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Glossary

ABRI Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, Armed Forces of the


Republic of Indonesia.
AJI Aliansi Jurnalis Independen, Independent Journalist’s Alliance,
established after the press-bannings of 1994.
Aldera Aliansi Demokrasi Rakyat, People’s Democracy Alliance, a student-
based group founded in 1994.
aliran a (political-cultural) ‘stream’.
AMM Angkatan Muda Muhammadiyah, Muhammadiyah Young Generation.
arus bawah ‘under-current’, term used to describe mass or grass roots politics.
BAIS Badan Intelijen Strategis, Strategic Intelligence Agency.
Bakin Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara, State Intelligence Coordinating
Agency.
Bakorstanas Badan Koordinasi Pemantapan Stabilitas Nasional, ABRI’s
Coordinating Agency for the Maintenance of National Stability.
Balitbang Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan, Research and development
body.
BIA Badan Intelijen ABRI, ABRI Intelligence Agency.
Bina Desa A rural-based NGO.
BKK Badan Koordinasi Kemahasiswaan, Body for the Coordination of
Student Affairs.
BPPT Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi, Agency for the
Assessment and Application of Technology.
CGMI Consentrasi Gerakan Mahasiswa Indonesia, Indonesian Student
Movement Concentration, pre-New Order student movement linked to
the PKI.
CIDES Center for Information and Development Studies, think-tank linked to
ICMI.
Cipayung Group The alliance of five major national student organisations (GMNI,
GMKI, HMI, PMII and PMKRI) formed in 1972.
CPDS Center for Policy and Development Studies, think-tank linked to
Generals Hartono and Prabowo Subianto.
CSIS Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Dewan Dakwah Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia, Islamic Proselytising Council of
Indonesia.
DMPY Dewan Mahasiswa dan Pemuda Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta Student and
Youth Council.
DPA Dewan Pertimbangan Agung, Supreme Advisory Council.
DPC Dewan Pimpinan Cabang, Branch (usually kabupaten-level)
Leadership Board of a political party or similar organisation.
DPD Dewan Pimpinan Daerah, Regional (usually provincial-level)
Leadership Board.
352
DPKR Dewan Penyelamat Kedaulatan Rakyat, Council for Saving People’s
Sovereignty, a PRD-initiated group formed in 1997.
DPP Dewan Pimpinan Pusat, Central Leadership Board.
dwifungsi ABRI doctrine for a ‘dual’ socio-political and defence function.
Elsam Lembaga Studi dan Advokasi Masyarakat, ‘Institute for Policy
Research and Advocacy’, a human rights NGO.
FAMI Front Aksi Mahasiswa Indonesia, Indonesian Students’ Action Front,
an inter-city student activist network established for a protest at the
DPR in late 1993.
FKMIJ Forum Komunikasi Mahasiswa Islam Jakarta, Jakarta Communication
Forum of Islamic Students.
FKMY Forum Komunikasi Mahasiswa Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta Student
Communication Forum, an important student group in the late 1980s.
FKSMJ Forum Komunikasi Senat Mahasiswa Jakarta, Jakarta Communication
Forum of Student Senates.
Fodem Forum Demokrasi, Democracy Forum.
Forkot Forum Kota, City Forum, an important student group formed in 1998,
also called Komunitas Mahasiswa Se-Jabotabek (All-Jabotabek
Student Community, Jabotabek being the Jakarta-Bogor-Tangerang-
Bekasi urban area).
Forsol Forum Solidaritas untuk Buruh, Workers’ Solidarity Forum, a Jakarta-
based NGO forum.
FPKR Forum Pemurnian Kedaulatan Rakyat, Forum for the Purification of
People’s Sovereignty.
FSPSI Federasi Serikat Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia, All-Indonesia Federation
of Labour Unions.
GMKI Gerakan Mahasiswa Kristen Indonesia, Christian [Protestant] Student
Movement of Indonesia.
GMNI Gerakan Mahasiswa Nasional Mahasiswa Indonesia, National Student
Movement of Indonesia, historically associated with the Sukarnoist
aliran.
Golkar Golongan Karya, ‘Functional Groups’, the state-backed political party.
golput golongan putih, ‘white group’, the term used to describe an election
boycott or, more accurately, casting an invalid vote by piercing the
blank (‘white’) part of the ballot paper.
gotong royong mutual cooperation.
GRB Gerakan Rakyat Bali, Bali People’s Movement, a coalition formed in
response to Megawati’s ouster from the PDI leadership in 1996.
HIPMI Himpunan Pengusaha Muda Indonesia, Young Indonesian
Businesspeople’s Association.
HMI Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam, Islamic Students Association.
HMI MPO HMI-Majelis Penyelemat Organisasi, HMI-Council to Save the
Organisation, a splinter of HMI which formed to reject the
organisation’s acceptance of Pancasila as ‘sole basis’ in the 1980s.
ICKI Ikatan Cendekiawan Kebangsaan Indonesia, Association of Nationalist
353
Intellectuals
ICMI Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Indonesia, Association of Muslim
Intellectuals of Indonesia.
IKADIN Ikatan Advokat Indonesia, the Indonesian Bar Association.
INFID International NGO Forum on Indonesian Development.
INFIGHT Indonesian Front for the Defence of Human Rights, activist coalition in
the late 1980s and early 1990s.
INGI International NGO Forum on Indonesia.
ITB Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung Institute of Technology.
JAKER Jaringan Kesenian Rakyat, People's Art Network, affiliated to the
PRD.
KADIN Kamar Dagang dan Industri, Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
Kaditsospol Kepala direktorat sosial-politik, Head of the Social and Political
Affairs Directorate of the Department of Internal Affairs.
KAHMI Korps Alumni HMI, the HMI Alumni Corps, the chief organisation for
former members of the Islamic Students’ Association.
Kakansospol Kepala Kantor Sosial-Politik, Regional Head of the Office of the
Social and Political Affairs Directorate of the Department of Internal
Affairs.
Kapuspen Kepala Pusat Penerangan, Chief of the ABRI Information Centre.
Kassospol Kepala Staf Sosial-Politik, ABRI’s Chief of Staff for Social and
Political Affairs.
kecamatan sub-regency, the regional administrative unit below the kabupaten
level.
keterbukaan openness.
KIPP Komite Independen Pengawas Pemilu, Independent Election
Monitoring Committee.
kabupaten regency, the regional administrative unit below the level of a province.
KINO Kesatuan Organisasi Induk, ‘Basic Organisational Units’,
organisations affiliated to Golkar.
KISDI Komite Indonesia untuk Solidaritas Dunia Islam, Indonesian
Committee for Solidarity with the Islamic World.
Kodam Komando Daerah Militer, Military Area Command.
Kodim Komando Distrik Militer, Military District Command.
Komnas HAM Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia, National Human Rights
Commission.
Kopassus Komando Pasukan Khusus, Special Forces Command.
Kopkamtib Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban, Operational
Command for the Restoration of Security and Order.
Kosgoro Koperasi Serba Usaha Gotong Royong, Mutual Aid All-Purpose
Cooperative, a Golkar KINO.
Kostrad Komando Strategis Angkatan Darat, Army Strategic Command.
KNPI Komite Nasional Pemuda Indonesia, Indonesian National Youth
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Committee, linked to Golkar.
KPA Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria, Consortium for Agrarian Reform.
KSAD Kepala Staf Angkatan Darat, Chief of Staff of the Army.
LBH Lembaga Bantuan Hukum, Legal Aid Institute.
Lemhanas Lembaga Ketahanan Nasional, National Resilience Institute
LKB Lembaga Kesadaran Berkonstitusi, Institute for Constitutional
Awareness.
LPHAM Lembaga [earlier Liga] Pembela Hak Asasi Manusi, Institute [League]
for the Defence of Human Rights.
LPPP Lembaga Pendidikan dan Pengembangan Pedesaan, Rural Education
and Development Institute.
LP3ES Lembaga Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Penerangan Ekonomi dan Sosial,
Institute for Social and Economic Research, Education and
Information.
LSP Lembaga Studi Pembangunan, Institute for Development Studies.
Malari Malapetaka 15 Januari, ‘The Fifteenth of January Calamity’, Jakarta
riots which coincided with the visit by Japanese P.M. Tanaka in 1974.
MAR Majelis Amanat Rakyat, People’s Mandate Council, established by
Amien Rais in May 1998.
MARI Majelis Rakyat Indonesia, Indonesian People’s Council, a coalition
established during the 1996 PDI crisis.
Masyumi The major modernist Islamic party in the ‘Old Order’ period.
Masyumi Baru Majelis Syarikat Umat Muslimin Indonesia, Council for the Indonesian
Muslim Community, the ‘new Masyumi’, established in 1996.
merah-putih ‘red and white’, the colours of the Indonesian flag, typically used to
mean ‘secular-nationalist,’ especially in discussions of military
factionalism.
MKGR Musyawarah Kekeluargaan Gotong Royong, Mutual Aid Family-based
Council, a Golkar KINO.
MUI Majelis Ulama Indonesia, Indonesian Council of Islamic Scholars.
Munas Musyawarah Nasional, National Consultation.
negara hukum a law-based state.
NU Nahdlatul Ulama, Islamic Scholars Association.
ormas organisasi kemasyarakatan, societal organisation or, sometimes,
organisasi massa, mass organisation.
OTB organisasi tanpa bentuk, ‘organisations without form.'
Pangab Panglima ABRI, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
Pangdam Panglima Daerah Militer, Commander of a Military Area (Kodam)
Parkindo-baru Partisipasi Kristen Indonesia, Indonesian Christian [Protestant]
Participation or the ‘new Parkindo’, named after the old Christian
Party, which fused into PDI in 1973.
PBHI Perhimpunan Bantuan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia Indonesia,
Indonesian Legal Aid and Human Rights Association.
355
PCPP Persatuan Cendekiawan Pembangunan Pancasila, Association of
Intellectuals for Pancasila Development.
PERADIN, Persatuan Advokat Indonesia, the Indonesian Bar Association.
Perinia Perkumpulan Indonesia Informasi dan Advokasi Hak Asasi Manusia,
Indonesian Association for Human Rights Information and Advocacy.
PIPHAM Pusat Informasi dan Pendidikan Hak Asasi Manusia, Centre for
Human Rights Information and Education.
PKI Partai Komunis Indonesia, Indonesian Communist Party.
PMIB Persatuan Mahasiswa Islam Bandung, Bandung Alliance of Islamic
Students
PMII Pergerakan Mahasiswa Islam Indonesia, Indonesian Islamic Student
Movement, aligned with NU.
PMKRI Persatuan Mahasiswa Katolik Indonesia Catholic Students'
Association of Indonesia.
PNI Partai Nasional Indonesia, Indonesian National Party.
PNI-Asu PNI Ali Sastroamidjojo –Surachman, leaders of the PNI’s centre and
left in the Sukarno period, a pejorative term for left-wing Sukarnoists;
'asu' is also Javanese for 'dog'
PPBI Pusat Perjuangan Buruh Indonesia, Center for Indonesian Labour
Struggle, workers’ group linked to the PRD.
PPP Partai Persatuan Pembangunan, United Development Party.
PRD Partai Rakyat Demokratik, People’s Democratic Party, before 1996 the
Persatuan Rakyat Demokratik, People’s Democratic Alliance.
PSI Partai Sosialis Indonesia, Indonesian Socialist Party.
Pijar Pusat Informasi dan Jaringan Aksi untuk Reformasi, Information
Centre and Action Network for Reformation, a Jakarta student-based
group.
PUDI Partai Uni Demokrasi Indonesia, Indonesian United Democracy Party,
established in 1996 by former PPP legislator, Sri Bintang Pamungkas.
rechtsstaat a law-based state
SARA Suku, Agama, Ras dan Antar-Golongan, ‘Ethnic, Religious, Racial and
Group identities.
SBSI Serikat Buruh Sejahtera Indonesia, Indonesian Prosperous Labour
Union.
SDSB Sumbangan Dermawan Sosial Berhadiah, Social Philanthropists’
Donations with Prize, a state-run lottery
SIAGA Solidaritas Indonesia untuk Amien – Mega, Indonesian Solidarity for
Amien-Mega.
SIUPP Surat Izin Usaha Penerbitan Pers, Press Publication License.
SIUPP Solidaritas Indonesia Untuk Pembebasan Pers, Indonesian Solidarity
for Press Freedom.
SKEPHI Jaringan Kerjasama Pelestarian Hutan Indonesia, Indonesian
Network for Forest Conservation (before 1987 Sekretariat Kerjasama
Pelestarian Hutan Indonesia, Indonesian Joint Secretariat for Forest
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Conservation).
SMID Solidaritas Mahasiswa Indonesia untuk Demokrasi, Indonesian
Student Solidarity for Democracy, affiliated to the PRD.
SOKSI Sentral Organisasi Karyawan Swadiri Indonesia, Indonesian Central
Organisation of Self-Reliant Functionaries, a Golkar KINO.
SPRIM Solidaritas Perjuangan Rakyat Indonesia untuk Rakyat Maubere,
Indonesian People's Solidarity Struggle with the Maubere People, an
East Timor solidarity group linked to the PRD.
STN Serikat Tani Nasional, National Peasants' Union, affiliated to the PRD.
Suara Ibu Peduli Voice of the Concerned Mothers, women’s organisation formed in
early 1998.
UI Universitas Indonesia, University of Indonesia.
ulama Islamic scholar.
Walhi Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia, Indonesia Environment
Network.
Yapusham Yayasan Pusat Studi Hak Asasi Manusia, Center for Human Rights
Studies.
YKPK Yayasan Kerukunan Persaudaraan Kebangsaan, Foundation for
National Harmony and Brotherhood.
YLBHI Yayasan Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Indonesia, the Indonesian Legal
Aid Foundation.
YLKI Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen Indonesia, the Indonesian Consumers’
Foundation.
357

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403
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404
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405

Newspapers, Magazines, Press Agencies and Electronic News Services

Antara
Asian Wall Street Journal
Asiaweek
The Australian
Australian Financial Review
Bali Post
Bernas
Editor
Detektif dan Romantika
DëTik
Far Eastern Economic Review
Forum Keadilan
Gatra
Harian Kami
Harian Terbit
The Independent
Indonesia Raya
Indonesia Reports
Indonesian Observer
Inti Jaya
Jakarta Jakarta
Jakarta Post
Jawa Pos
Jayakarta
Kedaulatan Rakyat
Kompas
Matahari
Media Dakwah
Media Indonesia
Media Kita
Merdeka
The Nation
Panji Masyarakat
Paron
406
Pikiran Rakyat
Republika
Reuters
Serambi Indonesia
Simphoni
Sinar Harapan
Sinar Pagi
South China Morning Post
Suara Independen
Suara Karya
Suara Merdeka
Suara Pembaruan
Surabaya Post
Surya
Sydney Morning Herald
Tapol Bulletin
Tempo
Tempo Interaktif
Tiras
Wall Street Journal
Washington Post
Xpos

Magazines and bulletins produced by student bodies, NGOs and other groups

Annisa (Yayasan Anissa Swasti)


Arena (IAIN Sunan Kalijaga)
Awas (KIPP)
Balairung (Unit Pers Mahasiswa UGM)
Bantuan Hukum (LBH)
Black Post: Suara Demokrasi Mahasiswa (Lembaga Pers Mahasiswa ISTN Jakarta)
Bongkar (FAMI)
Boulevard (ITB)
Bulak Sumur (Badan Penerbit Pers Mahasiswa UGM)
Buletin Komunikas (Parkindo-Baru)
Bunderan (Keluarga Mahasiswa UGM)
407
Citra Patria (Lembaga Pers Mahasiswa Universitas 17 Agustus 1945, Jakarta)
Didaktika (Unit Penerbitan Kampus IKIP Jakarta)
Dongbret (Yayasan Kalyanamitra)
Faktum (Senat Mahasiswa Fakultas Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Padjadjaran)
Ganesha (Forum Ketua Himpunan Jurusan, ITB)
Gaung (Ikatan Keluarga Sastra UI)
Gaung (SKEPHI)
Gema Padjadjaran (Universitas Padjadjaran)
Gugah (Serikat Mahasiswa UII, Yogyakarta)
Hayam Wuruk (Senat Mahasiswa Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang)
Indonesia Human Rights Forum (YLBHI)
Jurnal Demokrasi (YLBHI)
Jurnal Perempuan
Kabar dari Pijar (Yayasan Pijar)
Kalpadruma (Fakultas Sastra Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta)
Kanaka (Mahasiswa Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar)
Ketawang Gede (Unit Aktivitas Penerbitan Kampus Mahasiswa Prawijaya, Malang)
Kurir (Himpunan Mahasiswa Jurnalistik Fikom, Unpad)
Lentera (Senat Mahasiswa Fakultas Sastra, UI)
Lestari Alamku (SKEPHI)
Massif (Komite Pergerakan Mahasiswa Bandung)
Newsletter (Free School for Socioanalysis, Bandung)
Nurani (Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta)
Pacul (STN)
Paradigma (GMNI)
Pembebasan (Komite Pimpinan Pusat PRD)
Perspektif (Kelompok Studi Humaniora)
Pijar (Biro Pers Mahasiswa Fakultas Filsafat UGM)
Politika (Forum Kajian & Komunikasi Mahasiswa Universitas Nasional)
Politika (Senat Fisipol, Universitas Darul ‘Ulum Jombang)
Prima (Senat Mahasiswa Fisipol Universitas Jember)
Progres (Komite Internasional Progres)
Radar (LBH)
Realita (KPMURI)
Retorika (Senat Mahasiswa FISIP Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya)
Resume (Pusat Pengkajian Informasi & Data)
Setiakawan (SKEPHI)
408
Siasat (KPMURI)
Sintesis (CIDES)
Soka (Forum Belajar Bebas)
Solidaritas (Forum Komunikasi Pers Mahasiswa Se-Jabotabek)
Solusi (Lembaga Pers Mahasiswa Islam, Yogyakarta)
Suluh GRB (Gerakan Rakyat Bali).
Suara Dema (Divisi Informasi & Penerbitan Dewan Mahasiswa Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Yogyakarta)
Suara Marhaen (Gerakan Rakyat Marhaen, Yogyakarta)
Suara Massa (SMID)
Sumbu (Solidaritas Mahasiswa Semarang)
Thesa (Kelompok diskusi pojok dagu, Bandung)
Vokal (IKIP PGRI Semarang)
409

Interviews and other oral sources

Many people interviewed during the course of this thesis requested not be named or otherwise
identified.

Formal interviews

Partai Demokrasi Indonesia

Abdoelhamid Notowidagdo, Jakarta DPRD, February 2, 1993.


Aberson Marle Sihaloho, DPR member, November 11, 1995.
Djadijono, MPR member, November 2, 1995.
Djathi Koesoemo, DPR member, November 14, 1995.
Laksamana Sukardi, party treasurer, December 5 1995, December 16, 1996, July 17, 1998.
Mangara Siahaan, DPP member, December 1, 1995.
Megawati Soekarnoputri, December 11, 1995, December 17, 1996.
Nico Daryanto, former secretary general, October 24, 1995.
Sabam Sirait, DPR member, former secretary general, December 1, 1995.
Sophan Sophiaan, DPR member, December 3 1995.
Victor Matondang, PDI and PARKINDO, November 23, 1995.

Former PNI leaders and other Nationalists

Selamet Ginting, Gerakan Rakyat Marhaen, October 19, 1993.


Soenardi, Gerakan Rakyat Marhaen, December 13, 1993.
Soehario Padmodiwirio, February 1, 1994.
Abdoel Madjid, November 23, 1993.
Prof. Usep Ranawidjaja, former secretary general of PNI and PDI, November 24, 1993.
Hardi S. H., former chairperson of PNI, June 24, 1993.
Bpk. Melwachdiat Sukardi 1993, Member of Petisi 50 working group
Cornellis Lay, February 23, 1994.
Ibu Supeni, PNI-Baru, November 13, 1995
Bapak Bagin, Yayasan Pendidikan Sukarno, November 8, 1995
Trie Handono, Gerakan Rakyat Marhaen, PNI-baru, November 10, 1995.
Permadi, paranormal, December 2, 1996
410
Soeroto Padmodihardjo, November 30, 1993.

Human rights organisations and other NGOs

Adnan Buyung Nasution, February 8, 1994, April 13, 1994, December 10, 1995, December 15,
1996
Mulyana W Kusumah, YLBHI & PBHI, February 10, 1994, October 24, 1995, December 17,
1996.
Melani, LBH Bandung, March 19, 1994.
Bpk. Puspoadji, LBH Semarang, February 17, 1994.
Hendardi, YLBHI, February 2, 1994.
Teten Masduki, January 31, YLBHI, Forsol, 1994.
Haji Johannes Princen, LPHAM, YLBHI, April 7 1993; June 10 1993; February 5, 1994.
Abdul Hakim Garuda Nusantara, Elsam, YLBHI, October 30, 1995.
Effendi Saman, Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Nusantara, November 29, 1994.
Rambun Tjajo, June 25, 1993.
Harjono Tjitrosoeboeno, YLBHI, IKADIN, November 16 1995.
Todung Mulya Lubis; YLBHI, Yapusham, November 15, 1995.
Syarif Bastaman, Perkumpulan Indonesia Informasi dan Advokasi Hak Asasi Manusia,
November 7 1995
Fauzi Abdullah, formerly LBH, November 29, 1995.

Other NGOs

Gadis Arivia, Suara Ibu Peduli, December 20, 1998.


Dadang Juliantara, Yogyakarta NGO forum, March 14, 1994.
George Aditjondro, March 2, 1994.
M. M. Billah, February 23, 1994.
Indro Tjahjono, SKEPHI, November 29 1993; November 24, 1995.
Noer Fauzi, LPPP, March 22, 1994.
Ita Askamal, Kalyanamitra, July 27 1993.
Kartjono, Bina Desa, November 17, 1995.
Aris Santoso, Bina Desa, October 25, 1995.
Asmara Nababan, INFID, November 11 1995.
Deddy Triawan, WALHI, November 17 1995.
Wiladi Budiharga, LPIST, November 21, 1995.
411
Angger Djati Wijaya, Forum LSM/LPSM DIY, December 4, 1996

Forum Demokrasi and YKPK

Abdurrahman Wahid, Fodem, NU, December 6 1993; November 6 1995.


Bondan Gunawan, February 11, 1994, October 31 1995, November 8 1995, December 15,
1996, July 13, 1998.
Dr. Daniel Dhakidae, Forum Demokrasi, Kompas, October 25, 1995.
Marsillam Simanjuntak, August 24, 1993; October 24, 1995.
Rahman Tolleng, March 14 1994, November 23 1995
Eko Cokrojoyo, YKPK November 19 1995.
Franz Magnis Suseno, September 18 1993.
Midian Sirait, YKPK, November 28, 1995.
Hasjim Wahid, NU, YKPK, November 3, 1995.
Suko Sudarso, YKPK, November 16, 1995.
Sunarso Djajusman, former deputy head of Bakin and Ambassador to Malaysia; YKPK
November 16, 1995;
Sunarto, YKPK, November 16, 1995.
Marzuki Darusman, Golkar, Komnas HAM, YKPK, November 29, 1995.

Petisi 50 and FPKR

Soeyitno Soekirno, November 16, 1993.


Chris Siner Key Timu, April 12, 1993; November 11, 1993; October 30, 1995.
Radjab Ranggasoli, November 14 1993.
Dr. Deliar Noer, October 15, 1993.
Ali Sadikin, November 16, 1995
Melwachdiat Sukardi, November 17, 1993.

ICMI and CIDES

Adi Sasono, February 4, 1994


Moh. Jumhur Hidayat, July 15 1993; October 27, 1995, November 14, 1996.
M. Dawam Rahardjo, February 1, 1994
Eggi Sudjana, November 29 1995, July 10, 1998.
Amien Rais, July 15, 1998.
412
Tamsil Linrung, July 10, 1998.
Priyo Budi Santoso, November 29, 1995, November 14, 1996.
M. Syafi’i Anwar, November 12, 1993.
Amir Santoso, July 15, 1993

Miscellaneous

Rudini, Former Army Chief of Staff and Interior Minister, November 14, 1995.
Sayidiman Suryohadiprojo, November 27, 1995
Maj. Gen. (retd.) Zein. A. Maulani, Defence and Security Affairs Advisor to Habibie,
November 19 1995, July 18, 1998.
Soemitro, December 6, 1995.
Brigadier General (retired) Roekmini Koesoemo Astoeti, Komnas HAM, formerly of Fraksi-
ABRI November 29, 1995.
Major General (retired) RK Sembiring Meliala, formerly of Fraksi-ABRI, November 16, 1996
Sri Bintang Pamungkas, PUDI, November 26, 1996
Ridwan Saidi, Masjumi – Baru, November 27, 1996
Hariman Siregar, former UI student leader, March 1, 1994; November 25, 1995
Prof. Sarbini Sumawinata, March 15, 1994.
Panda Nababan, Forum Keadilan, November 27, 1995
Dr. Arief Budiman, February 16, 1994, October 14, 1995.
Eros Djarot, Detik, October 28 1995.
Harry Tjan Silalahi, CSIS, November 14, 1995.
Panda Nababan, Forum Keadilan, November 27, 1995
Rizal Ramli, Econit, November 21, 1995.
Mochtar Pabotinggi, LIPI, November 20, 1995.
Lukman Hakim, LIPI, former 1978 student activist, November 22, 1995.
Salim Said, academic, November 17, 1995
Eki Syachrudin, Golkar, December 5 1995.
Soebadio Sastrosatomo, formerly of the PSI, June 15, 1993.
Moerdianto, Yayasan Soedjatmoko, September 8 1993.
Sarwono Kusumaatmadja, former Minister of the Environment, October 19, 1998.
Bambang Sulistomo, PCPP, November 27, 1995.
Muchtar Pakpakhan, SBSI, February 9, 1994.

Student and former student activists


413

I conducted interviews and informal discussions with a great number of students and former
student activists. It is impossible to name them all individually. Key informants came from the
following organisations: SMID, Yayasan Pijar, Politika (Unas) Yayasan Humanika, HMI-MPO,
SMJ (Solidaritas Mahasiswa Jakarta), SMS (Solidaritas Mahasiswa Semarang), SMY
(Solidaritas Mahasiswa Yogyakarta), FKPMJ (Forum Komunikasi Pers Mahasiswa Jakarta),
Bakor (Bandung), KPMURI (Komite Pergerakan Mahasiswa untuk Rakyat Indonesia,
Bandung), Ganesha, KPMB (Kesatuan Pergerakan Mahasiswa Bandung), DMPY, FKMY,
(Yogyakarta), FKMS (Forum Komunikasi Mahasiswa Surabaya), Kelompok Studi Mentari,
Cakrawala Timur (Surabaya), Formajo (Forum Mahasiswa Jombang), FKMM (Forum
Komunikasi Mahasiswa Malang), HMI, GMNI, DPOI-GMNI, PMKRI. and from 1998, Forum
Komunikasi Senat Jakarta, Forkot, KPRP, Senat Mahasiswa UI, and others.

Amongst the many who provided invaluable information, several stand out: Standarkiaa and
Pius Lustrilanang (Aldera), Arnold Purba, M. Fadjroel Rachman, Koster (Bandung), Lukas
Luwarso and Poltak Wibowo (Semarang), Daniel Indrakusumah, Munif Laredo, Bimo
Nugroho, Garda, Petrus, Wilson, Webby, Anom (PRD/SMID), Nuku Suleiman, Bambang
Beathor Suryadi, Antot, Hakim, Amir Husin Daulay, Andri (Yayasan Pijar), Syamsunar
(Jombang), Henry Aruan, Stanley, Agustiana (Garut), Trimedya Panjaitan (LBH), Ngurah
Haryadi (Denapasar), as well as Harry Wibowo; Nugroho Katjasungkana; Hendradjit, Umar
Haisim, Oki, Bambang, Asnawi, Maria Pakpakhan, Hilmar Farid, Abdul Rachman Saleh,
Sugeng Bahagijo, Rama Pratama, Agus E. Santoso and Santoso AS.

Informal interviews / Participant observation

In addition to formal interviews, I was privileged to observe or participate in meetings and


other functions held by many organisations during my stay in Indonesia. I also had many
informal conversations with activists and leaders from many organisations. Among those who
generously shared their time, observations, analysis and facilities with me were leaders and
representatives of the following organisations: Aldera; Aliansi Perempuan Demokratik
Indonesia; Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Nusantara (Bandung); Yayasan Lembaga Bantuan Hukum
Indonesia, YLBHI (Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Denpasar, Surabaya, Jakarta offices);
Formaci (Forum Mahasiswa Ciputat); Forum Demokrasi; ICMI; ISAIS Institut Studi Arus
Informasi, Institute for the Study of Free Flow of Information; Jaker; Parkindo-baru; PDI
(various branches); PNI-baru; Pemuda Demokrat (various branches); PMKRI; PRD; STN;
SMID (and its predecessor 'Solidaritas Mahasiswa' groups in various towns); SPRIM; Pipham;
414
PPMI (Persaudaraan Pekerja Muslim Indonesia); Yayasan Buruh Membangun; Yayasan
Perempuan Mardika; Yayasan Kalyanamitra; Yayasan Soedjatmoko; Yayasan SPES; CIDES;
GMNI; SISBIKUM; SPID; LP3ES; Bina Desa; Elsam; Forum LSM/LPSM DIY; INFID; Walhi;
YLKI; Solidaritas Perempuan; Yayasan Arek; Yayasan Pijar; FAMI; Cakrawala Timur;
Gerakan Rakyat Bali; LPPP (Bandung); KPA; Ikatan Mahasiswa Muhammadiyah; LBH
Ampera (Bogor); Yayasan Humanika; Kontras (Komisi untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban
Tindak Kekerasan); PBHI; PIPHAM; Yapusham.