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Task A

A) Analyse The Application of Pedagogical Principles

Pedagogy relates to teaching based on instruction with knowledge transfer


from one who knows to one who doesn’t. These relates to kids, older children
and sometimes, in further education. This model is teacher led mostly in an
autocratic and authoritative manner with learners’ playing a passive role in
their learning. It is also learner focused as they have limited experience.

Andragogy on the other hand, relates more to adults and Wilson L. (2014:410)
argues that Malcolm Knowles (1913–1997) who developed it believed that,
learners’ should have a more active role in their education. This is because;
learner discovers knowledge at a pace to suit him/herself with the help of
teacher.

My subject area is mathematics for key stage three and four, with all students
falling in the pedagogy principle. I will thus be applying all the principles to
enable me create a good learning environment. In my lessons, I will establish
some basic levels of knowledge in them to aid thinking, come up with their
own ways, challenge and apply themselves to further studies.

There are some influences on pedagogy, notably Jerome Bruner (1915-2016),


who says to instruct someone is not a matter of getting him to commit results
to mind. Rather, it is to teach him to participate in the process and to establish
the knowledge. He argues that learners establishes and constructs new
knowledge based on account of prior knowledge.

Jean Piaget (1896–1980) also argues that, people produce knowledge and
form meaning based upon their experiences. He sets out the stages of child
development and their mental processes as well. Learners’ must ask
questions, explore, analyse and assess what they know to build up
knowledge. Children are eager to learn and with knowledge they gain, tend to
interpret it based on their level of development.

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) says that social interaction and the environment
influence learning. Students’ work well in groups, peer work and other social
learning means and that, adults help in the child’s creative thinking
development by giving activities that challenges them.

Pedagogy may be seen as behaviouristic in terms of demonstrations,


memorisations and copying as teachers expect a required knowledge from
learners. Setting of ground rules, lesson outcomes, behaviours, schedule
reinforcement, immediate feedback, repeating direction, guidelines and use
quizzes when I expect one particular answer. Also in helping to create and
control a good learning environment.
B) Analyse The Ways in Which Minimum Core Elements can
be Demonstrated in Planning, Delivering, and Assessing
Inclusive Teaching and Learning

The minimum core elements, also known as functional skills includes literacy,
numeracy and information communication technology (ICT). Learners’ need
these skills for the future in their work and learning life, so it is important for
me to help them develop their knowledge in these areas.

Numeracy involves counting, problem solving, handling data, calculating,


estimating, shapes, money and weighing.
Literacy is the use of reading and writing, asking questions, discussing,
speaking and listening.
ICT involves the use of power point presentations, tables, Internet for
research, laptop, projector, calculators, computer and its programmes.

Gardiner L. F. (1994:109) states “assessment is essential not only to guide the


development of individual students but also to monitor and continuously
improve the quality of programmes, inform prospective students and their
parents, and provide evidence of accountability to those who pay our way.”
Wilson L. (2014) emphasizes the need to plan to support your less able
learners and stretch your more able learners so all will be challenged to
maximise their potential.
Also under the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001),
educational institutions must make reasonable adjustments to meet the needs
of learners with special needs. In this vein, I will do a special learning
programme for those with such needs by helping them to be active in class by
motivating and giving extra attention and help. My assessment will thus be
fair, reliable, transparent, sufficient and valid for the purpose for which it will
be set.

In my mathematics lesson, I will use literacy by writing numbers in words,


asking worded questions, interpreting answers, pie charts and graphs.
Numeracy was the main skill that is used in my subject by using numbers in
addition, subtraction and multiplication.
ICT will be used through calculators, electronic boards, power point
presentation with the aid of a computer and projector and reference materials
to research online. This skill is very important in this ever-changing world of
technology.

In assessing my learners, I will be using question and answers initially where


number based questions will used to check for their numeracy skills. Letting
them read and write hand outs to check literacy skills and finally, online
assessments, online submissions and use of apps.
In my formative assessment, I will use quizzes, group discussions and
debates with numeracy skills by letting them calculate scores, converting it
into percentages, time management and cost of projects.
Literacy skills will be demonstrated through reading and writing notes,
presentation of findings and report writing.
ICT skills will be demonstrated through the use of computer research,
calculators, smartphones, submitting reports online and power point
presentations.
Lastly in my summative assessment, will be using tests with setting pass
mark, using word count and number calculations for numeracy. Feedback
forms, essay writing and description of events will be used to check literacy
skills and computer research; calculators, online work submission and
feedback will be used to help improve their ICT skills.

C) Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Use of Creative and


Innovative Approaches.

The subject I will be teaching is mathematics, which calls for the active
involvement of learners. The adoption of creative and innovative approaches
will help in the learning of the subject. Most of the topics that I will be teaching
are repetitive, requiring the constructive development of knowledge, as they
are move to further studies.

I will be using competition in my class that will be done individually and


sometimes in groups for computation practice and other selected topics. This
will help promote enthusiasm, as learners will be willing to do their best to
achieve rewards and recognition. With working in teams, it helps with deep
thinking to solve issues, as each group will want to come first. But in all this, I
will aim for healthy competition so as not to ruin relationships in the class. I
will make sure they actually learn something and not just earning grades for
the competition, leaving those who cant solve problems getting frustrated.

Another approach will be the use of educational games in class. In teaching


10s, 100s, 1000s, shapes and fractions, will use games from BBC Bitesize to
engage them to aid in understanding. They will find it as fun and thus
engaging, so they get a better understanding of the subject in a simplified
form. I will however be mindful that I chose the right one, by thinking about
what I want to achieve. Will also make sure that they actually get to learn
something and not just playing around by getting them engaged with the topic.

D) Explain how own Practice in Planning Inclusive Teaching


and Learning has taken Account of Theories, Principles and
Models of Learning, Communication and Assessment.

Behaviourism relates to where individuals respond to stimuli, things seen and


done around them. Repetitively being shown a subject in order to learn about
it. Ivan P. Pavlov (1849–1936) classical conditioning stimulus theory states
that, appropriate behaviour is taught through constant repetition of a task
combined with feedback from the teacher. Positive feedback encourages and
reinforces success while negative feedback and immediate correction
discourages the repetition of undesirable behaviour. The teacher provides
relevant and useful stimuli so that learners’ respond to and gains the required
knowledge.
Cognitism says learning happens through knowledge gained by thought,
senses and experience. Individuals follow mental process; they think,
remember and process information by group works, presentations and open
discussions. Jerome Bruner (1915-2016) says to instruct someone is not a
matter of getting him to commit results to mind. Rather, it is to teach him to
participate in the process and to establish the knowledge.

Constructivism says that people construct their own understanding and


knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those
experiences. This is knowledge adding as when we encounter something
new, we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, maybe
changing what we believe, or maybe discarding the new information as
irrelevant. Jean Piaget (1896–1980) theory of constructivism argues that,
people produce knowledge and form meaning based upon their experiences.
Learners’ must ask questions, explore, and assess what they know to build up
knowledge.

Humanism relates to meeting of emotional needs by encouragement, building


up independence and mentoring. It says that people have different needs and
learn in different ways. Wilson L. (2014: 406) talks about Abraham Maslow
(1908-1970) in his Hierarchy of Needs that, individuals have basic needs and
these must be addressed before the can move onto the next stages of
learning. These needs include physiological which includes food, water,
warmth and air. Safety needs that are basically a sense of security, love and
belonging needs include friendship, intimacy, trust and affection. Esteem
needs are prestige, achievement and respect. Lastly self-actualisation needs,
that is self-fulfillment and reaching full potential.

Pedagogy relates to teaching based on instruction with knowledge transfer


from one who knows to one who doesn’t. This relates to kids, older children
and sometimes, in further education.
Andragogy relates to adults and Wilson L. (2014:410) argues that, Malcolm
Knowles (1913–1997) who developed it believed learners’ should have a
more active role in their education. This is because learner discovers
knowledge at a pace to suit him/herself with the help of teacher.

Learning preferences refers to the different ways in which people learn. The
theories behind this include that of Honey & Mumford (1982), where he
argues that people may be activists. Meaning, those who are enthusiastic to
get involved in new experiences, often not prepared and acting before
thinking about the consequences. Reflectors are those who look at other data
and consider different perspectives. Theorists like investigating concepts and
ideas and last the pragmatics. These like practical things and like to try new
things out.
I will be applying these principles and theories in my teaching.
In conducting initial, formative and summative assessments, I will be using
role-plays, quizzes, question and answer, pair work, debates, peer
assessments, research work, observations and group discussions for them to
think deep to develop their knowledge with the use of all the functional skills
as said in Honey & Mumford (1982), constructivist and cognitivist. One to one
interviews will also be used as a humanistic to listen to learners as individuals
in dealing or responding to their needs, knowing their names, adapting
teaching, offering tutorials, making sure there is enough lightening and looking
at health and safety of the classroom and its surroundings. As most of my
learners will be adults, I will be using examinations and self directed learning
as in andragogy model.
Pedagogy, which my learners fall into, may be used as behaviourist in terms
of demonstrations, memorisations and copying when I expect a required
knowledge from learners. Setting of ground rules, lesson outcomes,
behaviours, schedule reinforcement, immediate feedback, repeating direction,
guidelines and use quizzes when I expect one particular answer. Also, reward
and praising them and help to create and control a good learning
environment. Will be communicating to them in a clear manner in various
ways to cater to all their needs with a positive body language and by keeping
eye-to-eye contact. Will listen to their concerns to deal with it and where I
can’t help, will refer it to appropriate authorities.

Feedback:

Excellent Work Francis, You discuss pedagogic principles including theories of


Vygotsky, Piaget and Bruner on child development, social learning and constructivist
approaches. You discuss taking a pedagogic approach in your teaching of young
learners and outline Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogic approach also. You analyse ways
minimum core elements can be demonstrated in planning, delivering and assessing
inclusive teaching with examples of how you incorporate literacy skills with read and
write handouts as well as worded questions for your assessment, delivery and
planning. You discuss how you use numeracy skills with calculation activities,
interpreting data and maths based assessment. You discuss how you include
opportunities to improve ICT skills with the use of smartphone, calculators and
PowerPoints. You discuss using innovative resources like BBC bitesize online
activities. You discuss creative approaches in your teaching of maths with the use of
competitions to motivate your learners. You take account of theories including
Pavlov’s classical conditioning, Maslow’s hierarchy of needed and Piaget’s social
learning theory as well as principles of learning including behaviourism, cognitivism,
humanism and constructivism in education and training. Well done, you cover Models
of learning including Pedagogy and andragogy as well as discuss models of learning
preference with Honey and Mumford’s learning styles of reflectors, activists, theorists
and pragmatists. You apply models, theories and principles to your assessments,
learning and communication in teaching mathematics. To improve, try to detail
theories more to demonstrate your research.
References

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Gardiner L. F. (1994) Redesigning Higher Education: Producing Dramatic


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