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Journal of Physics: Conference Series


Influence of silica spray coating from rice husk ash on Pb, Cu, and Zn
metals toward growth of Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherchia Coli
To cite this article: F A Prasetya et al 2018 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1080 012015

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3rd Padjadjaran International Physics Symposium IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1080 (2018)
1234567890 ‘’“” 012015 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1080/1/012015

Influence of silica spray coating from rice husk ash on Pb, Cu,
and Zn metals toward growth of Staphylococcus Aureus and
Escherchia Coli bacterium

F A Prasetya*, Y Zakaria, S E Santosa, S Sholihah, A J In’am, E R Hartiyana

and R D P Amalia
Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Internasional Semen Indonesia,
Gresik 61122, Indonesia


Abstract. Synthesis of amorphous Silica from rice husk ash as a coatin°g on Pb, Cu, Zn metals
to prevent growth of bacterium on it has been carried out by co-precipitation method. There are
two variables of rice husk ash, first one was pure rice husk ash and the second one it was
immersed in HCl. Resulted silica was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray
fluorescence (XRF). Based on XRD data, both Silica of pure rice husk ash and immersed HCl
have same pattern. They have peak (2θ) at 22.16°, indicates it formed amorphous Silica. XRF
data clarified that percentage of Silica on both sample were 78.7% and 85.5% respectively.
Silica powder was dissolved in Ethanol with ratio of Silica and ethanol were 1:10 and 1:100.
Silica solution was sprayed on Pb, Cu, and Zn metals and Staphylococus Aureus and
Escherchia Coli Bacterium was grown on it. Based on observation of bacterium growth
showed that rate of bacterium growth decreases when Silica was coated on metal than without

1. Introduction
Around 60 million tons rice per year was produced in Indonesia [1]. The increase in population leads
to increase consumption of rice. Rice production has increased year by year based on statistics [2].
Rice husk is one of the most abundant agricultural wastes in Indonesia but its utilization is not yet
optimal. Milling industry can produce 65% rice, 20% rice husk, and the rest is lost [3]. Until now, the
utilization of rice husks commercially is still relatively low. This is due to the characteristics of rice
husk which is rough, low nutritious, low density, and the content of ash is quite high [4]. Rice husk is
commonly used as a cultivation medium, as an energy source in the form of charcoal husk briquettes,
feed livestock, or destroyed by uncontrolled combustion [5, 6]. Rice husks have a lot of potential that
can be developed, one of them is as a source of silica. Rice husk contains the most silica compared to
other rice products. The ash content in rice husk is about 20% and more than 90% of the ash is silica
[7]. The application of Silica (SiO2) itself is currently as silica gel which is used to maintain the
moisture of plant seeds. However, the application of the silica will have higher value when the purity
is high. Co-precipitation method is one of the treatment to increase purity of silica from raw material
with high silica content become higher purity amorphous silica which is near to nanoparticle [8, 9].
Surface modification by silica coating is one of the application alternative of silica. One of them was
used to reduce the toxicity of ZnO Nanoparticle [10]. This study is aimed to extend utilization of rice

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Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd 1
3rd Padjadjaran International Physics Symposium IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1080 (2018)
1234567890 ‘’“” 012015 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1080/1/012015

husk ash silica as coating on Pb, Cu, and Zn metals to prevent growth of bacterium. Metal-based
engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are known to affect bacterial processes and metabolic activities
[11], for example Pb, Cu, and Zn metals. Bacterium observed in this study is Staphylococcus Aureus
and Escherchia Coli. Staphylococcus Aureus is major human pathogen that causes a wide range of
clinical infections, many of which preferentially colonize the human body [12, 13]. Escherichia coli is
a ubiquitous bacterial species commensal of humans and warm blooded animals [14].

2. Methods
For preparation, rice husk ash was preheated in an oven at 110°C for 24 hours to remove water
content. Rice husk ash as raw material in this study was varied by immersing it in HCl and not. The
purpose of immersion process is to reduce impurities in rice husk ash such as; Potassium, Magnesium,
and Calcium by binding mechanism with HCl. Furthermore, the husk ash which has been immersed in
HCl and not, both of them were treated by co-precipitation process to increase the purity of Silica and
reduce the particle size. The alkali used in this process was NaOH 7 M with ratio of 1:15 between rice
husk ash and NaOH. Then the titration process was carried out with HCl 37%. Co-precipitation results
were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction to determine the formed phase and X-ray Fluorescence to
determine the content of the elements therein. Furthermore, rice husk ash resulted by co-precipitation
was mixed with ethanol with a ratio of 1:10 and 1:100. The use of ethanol was intended as a carrier
medium of Silica for spray coating on metal. There were three kinds of metal used; Pb, Zn, and Cu.
Furthermore, the bacteria were grown around the metal, to observe how the effect of spray coating on
the metal on the growth of bacteria around the metal qualitatively. The bacteria used in this study were
Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherchia Coli.

3. Result and Discussion

XRD data for rice husk ash immersed in HCl and not, showed in figure 1. The XRD pattern on both
images was almost the same, which has a peak around 2θ; 22.16°, indicate that the main content was
Silica which is in amorphous phase because of width of the peak is wide. XRD pattern formed below
2θ; 10° is only background. There are no another peaks after 2θ; 22.16°, indicate that Silica almost
pure or other impurities still formed but they are not dominant.

(a) (b)
Figure 1. XRD Pattern of Rice Husk Ash (a) immersed in HCl and (b) no immersed.
XRF data of rice husk ash resulted by co-precipitation showed in table 1. Immersing in HCl gives
significant result in compositions. Some elements bind with Cl - ion from HCl, such as Mg, K, Fe, and
Na. Immersing in HCl make those elements decrease compared to rice husk ash without immersing,
even Mg become 0%. This result gives evidence that immersing in HCl is able to decrease any
impurities which can bind with HCl and increase purity of Silica.

3rd Padjadjaran International Physics Symposium IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1080 (2018)
1234567890 ‘’“” 012015 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1080/1/012015

Table 1. Composition of rice husk ash resulted by co-precipitation.

% Weight
Composition No Immersed Immersed HCl
Si 78.7 83.5
Mg 4.2 -
Al 0.814 0.854
Cl 0.174 0.175
K 0.106 0.0718
Mn 0.0711 0.0477
Fe 0.108 0.0806
Na 15.6 15.1
Ca 7.5 14.4
Table 2 shows the growth of bacteria around metal Pb, Cu, and Zn which is illustrated by distance
of bacterium growth ratio to metals. The use of the code in the title of the image is done with the aim
of simplifying the sentence. Code A denotes the S.Aureus bacteria while B for E.Coli bacteria. NC
denotes No Coating. While 10 and 100 show the ratio between silica and ethanol 1:10 and 1: 100
respectively. Furthermore, the N code at the end indicates that rice husk ash is not immersed in HCl,
whereas H code indicates a soaking process.
Tabel 2. Distance of bacterium growth ratio to metals.
Bacterium distance to metals (cm)
Code Pb Cu Zn
ANC 0.167 0.25 1.14
A10N 0.667 0.667 0.01
A10H 0.667 2 0.1
A100N 0.667 0.5 0.5
A100H 1 0.625 0.0067
BNC 0 0.1 0.5
B10N 1 0 0.2
B10H 1 0.5 0.5
B100N 1 0 0.1
B100H 0.067 0.15 0
Growth is define as the addition of cells and structures can be used with size, followed by
increasing number, increase in cell size, augmentation advisor or mass, and other parameters. In this
study, growth of bacterium was calculated by ratio distance of bacterium to metals. Higher the value
of those ratio, bacterium grow lower. Average value for Pb, Cu, and Zn metals are 0.6235, 0.4792 and
0.3056, respectively. It shows that Pb metal has higher resistance of bacterium growth than the others.
This is related to the fact that characteristic of Pb metal resist to corrosion and acid. Based on the data
in table 2, it showed that for each bacteria, most effective variable to inhibit bacterium growth are
using 1:10 ethanol ratio and immersing in HCl. Average value for S.Aureus and E.Coli in those
variables are 0.923 and 0.667 respectively. Growth of both kinds of bacteria around the metal Pb
shows the regularity of the pattern. Uncoated Pb is seen to be overgrown with bacteria very quickly,

3rd Padjadjaran International Physics Symposium IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1080 (2018)
1234567890 ‘’“” 012015 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1080/1/012015

while bacterial growth slows down in the Pb metal coated by silica. Similarly, the ratio of silica and
ethanol equally slows the rate of bacterial growth with an unobtrusive difference. While on Cu metal
that is not coated with silica bacteria grow rapidly on. The growth inhibition pattern on Cu metal
coated with silica is slightly different from that of Pb. There are several types of layers where metals
continue to grow rapidly around silica-coated Cu metals, which are B10N and B100N. Significant
bacterium growth differences occur around Zn metal. Almost in all Zn metal, either coated with silica
or not growing bacteria occurs quickly. Only in A10H, A100N, and B10H bacteria can inhibited by
the presence of silica coating.

4. Conclusion
Based on the data and discussion, high purity silica produced from co-precipitation of rice husk ash
whether immersed in HCl or not, it formed amorphous phase. Overall, it can be concluded that in
general, the silica coating on the metal is slightly able to inhibit bacterial growth around the metal,
except for most Zn metal. Development of this study allow for determining silica from another sources
or metals coating with other methods.

Authors would like to thank LPPM Universitas Internasional Semen Indonesia who was fully funded
the research through Applied Research Grant.

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