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K.A. Muxatinos KocTiom U3 NCKOBCKUX KaMepHbix norpebeHud 2-W non. X B. Hd OHE PaHHecpegheBeKOBbIX EBpoNeUcKUX GHaNOTUU Vccnegoparent KocTioMa MpH3Haior, 470 Haul, HpedcTaBIeHUA O APEBHEPYCCKO! oMeKIe 3a- sactylo ()parMeHTapHbi H HemOCTATOUHB 11K ee neraibHoit pexoncrpykumn. TpenMymecTBeHHo AIIM SHAH OCHOBAHEI Ha TaMsITHHKaX WepKOB- Horo U300pa3sHTebHOTO HCKYCCTBA (HKOHOMHCE, ‘peckoBad 2KUBOTINCH, KHICKHBIE MHHMATIOpBI) WIM CKYTIBIX Ha eTaIM sleTONMCHBIX CBUsIeTETE- crpax. Hepenko 306pasireybHbIe HCTOWHHKH orpaxaior cHOxMBIyIOCA B TedeHMe cTONeTH UepKOBHY!O XUBOTIMCHY!O ‘TpaHUNIO, KOTOpas MoxeT cyllecTBOBaTS B Buse OGIeMpHHATOTO KaHOHa 3HaqMTenbHO TOmbuIe, WeM B eyiCTBH- ‘TeBHOCTH CyIECTBOBA TOT HIM MHOH THI OREX- Ab, Ha HUX W306paxKeHHEti. H3-3a croeobpasna M CneOBAHHs KAHOHY HaMaTHHKH CpeMHEBEKOBO- To U306pasHTeMbHOTO, Yallle BCeTO UEPKOBHOTO, NekyccTHa AaeKO He Bcersa MOTYT CHYKHT OC- Hoboli 11 nocToRepHoti peKOHeTpYKIMH WeTO- pitweckoro Kocrioma (PaGuHoBut, 1986, c. 40-41; Ca6ypona, 1997, c. 97). Oto yrBepxAeHMe HaH- Gone cpaneaiuno sIt caMoro paHHero MepH- o1a spesHepyeckoit ueTopun — X—XI a. B oto BpeMa TNABHBIM (POH HCTOUHHKOB 110 KocTIOMy Apesnett Pyeu X—XI BB. cocranasor AaHHEIe ap- Xeonormu: (bparMeHTbt TkaHeit M OKI, YKPA~ news H bypHHTypa KocTIoMa, obHapy:xeHHbIe BapesHepyccKux norpeGeHMax Hl Ha MECTAX Cped- HeneKossix nocerenmii (PaGHHOBH, 1986, c. 40; Conon, 1986, c. 30-39). B curyanun, Kosa Haun penictasnessist 0 1peBHeM KOCTIOMe OCHOBHIBA~ YoTeA Ha coxpaHMBINMXes OT Hero MeTANTUYe- CKUX YKpamlenMsix, MOGbIe ApyrMe AeTamM KOCTIO- MA Cranonstes peaKHMHE H Jkake YHMKAIHDIMH. eae cite Gomsunyio neHHocTs MpenerassstioT SR UPRIMETOS, OTHOGATICO K OFHOMY DUAY . OHH NosBoNAIOT HaM peKOHCTPYHPOBATS rumuunpie», HanGonee pacnpocTpaHeHHiLe THITbL KOCTIOMA, a He TOABKO OT/e.IbHYIO, CAyYaliHo CO- xpaHnaulyiocs eras. B csa3i C OrpaHiMeHHOCTsIo HaIlUx SHAH 0 peBHepYcCKOM KOCTIOMe Ht HeMHOTOXHCHEHHEIM KONHYECTBOM HCTOUHMKOB s110Gast HORA HaXOTKA MOX€T CTaTb BOKHOH Bexoii B ero HayueHuM. Tlo- gtomy orkpsrrHe B TIckone cpasy HECKOAbKHX 3a- XOPOHeHHii ¢ XOpOUIO COXpaHHBILMMMCA TKAHAMH 1 AeTAMAMH OEXKUI STIOXH BHKHHTOB CTa3y 2Ke BBI- esieT 9TOT TaMaTHHK 13 O6ulero pata. Ha Molt [BSTIIAIL, CPEsLH HAXOAOK M3 IICKOBCKUX 3axOPOHCHMit cambie HHTepecHe OKasaTHCb CBASAHBI C MYK- ckHM KocrioMoM. HanGostee Kpynuize ero par- MeHTbI ObUIM HalleHst B OrpeGatbHOHt Kamepe 6. B 3axopOHeHMH MYKYMHBI ylalOCh ACCAeLOBATh OCTaTKH ABYX KOMIUIeKTOB OnexBI. HepBEstit Gut HajijleH Ha paspyuleHHOM KocTsKe TlorpeGeHHOrO B KaMepe MYXYHHBI, a BTOpoli, 3allacHoil, 1exKaT B CBEPHYTOM BHJ€ OKONO 1Po-BOCTOYHO! CTeHBI kamephi, Ha norpesoxeHHOM rpaGuTesIIMH CKes1e- ‘re TlorpeSeHHOTO apxeoxOTAaM yslaTOck PacsHcTHT bparMenTbI Ofe%kAbI, CHIMTOM M3 Weka mM 3acTerH- pabiteiicsl Ha OpOHIOBHIe NyroBMUEI TPHOOBUAHOT opal. YucTO MyroBHU OKLIO He MeHBILe 6, Ho, BO3MOKHO, UX ObUIO H Gombute. OT Broporo KOM- TulekTa TakXe COXpAHWINc ¢parMeHrst TkaHI vf 10 cepeOpasnix nyroBHt rpHGOBMAHOH opmBr. K onexile MYFoBHitbt OBLIN MIpHUNATEt WeNKOBBIMH, nnTKaMu (cM. craTbi0 E.C. 3yGKonoit u O.B. Op- éunicKolt B Hacrositem Tome). BesycBHo, 06a KOMILIeKTa MPHHAILIeKAM K ONHOMY THny pac nalNHOl ONEKAKL, KOTOpEIH B OTeveCTReEHHOM TH- ‘reparype HasbinaioT Kadravamu, Sra HaxomKa crapitr NCKoBCKHe KaMeDBI B DsUl allatOrHUHENX O- rpeGennii c HaxonKaMM OHOTHMHOH onerKtb1. Ce- pus TAKHX GIMSKUX APyr Apyry OcTaTKOB BepxHero. 46 PACTIAMIHOTO MY2KCKOTO KOCTIOMA ¢ MeTAJLIHYECKH- MH TYToBHHAMH ObUIa OCHapyxeHA B TorpeGaith- HBIX KaMepax MorwuIbHMKa PHést0B0, KuencKoro, Yepuuroscxoro u Hlectosiukoro HeKponoxeti a Takxe MOrHBHHKa BupKa. peau apesniepycexux nrorpeennit X B, Hant6o- alee HoApobHyIo HHcopManHio 06 OcTATKAX OMe MOXHO TOMYHTS H3 3axopOHEHMit 110 OOpsuly MHTY- Manu. CpeaH nx HanGOmbIMM GoraTeTBOM H pa ‘HOOOpasieM MHBeHTApA OTAMYAIOTES 3aXOPpOHeHHA, ConepmteHHBIe B nepenAHHEIX orpeGANbHBIX Ka Mepax (Jle6enen, 1977, c. 151-156; Kapuos, 1991 ¢. 217-220; Grislund, 1980, p. 79-82). B apesre- PYCCKUX TlorpeGanbHEIX KaMepax OCTATKH O/eKILSL ¥H ee MeTaIHYeckHe yKpaleHHA sa4acty!0 Haxo- AST Ha TeX MECTAX, KYM HX MOMECTILIN BO BPeMsI WepeMOHHM Norpederus. [ono6Hoe pasMemeHne TOsBONseT PeKOHCTPYHpOBATS THN OLEH TO pac- TMONOKCHMIO MCTAIMYECKMX yKpalleHMit H cbpar- MeHTaM TKAHH. B mrepayio owepem> cuenyer ynomany ocrar- KM MYXCKOH OeKIIKI, MocTeNOBaHHBIe B Kypra- xe Dn-4 morisunxa THésn080 rox Cwosen- ckoM. On HanGonee Gruskn Haxouxe 13 TlcKona. Ha axe MormbHofi sist in situ exam dbparmen- Pue. 1. Mormssx Puésnono. Horpesansatiit MHBeHTapS B KaMepe Kypranta JIu-<4,7. Tlyronintis, Mutenkovaa TecbMa (no: Asayen, Tymnkiia, 1989) TbI JIBYX PsLIOB YIKOH IMeNKOBO! TecDMEL, cocta BUBIIeH 4TO-TO BONE HarpyAHHKa WIHHO! 36 cm M pan u3 24 GpoHSOBHX NyrOBM rpHOOPUANO, hopmor c nerenbKaMH JAA MonBeEUIHBAKHA (puc, 1, 1; 2, 2). Kak npennonoxwsin uecrenowaress, ¢o, XpaHMBUIMeCH BEIM NIPHHAMIEKATH K BepxHeii sarlaunolt MyXcKoli onexkite THNa Kadbratia (Apay- cun, Tynrkuria, 1989, c. 198, 201; Dexnep, 1999, c. 8). B apyrom rHésqoncKoM 3axoponeHHn, » no. TpeGarbHoi Kamepe Kypratta Monb-62, apxeorory HAILUIM KYCKH WeTKOBOM TeCbMEI, aratoruunize mtenkonoit TecsMe 3 Kypraxa JIH-4. Hexoropnie KYCKH TeChMBI COXpaHWINch BMecTe C GpoHHs0- BHIMH NYTOBMUAMH TpHOOBHAHO! dbopMes, yKpa- MeHHBIMH pucbseHHeM (pHc. 3). Bcero B Kamepe obHapyxwmH 10 OponsonEIK Ht | creKAHHYIO nyro- BHULY, AHAOTHYHEIe HyroBMIaM M3 Kamepst JlH-4, M.B. @exuep onpeemmra, 470 TkaHD H3 9TOIt Ka- MepbI ObUIa INeTKOM KpacHoro wBeTa c HaGHBHBIM seneHbiM pucyHKo. Tomaso otHx ¢parmexton Puc. 2. O6pasiist merammyeckHx nyropHl a TlorpeGeHHti X B, Pue. 3. Pexonictpyxunia kperuienia myroBiltL WTeceer Ha kadprane 1a THéat0Ba (exonerp. xyx. 0. @éz0pona) Hocnon 3 3 Tlomb-62 coxpanmiacs yskas TecbMa, Koropas pula cIuIeTeHa 13 WIENKOBBIX H cepeOpsHEIX HH- reil (JUIMHa OOPHIBKOB oT 2,5 20 18 cM H mMpHHA 0,9 cm). B norpe6enun TaKxe nexan «parment ‘rouYaiimlero mesKa, KoTopEtit BMecTe co cre- KiaHHOl nyroBuuell MoxKeT GbITS ocrarkaMH wupktelt py6axn». Ulenkopas TkaHb, 10 MHeHIIO M.B. exnep, okasaiach BH3aHTHIicKOro Npouc- xoxuenus (Kameneuxas, 1994, c. 151, 171-172; puc. 7, 3-5; Mexriep, 1999, c. 8) Octarku MyxcKolt oexub M3_TlorpeGeHHit Tésnopa uMeioT HecKoNsKO xapakTepHBIX oco- Gentiocteii, KoTopuie NosBoAOT cpaBHMBaTs 9TH HAXOIKH ¢ APYTHMH, Te COXpaHHOCTS TKAHH OKA gaulac xy>ke. Bo-NepBBIX, UIs HUX XapakTepHO Ha- JIUHe TATYHOB WIM WeAKOBO!L TecbMBI, BBILUTOML CepeOPAHLIMH TUT SONOTHIME, HUTAMH, HTH BEI Pe3aHHBIMH 3. tena, BO-BTopsxX, OO9saTeMb- Holl Jeratbio 9T0ro THN OMexNEI smBIAeTeA pa H3 OAHOTHMHDIX, 6POHSOBBIX MyTOBHLL rpH6oBHA- Hoi ¢opMel, ykpameHHBXx HacewKamm (pic. 2, 2), Pacntonoxexne nyroBHIt YKa3BIBAeT Ha TO, TO ‘onlexknia 3acTerHBaltack 10 Nlosica, a HUDKe Tlosica, T10- BUAUMOMY, 6bUIa pacnamHoll. B-rperBHX, yacTo cTaKHMM HaGopaMu nyroBHu OGHapyxnBaIOT ¢bpar- MeHTBI IICAKOBHIX TkaHeHt. CnenyeT 0co60 TiomHep- KHYTb, YO B PaHHeM cpemHeneKonbe Ha Cepepe EBpomibi Bepxitioo HM HICKHIOW OneXxMY sacTerHBATH Tp MOMOMLM CheNMaNbHBIX 3acTeKeK ¢ UTsIOH — bu6yn. Mmm cxpersiann Kpast onexnet, Yare Bce- To muiamtef 1 pyGax. Tlo-BamEMomy, Ha coxe no- BeeMecTHOTO pacnpoctpaHeHHs duGyn onexna, SaCTeTHYTaS Ha TIYTOBHIBI, BHITNAMETa Ha TeCHEIX mpoctpaticrsax Bocrosnoll Esportbi npejtes1bH0 9K- S0THuHO. Bawwkaiiume aanorua ocTaTkaM MyXCKOit onexabi, OTKPHITOH B MOTHITBHHKe THEITOBO, Mpo- WeXOMAT H3 HeKOTOPEIX SaxopoHeHHk mpenHeliiHX peBHePYCCKHX MOTHJIBHHKOB H KaMep IIBEMCKOTO MoriibHuka Bupka. [lesickie uccnenosatenu Ha SbInaIOT nce OcTATKM BepxHeil pacrlailiHoll MYKCKOMt oneXiIbI ¢ OCeBBIM Paspes0M Ha rpysIH, SACTeTHYTEIE OpoHs0BKIMM NyTOBMILAMH, YKPailieHHbIe TecbMoHt, sBocrosnbimn Kadraxamn> (Hage, 1986, S. 68-69; Jansson, 1988, S. 594). @parmenot «poctourEIx Karanon», HanGonee OnH3KHe THE3IOBCKUM, BMe- cre © nyrosuiamM oF TaKHX KarpTaHoB OBUIH 06- HapyXeHBI B morpeGeHHsix N2716, 752, 944, 985, 1074 Moruabunxa Bupka (Graslund, 1980, p. 13). B ommx aaxoponenuiax Haun or 4 10 18 GpoH30- BBX MYPOBHI, KOTOPHE JIEKAIH B ONMH pst OT He- ea {10 MloscHoTo oTmena orpeGeHHOro (pu. 4). Pacctosine or BepxHetk XO mocnemHeit nyrOBHUbI KonleGanocs or 10-15 cm (4 nyroBuupi) B KaMepe 0985 10 38-40 cm B Kamepe Ni 752, me Haxomi- M17 Puc. 4. Morusiux Bupka. HorpeGerue No944: 1 — pasmeurerme » kamepe nyrosnu or Kadrana toch 10 nyropnn (Arbman, 1943, S. 273, 411, Abb. 221, 365)!. Béecte ¢ nyrosuuamn B rorpeGexHsx * B norpeGer NE716, coveputestion 8 rpobosiie, accrossite oriepsofi zo noczegHel nyrosutii cocranat. 40 oxon0 20 ex (ike paconaraiiea Tose, yxpaitienttath Garant, octarkast eymx). B kanepe N2752 nyrosit- "Ubi rex B past amAHoHL KOO 38-40 emt or buBYiE (y ropaa rlorpebertioro) 20 mpspxkt OF rioaca, B N&944 ny TosMmIBE TexAITB pan OT OcTaTKOR Yepema Ha paceTom- ut 28-30 cw. BN0985 nyrosuus stexamt 10 nosea, _Yepauenoro Gasxann, » amy 0 30-34 om. Tomine STH norpeGeHii, me nyroRMt OOHapyxeH in situ, aanoruunste Sportsopsie nyrosunn (xntenoM 8) HaiixeHiA ¥ coxcxHu 19 xyprania NE56, B kamepe NE985 ueruipe MaccuBHBIe OpoHsonKle NyrOBHUB! exATH BuoxTS TOMO ounika myxcuet Ha paccromun 1015 en. B xyprane Ni949 Mormpinxa Bupxa 1p TaKne ny= "oBMT CTYAHUM 2acTEKKAMI Js CyMC C OPOHSORBIMIE ‘okonkaMt (Gmiexaftume antaorun TaKuM CYMKaM potte- XORAT M3 MOrHEKBHKOB BosrxcKoit By.nrapii m MorvuIh- ‘ka Tunepeno) (Arbman 1940. Tat, 128, 2). B norpee- 418 obHapyxnH (bparmeHTsr 3o0TO- i cpeGporKaHEIX NosyMeHTOB, KOTOPLIMH OGUIMBATH KDas ONEXII (Jansson, 1988, S. 594, 606). 3a npenenamn Bup- ku, Ha TeppuTopun Cpeaneli Ulnenmn-Ceeananda, MyXckaa onexila TuMa KadpraHa HW JIMTBIe TyrOBIt- UBI ¢ NeTenbKOit pacnpoctpaHeHHA He TlonyaiLTH. OsHorimste nyroputsl, Hamae raTyHOB, TeCbMBL H, BepoxTHO, NoKpoli — xapakrepHast ocoGeHHOCTS KOCTIOMa — TIO3BONAIOT TOBOPHT O eMMHO! Mose kak uit BUKU, TaK H JI mpeBHepyccKHx TaMsT- Hukop. Tak Kak GONbIIMEHCTBO STHX HaXONOK cBsa3a- Ho ¢ noamHeli xpoHonorHueckoll dbas0it BupKH, TO ¥ aTHpopatt Hx MOKHO KOHTIOM IX — X B. Io Bceit BIJIMMOCTH, OTPEIBOTHEIe BOCTIOMMHAHHA UMeHHO 06 atoll Mone coxpaHWuINich B cKaHAMHABCKHX carax SNOXH BUKkuHToB. Hanpumep, B WeTaHsICKOit care 06 Sriuie ects yiommnatine o oKpoe GoraToH oneK- Ibi 3HaTHOTO CKaHLMHaBa. FpumepHo B 940-960 rr. B AHTaHH Sramo CkasiarpHMcoHY, MpemBoHTesO APYKUHEL BUKNHTOB M GoraToMy seMmenTallenbILy, TowapHsIH «LIHHHOE oneAHMe, CUIMTOe M3 UIeTKA, Cc 30n0TO!t KaiiMol H SomoTEIMH MyTOBHTIAMH 10 ca- Moro Husa» (Cara 06 Sruuie, 1956, c. 205). Lesommrsie nyrosnust Vim cxpermiain Bopor py6aniikH, Ho Yaute BceTo Ha- Gopi TaKHX myropit CHASAHIBL C RepxHel MyxCKOM OTex- aoii. B pane apesHepycckux norpeSexHii 3acbuxcupona- HI CHeMB! TAKOH One, KOTOPAA| OTIULUAETER To CBOUN ‘ocoSeHHOcTaM OF KOCTIOa GoNbUNNiCTRa riorpeGeTHisx § paHININX APEBHEPYCCKHX MorHAIDHIKax. OcoGeHtHo pxo STOT KOCTIOM MOCHEXHBACTCs R KOMILIEKCAX ¢ Tpyttono- OXCHHSIMY, Tle OCTATKH TKAHK H 6POHIOBKIC TYTOBIUL ‘buxcupytores: npsamo Ha Koctax norpeGeHHEIX. OnmH- ‘eI OcoPEHHOCTHIO 9TOTO KOCTIONA sBULLOTEA Gpot- SOBBIE MYTOBHLUBI TPYINEBHAHOH (bopMbl, KoTOpbie pactio- ‘araiOTeA BONS NOIBOHOTHUKA HorpeGeHX OF IPYAt o TasoBBIx KocTeH. BOmbilla YacTis HOXOGHBX HaXOH0K ‘ciejaHa B MYKCKHX NorpeGenMax WIM B TorpeGeHHsX (© MYXCKMM HHBeHTapem. B aMTeparype NoqoOHBI THI KocTiona Hastipactoa «xatbraHioM, €f0 MpOHCxOXIe- ile Bhinommrex c Tepprropuit Cpeniielt Aaun u Mpa Pasmiswioro noKpos xadprasisi Osim pacmpoctpaxeHs! »B pele asnarcKux KowenBIX Haposon (Caxales, 1998, ©. 406—408), Haxonxi 1ensix pasteepentieneKonaix Kad TaHOR, SAcTeMMBaIOMUIKES NyFOBHAMH, CBIDAHEL C HO BeCTHBIM ceBepo-KaNkasckiin MOrHUTbHHKOM Moultesss Banka (Hepycanuncckas, 1992), Vs06paxeHis noxo6Hoi ones MOKHO YyBHACTh 4a corauiicKyx pocriesx, TiopKoKitx KaMeHHIGX CTEX 5 Mewearor Bacwss TI (a cues naGuevx 6onre- aMit puaarrruticxinx Boernortenusx), Tlownno OpOH- 30BKX MyTOBHT rpyilesHAHO! dbopaes Ka(pran MOF CKPETUIATECA M KOCTAHLIMH nyropmuamH. HaGop 10- ‘OOHEIX KOCTANEIX OpHaMeHTHpoRaHANX HYFODH OT} echepiieckolt bopwsi nponcxomu 13 kyprana Fysb6uINe 2 Yeprimrose. B To xe spemsi acts 6poH30BBIX NyTOBHIT TPYLICBHIHOM (opMbI, TO-BHLMMOMY, He HMceT OTHO- WeHHs K KacbraHaM. 910 MoxHO yrBepxK/LaTb IA KOM- MieKcoR, Te HalieHo MeHee 3 nyroBnul, B KayecTBe GMi- 2xalttuiero Mpyepa MorkHo npanecrH jartHiue 3 APEBHe- PycckHx norpe6enHii XI—XIII wp., rae sacbHKcHponaHo © 1 20 3 nyronmu, Koropsie experisint crosme BOPOT ‘HUKH MYACKHX HOKCHCKHX py6aureK (Ca6ypona, EkHHa, 1991, ¢. 54-62; Ca6ypona, 1997, c. 100). Hocro us nevoocru KaneprtanoypeBenul 2% non X aH co MHHTS M MorpeGeHIe HS ;IpeBHepyccKOrO Mo- riousainka FyummHo rox Yepanrosom. B Hem, cya rio rlonoxXeHIO 6 nyroBulL Ha cKeeTe H THY Hlorpe- Genus, TaIKKe HAXOMIUIAC’ onexA THMTa KadpraH Beero, 110 MoeMy MHEHHIO, K KOMTUIeKcaM ¢ KacpTa aM e7eslyer OTHeCTH He Mextee 11 ApeBHepycckHx rorpeGeHit B KaMepaX, THe BIO MOSBOHOMHHKA oF weperta 0 Tlosica KOCTAKOB GpoHsoBKIe yro- BHUB 3aHKcHpoBaHK MecienonaTeRsMM in situ. K Taku KoMIUIeKcam MIpMHaltexkar: norpeGeHHe 9 Morubstika FyutAHo ox YepHuronom, morpe- Gens N236, 42, 61.4, 98 worsuibHnka Llecronata, norpeSerns I-157, Hhu-4, 11-129, Monb-11 1 Toxs- 62m Héa1080 (Boposcsknit, Kamox,, 1993, . 3-8; Camoxsacos, 1917, C.77—80; Psi6axon, 1949, c. 22; Baidenea, 1977. ¢. 128-131, 138-141, 151-155; Crauxenus, 1962, c. 23-27; Kapow, 1991, c. 208, 210-211; Anayent, Tymnaia, 1989, c. 196-200; Kamexenxas, 1991, c. 165, 171-172). B xavectae PeKOTO HCKINOYEHA MOKHO YHOMSHYT® saxopO- ene 13 Hexporioms B Kuese, re 8 niorpeGansHott xamepe NeL14 Ha rpyaM MYAMMHBL HanLIH TomTb- xo 3 nyronnusi!. [o-BumMomy, TaKoKe o” Kadpra- a coxpaHmmce 9 nyrosHu 1pHGoBHAHOll ¢bopytst B kaMepiiom norpeGexmit Ne | 13 packonta Ha Botb~ oii XKurroupekoit yamue 8 TOM Ke Hexportome (Boponckuit, Kamox, Cripomstauxos, Apximon, 1988, c. 512; Boponcexuit, Kasnox, 1993, c, 3-8). B uernipex canuix GoraTsnx KaMepibrx rlorpeGeH six wormmbunxa Hecronuua (N236, 42, 61.4, 98) 06- napy:xeHo or 11 0 45 nyrosun (Baichensa, 1977, c. 43). B xyprane Ne 145 Ha xocrpmute, KoTopOe GBT pacnlonoxeHO TloBepx gepensnHioli. riorpebambHoit KaMepbi, BMECTe ¢ ReIMIEBBIM Ha6OpOM pcaNHHKa Guir0 Hafiaeno 8 Gporsosunx nyrosnu (Bribes, 1977, c, 188-189). B mecrosunkom norpeGeHitH 61.4 nyroniust (26 9K3.) stexanu or RepxHHX peep Jno TasoBsIx KOCTeit HOKOILHHKa Ha paccTOAHHH OKO no 40 om. Hike nyrosiu oGHapykens ¢pparMexBt oscHoit cymKu (pic. 5). B xyprane Ne98 mrenko- as TkaH ¢ TecbMoit 1 OPOHIOBLIMH rIyFoBMIIANI axOIWlach KaK Ha IpyAM MOTpeGeHHOTO, TAK MB ctoponle or Hero. BeposTHo, 8 9ToM morpederH Gsu10 nonoxeHo s1Ha Kadprana. ToT (bakT, 70 NyrO- Sib pHEMT OslHa Has ApyTOH, Gout sadbuKCHPO~ aH HeCKOMBKHX KaMepax, THe HaKe CONPAHIICH ocrarkn menkonoit 1 sbxisHort TkaHH (CTaHKeBit, 1962, c. 23-27; Anmpowiyk, 1999, c. 65, puc. 43, 47). Cueayer ommeritb, 570 B IlecTOBHUKOH KaMepe CO- xpaiiurvich NYFOBHUBK CO ciIeHAMM WleKOBOH HTH 1" B orom enyuae YEO nyroBIN conmanaeT ¢ HC show myronit Ha Kadprasax #3 Momtenoit Bank. MoxHo HpeaTOTOKHTE, 70 onexIA 3 BToi KAMEpH OTAUAIIACH or erpaaunumottioros apesHepyeeKoro Kadprasia X B. Puc. 5. HaGop starynitsix nyroni rpnOOBUAHOH bopytut 13 kyprana 61.4 MoriumHatKa Llectosmupt (no: Bidens, 1977) Pue, 6. Hyronnta rpHGosHHoH dopant 13 kaMepst xyprava 98 woriitbstika Lllecroniusi co catesaatit eakonoll autru ((poro K.A. Muxaiiiona, ‘bons WA HAHY) H CTIOCOGOM KpeTLICHMs K TkaHH, HarloMHHaiontHM McKOBCKy10 Haxonky (pute. 6). To aHanorust ¢ TpynononOxeHHsMH, re 3a- ¢buxcuposaxo onpeneneHHoe KomMecTBO H ompe- HeIeHHOe MOMOKeHHE nyTOBMI MOH cbopMbl, K TOMY 2Ke THIY OAS MOKHO OTHECTH IYTOBHLBI ‘Tofi2xe cbopmbi H Toro 2ke KoMYeCTBa Hs sIpeBHEPYC- cKux coxokentnit. Hanpamep, 8 cema rHésqoncKinx 420 KOMIUIeKcaX ¢ OMHOYHBIMH TorpeGeHHsIMH MY>K- MMH To OSpauty Kpemanun HalisteHo or 4 10 10 mH THIX TIYFOBHI TPHGOBHAKOH dbopmer (Cepr-5 (55), Tonb-25/1, JI-17, 22, 69, 103, U-106) OKaprop, 1991, c. 211). Ms pacxontox B. H. Cusona B Morib- Huke THésn080 npouexonut 4 KoMmuTeKca 110 O6pa- ay Kpemauun (Kypratst No 15, 17, 65, 122), re Hait- JeHo oF 4 10 6 6poxsoBsKx nyrosnu ([upuHcKni, 1999, c. 103, 107, 117, 120-121, 127). B norpe6e- HMM To OOpauy coxxeHMs u3 KypraHa No16 vep- HUTOBCKOTO MOTHIbHMKA Ha MY- TOBHAMH, cHeNMamHO CINTA 171K 9TOTO cays (Kpasxoackuii, 1939, ¢. 80-81)?. OxHoit ns naxvetimmx npobreM, cBasaHHbX © apxeonornuecksar HaxosiKaMM mpenHepycckiXx KaTaHos, sBJeTcs TpoGjema mpoucxoxteHit 2T0ro ita onexkmsl. C KAKHIM KPyTOM HaxOHOK 1 ua06pasuTeMbHBIX HCTOYHHKOR MOxHO COTOCT?- BUTS APeBHEpyccKHe HaxogKH? To ToBOY MpOHC- XOxNeHHA Soro Tina OnLeKNEK cyLeCTBYIOT PAT HBI¢ MHEHHS1, KOTOpBIe, Ha MOH BST, MOXHO CBC TICK Heckomskum OcHORHBIM RepcHsM. OTH BepCHIE * Ontiaxo octaetes ne no Kora mpocneHiM, KaKOH Bx oneab uM naHy H6x-Dawrast. Caesyer oTMe= ‘its, uo B repewTeKOH cpesHeneKoBOMt muTepaTyPE CHO BOM BepcHs Mponcxoxk- enw Kadrana. Vecnenosatem cpesienexonoro ‘TIOPKCKOTO KocTIOMa 0 CHX Top Tak H He MIpHui- Tit K eHHOH TepMHHONOTHN TPH OMHCAHHH OMX W Tex Ke us0GpaxeHuit onexnb. Hampunep, onHH M TOT 2Ke, BHEMIHe TlOXoXMil, BEPXHHTI MYACKOML KOCTIOM MOTYT HaSBIBATB KAK XATATOM, TAK 1 Kadb= Taxiom. BeposTHo, Takas cyMsTIIa B onpeneneH- AX CBAGAHA C TeM, YTO Ha CPe/IHEBEKOBEIX sIpeBHe- ‘TTOPKCKHX HapasHHax LlentpanbHoit AsHH mpocre- 2XCHA BEPXHAA ONCKMA KAK MUMHMYN BYX THTOB (Ky6apes, 2000, c. 81-85). Tomsxo omit 13 HX MOXHO Ha3Barb XalaroM. Yaule Beero OH uMceT SIeBOCTOPOHHMIL, TAYGOKHIt 3amaXx, KOTNA BEPXHALA, ‘walle BCerO MIpawas,, Toma HasIeraeT Ha eBY!O Ht 3a- crermpaetea Ha GoKy WIM MepeTarMBaeTeH TORCOM (Ky6apen, 2000, . 85, puc. 1, 8, 23, 25, 27;3, 9-11, 18). Bropoit, wexiee pacmpocrparenutrit THT Bepx- Heli pacttammofi oeXMsL TIOPKCKHX KOYEBHHKOB MEX PIYGOKHt BEIPES C TPeyTOTEHLIMH OTBOPOTA- Mu-slalIkaHaMM, TIpaMoit OceBO! paspes oT BopoTa JO HH3a OLeXAB, YaKHe PyKana. OTOT BAPHAHT MYX- cKoii onexmIBI OBUI csleTKA MpHTaneH W cHyCKATCA uvke KoseH (Ky6apes, 2000, puc. 1, 2, 17, 19; 2, 3, 4, 34; 3, 2, 16, 17, 28). Ha weKoTopbix TIOPKCKHK TSBAAHUAX 3AMETHO, TO STOT THM ONeXIBI GaCTe- THBATICH HO Tosca Ha OAHY-TPH 3aCTeXXKH-TIYTOBH- luni, H¥DKe Tosca Guin pacriammsm (Kyapen, 2000, pute. 1.2;2, 4;3, 2). Mo-Buatmmomy, umeno wropyio pasHOBAAHOCTH apeBHETIOpKCKoMt HepxHeft ONEKIL cneayet Hasbiparp KadraHom (puc, 7). HecKobko Gone parHine TIO BpeMeHH aHATOTHH TAKOMY KO- voy npocexnpaiores 8 Boctosrtom Typkecraxe, Hanpumep, Ha ¢ppeckossx pocnuesax Kyun u Xo- ‘raua V-VIII Bp. MyxXckHe KacraHii 3HaTH HMeIOT nepeaputit ocenoik paspes H TpeyroLHBIe OTBOPOTHI (Stuerxo, 2000, c. 332-333, TaGx. 59, 1-3, 5; 60, 1, 2). CpesenexoBbii KocTIOM yitrypon Typdbaiia TaK- 2xe NOnTO coxpariU Ha BapHAHTA BepXHell One: Xana ¢ WMPOKHM 9amlaxom 1 KacbTaH-XaslaT c oce- BBIM paspesom MocepeMHHe H T:1YXHM CTORYNM BO- potom (stertKo, 2000, c. 370, puc. 67, 1-3; 69, 1~3;, Kaaurropastit, 2003, c. 374). Cambie TOsMHHe 110 DPeMeHHK HI0GpaKeHIt ‘cpemHeneKOBbIx KO‘eBHHKOB 8 KacbTaltax ¢ OTHOPO- ‘Tamu OGHAPYxeHBI Ha CepeGPAHBIX GILONAX, IpOHC- xogauuux u3 Hiranero TIpHo6es (Coxposmia Mpa 6b, 1996, c. 114-117, 120-121, N53, 55). Oru axomkst arupyior IX-X BB. 4 TpaMMUHOTHO OTHO- car K Topesriike mpeBHHX BeHtrpos. Ha OxHOM 61110- Je BeauHMK H3OOpAxcH B ALUHHOMOOM pacrratt— voBcrUK KaMepr norpebeMu 2-0 nor. X 8. Ha done parmecpegneseKos eapanedcnux ananorud 421 HOM KacbraHe © OceBKIM paspe30M 6e3 OTBOPOTOR (Coxposuuua FIpuo6ss,, 1996, c. 116). Ha apyrom — B Kadhravie c TpeyTOnbHBIMH OTBOPOTAMH Ht MPABbIM ganaxom (Coxposmta Tpuo6ss, 1996, c. 121). Ecam repnoe ws06paxeHne HarloMuHaer HaxOnKH, 13 Moutenoit Bank, 70 sTopoe H306paxexue 61H 2ke K TIOPKCKHM KaMeHHEIM Hspasninsim Herpars- Hoit Asm, BeposTHo, pariHecpemHepeKoBblit TIOPK- ‘CKU KacbTaH LOKMBAET B cpeile KOYEBHHKOB BILIOTS go IX B. u ero OKpoit Mor cIyKHTb OCHOBO! 1A MHorounicnesHbix nloxpaxannit, Kak HaM KaxkeTCs, OH He Mor cTaT npaMoli ocHoBOit 2114 peBHepyc- CKHX OGpastton Kacbratta H3-3a OTCYTCTBUA IIYTOBHLL, TanyHOB H psuta mpyrix xapakTepHBIx erate Tlponsnoaxoit or «niopKcKoti» MoxHO CHHTaTS BepCHIO TIPO MexOAMeHUs cpemHeReKOBOTO Kadrata. B ocHoBe STOH BepcHH TeKNT npesnorOKeHHe HeKOTOPBIX wecreonatereit 0 TOM, TO TIOXOGHBIH THM OEXKII HanGoree YNOGEH ALI KONEBHHKOB H MMCHHO 13 HX pear OH Mor GxIT SamMCTBOBaH ApeBHepyccKoit BepxyiKoit, B mombsy cToporHuKos STofl BepcHH KOCBEHHO CBHETENSCTBYIOT HAXONKM ULENKOBEIX KacraHoB B CeBepOKABKascKoM worumbHMKe Mo- mena Banka, Tak Kak 9T0T aMSTHHK s1BHO ¥C- TBITAT BIMSHME CATTOBO-MAsLIKOH KYAIBTYDBIL, TO TOKpoit KachraxioB M3 9TOTO MOTHTBHHKa MOr GEITS Basal ¢ rocHosCTyIOMLe!t B perHOHE Ky-IbTypOH cTemuBrx Ko¥eBHHKOB, O,tHaKo MpoTHB sTOTO MpeX- HONOXeHMA CBMLIeTeMBCTBYeT OTCYTCTBHE TaKOTO ‘BAXHOTO MpHSHAKa, KAK MHOTOTHCHEHHBIe OpOH- SOBKIE TYTOBMUBE H BEITKAHHBIE METAILIMeCKIEMI saitaunt raryxor. TlooGHste ryropuis rpHOOBH- Hoi bop TaKKe TloKa He HallleHBI B MaTepHlaiax cTenHOTO BapHaHTa caTOBO-MasLIKOM KYIBTYPLI. B cuow ovepens, xabraisi ¢ OTHOPOTAMH, KOTO- Phe Ns06paxeHB! Ha TOPKCKHX KAMCHHBIX cTestax 4 cormutickux pocresx, Mes onny BHYrpeH- mow nyrosuuy. Buyrpeime nyropuubt umes Y HekoTopHx KadraHos Hs MorWwisHMKa Moutenast Banka. Onnaxo GombuuuncTs0 Kadratos 13 aToro MOTHJIBHHKa HMeTH He Gostee YeTBIpex NyrOBHAL, KO~ ‘Topble GALIH HSTOTORTEHD H3 OpraHHeckyx MaTe- PwaoB — ocoGexHocts, KoTOpas He HaGmonaerest y apeBHepycckux KadbraHos. epeua mlosmeHua xKacbrana Eppome Taicke Moxer caHTaTien TIpousomHOM of «TIopKcKoii». Ona cBssaia ¢ HaxonKamit GpoH- SORKIX HyrOBUL, «rpHOOBAAHOM> chopet, KOTOPHIE PeAKO, HO MonamaioteR B cpeHeneKoBEIX BeHTep- ckux nlorpeGeHiiax. B pane cnyyaen ons sauKeH- POBAHBI B cocTaBe y6opa, B TOM YHCIIe, KeHCKHX HorpedeHHil «onoxu oGpetenis Postini» (Jansson, 1988, S. 606). PacrozoxenHe 6pouzoBbix myrops, Ha OcraHKax norpeGenaix B BeHrpitit tecKosIbKo 422 HOB» Ha THOPKCKHX KAMCHHBIX H3BasIHHsX (110: Ky6apeB, 2000) ocTnN 3 renOBKnUN Kane norpebenull 2-0 non X'a. Ha do OnIMAeTes OF pacHonOxKeHH NYTOBHI B ApeBHe- PYCCKHX 3axopoHEHHAX. JLOBO.TEHO MIOTO TAKIX O ‘eABHIX MYFOBHN, HAULTH. B BeHTePCKHX MOTHLTBEI- ax X.B., pacnoIOKeHHBIX B Yoro-3anaqHOlt CnoBa- MHL, HENATEKO OT KApHATEKHK epeBaton, HEnYUUNX K rpaHue © ApeBHepycckuM rocynaperBom. Tak, HalIpuMep, B MorwibHHKe Cepey I nyropMubt rpH- GosHAHOit bopMbI nexKaTH Ha rpyaM nlorpeGenxoro, HO He B OJHH, a B Ba pala IIo WecTb NyroBAL (Tocik, 1968, c. 43, Taf. XXXIV:9). Heapuo cnon cnenennit © NOAOGHBIX KOMIUIeKcax ¢ 6POH3OBbIMH myroBaua- MH TpHGOBHAHOH copMBI H OCTaTKAMH Le MKOBBIX TxaHeii ony6nMKoBan Arrua TiopK H ero KomerH. B komnexcax 3 Cepena u Tuca6yppt PSU Nyro- BHI NexAnit BepTHKATBHAIMI. PALLAMIE MOMS T10- spoHouHHKa. HecMorpa Ha HeKoTopsie napasienM © ApeBHIepYoCKHM HaXOMKAMH, BeHTepeKH MCcIe~ AOBATCIM CHHTAIOT, YTO KOCTIOM «9T10xH OOpeTeHHA PoaMHbt> cKopee GUI NOXOXK Ha kacpranbt 13 Mo- meBoit Baiku, vem Ha apepHepyccKue KadTaHbt us THésno8a 4 Wectosmusi (Bollok, Knotic, Landé atal., 2009, p. 206-213, fig. 33). «Hpaticxas Bepeus» npoucxoxeHud ‘KadpraHos: Bostrapun (Kontakop, 1929, c. 236). Comocrapus oT cneneHns ¢ H306pa- XeHMleM sHaTHBIX Gostrap u3 Mewteanoria Bacisuis Il, Moxto npeanoxoxnrs, 470 Gosrapst Ha pucyH- Ke oxerst 8 ynoManyriie 8 Kure Wepemouitit cka- Pamaxrin (puc. 9) (Axresos, Terpon, panos, 1981, c. 143). Bourapsi wsoGpaxerst p pacaunsx, o6pesHEIx Kadbrartax ¢ MeXOBOH ONYLIKOML Ha HOY KPYEIOM BOPOTHHKe H, O-BHAUMOMY, ¢ BHYTpeH- Heli Mexonoit nomxnankoit. Cyai no unety 1 opia- MenTaM TKaHH, GonrapcKHe KacpraHst HSTOTOBIEHBL v3 memka. Beprukatbibiit ocepotk paspes Ka(braHion o Tlosca ckpertieHt patom H3 8-9 TyroBHL, KOTO- pute ykpaiient rarynana. IImpoxne pykana cyxka- 1OTEA Y KHCTH, Te HMEIOTEA Hapy'H H3 TKAHM TOTO xe pera. EXMHCTBEHHAS OCOGEHHOCTS STIX H30- Gpaxennit cpasara c Tem, 470 ONMH 3 KadpraxoB Puc. 9. Metearornit usmepatopa Bacursa II. Cueva us6veHus pu: (no: Aureos, Terpos, TIpson, 1981) HA Mua He uMeeT pONONKEHHA paspesa HIDKe TosIca, Pay, pes moKasaH Ha mpaBom GOKy GoxTapeKoro Bows, ra yerTamb rlosnomiuIa HEKOTOPHIM HecTenOBATeA;, MpeaHiovOXMTb, YTO TaHHaA onexIa Pacctertna rac’ TOEKO HO NosIca. TlOLOGHEE NOKpOIt Kaxetes OWeH HeyZOSHBIM JL19 KOHHBIX BOMHOB, KoTOpAt spiatics Gonrapsi. Tlostomy nosmteiie taxoro paspesa cKOpee MOKHO CBSATB C MpHeMaMut xynox- HMKa-MHTHHaTIOpHCTA, eM C peaitbHO cyulecTBORaB- invit ocoGentHocTsm onex BOXett, BOSTAABNABILIUX TIOPKCKHX KoueBHUKOB (BoxKOB, 1972. c. 37, 59; Aureos, Me~ ‘pon, IIpumos, 1981, c. 149, 164; Grabar, 1972). B10 2Ke BPMs JeTATBHOe HsOOpAXcHHe TOTO KoCTIOMa Ha BusaxTHlicKix Muuanopax XI—XII BB., 10 Mo- eMy MHeHHIO, YKasiIBaeT Ha pacripoctpaHeHite SToHi ‘onlexnbi B BH3aHTHHicKOMl cpente. CKopee BceTo, TOMS KO TIO 9TOWl MPHNHHe XYMOXKHUKH-MUHMATIOPHCTEL MOTH TAK HOEpOGHO NepenaTs seTAMH Ka*raHoB, KOTOpHIe COBTAIAlOT ¢ (parMeHTaMHt STOH ONEKEL v3 Mouesoit Bank 4 MoriibHiuxa Bupa. O pico- Kol mpecriexHocrH sToit oxexabt B BusanTant X p. Hanowmmaer Kuura uepemoxuit susaHruiicKoro auopa, Bo BpeMa mpvema noc7os 9Mupa 13 Tapca pu Konerarrune Barpswopomsiom (rapa 15-5, 2-5 Kuura) bee nprutpopHtble HHH «oT NpoTocriadbapHieB Jo MocsieHero esOBeKA (T.¢., TO-BHUIEMOMY, BO- eHHBIe 1 mpyaBopHte YHHOBHUKH. — K.M.), HO- Ccaimiero ckapaMaxTHi, CTaHOBHIMCb 110 UBETY H pHt- cyHiky cHoelt onexutsi. OcoG0 craHOBILTHCh Te, ¥ KOTO 1a oexknte ObUIM OBIKH 1 OP BI BO MHOTHX KPYTAX, aC SeneHo-posoRBIMIt OpsIaMM CTAHOBMIHCE TAM H CHM (Koraxop, 1929, c. 301). Cueayer Take OTMeTHTE OTcyTCTBHe OTBO- Porop-noporHukop Kak Ha Kadyranax 43 Mottenoit 1a dove pre pegneseroou eponedcnu a 425 sarprrmareenosacrasss Beraapon fe Pue. 11-13. Hso6paxenma Kadratios Ha minHaniopax 3 Maxpuackoti pykonucu HM. Cxauuiet (no: Grabar, 1972) Baku, Tak 1 Ha ns06paxeHusx ‘TPAAMUOHEDIH MOKpott oem. M1, cKOpee BCeTO, mle kny rriopa us TlapixcKotl HanuonambHott GHGIHOTEKE: le. Gr. 543, fol. 102y) fcr 3 nevoscrux Kanepre norpebenu 2-7 non X68. yxe 9T0T, HMeHeHHBHL BapHaHT Karprata X B., BO3- MoXHO B €TO BHSAHTHVICKOM HCHONHeHHH, 1 ObUT socnpuHsir B JIpesneii Pycu, a BnocseneTsHi 10- nan s Bupxy. Ha mofi saris, apxeostormeckwe Ha- XoaKH YKA3MIBAIOT Ha TO, 4TO BepCHsE 3aMMCTHOBA- Hust Kadranos 13 Bosrapai wit BusaHTa MoxeT cuarbes Gone apryMeHTHponanHoi. B nomsy oToli BepCHM CBIUIETENBCTBYIOT KAK WI0GpAKeHHA xadraHon Ha MHHWATIOpaX 13. BH3AHTHIICKHX py- KOMIMceii, TAK H apxeonOrHecKHe HaxoaKn. B cBoe spent H.IT. Koraxos ppickasan npesmtoxoxerne, 70