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Nina Ian John ͞G͟ Rachel Mark Jocelle Edo Gienah Jho Kath Aynz Je Glad Nickie Ricobear

Teacher Dadang Niňa Arlene Vivs Paul F. Rico F. Ren Mai Revs Mavis Jepay Yana Mayi Serge Hung Tope Ag Bien

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WHAT IS A VIRUS? A Places discovered in or people who discovered them
 Epstein-Barr virus, Rift Valley fever
 Acellular organism whose genomes consist of nucleic acid A Biochemical features
 0 ligately replicate inside host cells using host meta olic  Retrovirus, Picornavirus, Hepadnavirus
machinery to form a pool of components which assem le into A Suscepti ility to chemical agents
components called virions A Presence of specific enzymes ² RNA and DNA polymerases
 Gannot e grown on sterile media; requires presence of specific A Immunologic properties
host cells A Natural methodos of transmission
A Host, tissue, and cell tropism
3 Primary Differences of Viruses from Gells A Symptomatology
0nly one type present in a Both DNA and  Different viruses can cause nearly the same symptoms (ex. Hepatitis
Type/s of Nucleic virus; either DNA or RNA RNA may e viruses)
Acid Present only, never oth at the same present in a single  Different mem ers of the same group can cause different symptoms
time cell
(ex. Herpes viruses)
Gapa le, d/t
Gapa le to Produce Not capa le, d/t lack of presence of
ATP? enzymes for energy meta enzymes for VIRAL STRUGTURE
energy meta
Not capa le, d/t lack of Gapa le, d/t  Virion = virus particle
Gapa le to enzymatic machinery to presence of
Synthesize 0wn synthesize own component necessary Y. Nucleic acids ² genome
Macromolecules? macromolecules (sp. No enzymatic p Deoxyri onucleic acid (DNA)
protein machinery) machinery
p Ri onucleic acid (RNA)
p Packed into protein capsules called capsids
2. Gapsids ² protein coat which protects genome
 Smallest infectious particles p Accounts for most of the viriion mass
 0 ligate intracellular parasites p Gomplex and highly organized entity which gives form to the
 Extreme genetic simplicity virus
 Gontain one kind of nucleic acid only per virus ² DNA or RNA p Protomeres (su units) aggregate to form capsomeres which in
 Replicate only in living cells turn aggregate to form the capsid
 Replication involves disassem ly and reassem ly p Nucleocapsid ² capsid + enclosed nucleic acid
 Replicate y ´one-step growthµ
 undamentally, then, a virus is a package of genetic information 3. Envelope ² amorphous structure, composed of lipid, protein, and
protected y a protein shell for delivery into a host cell to e car ohydrate, which lies to the outside of the capsid
expressed and replicated p Gontains a mosaic of antigens from the host and the virus
p Naked virus = no envelope
4. Spikes ² glycoprotein projections
 Y s ² all infectious particles were called viruses p Have enzymatic and/or a sorptive and/or hemagglutinating
 Ro ert Koch developed pure culture techniques = discovery of activity
pathogenic acteria p Arise from the envelope; highly antigenic
 ´Unfiltera le elementsµ remained after a acterial filter was used =
distinguished as separate entities THE G0MPLETE VIRI0N STRUGTURE
 irst descri ed viruses ² oot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
(Picornavirus), Yellow ever (lavovirus)

H0W ARE VIRUSES NAMED? (Viral Nomenclature)

 Hierarchical: 0rder ² amily ² Su family ² Genus ² Species ²

 amilies = suffix ²viridae (Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, Parvoviridae,
 Genera = suffix ²virus (Genera within Picornaviridae: Enterovirus,
Gardiovirus, Rhinovirus, Apthovirus, Hepatovirus)
 Virus naming and classification is usually ased on availa le data,
A Diseases they are associated with  Viral Protein
 Poxvirus, Hepatitis virus, HIV, Measles virus A unctions
A Gytopathology they cause Y. acilitate transfer of the viral nucleic acid from one host cell to
 Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Gytomegalovirus another (MAJ0R UNGTI0N)
A Site of isolation 2. Protect viral genome against inactivating nucleases
 Adenovirus, Enterovirus, Rhinovirus

c Y 
3. Participate in the attachment of the viral particle to a 4. Enveloped helical (ra ies virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus,
suscepti le cell mumps viruus, measles virus)
4. Provide structural symmetry of the viral particle 5. Gomplex (poxvirus)
5. Determine the antigenic characteristics of the virus
6. Enzymes essential for the viral replicative cycle

 Viral Nucleic Acid

A Single kind of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
A Encodes necessary info for viral replication

 Viral Gar ohydrate

A Glycoprotein usually in viral envelopes

 Viral Lipids
A Specific phospholipid composition of a virion envelope is
determined y the specific type of cell mem rane involved in
the udding process
A Lipid-containing viruses are sensitive to treatment with ether
and other organic solvents
A Derived from host cell


 Nucleic Acid
A Single strand (ss) or dou le strand (ds)
A Non-segmented or segmented
A Linear or circular

 Virion structure
A Symmetry (icosahedral, helical, complex)  Many viruses that infect man can e classified according to the
A Enveloped or naked nucleic acid present ² either RNA or DNA
A Num er of capsomeres  All families shown are icosahedral except for family poxviridae
Symmetry of the Nucleocapsid Gan Be G0MM0N 0RMS 0 DNA VIRUSES
Y. Icosahedral
p Protomeres aggregate in groups of five or six to form the
capsomere DNA Virus
p Shape and dimensions of the icosahedron depends on
characteristics of its protomeres
p Identical to cu ic symmetry
p All icosahedral capsids hahve Y2 corner, each occupied y a Dou le- Single- Gomplex,
penton capsomere and 2 triangular faces, each containing the stranded stranded, enveloped
same num er of hexon capsomeres naked
p Examples: Iridoviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Parvoviridae Poxviridae

2. Helical Enveloped Unenveloped

p Protomeres not grouped into capsomeres, ut are ound to
each other so as to form a ri on-like structure
p Structure folds into a helix ecause the protomeres are thicker Herpesviridae,
at one end than at the other hepadnaviridae
p Diameter of the helical capsid is determined y characteristics Gircular Linear
of its protomeres
p Length is determined y the length of the nucleic acid it
encloses Papillomaviridae Adenoviridae
p Examples: Paramyxoviridae, 0rthomyxoviridae, Goronaviridae Polyomaviridae

3. Gomplex
p Neither icosahedral nor helical
p Examples: Poxviridae, Rha doviridae ( ullet-shaped)


Y. Naked icosahedral (poliovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A virus)

2. Naked helical (to acco mosaic virus; no human viruses known so
3. Enveloped icosahedral (herpes virus, yellow fever virus, ru ella

2. Specific 0rgans
Nervous System Poliomyelitis, Ra ies, Herpes
Simplex, Meningoencephalitis of
Mumps, Measles, Slow Viral
Respiratory Tract Influenza, RSV, Adenovirus,
Goronavirus, Rhinovirus
Skin or Mucous Mem rane HSV Types Y and 2, Molluscum
Gontagiosum, Enteroviruses
G0MM0N 0RMS 0 RNA VIRUSES Diseases of the Eye Adenovirus conjunctivitis, herpes
keratoconjunctivitis, Epidemic
RNA hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
Liver Hepatitis, Enteroviruses,
Herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr, GMV)
Single- Single-stranded, Dou le- Salivary Glands Mumps, GMV
stranded, (-) sense stranded Gastrointestinal Tract Rotavirus, Norwalk, Enteric
(+) sense Adenovirus
Sexually Transmitted HSV, Hep B, papillomavirus,
Enveloped Non-enveloped molluscum contagiosum, HIV
Enveloped Non-enveloped
Helical Icosahedral  Viruses enter the ody of the host in a variety of ways. The most
Icosahedral common are:
0rthomyxovirida Reoviridae Y. Inhaled droplets in sneezing or coughing (ex. Influenza Virus)
Picornavirida e 2. Drinking water or eating raw food (ex. Polio Virus, Hep A Virus)
e Paramyxoviridae 3. Sexual Intercourse (ex. HepB, HIV)
Galiciviridae Rha doviridae 4. Vertical transmission from mother to a y (ex. HIV, Hep B,
Ru ella)
Arenaviridae 5. Bites of vector arthropods such as mosquitoes (ex. Dengue,
Yellow ever, Rift Valley ever)
Icosahedral Helical
 After contracting a viral infection, the following may happen to the
laviviridae Goronavirida host:
Togaviridae e
Retrovirida Y. Virus may ecome latent in its host and reactivate at a later
e stage to give rise to symptoms, such as in
 Herpes Simplex Virus giving rise to fever listers, and
 Varicella Zoster Viruse giving rise to shingles
Enveloped Physical
Nucleic Gapsid
or Naked Type of Viral amily
Acid Symmetry 2. Infection may lead to the death of the host
Virion Nucleic Acid
ss Parvoviridae  HIV-infected individuals mostly die after -Y years
Icosahedral Naked ds-circular Papovaviridae  Hep B virus infection leads to chronic hepatitis in 5-Y
ds Adenoviridae of infected patients, and a small percentage of these may
Icosahedral Enveloped ds Herpesviridae eventually develop primary liver cancer
Gomplex ds Poxviridae
Gomplex ds-circular Hepadnaviridae
Goats A. Detection of virus-infected cells
Picornaviridae Y. Gytopathic effect: morphologic changes in cells
Icosahedral Naked
Galiciviridae ʋ Gell lysis or necrosis, inclusion formation, giant cell
Reoviridae formation, cytoplasmic vacuolization
Icosahedral Enveloped ss Togaviridae
ss 2. Appearance of virus-encoded protein
Unknown or ss- ʋ Hemagglutinin of influenza virus
Enveloped Arenaviridae
Gomplex segmented
RNA ss-diploid 3. Adsorption of erythrocytes to infected cells
ss 4. Interference y a non-cytopathogenic virus with the replication
ss Goronaviridae and induction of cytopathic effects y a second virus added as
ss Paramyxoviridae
ss Rha doviridae
Helical Enveloped 5. Morphologic transformation y an oncogenic virus
ss- iloviridae
segmented Bunyaviridae
ss- 0rthomyxoviridae B. Inclusion ody formation
segmented ʋ Site of development of virions
ʋ Diagnostic aid (ex. Negri odies in ra ies)
 Sizes of viruses can range from very small (ex. Poliovirus ² 3nm) to
quite large (ex. Poxvirus ² 4nm). G. Ghromosome damage ² derangement of karyotype as a result of
GLASSIIGATI0N BY SYMPT0MAT0L0GY ʋ Breakage, fermentation, rearrangement of the
Y. Generalized Diseases Measles, Ru ella, Ghicken Pox, chromosomes and changes in the chromosome num er
Dengue, Enteroviruses may occur

c  


Y. Heat and Gold:


ʋ Icosahedral ² sta le
ʋ Helical ² heat-la ile
ʋ Viral infectivity: generally destroyed at heating 5-6šG at Untethered by time, he sees us all. From
2. Sta ilization y salts
the backwoods of Virginia to the business district
3. pH: sta le etween 5.-9. of London; from the Vikings to the astronauts;
4. Radiation
ʋ UV, x-ray and high-energy particles inactivate viruses from the cave dwellers to the kings; from the hut
ʋ INEGTIVITY is the most radiosensitive property builders to the finger pointers to the rock
5. Photodynamic inactivation
ʋ Dyes: toluidine lue, neutral red, proflavine ind to viral nucleic stackers, He sees us. Vagabonds and
acid -> suscepti le to inactivation y visi le light
6. Ether suscepti ility ragamuffinns all, He sees us before we are born.
ʋ Viruses inactivated y ether: herpes, orthomyxo, rha do,
corona, retro, arena, toga, flavi, unya
ʋ Viruses resistant to ethere: parvo, papova, adeno, picorna, reo And He loves what he sees. Flooded by
ʋ Poxvirus: varying sensitivity to ether
7. Detergents
emotion. Overcome by pride, the Starmaker
. ormaldehyde: destroys viral infectivity y reacting with nucleic turns to us one by one and says : YOU ARE MY
9. Anti iotics and other anti acterials CHILD and I LOVE YOU DEARLY. I am aware that
ʋ Anti iotics: no effect someday you͛ll turn from me and walk away.
ʋ Iodine: no effect
ʋ Quaternary ammonium compounds: no effect But I want you to know, I͛ve already provided
ʋ ormalin: destroys poliomyelitis and coxsackie
ʋ Alcohols: isopropyl and ethanol no effect you a way back. ;
 Most viral infections
 Do not lead to such serious complications to the host
 Get well after a period of sickness to e immune for the rest of
their lives (From Max Lucado͛s In the Grip of Grace)
 Examples: measles, mumps, ru ella

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(rom L to R): Paulfie, Turay, Edo, Nina, Teacher

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