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Percentage

Example 1. When the cost of an article is decreased by 75%, it cost becomes Rs. 1050. Find the
cost of the article, before the discount was given.
Solution. The discount of the article is 75 %. After discount is given, let the new cost be x% of the
original cost (before the discount was given).
x% = (100 - 75)% = 25%.
100× 1050
∴ Original price = = Rs. 4200.
25
Example 2. The ratio of cost of two articles is 2 : 5. Then, what percent is the cost of 1 st article is
the 2nd article?
Solution. Let the cost of first and second article be Rs. 2x and Rs. 5x.
2 x ×100
∴ Required per cent = = 40%.
5 x ×1
Example 3. What principle is lent, if the payable interest after 5 years is Rs. 365, at the rate of 10
% per annum?
SI ×100
Solution. The principal is calculated by the formula .
R×T
We have,
SI = Rs. 365
R = 10 % pa
T = 5 years
365× 100
P= = Rs. 730
5× 10
∴ Rs. 730 is lent.
Example 4. Rakesh, at simple interest, borrows a sum at 5 % pa and for 10 years. If the interest
after 10 years is 5 times the principal, then find the interest paid.
Solution. Let principal is Rs. x. Let the interest be Rs. y. Then we have,
Rs. (x + y) = 5x
 Rs. y = 5x - x (transposing +x to right side, changing to -x)
 Rs. y = Rs. 4x (Express y as x terms).
 Interest = 4x.

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