site. Back up is also called Ultimate Safeguard. In
case of system failure or corrupted files, restore files by copying to
original location