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In a simple circuit that is used to light a bulb with a battery, the battery provides direct

current—a current flowing in only one direction.

Ohm's Law states that the current flowing in a circuit is directly proportional to the applied
potential difference and inversely proportional to the resistance in the circuit. In other words
by doubling the voltage across a circuit the current will also double.

Potential difference ∝ Current

(When the value of V increases the value of I increases simultaneously)

V = IR

 V is Voltage in volts (V)

 R is Resistance in ohm (Ω)
 I is Current in Ampere (A)

Resistivity is a measure of the resistance of a given size of a specific material to electrical

conduction. Resistivity may also be referred to as the specific electrical resistance, or
volume resistivity. The electrical resistivity is the electrical resistance per unit length and per
unit of cross-sectional area at a specified temperature

The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm⋅metre (Ω⋅m). It is commonly represented by the
Greek letter ρ, rho.

As an example, if a solid cube of material with dimensions of 1 M3 has sheet contacts on two
opposite faces which do not introduce any resistance themselves, and the resistance between
the contacts is 1 Ω, then the resistivity of the material is said to be 1 &Omega: ˙⋅m.

Series and parallel resistors

Resistance, at least to some degree, exists in all electrical elements. The resistors might be
light bulbs, heating elements, or components specifically manufactured for their resistance. It
is assumed that the resistance in the connecting wires is negligible.
The series connection (current flow in single path) of two resistors ( R 1 and R 2) is shown in

The total voltage drop from a to c across both elements is the sum of the voltage drops across the
individual resistors: Δ V = I R1 + I R2 = I (R1 + R2)

The two resistors in series can be replaced by one equivalent resistor Req with the identical voltage
drop Δ V = I Req which implies that

Req= R1 + R2

let’s consider two resistors R1 and R2 that are connected in parallel (current flow in multiple path)
across a voltage source ΔV

By current conservation, the current I that passes through the voltage source must divide into a
current I1 that passes through resistor R1 and a current I2 that passes through resistor R2. Each
resistor individually satisfies Ohm’s law, ΔV1 = I 1R1 and ΔV2 = I2 R2 . However, the potential across
the resistors are the same, Δ V1 = Δ V 2= ΔV . Current conservation then implies

The two resistors in parallel can be replaced by one equivalent resistor Req.
Electromotive force, is the electrical action produced by a non-electrical source. A device that
converts other forms of energy into electrical energy, such as a battery or generator, provides an
emf as its output. Electromotive force is the characteristic of any energy source capable of
driving electric charge around a circuit. It is abbreviated E in the international metric system but
also, popularly, as emf.
Despite its name, electromotive force is not actually a force. It is commonly measured in units
of volts, equivalent in the metre–kilogram–second system to one joule per coulomb of electric

In 1845, a German physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff developed a pair or set of

rules or laws which deal with the conservation of current and energy within
electrical circuits. These two rules are commonly known as: Kirchhoffs
Circuit Laws with one of Kirchhoffs laws dealing with the current flowing
around a closed circuit, Kirchhoffs Current Law, (KCL) while the other
law deals with the voltage sources present in a closed circuit, Kirchhoffs
Voltage Law, (KVL).

Kirchhoffs First Law – The Current Law, (KCL)

Kirchhoffs Current Law or KCL, states that the “total current or charge
entering a junction or node is exactly equal to the charge leaving the node
as it has no other place to go except to leave, as no charge is lost within
the node“. In other words the algebraic sum of ALL the currents entering
and leaving a node must be equal to zero, I(exiting) + I(entering) = 0. This idea by
Kirchhoff is commonly known as the Conservation of Charge.

Kirchhoffs Current Law

Here, the three currents entering the node, I1, I2, I3 are all positive in value
and the two currents leaving the node, I4 and I5 are negative in value. Then
this means we can also rewrite the equation as;
I1 + I2 + I3 – I4 – I5 = 0
The term Node in an electrical circuit generally refers to a connection or
junction of two or more current carrying paths or elements such as cables
and components. Also for current to flow either in or out of a node a closed
circuit path must exist. We can use Kirchhoff’s current law when analysing
parallel circuits.

Kirchhoffs Second Law – The Voltage Law, (KVL)

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law or KVL, states that “in any closed loop network,
the total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops
within the same loop” which is also equal to zero. In other words the
algebraic sum of all voltages within the loop must be equal to zero. This
idea by Kirchhoff is known as the Conservation of Energy.

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law

Starting at any point in the loop continue in the same direction noting the
direction of all the voltage drops, either positive or negative, and returning
back to the same starting point. It is important to maintain the same
direction either clockwise or anti-clockwise or the final voltage sum will not
be equal to zero. We can use Kirchhoff’s voltage law when analysing series

When an electric current is passed through a conductor, the conductor becomes hot after
some time and produce heat. This happens due to the conversion of some electric energy
passing through the conductor into heat energy. This effect of electric current is
called heating effect of current.
The meter uses for measuring the current is known as the ammeter. The current is the
flow of electrons whose unit is ampere. Hence the instrument which measures the flows of
current in ampere is known as ampere meter or ammeter.

The ideal ammeter has zero internal resistance. But practically the ammeter has small internal
resistance. The measuring range of the ammeter depends on the value of resistance.

Symbolic Representation

The capital alphabet A represents the ammeter in the circuit.

The instrument which measures the voltage or potential difference in volts is known as
the voltmeter. It works on the principle that the torque (a force that tends to cause rotation).
is generated by the current which induces because of measure and voltage and this torque
deflects the pointer of the instrument. The deflection of the pointer is directly proportional to
the potential difference between the points. The voltmeter is always connected in parallel
with the circuit.

The voltmeter constructs in such a manner that their internal resistance always remains high.
If it connects in series with the circuit, it minimises the current which flows because of the
measure and voltage. Thus, disturb the reading of the voltmeter.

The galvanometer is the device used for detecting the presence of small current and voltage
or for measuring their magnitude. The galvanometer is mainly used in the bridges
and potentiometer where they indicate the null deflection or zero current. It is based on the
premise that the current sustaining coil is kept between the magnetic field experiences a