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Introduction to Philippine Tourism and

the National Capital Region

Tourism and travel in the Philippines began when the original inhabitants of
the country roamed around in search for food. The ‘first Filipinos’ were the Callao
Man, a fossilized remain discovered in Callao Cave, Peñablanca, Cagayan in
2007 and was found to be about 67,000 years old. Before the 2007 discovery, the
Tabon Man (1962) remains found in Tabon Caves in Quezon in Palawan were
believed the earliest human beings known in the Philippines.

Another example of travel activities in the Philippines was the Austronesian

Migration (3,500 – 2,500 BCE). Scholars believed the Austronesian people
originated from Taiwan and they are spread as far away as Madagascar and
Polynesian Island. In 1280 – 1515, the Islam reached the Philippines with the arrival
of Muslim traders from Persian Gulf, Southern India, and their followers from several
sultanate in the Malay Archipelago. Islamic provinces founded in the Philippines
included the Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Lanao
and other parts of the southern Philippines.

A more recognizable form of tourism appeared in the Philippines when the

country was discovered by Ferdinand Magellan. The Manila Galleon, were
Spanish trading ships that made round-trip sailing voyages once or twice per year
across Acapulco to Manila. The Manila galleons sailed the Pacific for 250 years,
bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits, and cultural

During the American Occupation of the Philippines, Americans were able

to reach Manila after two weeks on board with Pan-American Airways air-
clippers. In 1920’s the steamship and the airline pioneers, the ‘China Clipper’ and
‘Manila Clipper’ brought some passengers to Manila via Hong Kong.

The introduction of more comfortable and faster means of transportation

gave the early impetus for tourism in the Philippines. Travelers from U.S., China,
Japans, and Europe were provided inland tours by entrepreneurs with their
unregistered private cars and coached called ‘colorum’. Colorum means illegal
tour handling and the illegal use of private vehicles for public use. Since there
were no tour operators nor travel agencies, colorum were tolerated by the

There were some offices like the American Express International which
informally arranged land tours for foreign travelers. Manila, Pagsanajan Falls,
Laguna Lake, Tagaytay and Taal, Mt. Mayon, Baguio and Banaue were the few
tourist attractions and destination in the Luzon. Other popular tours in the south
were Cebu City and Zamboanga City.

There were no statistical records before World War II hence it was difficult
to measure tourist activities but the war had introduced the combatants not only
to new countries but to new continents, generating new friendships and an
interest in different culture. Another outcome of the war was the progress in
aircraft technology. Air travel had become more comfortable, safer, faster and

The more orderly tourism activity started in 1947. In 1952, the first tourism
association, Philippine Tourist and Travel Association (PTTA) was organized to put
together all existing travel establishments. Later, the government organized the
Board of Travel and Tourist Industry (BTTI) to regulate, supervise and control the
tourist industry and to subsidize the PTTA as its promotional arm. In the late 1950s,
more hotels and restaurants and entertainment facilities were established.

In the 1960s up to 70s, the Philippines have undergone economic, social

and political crises which hindered the development and promotion of tourism.
Due to the turbulent conditions in the country, the tourist industry was denied the
peace and order, sanitation, financial support, and other important factors for
tourism development.

Tourist Arrivals (1960s – 1970)

Garcia Administration
 1960 – 51,000 Marcos Pre-Martial Law Era
 1961 – 57,000  1966 – 102,000
Macapagal Administration  1967 – 109,000
 1962 – 62,000  1968 – 113,000
 1963 – 70,000  1969 – 123,000
 1964 – 75,000  1970 – 144,000
 1965 – 84 -00

It was only 1972, after the declaration of martial law when tourism
prospered. The Philippines became a “bargain destination” to foreign visitors. A
temporary “tourist boom” existed in the Philippines in early 1970s.

Tourist Arrivals Marcos Martial Law Era

 1973 – 243,000
 1975 – 502,000
 1980 – 1,008,000
 1982 – 891,000
Tourist Arrivals after Martial Law Era
C. Aquino
 1983 – 861,000 Department of Tourism History
 1990 – 1,025,000
 1991 – 951,000 After the creation of tourism organizations in the
Ramos Administration In 1972, the Department of Trade and Tourism was
 1992 – 1,153,000 created. Followed by its reorganization and renaming
 1993 – 1,574,000 (Ministry of Tourism) in 1973 - Department of Tourism,
 1996 – 2,049,000 Philippine Tourism Authority and Philippine Convention
Bureau was created.
Estrada Administration
In 1983, the PCB was renamed as Philippine
 1998 – 2,149,000 Convention and Visitors Corporation or PCVC (now
 1999 – 1,971,000 known as Tourism Promotions Board –TPB).
 2000 – 1,992,000
 2001 – 1,797,000 In 2009, the DOT was again reorganized with RA9593 or
the Tourism Act of 2009.

Arroyo Administration Visit Philippines Year

 2002 – 1,933,000  1994 – Visit Island Philippines
 2004 – 2,291,000  2003 – Visit Philippines
 2006 – 2,843,000  2015 – Visit Philippines
 2007 – 3,092,000
 2008 – 3,139,000
 2009 – 3,017,000
 2010 – 3,520,000

B. Aquino Administration
 2011 – 3,917,000
 2010 – 4,272,000
 2013 – 4,681,000
 2014 – 4,833,000
The Philippine Geography and Culture

The Philippines has currently 18 regions as of May 2015. The regions are
administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the
country for administrative convenience.

The regions themselves do not possess a separate local government, with

the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, which has an
elected regional assembly and governor. The Cordillera Administrative Region
was originally intended to be autonomous (Cordillera Autonomous Region), but
the failure of two plebiscites for its establishment reduced it to a regular
administrative region.

Regions first came to existence in on September 24, 1972 when the

provinces of the Philippines were organized into 11 regions by Presidential Decree
No. 1 as part of the Integrated Reorganization Plan of President Ferdinand
Marcos. Since that time, other regions have been created and some provinces
have been transferred from one region to another.

Regions of the Philippines

 NCR (National Capital Region)
 CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region)
 R1 – Ilocos Region
 R2 – Cagayan Valley
 R3 – Central Luzon
 R5 – Bicol Region
 R6 – Western Visayas
 R7 – Central Visayas
 R8 – Eastern Visayas
 R9 – Zamboanga Peninsula
 R10 – Northern Mindanao
 R11 – Davao Region
 R13 – Caraga Region
 ARMM – Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao
 R18 – Negros Island Region
National Capital Region

 Commonly known as Metro Manila

 Established 1975 with 4 cities and 13 municipalities
 The seat of government and the most populous region of
the country
 the Municipality of Pateros, and the cities of Caloocan, Las
Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Manila, Marikina,
Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Quezon
City, San Juan, Taguig, and Valenzuela.

Tourist Attractions and Landmarks

Caloocan City
Caloocan is divided into two separate areas. Southern Caloocan City and
Northern Caloocan City the northernmost territory of Metro Manila.
 Bonifacio Monument - This monument marks the very first battle of the
Philippine Revolution on 3 August 1896. The memorial was erected in 1933,
and consists of an obelisk with sculptures by National Artist Guillermo
Las Pinas City
Nicknamed as the Home of the Bamboo Organ, City of Love and Progress, Salt
Center of Metro Manila, Lantern Capital of Metro Manila.
 St. Joseph Church and Bamboo Organ - St. Joseph Church houses the
famous bamboo organ. The bamboo organ is an organ made of indigenous
materials like bamboo and wood that produce a melodious sound.
 Sarao Jeepney Factory – It has been the biggest jeepney manufacturer in
the country. Jeepney is a public transportation vehicle in the Philippines from
the G.I. jeeps left in World War II.
Makati City
Nicknamed as the Financial Capital of the Philippines, it has the highest
concentration of multinational and local corporations in the country.
 Ayala Museum – It houses dioramas depicting Philippine history and a gold
 Guadalupe Ruins is a massive church completed in 1629.
 Museo ng Makati houses the artifacts, treasures, and relics of the city.
Malabon City
Its name came from the words maraming labong which means "plenty of
labong", the edible bamboo shoots.
 Malabon Tricycle Tours take customers to eight heritage sites and at least six
of the most popular local restaurants that have held their own against
ubiquitous food franchises.
 Malabon Zoo is a private zoo with a unique conservatory of both well
endemic and exotic animals in a one hectare environment.
Mandaluyong City
This was nicknamed as the Shopping Capital of the Philippines, The Millennium
City, The Golden Heart of Metro Manila, Tiger City of the Philippines.
 EDSA Shrine commemorates the bloodless revolution in 1986.
 Wack Wack Golf and Country Club is an internationally renowned golf club.
Manila City
It is the capital city of the Philippines. Nicknamed as Pearl of the Orient, Paris of
Asia, The City of Our Affections, Distinguished and Ever Loyal City.
 Binondo is the Chinatown of the city. It is known to be the oldest Chinatown
in the world.
 Ermita-Malate District is the tourist belt area of Manila.
 Intramuros is the walled and original city of Manila. It now showcase
Philippine history and culture.
 Rizal Park Complex is a national park named after one of our heroes Dr. Jose
Rizal. This complex also includes the Manila Ocean Park.
 Quiapo – San Miguel Area showcases heritage sites in Manila like the Quiapo
Church, San Sebastian Church, Malacanang Complex, Nakpil-Bautista
Ancestral House and more.
Marikina City
It was given the title Shoe Capital of the Philippines because of its notable shoe
industry, being the biggest manufacturer of shoes in the Philippines, producing
almost 70% of shoes manufactured in the country.
 House of Kapitan Moy is a 200-year-old house of the founder of the country’s
footwear industry.
 Shoe Museum showcases shoes owned and used by famous personalities,
including the collection of former First Lady Imelda Marcos.
Muntinlupa City
It is the southernmost city in the Philippines and is nicknamed as the Emerald
City of the Philippines.
 New Bilibid Prison Complex has several attractions the Jamboree Lake
(smallest lake), Japanese Shrine, Memorial Hill, and the National Penitentiary
(est 1941).
 Yamashita Shrine stands on the burial ground of General Yamashita and
other Japanese soldiers who died during the World War II.
Navotas City
It is a small fishing town in Metro Manila. It is dubbed as the Fishing Capital of
the Philippines.
 Navotas Fish Port Complex is the premier fish center of the Philippines and
one of the largest in Asia.
Parañaque City
It is known as the fashion capital of the Philippines and the city of lights. It is one
of the major trade and business centers in the Philippines.
 Baclaran Church or the Redeptionist Church is declared as the National
Shrine of the Mother of Perpetual Help. It is considered as one of the biggest
in Asia and can accommodate around 11,000 people.
 Salt Beds in Parañaque uses solar heat for evaporating sea water and
crystalizing salt from the concentrated brine – the reason why this city is the
leading in salt production.
Pasay City
This city is known with its various nicknames like: Premier Gateway to Manila, The
Travel City, The Travel Capital of the Philippines, The Home of Aliwan Fiesta,
Festival Capital of the Philippines, Asian City, Trading Capital of the Philippines,
Japanese City of the Philippines.
 The CCP (Cultural Center of the Philippines) Complex is composed of the
CCP, Folk Arts Theater, GSIS Museum, PICC, and Star City. The CCP is an
institution mandated by the Philippine law to preserve, promote, and
enhance the Filipino people’s cultural heritage.
 SM Mall of Asia is a huge shopping center that is now frequented by both
foreign and domestic tourists.
Pasig City
It is a highly urbanized city in NCR and was a former capital of Rizal.
 Pasig Poblacion Area is a cluster of cultural treasures of Pasig. Bahay Tisa,
Conception Residence, Dimas-alang bakery are some.
It is the only municipality in NCR. Nicknames are: A Small Town with a Big Heart,
Balut Capital of the Philippines and Home of the World Famous Balut.
 Alfombra Slippers is one of the specialties of the people of Pateros. Store
outlets are along Almeda and Morilla Streets. It is a footwear with a carpet-
like fabrc on its top surface.
 Balut Making is one of the main industry in Pateros. It is a boiled unfertilized
duck egg.
Quezon City
Dubbed as the City of Stars, it is the largest city in NCR and the most populous
city in the Philippines.
 Araneta Center is one of the earliest commercial establishments for shopping
in the Philippines.
 La Loma is known as the lechon barangay but it is also the site of the first
battle between Americans and Filipinos during the Philippine-American war.
 Tomas Morato and Timog Avenue is the tourist belt of the city.
 UP Diliman, established in 1908, is considered as the finest learning institution
in the country and in the Far East.
San Juan
It is the smallest city in the Philippines. Known as the Heart of Metro Manila, Home
of Philippine Presidents, and Tiangge Capital of the Philippines.
 Pinaglabanan Monument is a monument built in memory of thos who fought
and died in the battle of Pinaglabanan – the first battle of the Revolution.
It is known as Metro Manila’s ProbinSyudad for being a thriving fishing
community before to being a highly urbanized city in NCR.
 Fort Bonifacio is considered as one of Metro Manila’s central business
 Manila American Cemetery is a memorial for the US personnel killed
during the World War II.
Valenzuela City
It is dubbed as the vibrant city or the City of discipline. Originally called as Polo
and a part of Bulacan before 1975.
 Pio Valenzuela is a doctor and a member of Katipunan where the city
was named after.
 National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima is the Philippine apostolate to the
Our Lady of Fatima of Portugal.
Quiz No.1: The Philippine Tourism and the National Capital Region

True or False
1. The first tourism association was the BTTI.
2. One of the carriers that brought tourist in the Philippines during the Japanese
period was Manila CIipper, China Clipper and Pan-American Airlines Clipper.
3. The slogan for PH tourism today is “Visit Philippines 2015”.
4. Corazon Aquino was the president of the Philippines when the tourism rose to
a million.
5. After the declaration of martial law, the Philippines experienced a ‘tourist
6. There are 13 regions in the Philippines in present.
7. The Department of Tourism was created in 1947 where there is more order in
8. B. Aquino Administration was able to increase the tourist arrivals in more than
8 million.
9. Regions 1-5 are in Luzon group of island, Luzon has 6 regions.
10. NCR was created in 1975.
11. NCR has 17 cities.
12. The largest city in NCR is Manila.
13. The smallest city in NCR is Pateros.
14. San Juan is the oldest city in NCR.
15. The only city geographically divided into two is Caloocan City(in NCR).

Identify the city

City Nicknames
16. City of Stars
17. Heart of Metro Manila
18. City of Discipline
19. Fashion Capital of the Philippines
20. Travel Capital of the Philippines
City Landmarks and Tourist Attractions
21. Intramuros
22. Ayala Gold Museum
23. Salt Beds
24. Bamboo Organ
25. Our Lady of Fatima Shrine

Matching Type
26. The main industry in Pateros a. Balut Making
27. One of the biggest chuch in Asia b. Guadalupe Ruins
28. The walled City c. Baclaran Church
29. One of the oldest church in Makati d. Intramuros
30. Largest fish center in Asia e. Navotas Fish Port