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# SCIENCE UNIT 5- MOVING THINGS, PEOPLE AND IDEAS (11.

## FORCE, MACHINE AND

ENERGY)

# Q1. What is force? What are the effects of force on an object?
A1. The pushing and pulling of an object is called force. Effects of force are (i) Move a stationery object,
(ii) Sow down and stop a moving object, (ii) Change the direction of a moving object, (iv) Change
the shape of an object.

# Q2. What is a lever? Name the different types of lever showing position of its parts.
A2. A lever is a simple machine consisting of a rigid rod capable of moving about a fixed point called the
fulcrum. There are three types of lever - (i) First class lever, (ii) Second class lever, (iii) Third class
lever.

Fulcrum
First class lever

Fulcrum

Effort
Second class lever

Fulcrum

Effort
Third class lever

# Q3. What are simple machines? Name the types of simple machines.
A3. Simple machines are tools which help us to do a great deal of work with less effort. There are six
types of simple machines - (i) Lever (ii) Inclined plane (iii) Wedge (iv) Screw (v) Wheel and axle (vi)
Pulley

## # Q4. What is energy? What is the law of conservation of energy?

A4. Energy is defined as the power to do work. Law of conservation of energy- Energy cannot be created
or destroyed. It can change from one form to another and can be stored.

# Q5. What is an inclined plane? How does it make our work easier?
A5. An inclined plane is a flat supporting surface with one end higher than the other used for raising or
lowering a load. Using and inclined plane requires less force than lifting it straight up.

# Q6. What is mechanical energy? What are the two main types of mechanical energy?
A6. Mechanical energy in an object is due to its motion or position or both. The two main types of
mechanical energy are - (i) kinetic energy, (ii) Potential energy.

# Q7. Write the change of energy from one form to another in each case.
A7.

## (i) Use of solar heaters (i) Solar energy to heat energy.

(ii) Water falling from a height in a dam. (ii) Potential energy to kinetic energy.
(iii) Working of windmills (iii) Wind energy to electrical energy.

Contd.... Pg (2)
:2:

## # Q8. GIVE REASONS:

A8.

a) There are grooves on the tyres of vehicles. a) The grooves provide friction on the road
otherwise the tyre would skid on the roads and

cause accidents.
b) A ball thrown upwards comes down back on the b) The gravitational force of the Earth attracts
ground. and pulls objects towards it.
c) We should encourage the use of wind energy. c) Wind energy is the renewable source of energy.
It does not create pollution and is environment
friendly.

d) A labourer uses a ramp to load heavy d) A ramp is an inclined plane so the containers
containers on a truck. can be loaded easily using less effort.

Q9. How many types of forces are there? Mention the type of forces with example.
A9. There are 8 types of forces. The types of forces with example are:

1) Gravitational Force The force that attracts or pulls objects towards Earth. Eg: if we throw a ball
upwards in the air, it comes down back on the Earth.
2) Magnetic Force The force through which magnets attract objects made of iron and nickel towards
it.
3) Muscular Force The use of our limbs to pull or push objects. Eg: Pulling a trolley suitcase.
4) Elastic Force: The force through which we can stretch or compress things. Eg: Ropes for
bungee jumping.
5) Mechanical Force The force applied in all simple machines. Eg: Cutting of paper through scissor.
6) Buoyant Force When we push a floating object down in water it comes up with an upward
thrust, this is called buoyant force. Eg: Diving in a swimming pool.
7) Frictional Force The force that tries to stop or slow down the movement of a moving object when
the two surfaces are touching each other. Eg: The grooves on tyres of a vehicle
produce friction on the road, otherwise the tyres would skid.
8) Electrostatic Force The force produced by charged objects when rubbed with other objects. Eg:
after running comb through our hair, we are able to pull small pieces of paper
with it.

A10.

a) What Mention the parts of a Lever? a) The three parts of a Lever are - Fulcrum, Load and Effort.
b) What is a Fulcrum? b) It is the main part where the rod is fixed in a lever.
c) What is Load? c) It is the weight that is to be lifted or moved.
d) What is Effort? d) Force that is applied to move or lift an object.
e) What is a first class lever? Give e) When fulcrum is between load and effort it is a first class
example. lever. Eg: Scissors.
f) What is a second class lever? Give f) When load is between fulcrum and effort it is a second class
example. lever. Eg: bottle opener.
g) What is a third class lever? Give f) When effort is between fulcrum and load it is a third class
example. lever. Eg: fishing rod.
h) Who explained mathematically h) Archimedes.
how levers worked?
i) What is a wedge? How does it i) A wedge is thick at one end and thin , sharp edged at the
work? other end. Eg: Knife.
j) What is a screw? j) Screw is an inclined plane, spiral at one end and holds objects

firmly.
k) What is a wheel and Axle? Give k) When a wheel has a rod attached to it which helps in
example. movement, the rod i called axle. Eg: steering wheel of a car.

l) What is a pulley? Give example. l)A wheel which has grooves on it on which a rope or chain
moves to lift objects is called a pulley. Eg: Elevators in tall
buildings have a pulley on which they go up and down.
Contd ... Pg(3)
:3:

A10 Contd.

m) What is Kinetic Energy? Give m) Energy which moving objects posses is Kinetic Energy. Eg: A
example.
moving car.
n) What is Potential Energy? Give n) Energy which is stored energy of position is Potential Energy.
example. Eg: Water sorted behind a dam.
o) What is Solar Energy? How it is o) The energy that we get from Sun is solar energy. It can be
used. Give example. used to generate electricity. Eg: Solar heaters.
p) What is Wind Energy? How it is p) Wind Energy is a renewable source of energy, formed when
used? wind is converted into energy by the wind turbines.
q) What is Hydroelectric Energy? q) Hydroelectricity Energy is one of the oldest sources of energy
Explain how it is produced? produced by falling of flowing water. Dams are set to collect
running water which is allowed to flow through tunnels to
convert it to electricity.
r) What is Light Energy? Give r) The energy that produces light and able us to see things is
examples. Light Energy. Example Sun, bulbs.
s) What is Heat Energy? How it is s) Heat is a form of energy we get from Sun and also from
used? burning of fuels like coal , petrol. It is used for cooking,
warm our homes , etc.
t) What is Sound Energy? How it is t) Vibration produced by an object while travelling through
used? solid, liquid or gas produce sound is called Sound energy.
Eg: Musical instruments and music systems.

## a) Magnets are made up of ___ and ___. a) nickel, iron.

b) ___ force is applied in simple machines. b) Effort or mechanical
c) A scissor is a ___ class lever. c) first
d) The rod attached to a wheel is called_________. d) axle
e) Solar cookers use ___ energy for cooking food. e) solar
f)When wind turbines work in group, they are called __. f) wind farms.
g) Force of Earth that pulls objects towards it_____. g) gravitational force
h)Force created by combing hair in winter ______. h) electrostatic force
i)The oldest source of energy ______. i) hydroelectric energy
j)an inclined plane with a spiral end____. j) screw
k) Ability to do work____. k) energy

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SCIENCE UNIT 5- MOVING THINGS, PEOPLE AND IDEAS (11. FORCE, MACHINE AND
ENERGY)

Questions
# Q1. What is force? What are the effects of force on an object?

# Q2. What is a lever? Name the different types of lever showing position of its parts.

# Q3. What are simple machines? Name the types of simple machines.

## (i) Use of solar heaters

(ii) Water falling from a height in a dam.
(iii) Working of windmills

# Q5. What is an inclined plane? How does it make our work easier?

# Q6. What is mechanical energy? What are the two main types of mechanical energy?

# Q7. Write the change of energy from one form to another in each case.

## a) There are grooves on the tyres of vehicles.

b) A ball thrown upwards comes down back on the ground.
c) We should encourage the use of wind energy.
d) A labourer uses a ramp to load heavy containers on a truck.

Q9. How many types of forces are there? Mention the type of forces with example.

## a) What Mention the parts of a Lever?

b) What is a Fulcrum?
d) What is Effort?
e) What is a first class lever? Give example.
f) What is a second class lever? Give example.
g) What is a third class lever? Give example.
h) Who explained mathematically how levers worked?
i) What is a wedge? How does it work?
j) What is a screw?
k) What is a wheel and Axle? Give example.
l) What is a pulley? Give example.
m) What is Kinetic Energy? Give example.
n) What is Potential Energy? Give example.
o) What is Solar Energy? How it is used. Give example.
p) What is Wind Energy? How it is used?
q) What is Hydroelectric Energy? Explain how it is produced?
r) What is Light Energy? Give examples.
s) What is Heat Energy? How it is used?
t) What is Sound Energy? How it is used?
Contd.... Pg (2)
:2:

## a) Magnets are made up of ___ and ___.

b) ___ force is applied in simple machines.
c) A scissor is a ___ class lever.
d) The rod attached to a wheel is called_________.
e) Solar cookers use ___ energy for cooking food.
f)When wind turbines work in group, they are called __.
g) Force of Earth that pulls objects towards it_____.
h)Force created by combing hair in winter ______.
i)The oldest source of energy ______.
j)an inclined plane with a spiral end____.
k) Ability to do work____.

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