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REVISION for Unit 6: GLOBAL WARMING

PRONUNCIATION
Task 1: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word whose underlined part differs
from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.
Question 1: A. genius B. gorilla C. global D. gases
Question 2: A. pollution B. poaching C. physical D. pesticide
Question 3: A. warming B. warn C. walk D. wasn't
Question 4: A. floor B. flood C. moorland D. door
Question 5: A. increase B. release C. please D. grease
Task 2. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three
in the position of primary stress in each of the following questions.
Question 6: A. campaign B. global C. balance D. carbon

Question 7: A. natural B. endangered C. dangerous D. habitat

Question 8: A. rainforest B. tropical C. discover D. animal

Question 9: A. pollution B. continue C. enormous D. disappear

Question 10: A. devastated B. environment C. diversity D. ecology

Question 11: A. relation B. summary C. arrange D. eliminate

Question 12: A. capture B. picture C. ensure D. pleasure

Question 13: A. different B. important C. essential D. negation

Question 14: A. popular B. dangerous C. environment D. applicant

Question 15: A. opportunity B. intellectual C. psychology D. civilization

READING
Task 1. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to
indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
Brave William Baldock , who is six years old , is a hero after helping his mother when she fell
downstairs . William quickly rang for an ambulance when he discovered his mother had broken
her leg . In spite of being frightened , he (1)_____ the emergency services what had happened and
answered all the questions they asked him. He also telephoned his father at work, and then his
grandmother, to explain what he had (2)______. While waiting for these people to arrive, William
looked after his 18-month-old sister.
When ambulance man Steve Lyn went to the house , he was amazed: "It's great that a young boy
of six knew the right number to deal and was able to give us the correct information.” (3)______
of William's quick thinking , we were able to (4)______ there immediately.
Mrs Baldock left hospital yesterday, very (5)______ to both William and the ambulance service.
Question 1: A. called B. talked C. spoke D. told
Question 2: A. done B. made C. acted D. worked

Question 3: A. since B. because C. in spite D. instead

Question 4: A. manage B. find C. get D. reach

Question 5: A. agreeble B. happy C. grateful D. approving


Task 2. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to
each of the following questions.
Question 6: Having seen people suffer global warming consequences, we decided to reduce
carbon footprints.
A. We decided to reduce carbon footprints before seeing people suffer global warming
consequences.
B. We saw people suffer global warming consequences after we decided to reduce carbon
footprints.
C. We decided to cut down on carbon footprints after we saw people suffer global warming
consequences.
D. We decided to cut down on carbon footprints before we saw people suffer global warming
consequences.
Question 7: Climate change leads to numerous catastrophic consequences.
A. Numerous catastrophic consequences result in climate change.
B. Numerous catastrophic consequences result from climate change.
C. Climate change results from numerous catastrophic consequences.
D. Numerous catastrophic consequences cause climate change.
Question 8: The increase in earth's temperature can cause heat-related illnesses.
A. Heat-related illnesses result from the increase in earth's temperature.
B. Heat-related illnesses result in the increase in earth's temperature.
C. Heat-related illnesses lead to the increase in earth's temperature.
D. Heat-related illnesses trigger the increase in earth's temperature.
Question 9: Carbon dioxide is one of the primary greenhouse gases that cause global warming.
A. Carbon dioxide is the only greenhouse gas that causes global warming.
B. Global warming results in greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide.
C. One of the main greenhouse gases that lead to global warming is carbon dioxide.
D. Global warming causes greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide.
Question 10: Planting trees can contribute to reducing global warming.
A. Global warming can't be controlled by planting trees.
B. Planting trees is the only way to control global warming.
C. Planting trees can accelerate global warming.
D. Planting trees can help reduce global warming.
Question 11: . He said that he would take responsibility for his company's damage to the area. But
then he denied that.
A. Having denied his company's damage, he took responsibility for it.
B. He denied having damaged to his company's area.
C. He denied having taken responsibility for the damage to his company's area.
D. He denied having said that he would take responsibility for his company's damage to the area.
Question 12: . He donated a lot of money to environmental protection campaigns. He was admired
for that.
A. Unless he donated a lot of money to environmental protection campaigns, he was admired.
B. He was admired for having donated a lot of money to environmental protection campaigns.
C. If he had donated a lot of money to environmental protection campaigns, he would have been
admired.
D. If he donates a lot of money to environmental protection campaigns, he will be admired.
Question 13: They decided to cut down their carbon footprints. They were praised for that.
A. They were praised for having decided to decrease their carbon footprints.
B. They were not punished for having decided to decrease their carbon footprints.
C. Unless they decided to cut down their carbon footprints, they were praised for that.
D. If they decided to cut down their carbon footprints, they would be praised for that.
Question 14: We have advised you on how to cut down your energy use. We remember that.
A. We can no longer remember having advised you on how to decrease your energy use.
B. We remember having advised you on how to maintain your energy use.
C. We remember having advised you on how to decrease your energy use.
D. We remember to have advised you on how to decrease your energy use.
Question 15: Some scientists have distorted the effects of climate change. They were accused of
that.
A. Some scientists were accused of having falsify the effects of climate change.
B. Some scientists were accused of having been honest about the effects of climate change.
C. Although some scientists have distorted the effects of climate change, they were not accused.
D. Some scientists were accused of having falsified the effects of climate change.

A group of students is discussing what they should do to help to reduce their community's
carbon footprint. Put the lines in their conversation in the correct order.
(a) Lan: Well, what do you think we should do to help to reduce our community's carbon footprint?
(b) Mai: I agree. And I think we should also try to use less paper.
(c) Minh: In my opinion, we should start cutting down our energy use. If we use LED light bulbs
or turn off electronic devices when they are not in use, we can save a large amount of electricity.
(d) Lan: Uh-huh. These things are very easy to do. What do you think, Mai?
(e) Mai: This can help to save trees and forests since most paper products are made from wood.
Do you agree with me, Lan?
(f) Minh: Use less paper? What makes you think so?
(g) Lan: Well, I don't think that will help much. I believe that we should start a reuse-and-recycle
campaign. Then we can help to reduce waste and pollution, and conserve natural resources
1. a 2. ....C....... 3. ...D........ 4. ....B....... 5....F..... 6. ....E....... 7. ...G........

Read the following text and answer the questions.


It is a common belief that adults are responsible for ‘big issues’ such as environmental protection
and conservation, and youths can do nothing but focus on their studies or have fun. However, the
stories of the young people in the Young Voices for the Planet show that even at a young age,
people are able to do something for their communities and can really contribute to the care and
preservation of the environment. Kids can also do things to make a difference, given the chance.
And though their skills and talents may vary, they can use their unique gifts to help to preserve the
environment and save the world. One of the children in the stories, Olivia, says:
‘Every one of us has a great gift we can use to help the earth. Everyone, at any age, can do
something, whether it is picking up rubbish along the side of the road, filling a bird feeder, or
bringing reusable bags to the grocery store. For me, I used my artwork. Find your cause and use
your talents. The quality of our world is counting on you.’
It is remarkable that someone as young as Olivia can understand so well the connection between
society, the environment, and the problems we are facing today. It has been proved that every
small act of kindness we show can make a great impact on the world around us.
For some people, environmental protection and conservation means stopping the growth and
development of technology and society. But this is a popular belief that is not true. Protecting the
environment isn't about stopping progress. It's about changing our consumption habits and taking
care of the environment. Just by doing simple things, every one of us including the youths can do
their share in making this world a better place to live.
1. What do most people believe?
Adults are responsible for ‘big issues’ such as environmental protection and conservation, and
youths can do nothing but focus on their studies or have fun.
2. What do the stories of the young people in the Young Voices for the Planet show?
Even at a young age, people are able to do something for their communities and can really
contribute to the care and preservation of the environment.
3. According to Olivia, what are the things that people can do to help the earth?
Picking up rubbish along the side of the road, filling a bird feeder, or bringing reusable bags
to the grocery store.
4. What talent did Olivia use to help the environment?
Artwork
5. What does the writer find extraordinary and unusual about Olivia?
Someone as young as Olivia can understand so well the connection between society, the
environment, and the problems we are facing today.

Based on the information in the text, decide whether the following statements are true (T),
false (F), or not given (NG). Tick the boxes.
F 1. According to Olivia, only young people can use their talents to help the earth.
F 2. If you don't have talents, you can't help to preserve the environment and save our world.
T 3. Even a small act of kindness can make a great impact on the world around us.
F 4. If we want to preserve the environment, we should stop the growth and development of
technology and society.
NG 5. The future of our world depends on young people only.
T 6. People should change their consumption habits to preserve the environment.

VOCABULARY
I. Use the words / phrases from the box to complete the sentences.
greenhouse gases heat-related catastrophic vehicle emissions
diversity ecological balance capture
Example: The government must take measures to cut vehicle emissions.
1. The effects of climate change on humans and nature are __ catastrophic ____
2. We need to preserve the _ diversity _____ of wildlife because each species has an important
role to play.
3. The increase in the earth's temperature can cause heat-related ____ illnesses which can be
dangerous to people.
4. Carbon dioxide is one of the primary ____ greenhouse gases __ that cause global warming.
5. Planting trees can contribute to reducing global warming as trees __ capture ____ and absorb
CO2 in the air.
6. Climate change may lead to the extinction of many species and upset the ___ ecological balance
___

WRITING
I. Combine the following sentences by completing the second sentences and using perfect
gerunds.
1. It was said that the company had dumped hundreds of tons of waste into the river. But it
denied that.
The company denied having dumped hundreds of tons of waste into the river.
2. These big companies had invested in wind and solar energy. The government praised them
for that.
The government praised these big companies for having invested in wind and solar energy.
3. The mining industry in this region has discharged most of carbon dioxide emissions into the
atmosphere. It is responsible for that.
The mining industry in this region is responsible for having discharged most of carbon dioxide
emissions into the atmosphere.
4. The melting of polar ice has made the number of polar bears much smaller. Local people
blame it for that.
Local people blame the melting of polar ice for having made the number of polar bears much
smaller.
5. The local businesses haven’t developed clean technologies in recent years. The public
criticizes them for that.
The public criticizes ______________________________________________________
6. The world’s largest IT companies have powered their operations with 100 percent renewable
energy. We admire them for that.
We admire __________________________________________________________
7. Greenpeace had supplied all public school districts with 100 percent renewable energy. Local
communities in North Carolina thanked the organization for that.
Local communities in North Carolina ____________________________________
8. Salinity of water had caused significant damage to the crops and livestock in Ben Tre. Local
people in Ben Tre blamed it for that damage.
Local people in Ben Tre ____________________________________________
9. Mary installed a wind turbine to provide energy for all lights and air-conditioners in the home.
She remembers that.
Mary remembers _________________________________________________________
10. The burning of fossil fuels and other human activities has increased average global
temperatures by 0.8 degree centigrade over the past 100 years. Scientists accuse it for that.
Scientists accuse ____________________________________________________
11. They have been unprepared for sudden floods last year. They remember that.
They remember ____________________________________________________________
12. The US government had provided insufficient supplies for the flood victims. Local
communities in New Orleans criticized the US government for that.
Local communities in New Orleans _____________________________________________
13. Deforestation and overflowing dams have caused worse floods and storms in recent years.
Local people in Quang Tri Province blame them for that.
Local people in Quang Tri Province ____________________________________________
14. The US government caused various diseases and birth defects in Viet Nam with Agent
Orange. But the US government denies that.
The US government denies ___________________________________________________
15. It was said that he had pumped salty water into the fields illegally. And he admitted that.
He admitted ___________________________________________________________

II. Rewrite the sentences, using perfect participles.


1. After I watched the documentary about wildlife, I made a donation to an environmental society.
2. After I ate my evening meal, I decided to go for a walk.
3. Because I had spent the whole day cleaning up my room, I needed to take a shower and have a
rest.
4. Since the authorities had managed water resources irresponsibly, they had to deal with water
shortages in the region.
5. After we had read the stories about people who reduced their carbon footprint, we started to
change oi daily consumption habits.
6. Because the farmers had been told about the dangers of chemical fertilisers, they turned to bio-
fertilisers.
7. After I finished all my homework, I watched my favourite film on TV.

III. Combine the sentences, using perfect gerunds.


1. He risked his own life to rescue the little boy. He was really admired for that.
2. She raised $20,000 for wildlife protection. She was praised for that.
3. I have advised you on how to cut down your energy use. I remember that.
4. Some scientists have not reported the effects of climate change.
5. They are accused of that. They have acted irresponsibly towards the environment. They were
criticised for that.
6. The factory has dumped a huge amount of rubbish into the river. It was fined for that.
7. He didn't keep his promise. He apologised for that.

IV. Write sentences, using the words and phrases given. Change the word forms or add some
words, if necessary.
1. global warming / increase / earth's average surface temperature / due to / warming effects /
greenhouse gases /.
2. main cause / global warming / burning of fossi fuels natural gas, oil, and coal /.
3. even slight increases / levels / carbon dioxide atmosphere / can / cause significant / rise /
temperature /.
4. there / connection / between / recent droughts and / climate change /.
5. farming / contribute / more than 30 percent / total greenhouse gas emissions /.
6. overuse / chemical fertilisers serious threat / environment /.
7. warming / earth's atmosphere cause ' sea-level rise /.
8. many animal species / in / danger of extinction / due to / loss / habitat / and / inability / adapt /
climate change/.
9. global warming / may lead extreme weather events /, / include / heat waves / floods / powerful
storms / which / affect / people's lives /.
10. every one / us / can / help / protect and sustain / our environment / changing / consumption
habits /.

V. Rewrite the sentences beginning with an appropriate participle (present, past or


perfect).
1. When she saw the dog coming towards her, she quickly crossed the road.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
2. As I don't have a credit card, I found it difficult to book an airline ticket over the phone.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Because I was walking quickly, I soon caught up with her.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
4. I was eager to catch the bus in good time because I had been told off the day before for
arriving late.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
5. She didn't know where the theater was, so she asked for directions at the hotel reception.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
6. As she was a nurse, she knew what to do after the accident.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
7. He had spent his childhood in Oslo so he knew the city well.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
8. We has spent nearly all our money so we couldn't afford to stay at a hotel.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
9. As we didn't want to offend him, we said nothing about his paintings.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
10. Although it had been hunted close to extinction, the rhino is once again common in this area.
……………………………………………………………………………………………

VI. Write the following sentences in Reported Speech.


1) “It was really kind of you to help me.” Mary said to you.
 Mary thanked me........................................................................................
2) “I’ll drive you to the airport.” John said to Linda..
 John insisted................................................................................................
3) “You have passed the final exams. Congratulations!” Jim said to you
 Jim congratulated me..................................................................................
4) “It was nice of you to invite me to the dinner. Thank you”, Miss White said to Peter.
 Miss White thanked.....................................................................................
5) “Don’t play with the matches!” I said to Jack.
 I warned.......................................................................................................
6) “I’m sorry I didn’t phone you earlier”, Margaret said to you.
 Margaret apologized...................................................................................
7) “I have always wanted to be a pilot”, Paul said to you.
 Paul has always dreamed of.......................................................................
8) “You didn’t do what I said”, the mother said to her son.
 The mother accused.....................................................................................

GRAMMAR
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. ______ for twelve hours, I felt marvelous.
a. Having slept b. have slept
c. Having been slept d. have been slept
2. By the time their baby arrives, the Johnson hope ______ painting and decorating the new
nursery.
a. having finished b. to have finished
c. having been finished d. to have been finished
3. She's angry about ______ to the farewell party last night.
a. not having invited b. not to have invited
c. not having been invited d. not to have been invited
4. We decided not to travel, ______ the terrible weather forecast.
a. having heard b. to have heard
c. having been heard d. to have been heard
5. ______ in dark colors, the room needed some bright lights.
a. Having painted b. To have painted
c. Having been painted d. To have been painted
6. The stockbroker denied ______ of the secret business deal.
a. having informed b. to have informed
c. having been informed d. to have been informed
7. They now regret ______ their son by providing too many material possessions.
a. having spoiled b. to have spoiled
c. having been spoiled d. to have been spoiled
8. ______ to the party, we could hardly refuse to go.
a. Having invited b. To have invited
c. Having been invited d. To have been invited
9. Are you sure you told me? I don't recall ______ about it.
a. having told b. to have told
c. having been told d. to have been told
II. Choose the correct answer.
1. They all denied …………………her.
A. to see B. of seeing C. having ever seen D. ever having seen
2. In addition to ……………….., I do the washing up.
A. I prepare dinner B. I am preparing dinner
C. prepare dinner D. preparing dinner
3. Tom was accused of …………………some top secret document.
A. to steal B. having stolen C. for stealing D. to have stolen
4. No one can prevent us from ………………..good things.
A. to do B. doing C. do D. done
5. But after ………………….it over, I decided to laugh at myself and just join anyway.
A. having thought B. I have thought C. I thought D. to have thought
6. After …………..it, please return the form to us in the envelope provided.
A. to complete and sign B. you are completing and signing
C. completing and sign D. completing and signing
7. He never admits ……………….wrong.
A. to being B. of being C. to be D. to have been
8. I am interested …………………the new course next week.
A. in learning B. in learn B. to learn D. on learning
9. I look forward to ……………………home next month.
A. go B. to go C. going D. done
10. Excuse me ……………..late. I got stuck in a traffic jam for more than one hour.
A. to being B. for being C. being D. having been
11. Listen! I hear someone …………….the gate. It can’t be Peter because he is at work at present.
A. to open B. open C. opening D. opened
12. ………………..so much, the doll is still on the shelf.
A. Cost B. Costs C. To cost D. Costing
13. ……………….anxious to please us, they told us all we wanted to know.
A. Be B. To be C. Being D. In being
14. After ………….fight, the police arrested two men and a woman.
A. stopping B. stop C. to stop D. stopped
15. We were shocked to hear the news of your ______.
A. having fired B. to be fired C. having been fired D. to have been fired
16. ______ a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.
A. Finding B. We found C. Found D. Having found
17. We couldn’t drive because of the fog.
A. The fog prevented us not to drive B. The fog prevented us from driving
C. The fog prevented us against driving D. The fog prevented us about driving
18. I can hear voices upstairs.
A. I can hear someone talking upstairs. B. Someone is heard to talk upstairs.
C. There is strange voices upstairs. D. It is too noisy upstairs.
19. Jim said he hadn’t stole the jewels.
A. Jim denied stealing the jewels B. Jim didn’t agree to steal the jewels
C. There was no denying that Jim had stolen the jewels D. Jim had stolen the jewels, but he
denied it
20. I caught him …………over my wall.
A. to climb B. climb C. having climb D. climbing
21. “ Where are the children ?” – “ I saw …………….in the yard.”
A. them playing B. they playing C. them to play D. they play
III. Rewrite the sentences, using perfect gerunds or perfect participles.
1. After I watched the documentary about wildlife, I made a donation to an environment society.
 ____________________________________________________________________.
2. Some scientists had not reported the effects of climate change. They were accused of that.
 ____________________________________________________________________.
3. Mary hadn’t kept her promise. She apologised for that.
 ____________________________________________________________________.
4. He has attempted to murder his wife. He denies it.
→ ______________________________________________
5. Zoe had practiced a lot, so she was sure of her winning in the competition.
→ ______________________________________________.
6. I had told her the address yesterday. I remembered that.
→ ______________________________________________
7. She had been to disco the night before and she overslept in the morning.
→ ______________________________________________
8. She had not introduced herself sooner. She apologized for that.
→ ______________________________________________
9. The students were made to wear a uniform to schol. They complained about that.
→ ______________________________________________
10. I had not ridden a horse for a long time and I found it very difficult to keep in the saddle.
→ ______________________________________________
11. George had drunk two pints of beer. After being stopped by the police, he admitted that.
→ ______________________________________________
12. You made such a good speech. I wanted to congratulate you.
→ ______________________________________________
13. We have done two tests today, so we are exhausted.
→ ______________________________________________
14. He raised $20,000 for charity. He was praised for that.
→ ______________________________________________
15. The company breached safety regulations. It was fined for that.
→ ______________________________________________
16. The boy asked his mother’s permission and then went out to play.
→ ______________________________________________