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SPE 25661

R.E. Phelps, Saudi Aramco

SPE Member

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Middle East Oil Technical Conference & Exhibition held in Bahrain, 3-6 April 1993.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper,

as presented, have not been reviewed by tile SOCiety of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect

any pos~ion of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Edi~orlal Co.mmittees of the Society

of Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contam conspIcuous acknowledgment

of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A.. Telex, 163245 SPEUT.

saturations is the use of capillary

This paper demonstrates a technique pressures.

of using log data coupled with litho-

logy dependent porosity-permeability The Hadriya reservoir exhibits a lar-

transforms to calculate facies-depen- ge degree of heterogenity, and thus

dent Leverett J-functions for the the capillary properties varied con-

Hadriya reservoir. A comparison of siderably throughout the reservoir,

initial water saturation profiles depending on the permeability, poros-

from formation analysis logs versus ity, clay content and pore size.

profiles from a single global Comprehensive descriptions of capil-

J-function and facies-specific lary pressure data at each well loca-

J-functions are presented. tion would have required an extensive

and costly coring and testing prog-

These facies dependent J-functions ram. Therefore, to correlate and in-

were then used to compute facies spe- terpolate capillary pressure data for

cific imbibition and drainage rela- the Hadriya reservoir it was decided

tive permeabilities for both the wet- to develop J-function values.

ting and non-wetting phase. Development of a global J-function

was possible using core data,

however, since the Hadriya reservoir

INTRODUCTION has 19 facies there was insufficient

core data to accurately describe a

One of the most important aspects of J-function for each facies. Some

constructing-3-D simUlation models is facies had little or no data from

to accurately describe the distribu- core analysis.

tion of fluids at the beginning of

history. Since the fluid contacts A search for data led to the use of

were known, the next step was to FALs (formation analysis logs). These

determine the vertical distribution logs contained over 35,000 data

of water above the OOWC. One of the points for the Hadriya reservoir,

525

2 LITHOLOGY DEPENDENT J-FUNCTIONS AND SPE 025661

RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

with sufficient data to develop presented for each well at 1 ft.

J-functions for each of the nineteen vertical increments, which equated to

facies. These data were screened to over 35,000 data points. This amount

eliminate points which were affected of data was more than adequate to

by water encroachment prior to the describe capillary pressures and

time the log was taken. A comparison relative permeabilities for each of

was then made using a single global the nineteen Hadriya facies.

J-function versus nineteen facies-

specific J-functions. The two tests

used to judge the validity of the J-Functions

results were OOIP values and compa-

risons of saturation profiles from The first step in computing

individual wells using FALs, a single J-functions is to determine the

global J-function and the nineteen variation of capillary pressure over

facies-specific J-functions. the entire relief of the reservoir.

PVT data along with FAL data were

These J-functions were then used to assembled for each of the nineteen

derive facies dependent imbibition Hadriya facies. It was assumed that

and drainage relative permeabilities the capillary pressure at the OWC was

for both the wetting and non-wetting zero.

phase.

Using the capillary pressure versus

subsea depth tables, J-valueswere

DISCUSSION computed at each FAL data point using

the following definition:

This paper illustrates a method for

determining the initial vertical

distribution of water and oil in the

Hadriya reservoir. The two main tasks

encountered in the initialization of

a simulation model is to determine

the OOWC and secondly to define the The capillary pressure in the reser-

distribution of reservoir fluids voir was computed as:

above this contact. The latter point

will be discussed in this paper, as Pc =

the fluid contacts had been defined.

shape carbonate structure with vary- Combining the above two equations:

ing thickness of 230 ft. to 50 ft.

Integration of depositional and dia-

genetic information resulted in Jsw = 0.217H(po - PW)(~ kJ

defining 19 lithofacies. Due to such 144aCos6 4>

a large degree of hetergenity , and

insufficient core data a search was

initiated for additional data to Based on laboratory studies a cons-

define facies-specific capillary tant value of 18.5 dynes/em was used

pressures and relative permeabi- for the interfacial tension times the

lities.· This search led to the use of cosine of the contact angle.

FALs which contain tabulated values

of TVD, measured depth, porosity, In an attempt to reduce the scatter

permeability-thickness, water in the data, wells with identified

saturation, facies assignment and water encroachment were excluded from

well number. These data were the original FAL data. However, even

526

SPE' 025661 PHELPS, R.E 3

still difficult to define the shape PERMEABILITIES

of the J-function versus water satur-

ation curve over the entire satur- Background

ation range. The wide scatter in the

J-function data made it difficult to Multi-phase flow of fluids through a

def ine the shape of the curve over porous media is a difficult process

the entire saturation range. The to define, especially if the porous

final curve was derived by minimizing media is of complex geometry. A mi-

the square of errors between the ob- croscopic description of this process

served and computed water saturations is not possible. However, Darcy's

from FAL and J-functions, respective- (1) macroscopic description relating

ly. Figure 1 shows the derived pressure gradient and viscosity to

J-function curve fits for each of the fluid velocity via permeability are

nineteen Hadriya facies. A plot of still used by reservoir engineers to

the global J-function, using all calculate fluid flow. These type of

available facies data, versus water calculations depend on a number of

saturation is presented in Figure 2. parameters, one of which relative

permeability. Generally, relative

Comparison plots showing water satu- permeabilities are obtained through

ration profiles computed from a glo- laboratory measurements of actual

bal J-function, facies-specific J- core samples containing original

functions and FALs are presented in reservoir fluids. These techniques

Figures 3-6 for typical Hadriya are sUbject to many uncertainties

wells. The data show that there is such as preserving core samples and

close agreement between water satura- laboratory procedures. Other sources

tion profiles calculated using a glo- of relative permeability data are the

bal J-function and facies-specific extrapolation of past reservoir per-

J-functions. This implies that pos- formance for future predictions,

sibly one J-function would be ade- pUblished data from literature of

quate to describe the capillary pres- reservoirs with similiar reservoir

sure forces in the Hadriya reservoir. characteristics and mathematical

models relating relative permeability

The irreducible water saturation, to measured properties of the rock.

Swi, was read off these plots by This paper examines the latter

extrapolating the upper portion of approach to calculate drainage and

the curve through the x-axis . Using imbibition curves for the Hadriya

these values for Swi the water satur- reservoir.

ation was normalized, Sw*. The

average Swi value for the Hadriya was The Navier-Stokes relationships cou-

approximately 5.5%. pled with the continuity equation,

with the appropriate boundry condi-

Using the normalized values for water tions, rigorously define the flow of

saturation a new set of plots were Newtonian fluids. This mathematical

developed based on the log of both model is near impossible to solve for

Jsw and Sw*. These log-log plots were complex geometries and was therefore

used to determine the pore size simplified by Kozeny (2), who used

distribution index lamda (A), which flow channels to approximate a porous

is related to the slope of the log media. This was further modified by

Jsw versus log Sw* plot. The pore Carman (3) and Purcell (4) by app-

size distribution index was used to lying the theory of capillary tubes

calculate drainage and imbibition to calculate absolute permeability.

relative permeabilities. Later Burdine (5) extended the model

to include a saturation-dependent

527

4 LITHOLOGY DEPENDENT J-FUNCTIONS AND SPE 025661

RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

approach to calculate theoretical pore size distribution index. As

relative permeabilities. Corey's (6) lamda increases the more uniform is

experiments with capillary pressure the pore size distribution. Based on

on consolidated sandstones resulted experimental data the ratio of capil-

in relationships in which the normal- lary pressure to capillary entry

ized saturation was found to be in- presssure, (Pc/Pe), and effective

versely proportional to the capillary wetting phase saturation, Swt*, can

pressure squared. Naar (7) investi- be represented by:

gated hysteresis effects and disco-

vered differences between imbibition S wt * =

P

-E

)-A

and drainage values. Incorporating a ( Pe

pore size distribution index, and

formulating the trapping of the non-

wetting phase, Land (8) derived a

more general form of Corey's Taking the log of both sides:

equations. Standing (9) combined this

work to develop equations for an log Pc = log Pe- [( ~)lOg(Swt*)]

oil-gas system accounting for

hysteresis of both the wetting and

non-wetting fluids. These rela-

tionships have been modified to de- Therefore, a plot of log (Pc) versus

rive oil and water imbibition and log(Swt*) should result in a straight

drainage relative permeabilities. line, and the slope defines lamda.

The average calculated value of lamda

for the Hadriya was 1.25.

Drainaqe Relative Permeability

Relationships Knowing the pore size distribution

index the following relationships

The saturation history or the direc- were used to calculate the oil and

tion of the saturation change may be water drainage relative permeabili-

indicated by either drainage or imbi- ties.

bition. Drainage refers to the flow

(2+?)

in which the wetting phase saturation krw = (Sw*)

is decreasing. Imbibition refers to

flow in which the wetting phase

saturation is increasing. For this

study water was determined to be the

(2jA)

wetting phase and oil the non-wetting kro = (1-Sw*)2 [l-(Sw*) ]

phase.

tive permeability on pore size dis- Imbibition Relative Permeability

tribution the effective permeability Relationships

is normalized to absolute permeabili-

ty. When relative permeability is Imbibition relative permeabilities

expressed as a function of saturation are applicable when the wetting phase

then pore size distribution, wetta- is increasing, or as in our case the

bility and saturation history are im- water saturation increases due to

portant parameters. The relative per- waterflooding and/or influx of the

meability relationships for the wet- aquifer. The hysteretic behavior is a

ting and non-wetting phase should result of pores being desaturated and

have a definable pore size distri- resaturated. During the drainage pro-

bution. cess capillary forces and viscous

528

SPE' 025661 PHELPS, R.E 5

forces operate in the direction to less the amount of free oil that gets

promote desaturation of larger pores trapped during the saturation change

first, followed by the smaller pores. from 50* to Sor*. This is expressed

as:

During imbibition capillary forces

cause resaturation of the smaller Sot* = Sor*- So£*

pores first while viscous forces C So£* + 1

cause resaturation of the largest

pores first. The result is that a

portion of the non-wetting phase, in Eliminating Sot* gives:

our case oil, becomes trapped within

the pore structure and is unable to Sof* = 0.5 [ (So*-Sor*)+

move.

The normalized initial and residual

oil saturations, Soi* & Sor*, respec-

~ (So> - Sox»' ~(so> - sox»]

+

Soi* = Soi relqtionship evaluating the residual

(l-Swi) oil saturation from the initial oil

satuation, as shown:

Sor* = S~i*

Sor C SO~* + 1

Sor* =

(l-Swi)

The value of C, the trapping cons- drainage non-wetting phase relative

tant, is expressed as: permeability, and sUbstituting the

two phase relationship of SW* + 50* =

1 1

c= Sor* Soi*

1, gives:

(2+1)

kr0 dr = SO*2 [l-(l-So*) 1 ]

effective residual oil saturation

after imbibing water from irreducible Expressing the oil saturation in

water, then the above equation for C terms of free oil leads to the

becomes: following equation for calculating

the imbibition relative permeability

C = - -1- - 1 for the non-wetting phase:

Sor*max

(2;:1)

kro imb =Sof*2 [1 - (1 - So£*) ]

The calculated value of C for the Ha-

driya reservoir was about 2.0 using a

Sor*1IIIX of 30-35%. For two phase systems, oil-water, the

water phase remains mobile. During

The total oil saturation is equal to waterflood oil becomes trapped, for-

the sum of the free, Sof*, and trap- cing water to occupy pores of a lar-

ped, Sot*,. oil saturation. When Kr0 imb ger size than it would normally

= 0, the total oil saturation is occupy if oil was not trapped. There-

equal to the residual oil saturation fore, for the same saturation the im-

529

6 LITHOLOGY DEPENDENT J-FUNCTIONS AND SPE 025661

RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

bibition relative permeability value led to the conclusion that SOR should

must always be less than the drainage be approximately 30-35%.

value. However, as the "trapping cons-

tant, C, increases and Soi* decreases Further analysis of field data, such

the difference between imbibition and as TOTs, FALs, and sponge cores,

drainage values for the wetting phase along with a core analysis report

is negligible. Therefore, the same supported our findings.

equation is applicable when calcula-

ting the water imbibition and draina-

ge relative permeabilities. CONCLUSIONS

(2+31)

krwimb = Sw* 1

1. water saturations derived from

open-hole log based facies-

dependent J-functions and per-

meability-porosity transforms

gave an acceptable estimation of

These equations were used to calcu- the initial fluid distribution

late facies-dependent oil and water in the Hadriya reservoir.

imbibition relative permeabilities

2. Derivation of facies dependent

Figure 7 presents both the derived imbibition and drainage relative

facies-dependent and global water permeabilities is possible using

relative permeabilities, along with mathematical models based on the

laboratory data. The data show a pore size distribution index.

facies dependency, however, the

derived global and laboratory data

show close agreement. Figures 8 and 9 NOMENCLATURE

show plots of the derived facies-

dependent and global imbibition and cos 8 - cosine of the contact angle,

drainage relative permeabilities, degrees

respectively. with the exception of a

very tight facies found in the Jsw - a dimensionless function for

southern area the global curve agrees capillary pressure

with the facies-dependent data and

laboratory relative permeabilities. H - height above OWC, ft

k - rock permeability, md

Calculation of Residual oil

Saturation krw - water relative permeability, md

During the analysis of comparing the kro - oil relative permeability, md

calculated relative permeability

curves to the laboratory data it was pw - density of the water, lb/fe

noticed that the reported value of

SOR=20% could not be theoretically po - density of the oil, lb/ft3

matched. The value of SOR is used in

the calculation of the imbibition Pc - capillary pressure, psi

relative permeabilities.

pe - capillary entry pressure, psi

The first pass in calculating the

imbibition relative permeability swt* - effective wetting phase

curves failed to match the measured saturation

value of SORe A sensitivity of the

various parameters in the equations Sw* - normalized water saturation

530

SPE' 025661 PHELPS, R.E 7

from Rock Properties. society

Sof* - free oil saturation of Petroleum Engineering

Journel., June 1968, pp.149-156

Soi* - normalized initial oil

saturation 9. Standing, M. B. "Notes on

Relative Permeability

¢ - porosity, fraction Relationships", Division of

Petroleum Engineering and

p - interfacial tension, dynes/em Applied Geophysics, The Norwe-

gian Institute of Technology,

A - pore size distribution index, University of Trondheim, August

lamda 1974.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

REFERENCES

Appreciation is given to the Saudi

1. Darcy, H; 1856, Les Fontaines Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and

Publiques de la Ville de Dijon. Mineral Resources and to Saudi ARAMCO

victor Dalmont, Paris for permission to publish this work.

I would like to thank Janet Phelps

2. Kozeny, J.,1927. sitzungsber. and MerIon R. Banagale for their help

Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Na- in preparing this paper.

turwiss KI, Abt.2a, 136:271

3: Carman, P.C. "Flow of Gases

Through Porous Media". Butter-

worths, London (1956).

Pressures Their Measurement

Using Mercury and Calculation of

Permeabi I i ty Therefrom", Trans. ,

AIME, February 1949, 39-48.

5. Burdine, N.T. Relative

Permeability Calculations from

Pore Size Distribution Data",

Trans., AIME, 198, 71-78

6. Corey, A.T. : The Interrelation

Between Gas and oil Relative

Permeabilities', Prod. Monthly,

1954, V19, 38-41. .

An imbibition model its

application to flow behavior and

the prediction of oil recovery.

society of Petroleum Engineering

Journel, June, pp. 61-70

8. Land, C.S.; Calculation of

Imbibition Relative Permeability

531

90

80

..

:

70 •t

••

60

z

Q 50

t;

Z

:::;) 40

..,

LL

I

:

30 .

t

. i.

20

•:

it.l' ~

.\\

10

~...

'lltb,'

•1 ••, • . . . .. . ~ . ...

~ ... .. ... . . ... ..

8.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

FIG 1 - CURVE FIT OF FACIES - DEPENDENT J·FUNCTIONS

90.----.----.--,..-..,--.---.---r--r----.-......---.----.--,..-..,---.-.......,-...--....---.---.

.'

80+--HO-+-l--....r+--+.~r--+-__+__+-+-_+_-+-I---I-_+--1-+-__+__+........I

70+---f.-o,...-4--I---+--+--Ii--+-__+__+-+-_+_-+_I---I--+--Ii--+-__+_-+..........j

~. roo •

60+-...!\iI;,.:4-"'....__+_-:-l--+--+--+--=-I---I--+--Ii--+-__+__+-+--+--+-I---I--4

501-- : . :

.-,

z

o

40 ." .. .. ..

30

-.. ,.-:-':;' .. '.-

o

Z

20

.'"

::J 10

..,

LL

I

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

532

SPE25661

8810

8830

8850

:J:

li:W 8870

C

..J

c:e 8690

(,)

t::

a: 8710

W

>

W

::J 8730

a:

t-

8750

8770

879~.0

0.' 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

:J:

li:w

C

..I

g

a:

w

>

W

::J 8670

a:

t-

I I

I

I :

,,,

I I

I

I

, ,

,,

I

,,

-+,_

- - 1 -_ _

, ,

-<-,- --4--

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

533

WATER SATURATION

8250

8270

8290

::I:

l- 8310

e.

w

c 8330

..J

«

() 8350

I-

a:UJ 8370j

J

>

UJ

:::> 8390

a:

I-

8410

8430

WATER SATURATION

534

SPE256 b 1

1.0

: : :

: I : I I I : I I

0.9 - - - - - - - - -~- - - - - - - - - ~ .. - - - _..... - ~ - - - .. - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - .. - i .. - - _. - - .. i- - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - -.-

* -LABORATORY DATA ,

:::

j 1

,

1

,

I

I

:

I

I

:

I

I

:

:

:.' :

0.8 ~--------~---------~---------~--------~---------~---------~----

i , i : iii i i

0.7 --- - -----:- - - ------ f----- - - . -~ --- - ----~-- --- - ---~------ -- -~- --- - - --~_ .. - ---- .. _l .. --- --~'-"..

: : : : : : : : .1 ..

I 1 : : : : t· : : •

0.6 --- -_.. ---:- -- --- ---t--- --- - -~--- -- ----:------ -- - t .--- ------~ ---- - _.. --:--- -- - --- f------t.- . . t

: : : : : : : : . ',1

~

I I I I I 1 J I

I I I I I I

1 I '

~

: : : : : LABORATORY DATA '

0.4 - ------- -:- ------- -~ -- ----- - - ~ --- ----- ~- ----- --- ~ -- ------- ~ -- ------ -:- ------ ~ ~ ~ . :, -

: : : : : : ~ • I

I I I I I • • •• ,

'GLOBAL .'

-!- --------1------- -~ --------+-------+--~- -- ;-.~-' --. }'!' '.:.:~:~~ -~~ ------

, I , ,

0.3 ---- -- -c

: ' I : : : •• t .*~ I •••••••• : •

l. 1 I I I • l'::r:' .,.".. ,.

0.2 - - - MW M:_ - - - - - - M-~...; .. --- - - -~- - - - - - - - ~- M- ----- - ~ - ~- - - - - - -~--.- ...., '--~......J-:"""'- ." •• ~1!.;~~~ --.. ~~ --- -----

:

I

I

I

• :

I

:

I * I

I •• 1

I • •

,"

" ·~t

...... 1 •

".. "'f. ~ "X-

' . . . 1". ••

•• :

I

0.1 -_. ------!---------j-- -- --- -~. -----'" ~-- ---~*~;j;:: .. ~: ~ -.~;~~.:' .,: ~-:~~~~~.;;~:-::;::- -~ ---- ----1

:

I

:

IX

~~: I

* _*" . ,*'*',-1::;:"

• • • • • • t i ;::::::i=::'

i: I I I ~

" •• , . . . .

• , I I J

i::":

I

I

:

I

I

i

I

o·~.o 0.1 0.2 0.:) 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

FIG 7· FACIES DEPENDENT AND GLOBAL RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

1.

)( ~.«

''''. ++::. ill I I I I I

l xo

• *:

Ill: : : I

: : : : : I I I I I I I

X "I , , , I I I I

, -* xo +x XX x

"':

,,:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

0.7 --------~~~x -+------- .-L------:-J---------~---------r--------~---------t---------r--------

: • x·x ' CURVE FIT OF . : : : :

0 : • x"xx LABORATORY DATA : : : :

a: 0.6 ________ ~---~-x-~

*

I I i---------~--------~---------t---------~--------

~ ¥ I X I I l I I I I

: * )(~x : : : : : : :

Z I • IX I I I I I I I

: .: Xx .: I : : : : :

i= I

I

•

,_)(

x GLOBAL'I ,I ,I ,I ,I

iii 0.4 ________ -: .. ~-*----x __ ~---~---------~---------~--------~---------4---------~--------

iii : : .. * Xx '". : : : : : :

: :. "': : : : : :

~ 0.3

: :

I

--------~---------~------.--~-

:

:

: : :

I .

: .

: . _ .+

: :

I

-~---------~---------~--------~---------~---------~--------

'" I I

: : : : :

I I I l

0.2 --------~---------~---------~~~-----

I

I

I

I

I .

I .

-----~---------~--------~---------~---------~--------

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

: : : ••• I : : : : :

! : •••••• t·••**. ! ! ! !

1III!!.-..

1 : I

0.?>!;:.0:----;0~.1;--~0.~2---;:0:'-:.3;---:0~.-:-4--~~.!.ti~!"'...~"". .

I I I I I I I

"-".1.0'

WATER SATURATION

FIG 8. FACIES DEPENDENT AND GLOBAL IMBIBITION OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

535

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0

a:

~ 0.6

W

e" 0.5

<

Z

(JI

«

a:

0.4

CAl

c» c 0.3

0.2

0.1

O·~.O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

WATER SATURATION

FIG 9· FACIES DEPENDENT AND GLOBAL DRAINAGE OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

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