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Sulzer ISO 13709 (API 610) Sulzer Pumps

Type BB5 Barrel Pumps

The Heart of Your Process


Long History of Barrel Pumps Sulzer Pumps

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 2


Barrel Pumps: Diffuser Style Sulzer Pumps

45 MW SuperCritical
Boiler Feed
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 3
Types of Horizontal Multistage Pumps Sulzer Pumps

Volute - Horizontal Split Diffuser - Segmental Ring Volute Barrel

BB3
BB5
BB4 – Not used on H.C.

Diffuser Barrel Casing High Speed Diffuser Barrel


BB5
BB5

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 4


Volute vs. Diffuser Casings Sulzer Pumps

Radial loads increase at Single Volute Casing


lower flow, and at flow rates
beyond best efficiency point.
The result is an unbalanced
radial load on the rotating
element.
Small, low flow pumps have
relatively small radial loads. FR

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 5


Volute vs. Diffuser Sulzer Pumps

A dual volute casing has Dual Volute Casing


an additional
passageway 180º from
the main throat area
which will almost balance
the generated radial
force.
Horizontally split, dual FR ~ 0
Volute Multistage Pumps
have 1 throat are in the
top half, 1 in the bottom
half - to balance radial
forces.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 6


MultiStage Dual (MSD) Volute Sulzer Pumps

Volute throat in top


half of casing.

Volute throat in
bottom half is on
Top Half Casing
opposite side for
radial force balance.

Bottom Half Casing

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 7


Volute vs. Diffuser Sulzer Pumps

A diffuser has multiple Diffuser Casing


discharge passageways
with equal area
distributed throughout
the circumference -
resulting in radial load
balance.

FR = 0

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 8


Diffusers Sulzer Pumps

Diffuser – Discharge Side Diffuser – Suction Side

Impeller runs in center


Return Channels feed next stage

Stage casings
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 9
Axial Thrust Development Sulzer Pumps

Opposed Impeller Design

Fr Total = 0

Fr 1st Fr xst

Pd 1st X X Pd 1st Pd xst


X X Pd xst

„ Unbalanced pressure distribution on impellers results in a thrust in the


direction of suction.
„ Opposed impeller design offsets the unbalanced pressure distribution (thrust)
effectively balancing axial thrust. When there are odd number of stages, thrust is
handled by adjusting the diameter of the throttle bushing with residual handled by a
thrust bearing.
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 10
Axial Thrust Development Sulzer Pumps

Inline Rotor Stack

Fr Total = Fr 1st+Fr xst FDrum ~ 85% Fr Total

Fr 1st Fr xst FDrum

Pd 1st Pd 1st Pd xst


X X Pd xst
X X
Ps

„ Unbalanced pressure distribution on impellers results in thrust in the


direction of suction.
„ Stacked impeller design results in adding thrust in the direction of suction.
„ Developed thrust must be compensated by a hydraulic balancing device.
Residual thrust is handled by a thrust bearing.
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 11
Axial Thrust Compensation
Balance Drum Sulzer Pumps

„ Balances 85 - 90% of generated


Close clearance thrust. Residual thrust handled by
pressure breakdown
a thrust bearing.
„ With inline rotor stack, this is most
reliable design for transient
conditions (start up and run down,
temperature changes, daily starts
and stops).
PSuction PDischarge
„ Easy and safe axial rotor setting
due to radial gap as compared to
axial gap (explained on next
slide).
„ Rotor is fixed in the axially
position by thrust bearing.

Balance Drum Liner „ Higher amount of leakage - less


Balance Drum
efficient.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 12


Axial Thrust Compensation
balance disk - Not allowed by ISO 13709 (API 610) Sulzer Pumps

„ Balances 100% of the generated


thrust.
Axial gap will „ No thrust bearing required.
adjust in
response to „ Rotor floats axially for proper
thrust changes operation.
„ Least amount of leakage - higher
PSuction PDischarge efficiency.
„ Disc lift off device required for
frequent starts and stops
„ ISO 13709 (API 610) Para. 5.7.1
requires radial running clearance
be used for axial thrust balance.
That precludes the use of this
device.
„ Potential for contact causes this
Counter Disk
design to be considered less
Balance Disk
forgiving than balancing drum
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 13
Inline Impellers vs. Opposed Impellers Sulzer Pumps

Sulzer GSG:
Inline diffuser Barrel Pump

GSG Back-to-Back diffuser Barrel Pump

Sulzer CP:
Opposed Impeller Volute Barrel Pump
Note: All are ISO 13709 (API 610) type BB5
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 14
Inline vs. Opposed Rotor Stack Sulzer Pumps

Direct drive, inline diffuser barrel pumps are the


least expensive barrel pumps to build.
High Speed inline pumps require tilting pad thrust
bearings and lube system, high speed seals, VFD or
gear speed increaser, etc. which add to the cost.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 15


Inline vs. Opposed Rotor Stack Sulzer Pumps

ISO 13709 (API 610) requires stable rotordynamics with 2 times normal
ISO 13709 (API 610) specified wear ring clearances.
Back to back diffuser stack is often used on smaller pumps or high
energy pumps with many stages where rotordynamics require a
midspan bearing. The Sulzer Thunderhorse 650 Bar, 13MW injection
pumps are designed in this manner.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 16


The “K” factor – large barrel pumps Sulzer Pumps

“K factor”
2000 120
K Factor • Rotor Wt. in lbs.
1800 Shaft Span, in. Back to
100
1600 Back • Shaft Span, in.
1400 GSG,
80 • Shaft Dia. in.
1200
HPCP or
CP K=(W*L^3/D^4)^0.5
1000 60

800
40
600
Some say K factor of
400
20 </= 1200 is good;
200
“Semi-stiff shaft” is
0 0 another term they
Inline 3.38 Inline 4.25 B-B 3.38 use
Type / shaft size, inches

Lower “K” factor is generally better. It can be achieved either with fewer
stages & large high speed shaft on inline rotor, or back-to-back rotor and
direct drive

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 17


Rotor Sag Sulzer Pumps

For small pumps with many stages, the rotor will rest on center
bushing. When the pump starts, Lomakin effect lifts rotor for non-
contact running.

Non-galling material selection is important. Sulzer uses a stellite coated, or


nitrided throttle bushing and center bushing on opposed impeller pumps.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 18


Inline vs. Opposed Rotor Stack Sulzer Pumps

Back to Back (Opposed impeller)


diffuser or volute design is also
used in remote locations where
customers prefer not to have a lube
system to maintain. Opposed
impellers balance axial thrust and
may allow use of an antifriction
thrust bearing.

Back to Back (Opposed impeller)


volute multistage barrel pumps are
used in abrasive services where 2
large throat diameters are preferred in
lieu of many smaller diffuser throats.
The inner volute casing is larger in
diameter than diffusers so volute style
barrel pumps often cost more than
diffuser style

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 19


Direct Drive vs. High Speed Sulzer Pumps

Flow of a centrifugal pump varies High Speed, VFD or Gear; fewer stages
directly with RPM. Head produced by a
stage varies as the square of the RPM.
In other words, to make the same head,
operating a smaller pump 42% faster
would make the same head with half
the number of stages.
However, some customers prefer direct
drive 2 pole pumps for reliability and
reduced items to maintain. Direct drive
pumps often do not require these costly
accessories:
Low Speed, Direct Drive; more stages
- lube system & sleeve/pivot shoe
bearings
- more extensive instrumentation
- gear increaser
- special mechanical seals

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 20


Cartridge vs Non-cartridge designs Sulzer Pumps

A “Cartridge” design barrel pump allows


the inboard bearing housing and seal
chamber to be withdrawn from the
barrel with the bundle.

On small pump sizes this is impractical


because the IB bearing housing is
larger than the barrel opening on the IB
end.

On smaller pumps, a “Non-Cartridge”


design barrel pump requires the
inboard bearing housing and seal
chamber to be removed before
withdrawal of the bundle from the
outboard end. That adds a little time
to disassembly/reassembly but parts
are relatively small and can often be
handled by hand
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 21
High Temperature – Thermal Expansion Sulzer Pumps

To accommodate axial growth due The discharge end is equipped with a


to high temperature operation the key slot which will allows the barrel to
suction end of the barrel is expand in the direction of the NDE end.
equipped with a pin which fixes the The barrel to pedestal bolts are torqued
Drive End of the pump. to a specific value to accommodate the
axial growth.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 22


Barrel Head Closure Methods Sulzer Pumps

„ Studs & Nuts – Most common – requires stretching or torquing


„ Supernuts – more expensive, no stretching; hand tool torquing
or
„ Sulzer’s Patented Twist Lock
On lower temperature services, to speed overhaul, some customers prefer
Sulzer’s patented Twist Lock barrel end cover design – no studs/nuts and no
torquing required.

Head Installed
Head partially
rotated
Head Rotated &
Locked

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 23


Sulzer Pumps

GSG: SMALLER SIZES


„ 50 Hz, 2 pole motor speed

„ Gray or white are inline


rotor

„ Light blue are only


available in back-to-back
rotor

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 24


Sulzer Pumps

GSG: LARGER SIZES


„ 50 Hz, 2 pole motor speed

„ Gray or white are inline


rotor

„ Light blue are only


available in back-to-back
rotor

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 25


Sulzer Pumps

GSG: SMALLER SIZES


„ 60 Hz, 2 pole motor speed

„ Gray or white are inline


rotor

„ Light blue are only


available in back-to-back
rotor

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 26


Sulzer Pumps

GSG: LARGER SIZES


„ 60 Hz, 2 pole motor speed

„ Gray or white are inline


rotor

„ Light blue are only


available in back-to-back
rotor

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 27


Hydraulics Sulzer Pumps

A double suction
impeller reduces the
NPSHr by about 30%

Double suction first stage available on larger sizes

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 28


Impellers and Diffusers Sulzer Pumps

Hydraulic layout
„ Multiple hydraulic impeller &
diffuser sets per pump size
„ Mixing of impeller / diffuser
hydraulics in single pump is
possible
„ Double suction first stage is
available in larger size pumps
„ Dynamic balanced impellers &
rotor > 3 stages
„ Radial load is balanced

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 29


Mixing of Impeller Hydraulics with
Interstage Bleed Off Sulzer Pumps

Pumped Medium : Boiler Feed Water Speed : 3570 rpm MD 100-300 / 8


Density : 909.2 kg/m³ Stage Number : 8
Temperature : 318 °F nq : 20.0 Note the all “B”
kinem. Viscosity : 0.19 mm²/s Impeller Set : B/B/B Tender : /1
Head (design) : 4,600 ft Basis 4335.11.11/2 & 4335.11.11/2
impeller hydraulics
Characteristic : TS/1
Capacity (design) : 900 gpm & 4335.11.11/2 Impeller diameter : 11.1 inch
Total efficiency : 75.8 % Extraction head : 1,268 ft Impeller dia. (max) : 11.8 inch
Pump Power : 1,350 HP Extraction capacity : 250 gpm NPSHR : 19 ft
6000

Note efficiency = 75.8%


and power is 1,350 hp
5000

RATED
4000

Max. ∅

By mixing impeller
H [ ft ]
3000

hydraulics efficiency and


power can be optimized
2000

Max. ∅
1000

RATED
0

0 gpm 200 gpm 400 gpm 600 gpm 800 gpm 1000 gpm 1200 gpm 1400 gpm 1600 gpm 1800 gpm 2000 gpm

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 30


Mixing of Impeller Hydraulics with
Interstage Bleed Off Sulzer Pumps

Pumped Medium : Boiler Feed Water Speed : 3570 rpm MD 100-300 / 9


Density : 909.2 kg/m³ Stage Number : 9
Temperature : 318 °F nq : 20.0 Now the “B” hydraulics have
kinem. Viscosity : 0.19 mm²/s Impeller Set : B/B/S Tender
been replaced : /1 with “S” after
Head (design) : 4,600 ft Basis 4335.11.11/2 & 4335.11.11/2 Characteristic : TS/1
Capacity (design) : 900 gpm & 4335.11.21/1 thediameter
Impeller interstage bleed
: 10.9 inch off.
Total efficiency : 78.7 % Extraction head : 1,268 ft Impeller dia. (max) : 11.0 inch
Pump Power : 1,301 HP Extraction capacity : 250 gpm NPSHR : 19 ft
6000

Efficiency now = 78.7% and power is


1,301 hp (49 hp reduction)
5000

RATED
4000

Max. ∅

By mixing impeller
H [ ft ]
3000

hydraulics efficiency and


power can be optimized
2000

Max. ∅
1000

RATED
0

0 gpm 200 gpm 400 gpm 600 gpm 800 gpm 1000 gpm 1200 gpm 1400 gpm 1600 gpm 1800 gpm
0

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 31


Bearing Type Selection Sulzer Pumps
Power @ BEP - HP (3600 rpm)

5000

4000 Pivot Shoe Thrust & Sleeve


Radial – Lube System required

3000
Anti-Friction Thrust & Sleeve
2000 Radial – Ring Oil Lube

1000 Anti-Friction Thrust & Radial –


Ring Oil Lubrication
0

0%

0%

0%
0%
%

%
20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

11

12

13
10
Pump Flow - % of BEP
Exact bearing system will depend upon application GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 32
Anti-Friction with Ring Oil Lubrication Sulzer Pumps

Radial Bearing
Thrust Bearing

Cooling Fan
Oil Rings
Oil Reservoir

Ring Oil Lubrication – Oil rings rotate with shaft, dip down into an oil reservoir
and “throw” oil onto bearings. Grooves or channels are located in the bearing
housing to distribute oil throughout the bearing(s). Shaft mounted cooling fans
provide cooling up to a liquid temperature of 177o C (350° F).
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 33
Anti-Friction Thrust & Sleeve Radial Bearings
with Ring Oil Lubrication (GSG Back-to-Back only) Sulzer Pumps

Thrust Bearing
Radial Bearings

Cooling Fan
Oil Rings
Oil Reservoir
Ring Oil Lubrication – Oil rings rotate with shaft, dip down into an oil reservoir and “throw”
oil onto bearings. Grooves or channels are located in the bearing housing to distribute oil
throughout the bearing(s). Shaft mounted cooling fans provide cooling up to a liquid
temperature of 177o C (350° F). Optional water cooled finned tubing is available.
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 34
Double Acting Tilting Pad Thrust & Sleeve
Radial Bearings with Force Feed Oil Lubrication Sulzer Pumps

Double Acting, Tilting Pad Thrust


Bearing Sleeve Radial Bearings

Shaft Driven Oil Pump

Forced Feed Lubrication – Bearing lubrication is provided by an external lube oil


system. Depending on specification requirements lube oil systems can be very
basic or very elaborate. Standard lube system could cost < 20,000 Euro/USD.
ISO 13709 (API 610) Lube system is typically 40,000 Euro/USD. ISO 10438 (API
614) could be 3 to 4 times that cost. If customers specify lube systems, they often
specify bearing RTD’s and vibration measurement instrumentation which adds
further cost. GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 35
Journal and Thrust Bearing Arrangement Sulzer Pumps

Sleeve Bearings

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 36


Tilting Pad Thrust Bearing Arrangement Sulzer Pumps

Thrust Bearing Lubrication

An “oil wedge” builds up


between each stationary thrust
pad and the rotating collar, and
no metal-to-metal contact
occurs during normal
operation.

The babbit lining of the


pads is designed to be
tolerant of any minute
particles of grit that may get
through.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 37


Journal and Thrust Bearing Arrangement Sulzer Pumps

Double Acting “Pivot Shoe” or “Tilting Pad” Thrust Bearing

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 38


Forced Feed Lube Oil Systems Sulzer Pumps

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 39


Seal Chambers & Jackets Sulzer Pumps

Seal Chambers are


designed to ISO 13709
(API 610) Table 6
dimensions and features.
ISO 21049 (API 682)
single, double or tandem
seals are available

Seal Chamber cooling or


heating jackets are
available on this model
pump.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 40


Seal Flush Plans Sulzer Pumps

TI

FO FI Q/D

A variety of seal flush plans are available

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 41


Instrumentation - options Sulzer Pumps

NDE X-Y Shaft vibration Balance Leakoff flow DE Shaft vibration

DE Bearing
NDE Bearing temperature
temperature

In lieu of more expensive X-Y


probes & proximitors, normally Barrel Temperature,
bearing bracket velocity is Bottom & Top (for hot
adequate for direct drive pumps standby)

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 42


Vibration Instrumentation Sulzer Pumps

Firm contact from shaft


to bearing frame

Velomitors
With anti-friction bearings the shaft is firmly connected to the bearing frame via
the bearings.
Any vibration of the rotating element will be transferred from the shaft to the
bearings to the bearing housings and there will not be any relative movement of
the shaft to the bearing housings.
Vibration is measured by the relative RMS velocity or acceleration of the
bearing frame - by either velomitors or accelerometers.
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 43
Vibration Instrumentation Sulzer Pumps

Film contact from shaft


to bearing frame

Probes and Proximitors

With sleeve bearings, the shaft “floats” on a film of oil and is free to move
within the clearance of the sleeve bearings.
This allows the rotating element to vibrate within the sleeve bearings while
the actual bearing frame may not vibrate at all.
Vibration is the relative movement of the shaft within the bearing frame.
Probes are mounted with very close proximity to the shaft (Bently Nevada
type systems) to detect displacement movement.
GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 44
API Material Classes Sulzer Pumps

Material classes and abbreviations

S-1 S-5 S-6 C-6


Part
12% Chrome/ 12%
CS/Cast Iron CS/CS CS/12% Chrome
Chrome

Pressure Casing Carbon Steel Carbon Steel Carbon Steel 12% Chrome

Inner Case Cast Iron Carbon Steel 12% Chrome 12% Chrome

Impeller Cast Iron Carbon Steel 12% Chrome 12% Chrome

12% Chrome 12% Chrome 12% Chrome


Case Wear Rings Cast Iron
Hardened Hardened Hardened

12% Chrome 12% Chrome 12% Chrome


Impeller Wear Rings Cast Iron
Hardened Hardened Hardened

Shaft Carbon Steel AISI 4140 AISI 4140 12% Chrome

12% Chrome 12% Chrome 12% Chrome


Throat Bushings Cast Iron
Hardened Hardened Hardened

12% Chrome 12% Chrome 12% Chrome


Interstage Sleeves Cast Iron
Hardened Hardened Hardened

12% Chrome 12% Chrome 12% Chrome


Interstage Bushings Cast Iron
Hardened Hardened Hardened

Case and Gland Studs AISI 4140 AISI 4140 AISI 4140 AISI 4140

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 45


API Material Classes Sulzer Pumps

Material classes – cont’d.

A-8 D-1 D-2


Part

316SS/316SS Duplex SS Super Duplex

Pressure Casing 316L SS Duplex S.D.

Inner Case 316L SS Duplex S.D.

Impeller 316L SS Duplex S.D.

Case Wear Rings Duplex SS Duplex S.D.

Impeller Wear Rings 316l SS HF Duplex S.D.

Shaft Duplex SS Duplex S.D.

Throat Bushings 316L SS HF Duplex S.D.

Interstage Sleeves 316L SS Duplex S.D.

Interstage Bushings 316L SS HF Duplex S.D.

Case and Gland Studs AISI 4140 AISI 4140 AISI 4140

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 46


Pre-Warming Sulzer Pumps

On Horizontally split multistage pumps, the casing is not uniformly thick. It


has very heavy cross sections that take time to reach operating
temperature.

The rotor & lower


half casing gets
hot and expands
quickly.

Pre-warming of this style pump is required. Maximum ramp-up temperature


is 10º C (20ºF) per minute and 110ºC (200 ºF) instantaneous thermal shock

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 47


Pre-Warming Sulzer Pumps

The Sulzer GSG Pumps are designed with uniform thicknesses and
clearances on the inner case components to minimize distortion. Warmup
is not required on many applications < 260oC (500oF).

Above that temperature, the barrel drains can be used to uniformly warm
the pump, or maintain hot standby.

Barrel RTD’s can provide


indication of uniform
temperatures.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 48


GSG Cross Section and Features Sulzer Pumps

Radial split Interstage bleed


identical stage connections Low NPSH 1st stage
casings, diffusers available impeller. Double
and impellers suction available.

Thrust bearing - anti-


friction or double acting
tilting pad.
Radial bearing - sleeve
or anti-friction. Bearings
protected by
Labyrinth type
oil seals

Studs & Nuts,


Radial Split barrel
Super-nuts or Twist
casing with confined
Lock barrel closure
gasket. Either casting
on Back-to-Back
Stacked rotor design with or forging available.
only
Hydraulic balance staggered keyways to
device is Drum type provide positive torque to
impellers

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 49


Pictures Sulzer Pumps

GSG Boiler Feed pump with speed increasing gearbox, lube system,
suction strainer and automatic recirculation control valve

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 50


Pictures Sulzer Pumps

GSG portion of
hydrotreater train (GSG
pump, clutch, MSD-T
power recovery turbine)
with full instrumentation
and insulation.

Sleeve bearing RTD,


Active Thrust RTD,
Inactive thrust RTD,
X-Y vibration probes,
Key phasor.

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 51


Pictures Sulzer Pumps

10 stage GSG on 0.4


Sp.Gr. cold Ethylene
VFD driven at > 4,000
RPM with fan cooled
antifriction bearings

GSG Sales Presentation<Copyright © Sulzer Pumps> | slide 52