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Ungrouped Data

Grouped Data – Data that has been organized into groups (into a frequency distribution).

If you see a table similar to the one below, you will know that you are

dealing with grouped data:

Class Frequency

0–5 4

6 – 10 5 The frequency of a class is

11 – 15 12 the number of numbers in

16 – 20 7 that class. For example, there

must have been four numbers

between 0 and 5.

Ungrouped Data – Data that has not been organized into groups.

Ungrouped data looks like a big ol’ list of numbers.

On your exam, you may have to construct a frequency distribution. Constructing a

frequency distribution is the same thing as grouping data.

The first step in grouping data is deciding how large of a class interval to use.

(Class interval = Class size)

There are 2 formulas for determining the appropriate class interval. You must be able to

choose which one would be appropriate for any given problem.

number of classes to be used.

state the number of classes to be

used.

**Don’t forget to always round up to the nearest whole number when dealing with

class interval.**

Populations vs. Samples

Population – A collection of all possible individuals, objects, or measurements (Mason

7).

Please note that a population does not have to be huge in size. It is all a matter of how

the objects in the group are defined. For example, if we wanted to compute the average

GPA of the population of students taking BA254 at GRCC in the summer of 2002, our

population would only include approximately 75 people. On the other hand, if we

wanted to find the average GPA of all students who have ever taken BA254 at GRCC, we

would be dealing with a much larger number of students.

This is because of how each population was defined. In the first example, we gave our

population a definition that severely limited the number of GPA’s that would be included.

The second population was defined a little more broadly, and, therefore, more students

would fall under this definition.

Central Tendency – Where the numbers tend to cluster.

Where most of the numbers are at.

A single value that summarizes a set of data by locating the center

of the data (Mason 65).

50% of the data fall above the median, and 50% fall below the median.

The mode is the number(s) that appear(s) the most out of a given set of data. A

data set can have more than one mode value.

The geometric mean is a measure of central tendency that is particularly useful for

averaging percentages (%). It is sometimes considered to be a more

“conservative” average. This is because of the fact that the GM is always less

than or equal to the Arithmetic Mean.

Measures of Dispersion

how spread out the numbers in the set are. Dispersion = Spread.

The range is the simplest measure of dispersion; it only takes into account the

highest and lowest values.

M.D. involves all the values of a set of data into its calculation.

2 2

3. Variance = s or ó

s2 = Sample variance

ó 2 = Population variance

4. Standard Deviation = s or ó

ó = Population standard deviation

**Please note that the variance is equal to the standard deviation squared.

This also means that the standard deviation is the square root of the variance.

always determine the other very quickly.

Or

Formulas for Ungrouped Data

**Please remember how to distinguish between Grouped and Ungrouped Data (On

previous pages!)**

**Also, please note that you will have to differentiate between populations and samples

when dealing with ungrouped data.**

**The mean for ungrouped data will be calculated in the exact same way, regardless of

whether you are dealing with a sample or a population. Later in this class, you will need

to differentiate between ì and X. It is, therefore, a good idea to become aware of the

definitions of ì and X now.**

MODE = MOST

Whichever number or numbers that appear the most within a list (set) of data.

VARIANCE = s2 or ó 2

**When dealing with Ungrouped data, you must determine whether you

are dealing with a sample or a population when computing the standard

deviation or the variance. Be careful!!! (If it is a sample, you will likely

see the word “sample” in the problem. If it is a population, you may or

may not see the word “population” in the problem. In other words, if

you do not see the word “sample”, assume that you are dealing with a

population!)

s2 = Sample Variance =

ó 2 = Population Variance = =

STANDARD DEVIATION = s or ó

The GM is useful when averaging percentages and also when looking for an average

percentage increase over time (taking into account the effects of compounding).

There are 2 G.M. formulas on your formula sheet. You need to know when and

where to use each!

GEOMETRIC MEAN FORMULA #1

This formula is appropriate where you have a big ol’ list of numbers (ungrouped

data).

a

G.M. = a

a

n = number of numbers

X1, X2 = each individual value

GEOMETRIC MEAN #2

This formula is appropriate where you have a beginning as well as an ending value.

This formula, therefore, also involves time, and it is likely to involve years and/or

dates.

n

G. M. = n

n

MEAN DEVIATION = M.D.

a

a

M.D. = a

a

**The straight up and down brackets indicate absolute value. Please remember

that this means to add up all of the differences without paying attention to whether

they are negative or positive!

Mean deviation is another measure of spread (others include range, std. deviation,

variance).

MEDIAN (UNGROUPED)

Steps:

Location of Median =

This formula tells us the rank of the median in terms of smallest to largest.

3. Determine the value of the median by applying the number you got from the location

of median formula to the ascending list of numbers that you just created.

For example, if the location of the median is equal to 7, then the median is the 7th number

in order of smallest to largest.

Using another example, if the location of the median is equal to 7.5, then the median is

halfway (.5) between the 7th and the 8th numbers in order from smallest to largest.

Q1, Q3, and Quartile Deviation

Q1 = First Quartile

Q1 is the value that has 25% of the data set below it, and 75% above it.

Computing Q1 and Q3 is very similar to the way the median is determined. In fact, the

median could also be called Q2.

Steps:

1. Locate Q1.

Location of Q1=

3. Determine the value of Q1 by applying the number you got from the location of Q1

formula to the ascending list of numbers that you just created.

Value of Q1 = (Higher number of the two – lower number of the two) * the

percentage to the right of the decimal place from you result to the location formula

+ the lower of the two numbers

Q3 = Third Quartile

Q3 is the value that has 25% of the data set below it, and 75% above it.

Computing Q1 and Q3 is very similar to the way the median is determined. In fact, the

median could also be called Q2.

Steps:

1. Locate Q3.

Location of Q3=

3. Determine the value of Q3 by applying the number you got from the location of Q3

formula to the ascending list of numbers that you just created.

Value of Q3 = (Higher number of the two – lower number of the two) * the

percentage to the right of the decimal place from you result to the location formula

+ the lower of the two numbers

Formulas for Grouped Data Problems

**Please remember how to distinguish between Grouped and Ungrouped Data (On

previous pages)**

If you are presented with a problem consisting of Grouped Data, you will need to use

some formulas and techniques which are unique to Grouped Data Problems.

**Also, please note that you will not have to differentiate between populations and

samples when dealing with grouped data.**

**I will use the following example to illustrate all of the following calculations relating

to grouped data:

Class Frequency = f

0 up to 5 2

5 up to 10 7

10 up to 15 12

15 up to 20 6

20 up to 25 3

0 up to 5 2 2.5 5

5 up to 10 7 7.5 52.5

10 up to 15 12 12.5 150

15 up to 20 6 17.5 105

20 up to 25 + 3 22.5 + 67.5

30 = n 380 = • fx = the sum

of fx

**Take note of the difference between how we figure out n in this

GROUPED data problem, as opposed to how we would solve for n in an

UNGROUPED data problem(Here we add the frequencies, in Ungrouped we

would just count the number of numbers). In either case, n is the number of

numbers!

= = 380/30 = 12.667

STANDARD DEVIATION (GROUPED) = s

0 up to 5 2 2.5 5 6.25 12.5

5 up to 10 7 7.5 52.5 56.25 393.75

10 up to 15 12 12.5 150 156.25 1875

15 up to 20 6 17.5 105 306.25 1837.5

20 up to 25 + 3 22.5 + 67.5 506.25 + 1518.75

30 = n 380 = • fX 5637.5 = • fX2

s=

s = 5.331

VARIANCE (GROUPED) = s2

MEDIAN

1. Locate which class contains the median by using the following formula:

This formula tells you what “place” the median would be in if the numbers were

placed in order from smallest to largest! In this example, the median is located

halfway between the 15th and the 16th numbers.

2. Now figure out which class would contain the median. (Remember the median in

this example is between the 15th and the 16th numbers in order from smallest to

largest.)

0 up to 5 2 2

5 up to 10 7 9

10 up to 15 12 21

15 up to 20 6 27

20 up to 25 3 30

The median is somewhere between 10 and 15. We know this because we can look at

the Cumulative Frequency and see that the 15th and the 16th numbers are in this class!

(In fact, the 10th through the 21st numbers were in this class)

3. Do the Math!

**This is one of the trickier formulas for this exam! Please take close note of

what the following variables stand for in this particular problem:

Median =

n = Number of numbers = 30

CF = Number of numbers before the class containing the median = 9

f = number of numbers in the class containing the median = 12

i = class interval (size)

Median =

The mode for a grouped data problem is the midpoint of the class with the highest

frequency (f).

The class 10 – 15 has the highest frequency (12), so the mode is the midpoint of

this class. MODE = 12.5

**Please take close note that the formulas used for computing the mean, the

median, and the standard deviation for GROUPED data, all contain

lowercase “f” in them !!!! I would recommend that you use this fact to help

remember which formulas are appropriate for the grouped data problems.

RANGE (GROUPED)

Range (Grouped) = Upper Limit of Highest Class – Lower Limit of Lowest Class

In our example, 0-5 is the lowest class and 0 is the lower limit of this class. Also,

20-25 is the highest class, and 25 is the upper limit of this class.

Range(Grouped) = 25 – 0 = 25

Uses of Standard Deviation

Chebyshev’s Theorem =

Many years ago, Russian mathematician P.L. Chebyshev developed a theorem that allows

us to determine, for any set of data, the minimum proportion of values that lie within a

specified number of standard deviations from the mean.

Basically, Chebyshev’s Theorem states that at least 1- (1/k2) of the data must fall between

the points + ks and - ks.

So, one could say that at least 75% of the data in any given set will fall within 2 standard

deviations of the mean.

Proof

1-(1/k2) = 1 – (1/22) = 1 – ¼ = .75

Further, if it was known that the mean of the same set of data was equal to 20 and the

standard deviation was equal to 5, one could conclude that at least 75% would fall

between 10 and 30.

Proof

We proved that 75% fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean when we did that

calculation a couple of seconds ago.

Now we need to figure out how far two standard deviations from the mean is in our

particular example!

+ ks = 20 + 2*5 = 20 +10 = 30

- ks = 20 – 2*5 = 20 – 10 = 10

Empirical Rule (For the “normal” distribution) ***(Grouped or Ungrouped)***

First of all, the normal distribution is a set of numbers where the 3 main measurements of

central tendency (the mean, median, and mode) are all approximately equal. Graphically,

a normal distribution is bell-shaped and symmetrical.

For the normal distribution, we can be more precise as to what percent of the data will

fall within a stated “distance” from the mean.

INTERVALS

± 1S 68%

± 2S 95%

± 3S 99.7%

X ± M.D. 57.5%

In addition to memorizing the percentages dealing with the normal curve above,

make sure to remember that 57.5% of the data for any set of numbers will fall

between – M.D. and +M.D.

a

CV = a

a

“A direct comparison of 2 or more measures of dispersion (such as the standard deviation

for a distribution of annual incomes compared to the standard deviation for a distribution

of the number of days absent for the same group of employees) is impossible. It is

impossible because the two values are measured in different units. The absenteeism

would be measured in number of days, while the incomes would be measured in dollar

bills($). In order to make a meaningful comparison of the 2 standard deviations, we need

to convert them to a relative value.” (Mason 113) The measure that is often used to make

these types of comparisons is the Coefficient of Variation.

Coefficient of Skewness = Sk

Sk =

The coefficient of skewness is another measure of where the data in a distribution are

located. This formula might indicate that an extreme value (high or low) has affected the

mean in a significant way.

If Sk>0, then distribution is positively skewed.

If Sk is approximately = to 0, then the data is normally distributed.

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