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SocIety of Petroleum engineers

SPE 25661

Lithology-Dependent J-Functions and Relative Permeabilities


R.E. Phelps, Saudi Aramco
SPE Member

Copyright 1993, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc.

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Middle East Oil Technical Conference & Exhibition held in Bahrain, 3-6 April 1993.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper,
as presented, have not been reviewed by tile SOCiety of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect
any pos~ion of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Edi~orlal Co.mmittees of the Society
of Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contam conspIcuous acknowledgment
of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A.. Telex, 163245 SPEUT.

ABSTRACT best methods of determining water


saturations is the use of capillary
This paper demonstrates a technique pressures.
of using log data coupled with litho-
logy dependent porosity-permeability The Hadriya reservoir exhibits a lar-
transforms to calculate facies-depen- ge degree of heterogenity, and thus
dent Leverett J-functions for the the capillary properties varied con-
Hadriya reservoir. A comparison of siderably throughout the reservoir,
initial water saturation profiles depending on the permeability, poros-
from formation analysis logs versus ity, clay content and pore size.
profiles from a single global Comprehensive descriptions of capil-
J-function and facies-specific lary pressure data at each well loca-
J-functions are presented. tion would have required an extensive
and costly coring and testing prog-
These facies dependent J-functions ram. Therefore, to correlate and in-
were then used to compute facies spe- terpolate capillary pressure data for
cific imbibition and drainage rela- the Hadriya reservoir it was decided
tive permeabilities for both the wet- to develop J-function values.
ting and non-wetting phase. Development of a global J-function
was possible using core data,
however, since the Hadriya reservoir
INTRODUCTION has 19 facies there was insufficient
core data to accurately describe a
One of the most important aspects of J-function for each facies. Some
constructing-3-D simUlation models is facies had little or no data from
to accurately describe the distribu- core analysis.
tion of fluids at the beginning of
history. Since the fluid contacts A search for data led to the use of
were known, the next step was to FALs (formation analysis logs). These
determine the vertical distribution logs contained over 35,000 data
of water above the OOWC. One of the points for the Hadriya reservoir,

References and illustrations at end of paper.


525
2 LITHOLOGY DEPENDENT J-FUNCTIONS AND SPE 025661
RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES
with sufficient data to develop presented for each well at 1 ft.
J-functions for each of the nineteen vertical increments, which equated to
facies. These data were screened to over 35,000 data points. This amount
eliminate points which were affected of data was more than adequate to
by water encroachment prior to the describe capillary pressures and
time the log was taken. A comparison relative permeabilities for each of
was then made using a single global the nineteen Hadriya facies.
J-function versus nineteen facies-
specific J-functions. The two tests
used to judge the validity of the J-Functions
results were OOIP values and compa-
risons of saturation profiles from The first step in computing
individual wells using FALs, a single J-functions is to determine the
global J-function and the nineteen variation of capillary pressure over
facies-specific J-functions. the entire relief of the reservoir.
PVT data along with FAL data were
These J-functions were then used to assembled for each of the nineteen
derive facies dependent imbibition Hadriya facies. It was assumed that
and drainage relative permeabilities the capillary pressure at the OWC was
for both the wetting and non-wetting zero.
phase.
Using the capillary pressure versus
subsea depth tables, J-valueswere
DISCUSSION computed at each FAL data point using
the following definition:
This paper illustrates a method for
determining the initial vertical
distribution of water and oil in the
Hadriya reservoir. The two main tasks
encountered in the initialization of
a simulation model is to determine
the OOWC and secondly to define the The capillary pressure in the reser-
distribution of reservoir fluids voir was computed as:
above this contact. The latter point
will be discussed in this paper, as Pc =
the fluid contacts had been defined.

The Hadriya reservoir is a wedged


shape carbonate structure with vary- Combining the above two equations:
ing thickness of 230 ft. to 50 ft.
Integration of depositional and dia-
genetic information resulted in Jsw = 0.217H(po - PW)(~ kJ
defining 19 lithofacies. Due to such 144aCos6 4>
a large degree of hetergenity , and
insufficient core data a search was
initiated for additional data to Based on laboratory studies a cons-
define facies-specific capillary tant value of 18.5 dynes/em was used
pressures and relative permeabi- for the interfacial tension times the
lities.· This search led to the use of cosine of the contact angle.
FALs which contain tabulated values
of TVD, measured depth, porosity, In an attempt to reduce the scatter
permeability-thickness, water in the data, wells with identified
saturation, facies assignment and water encroachment were excluded from
well number. These data were the original FAL data. However, even

526
SPE' 025661 PHELPS, R.E 3

with this screening process it was DRAINAGE AND IMBIBITION RELATIVE


still difficult to define the shape PERMEABILITIES
of the J-function versus water satur-
ation curve over the entire satur- Background
ation range. The wide scatter in the
J-function data made it difficult to Multi-phase flow of fluids through a
def ine the shape of the curve over porous media is a difficult process
the entire saturation range. The to define, especially if the porous
final curve was derived by minimizing media is of complex geometry. A mi-
the square of errors between the ob- croscopic description of this process
served and computed water saturations is not possible. However, Darcy's
from FAL and J-functions, respective- (1) macroscopic description relating
ly. Figure 1 shows the derived pressure gradient and viscosity to
J-function curve fits for each of the fluid velocity via permeability are
nineteen Hadriya facies. A plot of still used by reservoir engineers to
the global J-function, using all calculate fluid flow. These type of
available facies data, versus water calculations depend on a number of
saturation is presented in Figure 2. parameters, one of which relative
permeability. Generally, relative
Comparison plots showing water satu- permeabilities are obtained through
ration profiles computed from a glo- laboratory measurements of actual
bal J-function, facies-specific J- core samples containing original
functions and FALs are presented in reservoir fluids. These techniques
Figures 3-6 for typical Hadriya are sUbject to many uncertainties
wells. The data show that there is such as preserving core samples and
close agreement between water satura- laboratory procedures. Other sources
tion profiles calculated using a glo- of relative permeability data are the
bal J-function and facies-specific extrapolation of past reservoir per-
J-functions. This implies that pos- formance for future predictions,
sibly one J-function would be ade- pUblished data from literature of
quate to describe the capillary pres- reservoirs with similiar reservoir
sure forces in the Hadriya reservoir. characteristics and mathematical
models relating relative permeability
The irreducible water saturation, to measured properties of the rock.
Swi, was read off these plots by This paper examines the latter
extrapolating the upper portion of approach to calculate drainage and
the curve through the x-axis . Using imbibition curves for the Hadriya
these values for Swi the water satur- reservoir.
ation was normalized, Sw*. The
average Swi value for the Hadriya was The Navier-Stokes relationships cou-
approximately 5.5%. pled with the continuity equation,
with the appropriate boundry condi-
Using the normalized values for water tions, rigorously define the flow of
saturation a new set of plots were Newtonian fluids. This mathematical
developed based on the log of both model is near impossible to solve for
Jsw and Sw*. These log-log plots were complex geometries and was therefore
used to determine the pore size simplified by Kozeny (2), who used
distribution index lamda (A), which flow channels to approximate a porous
is related to the slope of the log media. This was further modified by
Jsw versus log Sw* plot. The pore Carman (3) and Purcell (4) by app-
size distribution index was used to lying the theory of capillary tubes
calculate drainage and imbibition to calculate absolute permeability.
relative permeabilities. Later Burdine (5) extended the model
to include a saturation-dependent

527
4 LITHOLOGY DEPENDENT J-FUNCTIONS AND SPE 025661
RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

tortuosity factor, and used this As discussed, lamda is defined as the


approach to calculate theoretical pore size distribution index. As
relative permeabilities. Corey's (6) lamda increases the more uniform is
experiments with capillary pressure the pore size distribution. Based on
on consolidated sandstones resulted experimental data the ratio of capil-
in relationships in which the normal- lary pressure to capillary entry
ized saturation was found to be in- presssure, (Pc/Pe), and effective
versely proportional to the capillary wetting phase saturation, Swt*, can
pressure squared. Naar (7) investi- be represented by:
gated hysteresis effects and disco-
vered differences between imbibition S wt * =
P
-E
)-A
and drainage values. Incorporating a ( Pe
pore size distribution index, and
formulating the trapping of the non-
wetting phase, Land (8) derived a
more general form of Corey's Taking the log of both sides:
equations. Standing (9) combined this
work to develop equations for an log Pc = log Pe- [( ~)lOg(Swt*)]
oil-gas system accounting for
hysteresis of both the wetting and
non-wetting fluids. These rela-
tionships have been modified to de- Therefore, a plot of log (Pc) versus
rive oil and water imbibition and log(Swt*) should result in a straight
drainage relative permeabilities. line, and the slope defines lamda.
The average calculated value of lamda
for the Hadriya was 1.25.
Drainaqe Relative Permeability
Relationships Knowing the pore size distribution
index the following relationships
The saturation history or the direc- were used to calculate the oil and
tion of the saturation change may be water drainage relative permeabili-
indicated by either drainage or imbi- ties.
bition. Drainage refers to the flow
(2+?)
in which the wetting phase saturation krw = (Sw*)
is decreasing. Imbibition refers to
flow in which the wetting phase
saturation is increasing. For this
study water was determined to be the
(2jA)
wetting phase and oil the non-wetting kro = (1-Sw*)2 [l-(Sw*) ]
phase.

To eliminate the dependency of rela-


tive permeability on pore size dis- Imbibition Relative Permeability
tribution the effective permeability Relationships
is normalized to absolute permeabili-
ty. When relative permeability is Imbibition relative permeabilities
expressed as a function of saturation are applicable when the wetting phase
then pore size distribution, wetta- is increasing, or as in our case the
bility and saturation history are im- water saturation increases due to
portant parameters. The relative per- waterflooding and/or influx of the
meability relationships for the wet- aquifer. The hysteretic behavior is a
ting and non-wetting phase should result of pores being desaturated and
have a definable pore size distri- resaturated. During the drainage pro-
bution. cess capillary forces and viscous

528
SPE' 025661 PHELPS, R.E 5

forces operate in the direction to less the amount of free oil that gets
promote desaturation of larger pores trapped during the saturation change
first, followed by the smaller pores. from 50* to Sor*. This is expressed
as:
During imbibition capillary forces
cause resaturation of the smaller Sot* = Sor*- So£*
pores first while viscous forces C So£* + 1
cause resaturation of the largest
pores first. The result is that a
portion of the non-wetting phase, in Eliminating Sot* gives:
our case oil, becomes trapped within
the pore structure and is unable to Sof* = 0.5 [ (So*-Sor*)+
move.
The normalized initial and residual
oil saturations, Soi* & Sor*, respec-
~ (So> - Sox»' ~(so> - sox»]
+

tively, are expressed as:

The final equation needed is a


Soi* = Soi relqtionship evaluating the residual
(l-Swi) oil saturation from the initial oil
satuation, as shown:
Sor* = S~i*
Sor C SO~* + 1
Sor* =
(l-Swi)

Using the derived equation for the


The value of C, the trapping cons- drainage non-wetting phase relative
tant, is expressed as: permeability, and sUbstituting the
two phase relationship of SW* + 50* =
1 1
c= Sor* Soi*
1, gives:
(2+1)
kr0 dr = SO*2 [l-(l-So*) 1 ]

However, if Sor*~ represents the


effective residual oil saturation
after imbibing water from irreducible Expressing the oil saturation in
water, then the above equation for C terms of free oil leads to the
becomes: following equation for calculating
the imbibition relative permeability
C = - -1- - 1 for the non-wetting phase:
Sor*max
(2;:1)
kro imb =Sof*2 [1 - (1 - So£*) ]
The calculated value of C for the Ha-
driya reservoir was about 2.0 using a
Sor*1IIIX of 30-35%. For two phase systems, oil-water, the
water phase remains mobile. During
The total oil saturation is equal to waterflood oil becomes trapped, for-
the sum of the free, Sof*, and trap- cing water to occupy pores of a lar-
ped, Sot*,. oil saturation. When Kr0 imb ger size than it would normally
= 0, the total oil saturation is occupy if oil was not trapped. There-
equal to the residual oil saturation fore, for the same saturation the im-

529
6 LITHOLOGY DEPENDENT J-FUNCTIONS AND SPE 025661
RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES
bibition relative permeability value led to the conclusion that SOR should
must always be less than the drainage be approximately 30-35%.
value. However, as the "trapping cons-
tant, C, increases and Soi* decreases Further analysis of field data, such
the difference between imbibition and as TOTs, FALs, and sponge cores,
drainage values for the wetting phase along with a core analysis report
is negligible. Therefore, the same supported our findings.
equation is applicable when calcula-
ting the water imbibition and draina-
ge relative permeabilities. CONCLUSIONS
(2+31)
krwimb = Sw* 1
1. water saturations derived from
open-hole log based facies-
dependent J-functions and per-
meability-porosity transforms
gave an acceptable estimation of
These equations were used to calcu- the initial fluid distribution
late facies-dependent oil and water in the Hadriya reservoir.
imbibition relative permeabilities
2. Derivation of facies dependent
Figure 7 presents both the derived imbibition and drainage relative
facies-dependent and global water permeabilities is possible using
relative permeabilities, along with mathematical models based on the
laboratory data. The data show a pore size distribution index.
facies dependency, however, the
derived global and laboratory data
show close agreement. Figures 8 and 9 NOMENCLATURE
show plots of the derived facies-
dependent and global imbibition and cos 8 - cosine of the contact angle,
drainage relative permeabilities, degrees
respectively. with the exception of a
very tight facies found in the Jsw - a dimensionless function for
southern area the global curve agrees capillary pressure
with the facies-dependent data and
laboratory relative permeabilities. H - height above OWC, ft

k - rock permeability, md
Calculation of Residual oil
Saturation krw - water relative permeability, md
During the analysis of comparing the kro - oil relative permeability, md
calculated relative permeability
curves to the laboratory data it was pw - density of the water, lb/fe
noticed that the reported value of
SOR=20% could not be theoretically po - density of the oil, lb/ft3
matched. The value of SOR is used in
the calculation of the imbibition Pc - capillary pressure, psi
relative permeabilities.
pe - capillary entry pressure, psi
The first pass in calculating the
imbibition relative permeability swt* - effective wetting phase
curves failed to match the measured saturation
value of SORe A sensitivity of the
various parameters in the equations Sw* - normalized water saturation

530
SPE' 025661 PHELPS, R.E 7

swi - irreducible water saturation for Two-and Three-Phase flow


from Rock Properties. society
Sof* - free oil saturation of Petroleum Engineering
Journel., June 1968, pp.149-156
Soi* - normalized initial oil
saturation 9. Standing, M. B. "Notes on
Relative Permeability
¢ - porosity, fraction Relationships", Division of
Petroleum Engineering and
p - interfacial tension, dynes/em Applied Geophysics, The Norwe-
gian Institute of Technology,
A - pore size distribution index, University of Trondheim, August
lamda 1974.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Appreciation is given to the Saudi
1. Darcy, H; 1856, Les Fontaines Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and
Publiques de la Ville de Dijon. Mineral Resources and to Saudi ARAMCO
victor Dalmont, Paris for permission to publish this work.
I would like to thank Janet Phelps
2. Kozeny, J.,1927. sitzungsber. and MerIon R. Banagale for their help
Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Na- in preparing this paper.
turwiss KI, Abt.2a, 136:271
3: Carman, P.C. "Flow of Gases
Through Porous Media". Butter-
worths, London (1956).

4. Purcell, W.R.: "Capillary


Pressures Their Measurement
Using Mercury and Calculation of
Permeabi I i ty Therefrom", Trans. ,
AIME, February 1949, 39-48.
5. Burdine, N.T. Relative
Permeability Calculations from
Pore Size Distribution Data",
Trans., AIME, 198, 71-78
6. Corey, A.T. : The Interrelation
Between Gas and oil Relative
Permeabilities', Prod. Monthly,
1954, V19, 38-41. .

7. Naar, J; Henderson, J.H., 1961.


An imbibition model its
application to flow behavior and
the prediction of oil recovery.
society of Petroleum Engineering
Journel, June, pp. 61-70
8. Land, C.S.; Calculation of
Imbibition Relative Permeability

531
90

80
..
:
70 •t
••
60

z
Q 50
t;
Z
:::;) 40
..,
LL
I
:
30 .
t
. i.
20
•:
it.l' ~
.\\
10

~...
'lltb,'

•1 ••, • . . . .. . ~ . ...
~ ... .. ... . . ... ..
8.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

FAL WATER SATURATION


FIG 1 - CURVE FIT OF FACIES - DEPENDENT J·FUNCTIONS

90.----.----.--,..-..,--.---.---r--r----.-......---.----.--,..-..,---.-.......,-...--....---.---.
.'
80+--HO-+-l--....r+--+.~r--+-__+__+-+-_+_-+-I---I-_+--1-+-__+__+........I
70+---f.-o,...-4--I---+--+--Ii--+-__+__+-+-_+_-+_I---I--+--Ii--+-__+_-+..........j
~. roo •
60+-...!\iI;,.:4-"'....__+_-:-l--+--+--+--=-I---I--+--Ii--+-__+__+-+--+--+-I---I--4
501-- : . :
.-,
z
o
40 ." .. .. ..
30
-.. ,.-:-':;' .. '.-
o
Z
20
.'"
::J 10
..,
LL
I

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

FIG 2 - HADRIYA GLOBAL J-FUNCTION

532
SPE25661

8810

8830

8850
:J:
li:W 8870
C
..J
c:e 8690
(,)
t::
a: 8710
W
>
W
::J 8730
a:
t-
8750

8770

879~.0
0.' 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

FIG 3 .. HADRIYA WELL WATER SATURATION PROFILE

:J:
li:w
C
..I

g
a:
w
>
W
::J 8670
a:
t-
I I
I
I :
,,,
I I
I
I
, ,
,,
I
,,
-+,_
- - 1 -_ _
, ,
-<-,- --4--
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

FIG 4 .. HADRIYA WELL WATER SATURATION PROFILE

533
WATER SATURATION

FIG 5· HADRIYAWELL WATER SATURATION PROFILE

8250

8270

8290

::I:
l- 8310
e.
w
c 8330
..J
«
() 8350
I-
a:UJ 8370j
J

>
UJ
:::> 8390
a:
I-
8410

8430

WATER SATURATION

FIG 6· HADRIYA WELL WATER SATURATION PROFILE

534
SPE256 b 1

1.0
: : :
: I : I I I : I I
0.9 - - - - - - - - -~- - - - - - - - - ~ .. - - - _..... - ~ - - - .. - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - .. - i .. - - _. - - .. i- - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - -.-
* -LABORATORY DATA ,
:::
j 1

,
1

,
I

I
:
I

I
:
I

I
:
:
:.' :
0.8 ~--------~---------~---------~--------~---------~---------~----

i , i : iii i i
0.7 --- - -----:- - - ------ f----- - - . -~ --- - ----~-- --- - ---~------ -- -~- --- - - --~_ .. - ---- .. _l .. --- --~'-"..
: : : : : : : : .1 ..
I 1 : : : : t· : : •

0.6 --- -_.. ---:- -- --- ---t--- --- - -~--- -- ----:------ -- - t .--- ------~ ---- - _.. --:--- -- - --- f------t.- . . t
: : : : : : : : . ',1

~
I I I I I 1 J I

a: 0.5 ------ ---~-- -------1------- -r---------~---- -----1 CURVE FIT OF


I I I I I I

--f- -- ------t-:: _;;1


1 I '

~
: : : : : LABORATORY DATA '
0.4 - ------- -:- ------- -~ -- ----- - - ~ --- ----- ~- ----- --- ~ -- ------- ~ -- ------ -:- ------ ~ ~ ~ . :, -
: : : : : : ~ • I
I I I I I • • •• ,
'GLOBAL .'
-!- --------1------- -~ --------+-------+--~- -- ;-.~-' --. }'!' '.:.:~:~~ -~~ ------
, I , ,

0.3 ---- -- -c
: ' I : : : •• t .*~ I •••••••• : •
l. 1 I I I • l'::r:' .,.".. ,.

0.2 - - - MW M:_ - - - - - - M-~...; .. --- - - -~- - - - - - - - ~- M- ----- - ~ - ~- - - - - - -~--.- ...., '--~......J-:"""'- ." •• ~1!.;~~~ --.. ~~ --- -----
:
I
I
I
• :
I
:
I * I
I •• 1
I • •
,"
" ·~t
...... 1 •
".. "'f. ~ "X-
' . . . 1". ••
•• :
I

0.1 -_. ------!---------j-- -- --- -~. -----'" ~-- ---~*~;j;:: .. ~: ~ -.~;~~.:' .,: ~-:~~~~~.;;~:-::;::- -~ ---- ----1
:
I
:
IX
~~: I
* _*" . ,*'*',-1::;:"
• • • • • • t i ;::::::i=::'
i: I I I ~
" •• , . . . .
• , I I J
i::":
I
I
:
I
I
i
I
o·~.o 0.1 0.2 0.:) 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION
FIG 7· FACIES DEPENDENT AND GLOBAL RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

1.
)( ~.«
''''. ++::. ill I I I I I

0.9 --_x~:o -~~-----t---------r--------~---------t---------~--------~---------t---------~--------


l xo
• *:
Ill: : : I
: : : : : I I I I I I I
X "I , , , I I I I

0.8 ------~XIX. -----~---------~--------~---------~---------~--------~---------~.--------~--------


, -* xo +x XX x
"':
,,:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0.7 --------~~~x -+------- .-L------:-J---------~---------r--------~---------t---------r--------
: • x·x ' CURVE FIT OF . : : : :
0 : • x"xx LABORATORY DATA : : : :
a: 0.6 ________ ~---~-x-~
*
I I i---------~--------~---------t---------~--------
~ ¥ I X I I l I I I I
: * )(~x : : : : : : :
Z I • IX I I I I I I I

0 0.5 --------i------~~-~-K~ !:-~--------~---------t---------~--------1---------t---------~--------


: .: Xx .: I : : : : :
i= I
I

,_)(
x GLOBAL'I ,I ,I ,I ,I
iii 0.4 ________ -: .. ~-*----x __ ~---~---------~---------~--------~---------4---------~--------
iii : : .. * Xx '". : : : : : :
: :. "': : : : : :
~ 0.3
: :
I
--------~---------~------.--~-
:
:
: : :
I .

: .
: . _ .+
: :
I
-~---------~---------~--------~---------~---------~--------
'" I I

: : : : :
I I I l

0.2 --------~---------~---------~~~-----
I
I
I
I
I .
I .
-----~---------~--------~---------~---------~--------
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
: : : ••• I : : : : :

0.1 ____. ~---------~M----.---~-------!~~~--- I ~-----_--~---------~---------~--------


! : •••••• t·••**. ! ! ! !
1III!!.-..
1 : I

0.?>!;:.0:----;0~.1;--~0.~2---;:0:'-:.3;---:0~.-:-4--~~.!.ti~!"'...~"". .
I I I I I I I

"-".1.0'

WATER SATURATION
FIG 8. FACIES DEPENDENT AND GLOBAL IMBIBITION OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

535
1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7
0
a:
~ 0.6
W
e" 0.5
<
Z
(JI
«
a:
0.4
CAl
c» c 0.3

0.2

0.1

O·~.O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION
FIG 9· FACIES DEPENDENT AND GLOBAL DRAINAGE OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES