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Ankit Baheti
Vidya T.K
Ashmita ghosh
 Valves are mechanical devices designed to direct, start, stop, mix or
regulate the flow, pressureor temperature of a process fluid. The
common types of valves available are gate valves, globe valves,
butterfly valves etc. the materials commonly used for construction are
iron, steel, plastic, brass or a mixture of special alloys.

 According to their function valves may be classified as on-off valves,

non-return valves, and control valves

 The on-off valves are used to start or stop the flow through the
process. EXAMPLE: Gate valves and pressure relief valves
 The non-return valves allow the fluid to flow in one particular
direction only.
 The control valves are used to regulate flow, temperature or
pressure through a system.
The selection of the valve body material is usually based on pressure,
temperature, corrosive properties and erosive properties of the flow media. Also
the choice of the materials depends on economic factors. Majority of control
valves involve non corrosive fluids at reasonable temperatures and pressure.
Therefore cast iron and cast carbon steel are most commonly used valve body
materials as it has a provision for repacking under pressure.

• High lift of the seat is available to avoid any obstruction in the flow
• Sturdy & bigger wheel provided to give sufficient torque for easy operation
• Minimum pressure drop inside the body due to streamlined body design
• Accurate Pressure and temperature for 200 mm valve
• Comes in Straight / Right Angle Pattern
• Maximum Steam Working Pressure: 13 Kg/ square cm Gauge
• Maximum Working Temperature : 220 degree C
• Size Range:15mm to 200mm
• The C.I. steam stop valve body has a bell-shaped configurati on terminating in an
annular seating surface and includes a servo piston component operating in a cylinder
and an associated pilot valve for controlling steam entry into the cylinder from the
steam chamber. It is used in controlling steam entry into the cylinder from the steam
chamber by way of a longitudinal bore through the spindle and valve head.


Working Pressure :
Steam Pressure upto 13 kg /cm2 &
Temperature upto 220oC
Testing Pressure :
26kg./cm2 Hydraulic
Components Material Standard

Body, Bonnet, Gland,

Cast Iron IBR 86 to 93 Gr. A
Hand wheel,

Stem, Disc Nut, Disc,

Stainless Steel A ISI-410
Body Seat Ring

Gasket CAF IS: 2712

Gland Packing Graphite Asbestos -
Bolts, Nuts, Studs,
Carbon Steel -

Yoke Bush Aluminium Bronze -

 Body and bonnet
 The main parts of a valve are the body and the bonnet. These
two parts form the casing that holds the fluid going through the
valve. The bonnet is the casing through which the stem passes
and that forms a guide and seal for the stem.
 Valve bodies are usually metallic
. Brass, bronze, gunmetal, cast iron, steel, alloy steels
and stainless steels are very common.
 Seawater applications, like desalination plants, often use
duplex valves, as well as super duplex valves, due to their
corrosion resistant properties, particularly against warm
 Alloy 20 valves are typically used in sulphuric acid plants,
whilst monel valves are used in hydrofluoric acid (HF Acid)
 Hastelloy valves are often used in high temperature
applications, such as nuclear plants, whilst inconel valves are
often used in hydrogen applications.
 Plastic bodies are used for relatively low pressures and
 PVC, PP, PVDF and glass-reinforced nylon are common
plastics used for valve bodies
 A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body. It is
commonly semi-permanently screwed into the valve
 During manufacture of the valve, the internal parts are
put into the body and then the bonnet is attached to
hold everything together inside.
 To access internal parts of a valve, a user would take
off the bonnet, usually for maintenance.
 Many valves do not have bonnets; for example,
plug usually do not have bonnets.
 Ports are passages that allow fluid to pass through
the valve. Ports are obstructed by the valve
member or disc to control flow. Valves most
commonly have 2 ports, but may have as many as 20.
The valve is almost always connected at its
ports to pipesor other components. Connection
methods include threading,
compression fittings, glue, cement,
flanges, or welding.
 A disc or valve member is a movable obstruction inside
the stationary body that adjustably restricts flow
through the valve. Although traditionally
disc-shaped, discs come in various
 A ball is a round valve member with one or more paths
between ports passing through it. By rotating the ball flow can
be directed between different ports. Ball valves use
spherical rotors with a cylindrical hole drilled as a fluid
 Plug valves use cylindrical or conically tapered rotors
called plugs .Other round shapes for rotors are possible as well
in rotor valves, as long as the rotor can be turned inside
the valve body.
 However not all round or spherical discs are rotors; for
example, a ball check valve uses the ball to block reverse flow,
but is not a rotor because operating the valve does not involve
rotation of the ball.
 The seat is the interior surface of the body which contacts the disc
to form a leak-tight seal. In discs that move linearly or swing on a
hinge the disc comes into contact with the seat only when the valve
is shut. In disks that rotate, the seat is always in contact with the
disk, but the area of contact changes as the disc is turned. The seat
always remains stationary relative to the body.
 Seats are classified by whether they are cut directly into the body,
or if they are made of a different material:
 Hard seats are integral to the valve body. Nearly all hard seated
metal valves have a small amount of leakage.
 Soft seats are fitted to the valve body and made of softer materials
such as PTFE or various elastomers such as NBR, EPDM,
or FKM depending on the maximum operating temperature.
 The stem transmits motion from controlling device to the disc.
The stem typically passes through the bonnet when present.

 In some cases, the stem and the disc can be combined in one
piece, or the stem and the handle are combined in one piece.

 The motion transmitted by the stem may be a linear force, a

rotational torque, or some combination of these.

 The valve and stem can be threaded such that the stem can be
screwed into or out of the valve by turning it in one direction or
the other, thus moving the disc back or forth inside the body.
 Valves whose disc is between the seat and the stem and where
the stem moves in a direction into the valve to shut it are
normally-seated or front seated.

 Valves whose seat is between the disc and the stem and where
the stem moves in a direction out of the valve to shut it
are reverse-seated or back seated.

 These terms don't apply to valves with no stem or valves

using rotors.
 Theinternal elements of a valve are collectively referred to as a
valve's trim.

 According to API Standards 600, "Steel Gate Valve-Flanged

and Butt-welding Ends, Bolted Bonnets", the trim consists of
stem, body seating surface, gate seating surface, bushing
or a deposited weld for the backseat and stem hole guide, and
small internal parts that normally contact the service fluid,
excluding the pin that is used to make a stem-to-gate
connection (this pin shall be made of an austenitic stainless
steel material).
S flow layout is a form of product layout. In this
layout various facilities such as machines,
equipment, work force etc. are located as per
sequence of operation on parts. This type of
layout is preferred when production is
continuous, part variety is les production
volume is high and part demand is relatively

 Less WIP inventory as the flow of material is

continuous along a line.
 The flow of material is smooth and continuous.
 Compared to process layout it requires less space
for same volume of production.
 The throughput time (or product cycle time) is
less as compared to process layout.
 Simple production planning and control and
better coordination of different activities may
be achieved.
 Conveyorised material handling or automation
in the material handling is cost effective as
the flow of material is well know.
 The skill level of workers may be lesser as a
particular worker has to do a particular
operation which seldom changes due to
standardized product line.
 Change in product design is difficult to
 Product variety is very much limited.
 Breakdown of a particular machine line halts
the production output.
 Capital investment in machine may be higher as
compared to layout as duplication of machine in
a line may be needed.
 The flexibility to increase the production
capacities may be limited.
 Economic batch quantity (EBQ)
 Formula:
 EBQ=sqrt(2AS/C)
 Where A=demand
 S=set up costs
 C=holding costs
 Thus EBQ=sqrt(2*10000*1500*3)/(1500))
 =245 units

 No. of cycles = 10000/245=40 cycles

 A total of 6 components are required to make a steam
stop valve

 Here we assume that 3 components are procured

through outsourcing and the other 3 are
manufactured in-house
Component Required Standard Hours per
Number production production month
rate(Pij) rate(1/Tij) (Hij)
1 15000 110 125

2 12000 90 125

3 10000 70 125
The number of machines required is given by the
 Mj=∑Pij Tij/Hij

 Pij=desired production rate for product i on m/c
 Tij=production time for product i on m/c j
 Hij=no.of hours in production period available for
production of product i on m/c j
 n=Number of products
 Mj= (15000/(125*110)) + 12000/(125*90))

Thus Mj=1.09+1.06+1.14 =3.29

= 4 machines

Mj=4 machines
M/c no. Area Quantity Producti m/c Area(s
on rate code q.m)

1 2.5*.8 1 75 A 2
2 5*1.5 1 80 B 7.5
3 6*.75 1 75 C 4.5
4 3*.75 1 70 D 2.25

Base area =16.25 sq.m

From To From To WIP

A D 75 70 5

B D 80 70 10

C D 75 70 5

Total WIP=20 units/hr

 Aisle area=1 m (because of light material
 Base area=16.25 sq.m
 Working space and tool area=B=16.25 sq.m
 Tool crib area=.2*B=.2*16.25 =3.25 sq.m
 Maintenance area=3.75 sq.m
 Supervisory area=2.5*2 =5 sq.m
 Thus WIP=20 units/hr
 Dimensions of product=60*300 sq.mm
 Corresponding area=20*60*300 sq.mm/hr
=360000 sq.mm/hr or
0.36 sq. m/hr
 Corresponding area/week on single
stacking=(.36*8*3*6)=51.84 sq.m
 [as 3 shifts/day;8 hrs/shift;6 days a week)
 Executive chamber=4*5*2=40 sq.m(for 2

 Office area=4*15=60 sq.m

 Conference room=50 sq.m (upto 15 people)

 Generator room: Main area =15 sq.m for

Total administrative area=150 sq.m

 Inspection area=.1625 sq.m

 Internal access area=B=16.25 sq.m

 Amenities=25 sq.m

Total shop floor area=138.7025 sq.m