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# FARML 2018

Introdu tion

1
Wel ome to FARML 2018! The following problems are meant to approximate the level of di ulty and distribution of
2
topi s usually seen in the three question-and-answer rounds .

3 4 5
Written by Andy Niedermaier . Proofread by Silas Johnson & Hao Ye .

F F
1 for ake
2haha just kidding we all know this tends to be harder
3ARML oa h & problem writer; trader at Jane Street Capital; agniedergmail. om
5Longtime SD ARML oa h

1
FARML 2018

TEAM EVENT
T1 Determine all ordered pairs of positive integers (x, y) for whi h x2 y + g d{x, y 2 } = 2018.

T2 For a positive integer n, dene f (n) to be the smallest integer whose digits have a produ t of exa tly 10n .
Compute the remainder when f (18) + f (19) + · · · + f (2018) is divided by 1000.

## T3 The diagram below shows four ir les

a of radius 1 inside a ir le of radius 2. How many ways an one shade in a
subset of the regions in the diagram below su h that the shaded regions form a onne ted region
b whose area is
exa tly half the area of the large ir le?

T4 The Farmlville Lo al Area Invitational Math Exam is 15 questions long. At Farmlville High S hool, twenty-eight
teenagers took the FLAIME, in luding exa tly twenty eighteen-year-olds. The students' s ores summed to 218,
and were all divisors of their respe tive ages. Compute the smallest possible median for the set of student s ores.

T5 In isos eles triangle ABC , sin 3A = 3 sin A cos A. Compute tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A.

T6 Determine the largest possible perfe t square one an get in the expression

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
by pla ing a mixture of +'s and/or ×'s into the ir les.

T7 Let S be the set of 25 latti e points whose x- and y - oordinates are both in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. What is the
smallest number of parabolas of the form y = a(x − h)2 + k one an draw
su h that every point in S is on at
least one of the parabolas?

T8 A FARMLhorn is a shape like the one below, omprising four semi- ir les of integer radius and one straight line
d
segment , and having an area of exa tly 2018π . How many non- ongruent FARMLhorns are there?

[O]
T9 Compute the largest possible value for π
, where O is a ir le in the plane whi h interse ts the oordinate axes
at points A, B, C, D su h that ABCD is a trapezoid of area 20 and perimeter 18.

e below.

## Row 4: sum of two positive squares

T3. T8.

aThese four ir les are evenly spa ed around the larger ir le. That is, the diagram has 90◦ rotational symmetry.
bRegions onne t along edges.
These must be parabolas; that is, a 6= 0.
dThe dotted line is there to help make lear the four semi- ir ular pie es; their enters and endpoints must all be on this line.
eCells inside a region must all ontain the same digit, and dierent regions must ontain dierent digits. Answers may not begin with a 0.
FARML 2018

INDIVIDUAL EVENT

I1 In how many ways an the letters in LLAM AF ARM be rearranged so that the resulting word ontains the
ve-letter sequen e  F ARM L somewhere in it, with no other letters in between?

I2 Compute the smallest possible value for x + y + z, if x, y, z are positive integers for whi h xy z is a multiple of
y
20 and x z is a multiple of 18.

I3 Three ongruent ir les are drawn, below, with their enters forming an equilateral triangle. Triangle ABC is
drawn, with AB and AC passing through two of the ir les' interse tion points, as shown. Given that A is
ollinear ˜
with P and Q and P Q measures 38◦ , ompute the degree-measure of P˜R.
C

R
P
Q

B
A

I4 The graph of the ubi polynomial f (x) is rotationally symmetri about the point (20, 18), and f (x) = 0 has a
double root at x = 2. Compute the sum of the oe ients of f (x).

n
I5 Determine the smallest integer n>1 for whi h s(n) = 77, where s(n) equals the sum of the prime divisors of n.

I6 Parallelogram ABCD has side lengths of 5 and 6, and one of the trise tors of ∠A passes through C. Compute
[ABCD].
FARML 2018

I7 A 4-digit number is alled tubular if it ontains two ea h of two distin t digits. (For example, 2424 and 7997
are tubular, but 5355 is not.) How many tubular numbers are multiples of 22?

I8 Pentagon ABCDE , a
shown below, an be used to tile the plane . Given AE = 2, ompute [ABCDE].
D
C
E

A B

## I9 Determine x + y, given that log2 x = log4 (x − y) = log 8 xy .

I10 An ellipse O is drawn in the omplex plane, having its enter at 0, passing through i, and with fo i on the real
axis. The set X = {z 2 |z ∈ O}. Given [X]
[O]
= 1009, ompute the distan e between the fo i of O.
FARML 2018

## RELAY & TIEBREAKER EVENTS

n
R1/1 Determine the positive integer n su h that n+ 10
= 2018.

n
R1/2 Let T = T N Y W R. Determine the positive integer n su h that n+ 10
= T.

n
R1/3 Let T = T N Y W R. Determine the losest integer S to T su h that the equation n+ 10
=S has no integer
solutions.

R2/1 In Van's ookbook, starting with Chapter 2, ea h Chapter is one page shorter than the previous one, and the
nal Chapter is just one page long, on page 36. What is the sum of the numbers of the pages of Chapter 4?

R2/2 Let T = T N Y W R. In Van's ookbook, starting with Chapter 2, ea h Chapter is one page shorter than the
previous one. The sum of the page numbers of Chapter 4 is T. Compute the largest page number from Chapter 4.

T NY W R
R2/3 Let T = 2
. Van only buys books if they have exa tly T hapters, and only if the sum of the page
numbers of ea h hapter is a multiple of T . Compute the smallest possible number of pages in a book that Van would
a

aChapters must be at least 1 page long. If the last page of a hapter is P, then the rst page of the next hapter is P + 1.

Tiebreaker 1 Pentagon ABCDE , shown below, an be used to reate a regular tiling of the plane. (A portion of
that tiling is also shown.) Compute sin B .

E
C

A B

Tiebreaker 2 Compute the latti e point P losest to the origin whose distan e to (20, 18) is an integer.
FARML 2018

T1 (1, 2017), (2, 504), (6, 56)
T2 888
T3 56
T4 6
T5 − 275
T6 361
T7 6
T8 501 √
101
T9 2
− 18 5
T10 The rows, from top to bottom: 9333, 9553, 9853, 8833.

I1 60
I2 15
I3 33◦
55
I4 648
I5 1617
264
I6 25
I7 77 √
I8 5+3 3
3
I9 4

I10 24 14

R1/1 1835
R1/2 1669
R1/3 1671

R2/1 120
R2/2 26
R2/3 90

57−3
TB1 8
TB2 (−1, −2)
FARML 2018

TEAM EVENT
SOLUTIONS

T1 If g d(x, y)= 1, then we must have x2 y = 2017 ⇒ (x, y) = (1, 2017). Otherwise, suppose some prime p divides
2 2
both x and y . Then p will also divide x y + g d{x, y } = 2018. So we should look at the prime divisors of 2018,
namely 2 and 1009.

2
Suppose (x, y) = (2a, 2b). Then we have 8a b + 2 · g d{a, 2b2 } = 2018 ⇒ 4a2 b + g d{a, 2b2 } = 1009. Thus a
2 2
and 2b must be relatively prime, and so 4a b = 1008 ⇒ a2 b = 252 = 22 · 33 · 7. The only ordered pairs (a, b) that
work here are (1, 252) and (3, 28).

Suppose now that (x, y) = (1009a, 1009b). Then we have 10092 ab + 1009 · g d{a, 1009b2 } = 2018 ⇒ 1009ab +
2
g d{a, 1009b } = 2, whi h has no solutions.

Thus the full solution set is (1, 2017), (2, 504), (6, 56)

T2 For an integer n, f (n) n 5's, and then also the shortest olle tion of 2′ s, 4's, or 8's needed to have
must omprise
n
a produ t of 2 . The rst few values of f (n) are 25, 455, 5558, 255 558, 4 555 558, 55 555 588. Note that the 8's are
starting to  olle t at the ba k. It an be shown that for n ≥ 9, f (n) ends in the three digits 888. Thus every
term in the sum f (18) + f (19) + · · · + f (2018) will end in 888, and sin e there are 2001 terms in the sum, the
remainder of the sum mod 1000 will be 888

T3 There are three dierent shapes in the diagram, let's all them A, B, and C:

C
B
A

π−2 π 1
One an show via a disse tion argument that [A] = 2. Thus [B] = 2 = 2 −1 and [C] = 4 (4π −4[A]−4[B]) =
π
π − [A] − [B] = 2 − 1. Noting that [B] = [C], it is lear then that in order to shade an area of exa tly 2π , we
must hoose exa tly two of the A regions and a total of four of the B or C regions.

Let's think about the two A regions we hoose. If they are opposite of ea h other (below left), we will not be
able to form a onne ted region using any set of four B or C regions. Thus, we must hoose two A regions that
are next to ea h other. (I.e., that have a single B region between them.) Without loss of generality, assume we
hoose the two A regions shown below, right:

C1 C2
B1 B2

B4 B3
C4 C3

Now we must hoose whi h 4 B or C regions to pi k. Of the 8 B and C regions in the diagram, we  annot
 take
either B4 or C4 . Of the remaining 6 regions, we must take at least one of {B2 , C2 }. Thus there are 64 − 44 = 14
ways to sele t the four B and C regions. Multiplying this by 4 to a ount for the fa t that there were 4 initial
hoi es for the pair of A regions, we get a total of 56 valid ongurations.
d
T4 In order to minimize the median, let's try to onstru t a set S where there are 13 large values and 15 small ones.
There are exa tly 8 non-18-year-olds in the lassroom. Suppose that they are all 15 years old, and all s ored
a perfe t 15. Then the sum of their s ores is 120, and we need to a hieve a sum of 98 from the 18-year-olds.
Suppose 5 of them s ore 9. This gets our sum up to 165, and we need a s ore of 53 from the remaining 15. This
an be a hieved with s ores of 6 and below, for example with one 2, eleven 3's, and three 6's. This onguration
FARML 2018

## would result in a median of 6.

To show that we annot do better, we an use proof by ontradi tion. Suppose there exists a way to get a
set of s ores with a median smaller than 6. Order the 28 s ores from lowest to highest. Suppose there are K
non-18-year-olds among the rst 14 s ores (the lower s ores) and 8−K among the latter (higher) 14 s ores.
Those K s ores an be at most 5, 14 − K s ores oming from the 18-year-olds an be at most 3. Thus
and the
the sum of the lower s ores is at most 5K + 3(14 − K) = 42 + 2K . The high s ores an be as mu h as 9 for the
20 − (14 − K) = 6 + K remaining 18-year-olds, and as mu h as 15 for the 8 − K non-18-year-olds. This subset of
students therefore an s ore only as mu h as 9(6 + K) + 15(8 − K) = 174 − 6K . Altogether we get a maximum
s ore sum of 216 − 4K , whi h is less than 218.

## Therefore 6 is the smallest possible median for the set of s ores.

T5 By the triple-angle formula, sin 3A = 3 sin A−4 sin3 A, so we have 3 sin A−4 sin3 A = 3 sin A cos A ⇒ 3−4 sin2 A =
2
3 cos A ⇒ 4 cos A − 1 = 3 cos A. Solving as a quadrati in cos A, we get cos A = 1 or cos A = − 41 . The rst root
1
is extraneous, so we have cos A = − 4 . Thus A is obtuse, and therefore the vertex angle in the isos eles triangle.

» √
180 −C
This means cos B = cos C = cos( 2
) = cos(90◦ − C2 ) = sin C2 = 1−cos
2
C
= 410 .
√ » √ √
6 6 15
Thus sin B = sin C = 4
, and so tan B = tan C = 10
= 5
. Sin e tan A = − 15, we have

3 27
tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = −3 + −3= −
5 5
T6 Call the expression N. Sin e the goal is to nd the largest possible square value for N, onsider pla ing ×'s in
as many of the ir les as possible, parti ularly the ones towards the right. Consider potential large produ ts that
are available, as well as the perfe t squares larger than those produ ts:

## produ t value square(s) doable?

2×3×4×5×6×7×8 40320 40401 no
3×4×5×6×7×8 20160 20164 no
4×5×6×7×8 6720 6724 no
2×3×4×5×6×7 5040 5041, 5184 no
3×4×5×6×7 2520 2601 no
5×6×7×8 1680 1681, 1764 no
4×5×6×7 840 841, 900 no
2×3×4×5×6 720 729, 784 no
3×4×5×6 360 361, 400, 441 no
6×7×8 336 361, 400, 441 YES (361)

## Sin e 361 = 0 + 1 × 2 + 3 + 4 × 5 + 6 × 7 × 8, 361 is the largest a hievable square.

Note: If instead of 0 through 8, we ask the same problem for 0 through N , then the largest squares we an get
for N =1 through N = 25 are listed below. (Note that we annot get any positive squares for N = 2 or N = 3.)

N max square N max square N max square N max square N max square
1 12 6 62 11 1742 16 8162 21 242342
2 0 7 712 12 4262 17 56952 22 242342
3 0 8 192 13 1742 18 36562 23 351512
4 52 9 1232 14 2332 19 159362 24 1406042
5 112 10 332 15 6252 20 2469602 25 1773992
FARML 2018

T7 Certainly we annot hope to over more than 5 points with any given parabola. So let us see what parabolas
exist that an over exa tly 5. The parabola y = (x − 3)2 + 1 overs 5 points, and it an be ree ted a ross y=3
to get another 5-pointer:

There also exists another type of 5-pointer, a slightly o- enter one. One su h example is given by y =
1 5 2
+ 87 :

2
x− 2

There are several ways to shift or ree t this se ond type of 5-pointer so that it still overs 5 points, but none
of these 5-pointers is able to over the middle point ,
6 (3, 3). Thus we must look for ways to use 6 parabolas to

over all the points. One example is shown below, thereby illustrating that 6 is the lower bound:

T8 Let the inner radii for the lefthand and righthand portions of the FARMLhorn be a and b, and let the outer
radius on the lefthand portion be a + r . Then the outer radius on the righthand portion is b + 2r . The area of the
π 2 2 2 2
FARMLhorn is then 2 ((a + r) + (b + 2r) − a − b ). Setting this equal to 2018π , we get r(2a + 4b + 5r) = 4036.
2
So r must be a divisor of 4036 = 2 · 1009. Looking at ases:

## If r is a multiple of 1009, then 5r 2 > 4036, so there are no solutions.

Therefore there are 501 non- ongruent FARMLhorns, all orresponding to the r=2 ase.

T9 In what ways an a ir le's four interse tion points with the oordinate axes determine a trapezoid? One su h
way is if the ir le's enter is on the line y=x  say, at (c, c), and the radius r > c. It is left as an exer ise to the
reader to show that if the ir le's enter is not on either of the lines y = x or y = −x, then the four interse tion
points annot form a trapezoid.

Without loss of generality, assume O has radius r, and is entered in the rst quadrant, at (c, c). Then we
must be in one of the following situations:

6This laim that no 5-pointer overing (3, 3) exists is somewhat glossed over, but an be easily shown. (Hint: use the property that a
parabola annot have three ollinear points.)
FARML 2018

D
C

r r
D
a a a a
A B A C
B

In the rst diagram, the origin is outside the trapezoid, and the legs of the trapezoid are along the axes. In
the se ond, the origin is inside the trapezoid. Regardless, let 2a be the distan e between the interse tion points
on the x-axis.

## [ABCD] = 12 ((c + a)2 − (c − a)2 ) = 2ac ⇒ ac = 10. As the perimeter is 18, we

In the rst ase, have
√ √ √ √
18 = 4a + 2((c − a) + (c + a)) ⇒ 9 = 2a + 2c = 2a + 10a 2 . Multiplying by a gives 2a2 − 9a + 10 2 = 0. This
quadrati has omplex solutions for a, whi h means that this annot yield a valid onstru tion. Darn!

2 √
[ABCD] = (2a)
In the se ond ase, 2
⇒ a = 10. Also, AD2 = (c + a)2 + (a − c)2 = 2a2 + 2c2 = 20 + 2c2 ,
√ √ √ √ √ √ 2 √
hen e 18 = 2 2a + 2 · AD = 4 5 + 2 20 + 2c2 ⇒ 9 − 2 5 = 20 + 2c2 ⇒ c2 = (9−2 25) −20 = 81
2
− 18 5, and
[O] 101 √
so the largest (and only) possible value for = r 2 is c2 + a2 = − 18 5
π 2
T10 Start with the bottom row, whi h is a multiple of 11. The residues of the squares modulo 11 are 0, 1, 4, 9, 5, 3. So
the only way for the sum of two squares to be a multiple of 11 is if both squares are themselves multiples of 11.
2 2 2
These  andidate squares are 11 , 22 , . . . , 99 . The only sums of squares that give a number of type A A B B
2 2 2 2 2 2
are 11 + 66 = 4477, 33 + 88 = 8833, and 11 + 99 = 9922.

If the bottom row is 4477, then there are no valid hoi es for the lead digit in the top row. If the bottom row
is 8833, the top row an only be 9333. If the bottom row is 9922, the top row an be 1222, 3222, or 6222.

If the top row is 9333, then the third row must be 9853, and the se ond row is 9553, whi h diers from the
top row by 6! = 720. One an he k that the other ases for the top row fail to yield solutions, thus the unique
solution in the diagram has rows 9333, 9553, 9853, 8833
FARML 2018

INDIVIDUAL EVENT
SOLUTIONS

I1 We have 9 letters to rearrange, so the F in F ARM L an go in the rst, se ond, third, fourth, or fth spot.
On e this is hosen, that determines the next four letters. We then have 4 empty spots for the remaining letters:
A, A, L, M . There are 4 hoi es for the L, whi h then leaves 3 hoi es for the M, and then the last two spots
must go to the A's. Thus there are 5 · 4 · 3 = 60 possible strings.

I2 Let S = x + y + z . Either x or y must be a multiple of 5. Let's try using x. If x = 5, then z must be a multiple
of18 and y must be at least 2, so S ≥ 25. If x = 10, then y must be even and z must be a multiple of 9, hen e
S ≥ 21. If x = 15, then y must be a multiple of 4 and z must be even, hen e S ≥ 21.

Now onsider ases in whi h y is a multiple of 5. If y = 5, then x must be a multiple of 4. In this ase,
S is minimized at 18, with either (x, y, z) = (4, 5, 9) or (12, 5, 1). If y = 10, then S is minimized at 15, with
(3, 10, 2). If y = 15, again x must be a multiple of 4, and so S ≥ 20. Thus 15 is the minimum possible value for S .

I3 Let's draw in the enters of the three ir les, labeling the top one O. Furthermore, let S and T be the other
interse tion points of the top ir le, as shown below:
C

O
R
P T
QS

B
A

## Note that ˜, along with half

m∠O = 60◦ , and that this angle subtends ar QS ea h of ar s ˜
P Q and ˆ.
ST But
those ar s
◦ ◦ ˜ + 19◦ + 19◦ ⇒ QS
both measure 38 , so we have 60 = QS ˜ = 22◦ .

If we set ˜
P R = a, we now have B = C = 21 (a + 38◦ + 22◦ + 38◦ ) = a
+ 49◦ , and A = 21 (38◦ + 22◦ + 38◦ ) = 49◦ .
2
As A + B + C = 180◦ , this leads to a = 33◦

I4 Sin e the graph of f (x) has rotational symmetry about (20, 18), it must be the ase that f (20 − a) + f (20 + a) =
f (20) + f (20) = 36 for all real numbers a. But we already know that f (x) is of the form r(x − 2)2 (x − s), for some
18 1
real numbers r and s. Given that f (20) = 18 and f (2) + f (38) = 36 ⇒ f (38) = 36, we get r(20 − s) = = 18
182
36 1 1
and r(38 − s) = = 36 . That is, 20 − s = 2(38 − s) ⇒ s = 56 ⇒ r = − 648 . Then the sum of the oe ients of
362
55
f (x) is just f (1) =
648
I5 Sin e must be a multiple of 77, let
n n = 7a 11b c, where a ≥ 1, b ≥ 1, and c is divisible by neither 7 nor 11. Then
7a 11b c a−1
we have 18+s(c) = 77 ⇒ 7 11b−1 c = 18 + s(c). Sin e we are looking for the smallest n that works, let's rst
look for solutions where a = b = 1.

If a = b = 1, we have c = 18 + s(c). If c is odd we need s(c) to be odd, whi h means an odd number of odd
prime divisors, and at least 3. But then the lefthand side will be too large for the righthand side. If c is even,
we need at least two odd prime divisors to get s(c) to be even, and again this auses the lefthand side to be too
large.

So try a=2 and b = 1. Then we have 7c = 18 + s(c), and in this ase c=3 provides a valid solution. The
extra amount we are multiplying 77 by is 7 · 3 = 21, so the only potentially smaller ase we need to he k is
a = 1, b = 2, c = 1 (whi h would be multiplying by an extra 11); one an he k that that ase does not work, and

so the smallest
7 n is 77 · 21 = 1617

FARML 2018

## I6 Our diagram must look something like the one below:

D C
α

α
A B
Note that we do not yet know whi h sides have length 5 and whi h have length 6. (We also don't know whether
B is on the α or 2α side of AC ; we'll get ba k to this.)

sin α
So let's try solving with AB = 5 and BC = 6. Using the Law of Sines on ABC , we have 6
= sin52α ⇒
5 1 ◦ ◦
cos α = 12
. Sin e this is less than
2
, we have α > 60 ⇒ A > 180 , whi h is impossible. So things must be
sin α sin 2α 3 ◦
the other way around: 5
= 6
⇒ cos α = 5
. From here, we have sin B = sin(180 − 3α) = sin 3α =
264
3 sin α − 4 sin3 α = 3 · 4
5
− 4 · ( 54 )3 = 44
125
, and [ABCD] = 2[ABC] = AB · BC · sin B =
25
Note: Going through the two ases above is su ient; if we were to swap B and D, we would end up solving
the same two Law of Sines problems, and again be left with only the one valid (and ongruent) parallelogram.

I7 We need to ount the number of integers N of the form A A B B , A B A B, or B A A B, with A 6= B , that are
multiples of 22. So B needs to be even. The middle option listed above an be written as 101(10A + B), whi h
will not be a multiple of 11 if we annot have A = B. So onsider only the rst and third options, as they are
guaranteed to be multiples of 11, regardless of our hoi e of A and B.

In the rst option, if A is odd we have 5 hoi es ea h for A and B. If A is even, we only have 4 options for A
(we an't hoose 0), and only 4 remaining even numbers to hoose for B . This gives 5 · 5 + 4 · 4 = 41 numbers.

In the third option, we have 4 hoi es for B, and then we an hoose any of the remaining 9 digits for A. So
in total there are 41 + 4 · 9 = 77 tubular multiples of 22.

## I8 Looking around at various parts of the tiling, we an dedu e the following:

• AE = BC = CD = 2
• DE = 4
• C = 90◦
• 2A + C = 360◦ ⇒ A = 135◦
• 2B + D = 360◦
• 2D + E = 360◦

As we now know A and B + D + E = 540 − A − C = 315◦ . Using this equation and the bottom
C, we have
◦ ◦ ◦
two from the list above, we an solve to get B = 105 , D = 150 , and E = 60 . From here, we an ompute
[ABCDE] in various ways (for example, by disse ting ABCDE into triangles). One method is shown below,
noting that ABCDE an be disse ted into a square, an isos eles triangle, and and isos eles trapezoid:

D
C
E
F

A B
√ √
Thus [ABCDE] = [BCDF ] + [AEDF ] + [ABF ] = 4 + 3· ( 2+4
2
) + 1
2
· 22 · sin 150◦ = 5 + 3 3

Note: This tiling was dis overed in 2015 by Casey Mann, Jennifer M Loud, and David Von Derau of University
of Washington, Bothell. It was the 15th regular pentagonal tiling of the plane to be dis overed. In 2017, Mi haël
Rao of CFNS proved that there were no other regular pentagonal tilings. That is, this one was the last one to be
dis overed.
FARML 2018

2
I9 Let x = 8a and y = 8b .
Then omparing the outer equality yields 3a = a + b ⇒ b = 2a ⇒ y = x . Comparing the
2 2 2 1
rst equality, we must have x − y = x ⇒ x − x = x ⇒ x = 0 or x = 2 . Sin e we annot have x = 0, we must

1 1 3
have x= 2
, whi h means y= 4
and x+y =
4
I10 Let the length of the major semi-axis be k, where k > 1. The ellipse O onsists of all omplex numbers z of the
form z = k cos θ + i sin θ. Thus X onsists of numbers of the form

## (k cos θ + i sin θ)2 = k2 cos2 θ + 2ik cos θ sin θ − sin2 θ

= (k2 + 1) cos2 θ + ik sin 2θ − 1
Å ã
1 + cos 2θ
= (k2 + 1) + ik sin 2θ − 1
2
Å 2 ã
k +1 k2 − 1
= cos 2θ + ik sin 2θ +
2 2
k2 −1 k2 +1
Thus X is an ellipse with its enter at z= 2
, and whose semi-axes have lengths 2
and k. Then we have
Ä 2
ä
[X] πk k 2+1 k2 + 1 √
1009 = = = ⇒ k = 2017,
[O] πk 2
√ √ √ √
and so the fo i of O are at ± k2 − 1 = ± 2016 = ±12 14, and the distan e between them is 24 14
FARML 2018

## RELAY / TIEBREAKER EVENTS

SOLUTIONS

R1/1 We want the integer n = A B C D for whi h 2018 = A B C D + A B C = 11(100A + 10B + C) + D. Sin e 2018 ≡ 5
mod 11, D = 5 and we have 100A + 10C + B = 2013
11
= 183, hen e n = 1835

R1/2 T = 1835. As before, we have 11(100A + 10B + C) + D = 1835. Sin e 1835 ≡ 9 mod 11, D = 9, and
100A + 10B + C = 1826
11
= 166 ⇒ n = 1669

1 2 3
R1/3 T = 1669. If we look at small values of n, we an see that the sequen e 1 + ⌊ 10 ⌋, 2 + ⌊ 10 ⌋, 3 + ⌊ 10 ⌋, . . . will skip
10k
values only when n is a multiple of 10. The value that is skipped will be of the form 10k + ⌊ 10 ⌋ − 1 = 11k − 1. So

we seek the nearest integer to T that is ongruent to 10 mod 11. Sin e T = 1669 ≡ 8 mod 11, the answer is 1671

R2/1 There are 8 Chapters in total, sin e 36 = 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1. So Chapter 4 is 5 pages long, beginning
at page 8 + 7 + 6 + 1 = 22 and ending on page 26, so its page numbers total 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 = 120

R2/2 T = 120. If the rst Chapter has n pages, then the next 3 have n − 1, n − 2, and n − 3 pages. The page numbers
of the rst and last pages of Chapter 4 are 3n − 2 and 4n − 6, and the sum of the page numbers is therefore
(n−3)(7n−8)
2
. By trying dierent small values of n, or by solving the quadrati , we get n = 8, and so the largest
page number from Chapter 4 is 4n − 6 = 26

26
R2/3 T = 2
= 13. In order for the sum 1 + 2 + · · · + n to be a multiple of 13, it must be the ase that n ≡ 0 or 12
mod 13. One an show that in order to minimize the length of the book, hoose Chapters 1, 3, 5, et . to ea h
be 12 pages long; and Chapters 2, 4, 6, et . to ea h be 1 page long. Then the book's length is minimized as
7 · 12 + 6 · 1 = 90 pages.

TB1 Let AE = 1. Looking around at various parts of the tiling, we an dedu e the following:
• A = 90◦
• CD = 2 · AE = AE + BC ⇒ CD = 2, BC = 1
• CD = DE ⇒ DE = 2
• 2B + C = 360◦
• C + E = 180◦

At this point, onsider the height of the altitude from D to the line AB . We an al ulate this in two ways:

Traveling up the left side of the pentagon, we have that the height is

## 1 + 2 sin(E − 90◦ ) = 1 + 2 sin((180◦ − C) − 90◦ ) = 1 + 2 sin(90◦ − C) = 1 + 2 cos C

Traveling up the right side, we have that the height is

## sin(180◦ − B) + 2 sin((180◦ − B) + (180◦ − C)) = sin B + 2 sin(360◦ − B − C) = sin B + 2 sin B = 3 sin B

Thus 1 + 2 cos C = 3 sin B . Noting that 2B + C = 360◦ ⇒ cos 2B = cos(360◦ − C) = cos C , we then have
2
1 + 2 cos 2B = 3 sin B ⇒ 1 + 2(1 − 2 sin B) = 3 sin B

57 − 3
Solving this as a quadrati equation in sin B , we get sin B =
8
Note: This tiling was dis overed in 1985 by Rolf Stein. It was the 14th regular pentagonal tiling to be dis overed,
and the rst to allow for no degrees of freedom. It would take another 30 years for the 15th tiling (seen in the
Individual Event) to be dis overed.