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Pr cu rsi

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni
WHAT IS EUROPE?

ar e Se
io Po rg
HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS

d
Al lít io
le ica Ar
OF AN IDEA.

rS
an R le
M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
Prof. Mario Aller San Millán

b o
Sergio Arboleda University 2020-I

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2

Pr cu rsi
Introduction

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 The name Europe had existed for

d
Al lít io
thousands of years and for centuries

le ica Ar
it had been something more than a

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neutral geographical expression.
Nevertheless, until the end of the

an R le

eighteenth century, Europe was a
notion covering certain implicit and

M .I a
y
explicit assumptions rather than a

illá I.
concept with a clearly defined

R
n
meaning.

b o
d
Introduction 3

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 The term 'Europe' has a long history, but the idea of Europe is a

io Po rg
recent phenomenon.

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Al lít io
 It was not until the beginning of the nineteenth century that this

le ica Ar
idea, as a result of a new outlook on the nature and origins of
Europe, came to have clear outlines.

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 It is in particular the French Revolution that marks the watershed in

an R le
thinking about Europe.

M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
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4

Pr cu rsi
Europa: The birth of an idea

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
d
Al lít io
 As early as the fifth century BC, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote
that he did not know why the world was considered to consist of

le ica Ar
three parts, or why the three continents, Asia, Africa and Europe,

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bore the names of women:

an R le
▪ ...no one has ever determined whether or not there is sea either to the east or
to the north of Europe. All we know is that it is equal to Asia and Libya [Africa]
combined. Another thing that puzzles me is why three distinct women's

M .I a
names should have been given to what is really a single landmass, and why

y
too the Nile and the Phasis - or according to some, the Maeotic Tanais and

illá I.
the Cimmerian Strait - should have been fixed upon for the boundaries. Nor
have I been able to learn who it was that first marked the boundaries or

R
n
b
where they got the names from.

o
(Herodotus. The Histories)

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Pr cu rsi
Europa: The birth of an idea

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
d
Al lít io
 Europa, in Greek mythology, is the daughter of a Phoenician king.
Zeus, the supreme god of the ancient Greeks, falls in love with her

le ica Ar
and transforms himself into a bull. Europa strokes the bull and sits on

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its back. The animal then gallops into the sea, and swims to Crete
taking Europa with it.

an R le
▪ Once in Crete, Zeus assumes human form and begets three sons by
Europa.

M .I a
y
The abduction of Europa was a popular theme in literature and the

illá I.

visual arts during the classical period. Christian authors later dwelt on

R
n
the same myth in order to illustrate the unedifying behaviour of the

b
supreme god of the pagan Greeks.

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Pr cu rsi
Europa: The birth of an idea

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 Since geographical knowledge at the

d
time was far from perfect, the way in

Al lít io
which Europe's boundaries were defined

le ica Ar
was also vague and subject to variation.

rS
 Herodotus wrote that it was not known
whether there was sea to the North and
to the East. The Mediterranean

an R le
separated Europe from Africa, that
much was clear. In the East, the Sea of
Azov and the River Don were often

M .I a
y
considered to mark the boundary

illá I.
between Europe and Asia. In the West,
the Pillars of Hercules (the rocks of

R
Gibraltar and Ceuta, on the European

n
b
and the African side respectively)

o
indicated the start of the ocean which
was assumed to surround the entire
world.

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Pr cu rsi
Europa: The birth of an idea

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 The neutral, geographical expression 'Europe'

d
Al lít io
obtained a special connotation as a result of the
confrontation between the Greeks and the

le ica Ar
Persians.

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 Greek colonists settled on the west coast of Asia

an R le
Minor, the Ionian coast. Colonization increased
the awareness of the differences between

M .I a
Hellenes and non-Hellenes.

y
illá I.
 The expansion of the Persian empire gave rise to
the revolt of the Ionian city states, which sought

R
n
b
help from their Greek homeland. Thus began the

o
wars between the Greeks and the Persians.

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8

Pr cu rsi
Europa: The birth of an

of el da
Es ve
idea

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 It is in this historical context that Greek authors

d
Al lít io
from the fifth century BC began to connect
the geographical concepts of Europe and

le ica Ar
Asia not only with differences in language,

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customs and characteristics but also with

an R le
distinct systems of government.
▪ The opposition between Greece and Persia

M .I a
was viewed by the Greeks as representing that

y
illá I.
between Europe and Asia, and stood for
freedom as opposed to despotism.

R
n
b o
d
9

Pr cu rsi
Europa: The birth of an idea

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, when his short-

io Po rg
lived empire began to collapse, there was increasing Hellenization

d
in the East, as well as influences from the Eastern cultures on the

Al lít io
West.

le ica Ar
The names of the continents remain the same, and find general

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introduction in the sense that, as a result of the propagation of

an R le
Hellenic ideas, the Greek names are generally accepted, as are so
many other Greek terms.

M .I a
y
illá I.
After all, our intellectual framework is one of the most

R
n
b
manifest inheritances of ancient Greek civilization.

o
d
10

Pr cu rsi
Rome

of el da
Monarchy

Es ve

.M a d
U
753BC – 509BC

ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 From Romulus to Lucius

d
Al lít io
Tarquinius Superbus, Rome
was a kingdom among

le ica Ar
many “tribes”

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an R le
M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
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11

Pr cu rsi
Breakup of the

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Es ve
Western Roman Empire

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 4th century → Roman Empire is divided

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Al lít io
 The eastern part of the empire was a

le ica Ar
stronger region.

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▪ Its capital, Constantinople, was well
situated to prevent marauding German

an R le
tribes.

M .I a
 Western Roman Empire was different.

y
illá I.
 The capital, Rome was sacked by
Germanic tribes in 410.

R
n
b o
d
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n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
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Pr cu rsi
Es ve
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U
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n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
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n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
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Pr cu rsi
Es ve
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U
15

Pr cu rsi
Europe in the Middle Ages

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 In the seventh century, the unity

d
Al lít io
of the Mediterranean area was
broken up.

le ica Ar
rS
▪ The decisive factor was the
enormous Arab expansion which

an R le
commenced in that century.
 Syria, Palestine and Persia were

M .I a
conquered. Damascus

y
illá I.
became the centre of power
from which the eastern Roman

R
n
b
Empire was attacked. Egypt

o
and the whole north coast of
Africa were conquered.

d
Europe in 16

Pr cu rsi
of el da
the Middle

Es ve

.M a d
U
Ages

ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 In 711, the Arab armies

d
crossed into Spain. The

Al lít io
Moors advanced up

le ica Ar
to the Pyrenees, but in

rS
732 they were
stopped by a coalition

an R le
army led by Charles
Martel.

M .I a
y
 Some chroniclers of

illá I.
that epoch refers to
the coalition army as

R
n
b
the europeenses.

o
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17

Pr cu rsi
Europe in the

of el da
Es ve
Middle Ages

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 The grandson of Charles Martel, Charlemagne,
rose to the stardom of history after conquering

d
Europe and fighting back the Muslim invasion.

Al lít io
▪ He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on

le ica Ar
Christmas night in the year 800.

rS
 Charlemagne was seen as the successor to the
Roman Emperors in the West and as having
restored the imperium romanum.

an R le
 Poems refer to him as rex, “pater Europae”
(king, father of Europe) and he is praised as
“Europae veneranda apex”.

M .I a
y
▪ Such expressions had previously referred to

illá I.
Gaul, but the court poets now replace
Gaul by Europe.

R
n
▪ Even so, Europe seems to be little more

b
than a term indicating territory, with no

o
emotional connotations, suitable for
ceremonial occasions.

d
Europe in the Middle Ages 18

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 With the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire

io Po rg
(800-888) and the end of its short-lived absolute
monarchy, the term Europe ceases to be used

d
Al lít io
to indicate a sphere of power.

le ica Ar
 But when in the tenth century Otto the Great

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defeated the Magyars at Lechveld, he was
called the “liberator of Europe”.

an R le
▪ Once again it required an external threat for the

M .I a
term Europe to be used rather than merely

y
providing a academic, a geographical reference.

illá I.
R
n
b o
d
Europe in the Middle Ages 19

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 Most of the western Mediterranean was in the hands of the Moors.

io Po rg
Not only was the greater part of Spain and North Africa theirs, but

d
also the islands of Majorca, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta and Sicily. Their

Al lít io
power also extended to a considerable part of southern Italy.

le ica Ar
In the struggle against Islam, the Byzantine

rS

Empire, was indeed an ally. In the tenth century
they managed to drive the Muslims back as far

an R le
as the river Tigris. But…

M .I a
 In the following century, the rise of the Turkish

y
Seljuks had changed the situation radically. Led

illá I.
by Alp-Arslan, who had been crowned caliph in
Baghdad, they wrested Syria and Jerusalem

R
n
b
from the caliph of Egypt and Armenia, and Asia

o
Minor from the Byzantine Emperor. The situation
in Constantinople became desperate.

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20

Pr cu rsi
Europe in the

of el da
Es ve
Middle Ages

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 East–West Schism → 1054 AD

d
Al lít io
▪ Religious but political
differences.

le ica Ar
rS
 In 1095 the Byzantine Emperor
sent a diplomatic mission to the

an R le
Pope, the head of Latin
Christendom, to request military

M .I a
assistance.

y
illá I.
 This request led to Pope Urban II
to promulgate a call for a

R
n
Crusade in November 1095 in

b o
order to “liberate the Holy
Sepulchre in Jerusalem”.

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21

n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
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n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
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n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
24

n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
25

n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
26

Pr cu rsi
Europe in the Middle Ages

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
d
Al lít io
01 02 03

le ica Ar
rS
an R le
Despite all the internal differences Unity was often hard to find, but But at this stage, despite some
between the churches of the East there were nevertheless common association between Europe and
and the West, Christians, bearers symbols, gestures, spiritual ideals Christianity, there was no question

M .I a
of the Cross, had some interests in and earthly motives. of a precise identification

y
common. between Europe and

illá I.
•It is of interest that the Pope, the leader of
Latin Christendom, states that the Christendom.
geographical location for this form of
communal identity was to be found in

R
n
Europe.

b o
d
Europe in 27

Pr cu rsi
of el da
the Middle

Es ve

.M a d
U
Ages

ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 The Church instigated an
extensive propaganda

d
Al lít io
campaign and military
operations were carefully

le ica Ar
prepared. Filled with religious

rS
ardour and worldly greed,
warriors assembled in
Constantinople.

an R le
 Asia Minor was conquered,
with Antioch falling after a

M .I a
siege.

y
illá I.
 On 15 July 1099, Jerusalem was
taken and a number of small
Christian princedoms were

R
n
b
founded on the French model.

o
d
28

Pr cu rsi
Europe in the Middle Ages

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 From the twelfth century onwards, a ring

io Po rg
of Latin Christian principalities came into
existence:

d
Al lít io
▪ Norway, Sweden and Denmark in
the North,

le ica Ar
Poland, Bohemia and Hungary in the

rS

East.
The Normans, who in the previous

an R le

centuries restricted themselves to
some raids outside their dominion,

M .I a
played a leading role in

y
strengthening the position of Latin

illá I.
Christendom during the eleventh
and twelfth centuries.

R
n
b o
d
29

Pr cu rsi
Europe in the Middle Ages

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
d
Al lít io
le ica Ar
rS
an R le
It might be too much to suggest a Be that as it may, a connection between

M .I a
connection between such a growing self- the growing self-awareness and the

y
illá I.
confidence within the Christendom in these geographical concept of Europe is still
times. infrequent; however, there are

R
unmistakable signs of a brilliant future.

n
b
It is more accurate to peak about a growing self-

o
awareness.

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30

n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
Europe

y o
rS
Power
b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
and
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
31

Pr cu rsi
European

of el da
Es ve
politics

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
Remember that Greeks,

io Po rg

such as Hippocrates and
Aristotle, making the

d
Al lít io
difference between the
Greeks, Europeans, and

le ica Ar
Persians, Asians?

rS
an R le
 The idea that a different
political regime applies
in Europe from that in

M .I a
Asia, as formulated in

y
antiquity at the time of

illá I.
the Persian Wars, is met
with once more in the

R
n
political theory of the

b
Renaissance.

o
d
Niccolò Machiavelli 32

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 The complete SECULARIZATION of political thought is to be found

io Po rg
in the writings of Machiavelli.

d
Al lít io
▪ The state is a goal in itself, and the ruler must if necessary be prepared
to make use of reprehensible methods to maintain his power.

le ica Ar
The interests of the state take precedence over all other considerations.

rS

 Monarchs do not receive their power by divine providence, as they

an R le
had in the medieval Christian conception of the world.
 You can rule in one of two manners:

M .I a
y
either by exercising absolute power, with all other persons in the state

illá I.
A.
being subject to you,

R
n
or surrounding yourself with relatively independent lords whose power is

b
B.
not derived from your personal favour but from their birth.

o
d
33

Pr cu rsi
Niccolò Machiavelli

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 For Machiavelli, the Roman Empire had had its day,

d
Al lít io
and the idea of the restoration of a universal Christian

le ica Ar
empire, which is constantly at the forefront of

rS
medieval political theory, plays no role whatsoever in
his thinking.

an R le
 He proceeds from the assumption that there are
several sovereign states in Europe. In the course of

M .I a
y
the sixteenth century, the relations between the

illá I.
various European states came to be compared to a

R
n
set of scales, with the ideal situation being…

b o
d
Balance of Power 34

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
Balance of Power is necessary for stability in foreign relations, and

d

Al lít io
stability means peace.

le ica Ar
rS
 The theory of the balance of power would come to play an

an R le
extremely important role in the creation of the political, non-
Christian, concept of Europe.

M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
d
35

synonym of
Civilization

n
illá I.
M .I aR d
Europe,

an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
Queen Europe 36

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 Christianity continued to play a

io Po rg
role in the self-image of Europeans

d
“as recent as” in the eighteenth

Al lít io
century but it was no longer the

le ica Ar
dominant force that it had been in

rS
previous centuries.

an R le
 European feelings of superiority
were based on a conglomeration

M .I a
of ideas proceeding from the

y
illá I.
Enlightenment which, in turn, came
to be associated with the notion of

R
n
b
civilization.

o
d
Montesquieu 37

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 Montesquieu in “The Spirit of Laws” provides a commentary on the

io Po rg
political significance of Europe He follows Macchiavelli’s in relation
to Europe as a secular notion independent to the notion of

d
Al lít io
Christendom within the idea of freedom.

le ica Ar
▪ Following in the footsteps of Hippocrates, Montesquieu deduces

rS
political enslavement from climatic conditions.
 He, as well, formulates a principle of the separation of powers as

an R le
precondition for freedom in internal politics.

M .I a
A. Most European monarchies have a moderate system of government,

y
since the ruler possesses the legislative and executive powers but

illá I.
leaves the administration of justice to his subjects.

R
n
B. The Ottoman Empire, where the Sultan unites all three of these powers

b
in himself, suffers under the most appalling despotism.

o
d
38

Pr cu rsi
The Spirit of Laws

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 For Montesquieu, Europe is certainly not the

d
Al lít io
continent of civilized customs and good
manners to the exclusion of all other

le ica Ar
continents.

rS
▪ Even so, he does sometimes suggest that

an R le
European “moeurs et coutumes” differ from
those prevalent in Asia and in Russia.

M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
d
Voltaire 39

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 Very similar ideas concerning communal European customs and

io Po rg
manners can be found on Montesquieu too. He writes that

d
“Christian Europe”:

Al lít io
le ica Ar
▪ can be viewed as a large commonwealth of different states, some of
them monarchies and others having a mixed system of government, but

rS
all of them interconnected.

an R le
▪ All European states have the same religious background, despite this
being divided into a variety of sects, and all have the same principles of

M .I a
civil law and politics, which are unknown elsewhere in the world. It is

y
illá I.
because of these principles that European nations do not turn prisoners
of war into slaves, that they respect the ambassadors of hostile nations

R
n
and that they sensibly attempt to maintain a communal balance of

b
power.

o
d
Adam Smith and “The Wealth of 40

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve
Nations”

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 The growing awareness of a European civilization was based on a

io Po rg
tangible increase in the wealth of nations, which could afford to

d
finance costly standing armies.

Al lít io
le ica Ar
rS
 The theorist and propagandist of a new liberal economic order, in
which material self-interest was coolly and soberly made the basic

an R le
principle of economics was Adam Smith.

M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
d
41

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
 Adam Smith considered that firearms were

ni

ar e Se
beneficial to civilization, since they are
expensive and complicated to create and

io Po rg
therefore motivate economic activity more
Adam Smith,

d
Al lít io
than the bow and arrow.

le ica Ar
Montesquieu, ▪ By contrast, Montesquieu had pointed out the

rS
negative economic effects of maintaining large

Voltaire and
armies of mercenaries.

an R le
▪ Similarly, Voltaire had grieved over the growth
firearms

M .I a
of standing armies, even if he added the

y
positive note that warfare between armies of

illá I.
mercenaries might spare the civilian population

R
to an extent.

n
b o
d
42

Pr cu rsi
European civilization

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 Twenty years separate the “spiritual” outline of

d
Al lít io
the manners and mentalities of nations by the
Voltaire and the “materialistic” study on the

le ica Ar
wealth of nations by Adam Smith.

rS
▪ During those two decades (roughly the third

an R le
quarter of the eighteenth century), it became
usual to associate Europe and civilization.

M .I a
y
 “La civilisation europeenne” was first used in

illá I.
1766 by (PROBABLY) the French Nicolas

R
Baudeau.

n
b o
d
43

Pr cu rsi
European civilization

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
d
Al lít io
 Baudeau crafted the expression when writing about the French colonies in North America.
His idea was not only converting the native American to Christianity, but to establish an

le ica Ar

“European civilization” within them so they would be real Frenchmen.

rS
 Please note that according to his words European civilization and Christianity are not one
as it was in past centuries.

an R le
 In “her” colonial projects, France had a universal vocation to fulfil, not only to Christianize
but also to civilize.

M .I a
In this context, the European civilization presumes a conflict with non-Europeans after

y

illá I.
a process of conquest and colonization.
 Christianity can form part of this, but European civilization is nevertheless more than

R
n
Christendom alone.

b o
d
44

revolutionary

n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
years
Al lít io
io Po rg
The

ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
Revolutionary Europe 45

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 The French Revolution was a watershed in social and political

io Po rg
thinking and its impact was felt all over Europe.

d
Al lít io
▪ Peasants still lived in the shadow of feudalism

le ica Ar
 Peasant revolts were endemic in the old Europe. The great

rS
Revolution in France was in a sense the most successful of a whole
series of revolts signalling the end of the “Ancien Regime” and

an R le
transforming the hated feudal system.

M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
d
Revolutionary Europe 46

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 The (French) Revolution meant a continuation rather than a break

io Po rg
with the traditional centralized internal structure of the country, and

d
the “monarchy” and Church survived in a modified form.

Al lít io
le ica Ar
 The ideals of the French Revolution had a great impact throughout
Europe, and though in some places at first greeted with much

rS
enthusiasm were in others violently opposed.

an R le
▪ Liberty, equality and fraternity were trumpeted everywhere. The whole
of the old Europe was shaken, to the horror of many with established

M .I a
interests.

y
illá I.
 Revolutionary propaganda naturally led to a counter-revolutionary

R
n
reaction.

b o
d
Pr cu rsi
of el da
The Revolutionary storm subsided, only to be

Es ve

.M a d
followed by a tempest in the form of Napoleon.

U
ni
 The expansion of France meant that the ideas

ar e Se
and institutions of the Revolution were spread,

io Po rg
leading to a uniformity and coherence in large
Napoleon’s

d
parts of the European continent.

Al lít io
Fortress

le ica Ar
▪ But, French supremacy and oppression formed a
perfect breeding ground for nationalist

rS
movements.
Europe

an R le
 Napoleon’s “Continental System”, which
begun a naval blockade against England

M .I a
might be the oldest example of a “Fortress

y
illá I.
Europe”.

R
n
b o
d
47
48

Pr cu rsi
Holy Alliance’s Europe

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 In 1815, Russia, Austria and Prussia formed an alliance

d
Al lít io
intended to promote brotherhood between the

le ica Ar
peoples of Europe on a Christian basis and under the

rS
leadership of the old legitimate rulers.
It was an ecumenical alliance of Greek Orthodox

an R le

Russia, Catholic Austria and Protestant Prussia.

M .I a
▪ It constituted some kind of supranational organization

y
which tolerated no interference with the alliance of

illá I.
throne and whose members undertook to intervene in

R
n
the case of national and liberal agitation which formed

b
a threat to the restoration of the old order.

o
d
Proto-liberal Europe 49

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
For liberals (reformist, progressives, left-wingers…) the idea of Europe was also

d
bound up with a vision of the continent's historical development.

Al lít io
le ica Ar
rS
It is worth noting that for them there was
a distinction between West and East A western one which is liberal.

an R le
European powers. Some speak of a An eastern one which is conservative.
division of Europe in two zones:

M .I a
y
illá I.
The distinction between East and West would continue to be very popular

R
n
b
when circumstances gave occasion for it to be utilized.

o
d
François Guizot’s idea of Europe 50

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 European civilization begins with the fall of the Roman Empire and

io Po rg
the rise of Christendom.

d
Al lít io
 What makes Europe superior to all other civilizations is its diversity.

le ica Ar
▪ Whereas other civilizations are always dominated by a single principle, a

rS
construction which leads to tyranny, European civilization is precisely
that different principles and forms cannot exclude one another.

an R le
▪ The variety of elements in European civilization is the basis for the
freedom that characterizes it.

M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
d
51

Pr cu rsi
Democrat’s Europe

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 Around the mid-XIX century, there was a

io Po rg
swing from elite to popular culture (largely
focused in the national context).

d
Al lít io
 The increasingly louder call for an

le ica Ar
extension of the right to vote and for social

rS
reform also had a largely national
framework of reference.

an R le
 During the first half of the nineteenth
century, national movements had a

M .I a
y
predominantly romantic bias.

illá I.
 Mazzini ideal was that of an independent

R
n
(anti-Habsburg), liberal (anti-clerical) and

b
classless (anti-feudal) united Italy.

o
d
52

Pr cu rsi
Europe in 1848 Revolutions

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 The liberation of the citizen is to take place

d
Al lít io
within the nation and vast layers of the
population are to take part in the national

le ica Ar
culture: the country should reconcile the social

rS
classes with one another.

an R le
▪ These reborn nations should become part of the
brotherhood of European peoples.

M .I a
Democrats therefore see Europe not as a

y

illá I.
balance of powers according to the views of
political realism, but as a federation of nations:

R
n
b
there was no place for hatred among the

o
individual nations, the ultimate aim being
fraternization.

d
53

Pr cu rsi
Europe1948 →The rise of Nationalism

of el da
Es ve
Springtime of Nations

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 The 1848 revolutionS sent a powerful

d
Al lít io
message through Europe as

le ica Ar
barricades were thrown up almost

rS
simultaneously in many capitals.
Although the reasons were not the

an R le

same everywhere, it constituted a
perfect example of solidarity and

M .I a
y
cohesion which had emerged on

illá I.
the European mainland.

R
n
b o
d
Europe1948 →The rise of 54

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve
Nationalism

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 In spite of the what was written in the previous slide, the

io Po rg
era of romantic idealism was over. The second half of

d
Al lít io
the nineteenth century was dominated by political

le ica Ar
realism.

rS
 The national liberation movements also ceased

an R le
dreaming and started to adopt a pragmatic approach.
Italian unification was achieved in the 1860s, and being

M .I a

y
illá I.
lead by Prussia, German unification was on the way.

R
n
b o
d
55

Pr cu rsi
Europe1948 →The

of el da
Es ve
rise of Nationalism

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
Until German unification, France was the most

io Po rg

powerful state on the European mainland.

d
Al lít io
 After winning the elections, with universal suffrage (for
men), Napoleon III established the Second Empire.

le ica Ar
France played a significant role in the process of

rS
Italian unification.
In 1870, the driving force behind German unification,

an R le

the Iron Chancellor Bismarck, challenged Napoleon III
into declaring a war which marked the end of French

M .I a
supremacy.

y
illá I.
 Napoleon III was captured and Paris was besieged. A
national defence was organized, but Paris had to

R
n
capitulate.

b o
 In Louis XIV's palace of Versailles, the King of Prussia
was proclaimed Emperor of Germany.

d
Europe1948 →The rise of 56

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve
Nationalism

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
d
Al lít io
le ica Ar
Not only the unification of Italy and Reflecting on the past was inseparable

rS
Germany, but also the rivalry among the from nation-building.
individual nations within Europe and

an R le
abroad that created a climate in which
Historiography became a kind of national
the idea of belonging to a European

M .I a
genealogy, with contemporary politics as the
community was pushed into the

y
starting-point and the history of literature and art

illá I.
background. being viewed through the nineteenth-century
nationalist looking-glass.

R
n
b o
d
Europe1948 →The rise of 57

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve
Nationalism

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
The period between 1871 and 1914 was one of armed peace.

d
Al lít io
le ica Ar
rS
The issue of Alsace-Lorraine prevented a good relationship developing between

an R le
France and Germany. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the aggressive
foreign policy of the German Empire almost created a true arms race.

M .I a
y
illá I.
In this strained nationalistic climate, it seemed as if many were consciously

R
n
b
aiming at a great European war.

o
d
58

Pr cu rsi
Bismarck on Europe

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 With a Political thought dominated by

d
Al lít io
national self-interest, Bismarck was
quite cynical concerning Europe.

le ica Ar
rS
▪ When he explained Prussian plans to
the English ambassador that told him

an R le
that “Europe would not allow it”, he
replied “Who is Europe?”

M .I a
He wrote that he continually heard the

y

illá I.
word Europe being used by politicians
to demand something from other

R
n
b
powers which they were afraid to ask

o
for on their own behalf.

d
German voices against Bismarck 59

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
 There were those who remembered Immanuel Kant, who as early as

io Po rg
1795 wrote “Zum Ewigen Frieden” (Towards Eternal Peace).

d
Al lít io
▪ In this treatise, he stressed the need for the creation of a league of
nations and sketched a federal system for Europe.

le ica Ar
rS
▪ He argued that from the point of view of reason there was no other way
to legalize the relationship between states than through the creation of

an R le
a community of peoples.

M .I a
y
illá I.
R
n
b o
d
60

Pr cu rsi
Other voices for the

of el da
Es ve
unity of Europe

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 At the International Peace Congress

d
held in Paris in 1849, Victor Hugo

Al lít io
favoured the creation of "a supreme,

le ica Ar
sovereign senate, which will be to

rS
Europe what parliament is to England"
and said "A day will come when all

an R le
nations on our continent will form a
European brotherhood ... A day will

M .I a
come when we shall see ... the United

y
illá I.
States of America and the United
States of Europe face to face,

R
n
reaching out for each other across the

b
seas."

o
d
The horrors of WAR 61

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
It was not until the Great War
of 1914, however, that the

io Po rg
simple equation of Europe
and civilization ceased to

d
Al lít io
exist as a dominant idea.

le ica Ar
rS
an R le
Europe was associated Could anybody be so
with degeneration and insane as to still believe

M .I a
decline. Yet even this in uninterrupted

y
feeling of despair, that progress and the values

illá I.
touched so many, was of so-called civilization
a form of European self- after the hell of

R
n
awareness. Verdun?

b o
d
62

Time to flourish?
War” Europe
Post “Great

n
illá I.
M .I aR d
an R le
y o
rS b
le ica Ar
Al lít io
io Po rg
ar e Se
d
.M a d
of el da
Pr cu rsi
Es ve
ni
U
63

Pr cu rsi
Searching for Europe, still

of el da
Es ve

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
 “Europe” has proved to be a highly potent, if imprecise, political

d
Al lít io
concept, hence the frequent attempts at definition:
Who belongs to Europe and who can be excluded?

le ica Ar

rS
▪ Which values are genuinely (and uniquely) European?
▪ Is there a threat towards Europe and where the threat comes

an R le
from?
 All the answers to such questions have immediate political

M .I a
consequences and begin to explain why the interpretation of the

y
term 'Europe' has been so disputed.

illá I.
 Europe is always seen and interpreted from somewhere, from a
particular national or political viewpoint.

R
n
b
Europe depends on the eye of the beholder and it is not just a

o

problem of, competing “national” versions of the concept or
plans for Europe's future.

d
The idea of Europe 1914-1945 64

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve
The effects of the Great War

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
io Po rg
d
Al lít io
First World War sent millions of This had severe ideological

le ica Ar
young men to their slaughter; but repercussions. The values of

rS
in addition, on the home fronts, nineteenth-century liberalism were
the whole populations of the swept aside as war hysteria

an R le
warring countries were mobilized gripped.
and involved to an unknown
degree.

M .I a
•Nationalists saw in the war an opportunity

y
to purify the nation and to find a new

illá I.
spiritual community above the petty
conflicts of everyday life.

R
n
•National self-worship and the call for unity

b
led to demands for discipline and strong

o
men.

d
The idea of Europe 1914-1945 65

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve
Projects for Europe during WWI

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
Friedrich He was not the first German to think in these terms, “Mitteleuropa” was

io Po rg
Naumann’s just one among many German foreign policy options and not the most
“Mitteleuropa” influential.

d
Al lít io
Mitteleuropa, he Naumann was a theologian who had also studied economy, member of

le ica Ar
argued, would the Reichstag, known as a spokesman for liberal causes, but before the

rS
become a war he had shown little interest in models for supranational cooperation,
political necessity. as he favoured Germany’s colonial expansion.

an R le
He propounded that the military union of Germany and Austria-Hungary
could be turned into associations of real solidarity leading to a better

M .I a
post-war order in central Europe.

y
illá I.
Mitteleuropa, he He envisaged a post-war Europe with two 'Chinese walls’ of economic
argued, would and military character running from north to south through the continent,

R
n
become a one between Germany and France, the other somewhere between

b
political necessity. Germany and Russia.

o
d
The idea of Europe 1914-1945 66

Pr cu rsi
of el da
Es ve
Post-war plans for European unity

.M a d
U
ni

ar e Se
Coudenhove He had an impeccable background for working on behalf of

io Po rg
-Kalergi’s transnational understanding → Japanese mother, Austrian father,
spent his life in Japan, Bohemia and Vienna.
“Paneuropa”

d
Al lít io
le ica Ar
Only a united He had high hopes that Wilson's peace programme and the League
Europe could of Nations would secure a better, peaceful world. Anyway, he was

rS
overcome the soon disappointed.
troubles.

an R le
The necessary modernization of the political system of Europe
His would have to consist in large-scale cooperation instead of the

M .I a
traditional anarchy, since technical progress had made small and

y
approach

illá I.
conflicting states obsolete.
was Even the so-called European great powers were by now

R
n
essentially insufficient, as the world was about to be divided into global

b
power fields. The old European powers were replaced by

o
political. federally organized world powers, as could be seen in America, in
the new Soviet Russia and in the British Empire.