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KNOWLEDGE

GENIUS!
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A WORLD OF IDEAS:
SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW
www.dk.com
KNOWLEDGE

GENIUS!
Contributors: Peter Chrisp, Clive Gifford, Derek Harvey,
Andrea Mills, and John Woodward
CONTENTS

1 SCIENCE GEEK 2 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Space 10 Dinosaurs 42
Planet parade 12 Clawed carnivores 44
Space travelers 14 Plant-eating giants 46
The elements 16 Prehistoric creatures 48
Simply elementary 18 Mammals 50
The human body 20 Know your cats 52
Know your bones 22 Primate party 54
Under the microscope 24 Aquatic mammals 56
Math 26 Invertebrates 58
Shape up! 28 Insects everywhere 60
Transportation 30 Under the sea 62
On the road 32 Arachnids assemble 64
All aboard! 34 Birds 66
Taking to the skies 36 Birds of a feather 68
All at sea 38 Deadly hunters 70
Reptiles 72
Reptile room 74
Scaly serpents 76
3 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS 4 HISTORY BUFF

Amphibians 78 Earth 106 Ancient civilizations 144


Amazing amphibians 80 High seas 108 Lost cities 146
Fish 82 World waterways 110 Guess the gods 148
Freshwater fish 84 Peak puzzle 112 Mythical creatures 150
Marine life 86 Wonders of the world 114 Castles 152
Animal behavior 88 Countries of the world 116 Hold the fort 154
Tricky tracks 90 Cities 118 Battle ready! 156
Get cracking 92 Cool constructions 120 Fighting fashion 158
Eye spy 94 City skylines 122 Leaders 160
Plants 96 Capital cities 124 Famous faces 162
Flower power 98 Eye in the sky 126
Fruit and nuts 100 Flags 128
Plant food 102 Raise the flag 130 5 CULTURE VULTURE
Weather 132
Cloud watching 134 Art 166
Rocks and minerals 136 Gallery of the greats 168
Rock stars 138 Playing the classics 170
Precious gemstones 140 Making music 172
Languages 174
Greetings! 176
Sports 178
On the ball 180
Game on! 182
Sports store 184
Your turn! 186

Index 188
Acknowledgments 192
How this 01. Choose your topic. There are five

book works
chapters on a wide range of subjects and
lots of different quizzes. Perhaps start with
one that you know all about, and then
move on to something new.

Welcome to this fact-packed, quiz-filled


130 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS
challenge. Top up with some new knowledge
and then put your brain to the test by 1 A sun with

32 rays adorns

matching the picture clues with the answers. the flag of South
America’s second-
biggest country. 2 Traditional carpet weaving
mou
E
Can you identify your insects? Do you know patterns are part of this former
Soviet republic’s flag.
nation
the fe

the names of the bones in your body? Can sq

you figure out which warrior’s weapon is


which? It’s time to find out!
5 This nation manufactures the highest

number of cars in all of Europe.

Next the 6 Spears and a

challenge
4 This flag flies in a country that’s home

to more than 1,400 million people. shield are said to


protect this African

Raise
nation’s people.
Then it’s time to test yourself.
Take a look at the pictures and
Facts first
the flag
the list of answers in the panel
down the side and try to
First brush up on the basics 8 The country known for its cher

match them up. Follow these blossom season and very fast tra
with these pages of fun facts. Every nation of the world flies their own flag features a crimson sun on its flag
four steps for the best way
Filled with both essential and design. Each has been chosen to reflect the
to tackle things.
curious information, these will country’s history, colors, and identity. They
represent the pride of the people, uniting
warm up your brain for the
everyone under one big banner.
quizzes that follow. Red symbolizes
“brightness”

128 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS 129 10 A thunder dragon dominates


the flag of this rugged,
Nepa 9 A bird of 11 Th
Staff
The flag pole a flag
Charge
An emblem on the flag. How to plant a In many countries it’s against
mountainous Asian kingdom.
Flag laws

paradise stars on
l’s

hangs from.
flag on the Moon the law to damage or destroy this A
fag

the national flag. In France, for this South Pacific


Flag study example, the punishment is up
ides.

The first flag to fly on the Moon was a US flag


island flag, designed
is the

Fly bought for just $5.50. It was placed inside an to six months in prison, while
Vexillology is the name given to
The part of aluminum tube and flown to the Moon the study of flags. It comes from in Israel the punishment can
by a 15-year-old
ur s

the flag the latin word vexillum, meaning be up to three years in prison.
on board the Apollo 11 spacecraft in 1969.
on

farthest from
“flag.” Vexillologists even have schoolgirl in 1971.
fo

the staff.
ly

their own flag (above). In Denmark it is against


an

ti
na

Field h the law to destroy the flags


The basic on et of other countries but not Denmark’s
background al
fag or
that has m
own national flag.
color of
Hoist the flag.
The part of the flag closest to the staff. According to Finnish law,
Jamaica is the only country when a national flag of
Parts of a f lag
FLAG FACTS

with a national flag that does not Finland is washed, it can only
feature the colors red, white, or blue. be dried indoors.
Flags come in a great variety of colors, patterns, and 12 The eagle sitting on a cactus is based
designs, but they all share the same features and parts. Some countries have rules
The latest design of the US
on historic symbols
time of theof
daythe Aztec empire.
02.

Flags
flag was adopted in 1960 and was about what
Find a
good new spot. Six created by 17-year-old Robert G. Heft their flag can be flown. In Iceland,
Apollo missions have as a school assignment. He only earned for instance, the flag must never
planted flags on the a B- grade in class! be raised before seven o’clock in
Moon, and they are the morning.
all still there today. At the 1936 Olympics, Haiti and
Liechtenstein discovered their national
Flags developed out of the coat of arms flags were the same. Liechtenstein
that armies carried into battle. Some 03. Try to plant later added a crown to their flag. 13 This country is famed for its
countries have used the same flag design the flag pole into the
for centuries while others have changed
lunar surface—this is All official national flags in India African wildlife and its Maasai peoples
not easy, the ground are made in one factory in Bengeri
their look. Afghanistan, for instance, has is very hard. village, in the state of Karnataka. whose shield is found on the flag.
had more than 20 different flags in the
past 150 years!
01. 04.
I don’t
There’s no Check the
wind on the Moon to pole really is firm—
fly a flag. Get engineers in 1969, when the
believe it to place a wire into a
hem sewn into the top
spacecraft left, the
blast of the engines
The 27 stars on Brazil’s flag show the of the flag so it will stick knocked the flag over!
22,152 sq ft pattern in the night sky above the city out straight.
In numbers

of Rio de Janeiro on November 15,


(2,058 sq m) The area of a 1889—Brazil’s independence day.
Mexican flag made in 2011.
The biggest flag ever flown
from a flag pole, its area was
bigger than 7 tennis courts.
Where else are flags used?
13,979 ft
(4,261 m) The distance Star state
below sea level that the Each of the stars on the
Mir-1 submersible dived to US flag represents one of
plant a Russian flag at the the 50 US states. Over
bottom of the Arctic Ocean time, as states joined the
in 2007. union of American states,
the flag has had more
Regional: A giant State: All 50 Sports: A Organizations: The Pirates: Skulls
12 than 25 changes.
holding a club states in the US, checkered flag United Nations flag and swords were
The most colors found features on the including Arizona is waved to signal features olive leaves, designed to strike
on a national flag, those of flag of the Finnish (above), have the end of many representing peace. fear into other
San Marino and Ecuador. region of Lapland. their own flag. motor races. ships’ crews.
02. When you’ve chosen a quiz, take
a careful look at the pictures. Do you
03. Look at the “Test Yourself” panel
and match the words and pictures. Don’t write
recognize them all? The clues will give the answers in the book—you may want to
you extra information to help you take the quiz again later to improve your
figure things out. score, or give it to a friend to see how they do.

131

16 Formed by

freed slaves, TEST YOURSELF


3 This this African
untainous state based United Kingdom
European its design on Japan
n is one of the US flag.
15 Depicting the many colors of the “rainbow Switzerland
ew to fly a Canada
nation,” this flag first flew in 1994, the year in

STARTER
quare flag.
which Nelson Mandela became its president. South Africa
17 All the official
China Start off easy ...
flags of this nation
are made of khadi—
Brazil These answers
a cloth popularized by France should be the
Greece
Mahatma Gandhi. easiest to figure out.

Australia
Argentina
Russian Federation

CHALLENGER
Nigeria
7 This island kingdom’s flag Turkey Getting harder ...
was formed by combining
three flags into one. 18 The flag of the world’s
Mexico How about these
biggest country and hosts
19 This country, which India harder answers?
the Amazon river flows Germany
of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
through, has the words Italy
Can you match
“Order and Progress” them, too?
on its flag.

Liberia
rry Kenya
ains Bhutan
g. Turkmenistan
GENIUS! South Korea Truly tricky
Papua New Guinea If you can figure out
Saudi Arabia these final answers
22 The world’s best-known long- Swaziland it’s official—you’re
distance cycling race has been Peru
21The circular symbol at the
hosted by this nation since 1903. a genius!!
center of this Asian nation’s flag
means balance in the universe.

20 Blue represents the

Mediterranean Sea on the


his flag was first flown in 1960, when flag of this land of ancient
African country became independent. gods, where the first
Olympic Games took place.

23 A maple leaf reflects

the large forests found in


this North American nation. 24 The shahādah (a Muslim statement

of faith) is written in Arabic on this


oil-producing nation’s flag.

14 The colors of the ancient Inca


civilization are depicted on this
Andean nation’s flag.
27 A crossroads

between Europe and


Asia, this country’s flag
25 This country is famously 26 Southern hemisphere stars features an Islamic
shaped like a boot when dot the flag of a country star and crescent
looked at from space. famous for its kangaroos. moon symbols.
13. Kenya 14. Peru 15. South Africa 16. Liberia 17. India 18. Russian Federation 19. Brazil 20. Greece 21. South Korea 22. France 23. Canada 24. Saudi Arabia 25. Italy 26. Australia 27. Turkey
ANSWERS: 1. Argentina 2. Turkmenistan 3. Switzerland 4. China 5. Germany 6. Swaziland 7. United Kingdom 8. Japan 9. Papua New Guinea 10. Bhutan 11. Nigeria 12. Mexico

No peeking!
You’ll find the answers
matched with the
04. Work your way through the three
levels of difficulty—it’s not supposed to
05. There is also a picture quiz for
every chapter, from spotting an insect to
number of the correct be easy! When you think you have got finding your way through a maze. Check
picture, at the bottom them all, check the answers—they’re you’ve got it right in the Answers section
of the page.
upside-down at the bottom of the page. at the back of the book.
SCIENCE
GEEK
1
Star hunter
Studying the night sky has helped scientists
discover many wonders in our universe.
Can you find the constellation of Orion the
hunter in this starry scene? Start by looking
for three bright stars in a line that make up
his belt. Nearby, more stars form his body.
Th
What is a comet?

e
Gas tail: The gas from su
the comet that stretches These dirty snowballs, made of ice and dust, n
out a long way behind travel around the sun in oval orbits. When they is
the nucleus, pointing so
almost directly away pass close to the sun, the ice heats up forming bi
from the sun. long tails of dust and gas. gt
ha
t1
.3 m
Coma: A cloud of illio
gas and dust that
n Ea
surrounds the nucleus,
rths
could f
when the comet heats up. t inside it.

Dust tail: Dust released Nucleus: A Parker Solar Probe:


from the comet forms a solid center This is the only part Space
tail, which trails behind made of ice, that will actually
the comet’s path. dust, and rock. reach the sun.
Everything in the universe—from the tiniest specks
Milky Way of dust to large balls of burning gas called stars—
Our home galaxy
contains between exists in the vastness of space. Scattered throughout
200 and 400 space are collections of millions of stars called
billion stars! I don’t believe it
A giant star, called RMC 136a1, is about galaxies. Within galaxies, many stars are orbited
32 times larger than the sun and shines by rocky, icy, or gassy worlds called planets.
around eight million times more brightly!
Our planet, Earth, orbits a star called the sun.

Solar System
Delta IV Heavy: This
powerful American The solar system formed around 4.6 billion
Galaxies galore launch vehicle is
236 ft (72 m) tall. years ago from a ball of gas and dust. At its
center lies a star called the sun. Eight planets
orbit the sun along oval-shaped paths.
Elliptical galaxy
Shaped like a ball
or an egg, elliptical
galaxies, such as
Fornax, have little
gas or dust.

Spiral galaxy
A galaxy shaped like a giant
disk with a round center
and long, curving arms is
known as a spiral galaxy.
The arms of NGC 1566,
for example, are full of
dust and young stars.
Lenticular galaxy How to get to the sun
Some galaxies, such
as NGC 5010, have
no curved arms,
just a bulge in the 01. Construct a suitable spacecraft, like the
middle, which Parker Solar Probe that launched in 2018 and is
makes them look expected to fly through the sun’s atmosphere, and
like a glass lens. make its closest approach to the Sun in 2025.

Irregular galaxy 02. Make sure there are two parts to your
These are galaxies spacecraft—a probe, to be sent to the sun, and a
with no obvious giant launch vehicle, like the Delta IV Heavy shown
shape. They may here, to get the probe into space.
have been pulled
out of shape by a
close encounter with
another galaxy. Seen
here is Barnard’s Galaxy. 03. During the launch, the
booster rockets will use their fuel
and fall away, leaving the probe to
travel toward the sun.

92.9 million miles


(149.6 million km) The average distance
between Earth and the sun. The rocket booster In the 1990s, planets orbiting
contains 441,806 lb
other stars—called exoplanets—
(200,400 kg) of fuel,
500,000 mph which is all burned were discovered. By 2018, around
(800,000 km/h) The speed at which up in just four minutes 3,791 exoplanets had been found.
the solar system is swirling around the after lift-off.
core of the Milky Way galaxy. The exoplanet WASP-12b takes
just 26 hours to travel around
186,282 miles 04. Once closer, the its star. Earth, in contrast, takes
(299,792 km) The distance that light sun’s gravitational force will 3651⁄4 days to orbit the sun.

In numbers
travels in a single second—a unit known help the probe reach speeds
Exoplanet facts

as a light year. of up to 428,750 mph The exoplanet HD 80606b


(690,000 km/h) and pull it also lies very close to its star.
in—so make sure you’re As a result, the temperature on its
260,000 light years ready to record the data it
The diameter of the Andromeda receives and relays to Earth. surface is almost 3,990°F (2,200°C)—
galaxy—the nearest major galaxy enough to melt most metals.
to the Milky Way.
The temperatures of Kepler-
186f (right), discovered in
4.6 billion years 2014, mean liquid water could
The average age of a comet.
exist there —the key to supporting
life. It’s now hoped that another
4.2 light years exoplanet might be found, which
The distance to Proxima Centauri—
the nearest star to Earth after the sun. does host life.
Planet
parade
The sun is a star. Eight planets travel
around it, along with many asteroids,
dwarf planets, and comets, all following
oval paths called orbits—and known
together as the solar system. Rocky bodies
called moons orbit many of the planets.

The Great Red Spot


is a storm more than
10,160 miles (16,350 km)
wide swirling in the
planet’s atmosphere.

Surface hidden Water covers more


by thick clouds, than two-thirds
some of which rain of the surface of
deadly sulfuric acid. this planet.
Orbits the sun in
just 88 Earth days Craters scar the
at 105,944 mph surface, made
(170,500 km/h) by impact with
countless meteorites.

1 The smallest of 2 A stormy world, the 3 The third planet 4 This object 5 Also known as the 6 The solar system’s

the planets, and the surface temperature on from the sun, this was visited by 12 red planet because largest planet is so
closest one to the this planet can rocket is the only place astronauts in Apollo of its rusty, iron rocks, big more than 1,300
sun, this rocky world to a blistering 867ºF in the universe spacecraft between more spacecraft have Earths could fit inside.
shares its name with (464ºC) which is hot where life is 1969 and 1972. been sent to this It is orbited by almost
a chemical element. enough to melt lead. known to exist. world than any other. 70 moons.
13

TEST YOURSELF
Earth
Mars

STARTER
Moon
Jupiter
The surface temperature
of the sun is 9,930°F
(5,500°C).

Saturn

CHALLENGER
This gas giant is the
least dense planet in
Venus
the solar system—it is Mercury
lighter than water. Neptune

Titan
Uranus

GENIUS!
Io
Ganymede

The band of main rings


extends for 174,000
miles (280,000 km), but
for the most part is just
33 ft (10 m) thick.

Most planets rotate


upright, like a top, but
this one spins on its side.

7 The largest moon in the solar system, 9 Spectacular 10 Second 11 This giant ball of 12 The farthest

it is 3,270 miles (5,262 km) across. rings of dust, largest in the solar gas with an icy core planet from the sun,
rock, and ice system, this moon takes 84 Earth years it was named after a
8 Discovered by the Italian astronomer encircle this is bigger than the to orbit the sun. god of the sea for its
Galileo in 1610, this yellow moon is gas giant. planet Mercury. deep-blue color.
home to more than 400 active volcanoes.

7. Ganymede 8. Io 9. Saturn 10. Titan 11. Uranus 12. Neptune


ANSWERS: 1. Mercury 2. Venus 3. Earth 4. Moon 5. Mars 6. Jupiter
14

2 This 1972
American space
probe was the first
to travel past Mars
and through the
Asteroid Belt to take
photos of Jupiter.

3 Launched in 1957, the first


human-made object to travel into
space made 1,400 orbits around
Earth. It gets its name from the
Russian word for “fellow traveler.”
1 Launched in 1973, this was the first
probe to fly close to the planet Mercury. 4 The size of a motor car, this
It also traveled to Venus! rover has been exploring the

Space
surface of Mars since 2012. It
carries 17 cameras and a host
A laser in the head turns of scientific instruments.
rocks into dust and gas, to
reveal the rocks’ composition.

travelers
The development of powerful rocket engines
in the 1950s enabled spacecraft and, later,
people to explore space. The voyages made by
these remarkable spacecraft—both manned Cone-shaped
and unmanned—have taught us much Command
Module held
about the universe. three astronauts

Antenna dish sent


signals from the Solar panels
Moon to Earth generate electricity
The spacecraft was
almost 364 ft (111 m)
tall—as high as some
36-floor buildings.

5 The world’s
biggest and most
powerful launch vehicle
was made up of three
rockets, or “stages.” It launched
missions carrying astronauts to the
Moon between 1969 and 1972.

6 This small Chinese rover landed on the surface of


the Moon in 2013 and explored it for 31 months. Its
name comes from the Chinese for “jade rabbit.”

8. Space Shuttle 9. Apollo 11 Lunar Module 10. Voyager 1 11. International Space Station 12. Long March 3A
ANSWERS: 1. Mariner 10 2. Pioneer 10 3. Sputnik 1 4. Curiosity 5. Saturn V 6. Yutu 7. Cassini–Huygens
15

8 Five of these reusable


spacecraft flew more than TEST YOURSELF
130 NASA space missions
between them. They launched International Space
like rockets but glided back to Station
Earth to land on runways like Space Shuttle

STARTER
planes. The last of these Sputnik 1
spacecraft retired in 2011.
Saturn V

7 The largest spacecraft to visit


another planet, this probe had two
parts—one that orbited Saturn for Pioneer 10
13 years and another that was Antenna is 12 ft Voyager 1

CHALLENGER
parachuted down onto Saturn’s (3.7 m) across
Apollo 11
largest moon, Titan. Lunar Module
Curiosity

Yutu
Cassini–Huygens

GENIUS!
Long March 3A
Mariner 10

10 Now more than 131⁄2 billion miles


(21.7 billion km) away, this probe is
the farthest spacecraft from Earth. It
was launched in 1977 to explore the
giant planets Jupiter and Saturn.
9 Nicknamed “Eagle,” this
spacecraft carried Neil Armstrong
and Buzz Aldrin, the first humans to
stand on the lunar surface in 1969.
The lower section of the spacecraft
was left behind on the Moon.

Smaller modules
are built on
Earth and joined
11 The largest human-made object together in space.
in space, at 357 ft (109 m) across, this 12 This 170-ft- (52-m-) tall
machine is home to up to six Chinese rocket was built
astronauts, who live and conduct to launch communication
experiments on board. satellites. It also launched
China’s first mission
to the Moon in 2007.
16 SCIENCE GEEK

The elements
Chemical symbol
A unique one- or
two-letter code
for the element.

2
Everything around us is made up of simple
substances called elements. Each one is made He
Helium
up of tiny particles called atoms, which are 4

unique for every element. When two or more 16 56

S Ba
Name
Every element
elements combine, they form a compound. has a full name. Sulfur Bariu
For example, sodium and chlorine combine 32.06 137.3
m
2
to form sodium chloride, or common salt. 23

V Ar
18

Na
11
34

What is the periodic table?


Vana
50.94
Sodium
Argon
39.94
Se
Selenium
22.98
78.96
There are 118 elements in the periodic table—92 are found
in nature, while others have been created in laboratories. They Atomic number
are arranged in a special order in a table developed by the The number of
protons (positive Atomic mass
1
Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. The lightest elements particles) in one atom. 2
The average
H are found at the top of the grid and those with similar He mass of all
3 4
properties are grouped together in columns. 5 6 7 8 9 10
the atoms of
Li Be B C N O F Ne the element.

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Key
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Hydrogen
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Alkali Metals
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Alkaline Earth Metals
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Transition Metals
55 56 57–71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Lanthanides
Cs Ba La-Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Actinides
87 88 89–103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118
The Boron Group
Fr Ra Ac-Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
The Carbon Group
57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 The Nitrogen Group
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
The Oxygen Group
89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
The Halogen Group
Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Noble Gases
Since the 1700s, scientists have been
discovering new elements.

1751 1772 1807–1808 1823 1896


Axel Fredrik At just 22 years of age, English chemist Humphry Swedish chemist Xenon gas is
Timeline

Cronstedt discovers Scottish chemist Daniel Davy discovers potassium, Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered by the
nickel while working Rutherford identifies sodium (above), calcium, discovers silicon while British chemists Sir
as a Swedish nitrogen gas. strontium, barium, experimenting in William Ramsay and
mining expert. and magnesium. his laboratory. Morris William Travers.
Stuffed crust
Others 1.5%
Magnesium 2.1%
Potassium 2.6%
Sodium 2.8%
Natural elements are found in
Calcium 3.6%
the minerals and rocks that
Iron 5%
form Earth’s outer layer—its
crust. Only a few are found
Aluminum
Oxygen
in pure form—most of
8.1% them combine with others
46.6%
to form compounds.
Silicon
27.7%

100,000,000
In numbers

Proton:
The approximate number of Particle
atoms that can fit in a row with a
measuring 1⁄2 in (1 cm). Electron:
positive
charge.
Particle with
9,000 a negative
charge.
Neutron: Particle
with no charge.
The approximate number of
graphite pencils that could be
made from all the carbon found Inside an atom
in a human body. There are three types of tiny particles in
an atom. Neutrons and protons form
6,177°F the central nucleus, around which
electrons are arranged in layers
(3,414°C) The temperature at called shells.
which tungsten melts—the
highest melting point of any
naturally occurring element.

91
The percentage of the sun made I don’t

It’s chemical!
Fireworks get their
up of one element—hydrogen.
believe it colors from different
elements. Red sparks come
4 A piece of gold the size from lithium and strontium.
The number of elements that of a grain of rice can be
make up 96 percent of the hammered into a thin layer A lump of the element
human body. Those are oxygen, covering 1,550 sq in gallium melts just by
carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. (10,000 sq cm).
clasping it in a hand.

Carbon combines with


Radium paint makes other elements to form
the numbers glow
in the dark. more than nine million
different compounds.

Platinum is highly
ductile, which means
it can be drawn into really
thin wires—as thin as
0.00006 mm.
1898 1940 2016
French chemists Plutonium is discovered by Four elements are Only two elements
Marie and Pierre Curie Glenn Seaborg and his team officially named, including
discover two new in the US. It is radioactive Oganesson after one naturally exist in a
elements—radium and used for nuclear power of the discoverers liquid state—mercury
and polonium. and weapons. Yuri Oganessian (above). and bromine.
18 SCIENCE GEEK

Simply
elementary This element is highly
flammable and is used
on the strips on the side
of safety match boxes.
1 In 1669, a German

alchemist accidentally
discovered this element when
he was boiling a large pot of
his urine in search of the
Most of the 118 elements that make up the universe mythical Philosopher’s Stone.
are solids, but 11 are gases at room temperature, and
two are liquids. Here are 18 elements for you to name.
Alongside each picture, look out for the unique chemical P
symbol—one or two letters—that scientists across the
world use to identify each element.
2 Named after the
Greek word for violet,
this element does not
The glass sphere
traps the purple- melt upon heating—it
black vapor. turns directly into
When cooled to vapor. It is used
−297°F (−183°C) this
colorless gas becomes to make antiseptics
a clear, blue liquid. and in food dyes.

4 This shiny
3 Life on Earth depends on precious metal is a
this element for survival. All popular choice for
living things need to breathe making jewelry. It also Pure form of
in this gas to convert food conducts electricity well the element
tarnishes when
into energy. and is used in electronics. exposed to air.

O Ag

Al 6 A small amount of this

element is added to water in


7 When mixed with

other elements, this


swimming pools to kill off metal forms strong
5 This lightweight metal
harmful bacteria. but lightweight
is used to make all sorts of materials—it is used with
objects—from drink cans other metals to make
to aircraft. cars and aircraft. It also
The glass burns with a bright white
sphere stops flame and is found in
the gas from flares and fireworks.
reacting with air.

Cl Mg
10. Bismuth 11. Gold 12. Krypton 13. Copper 14. Hydrogen 15. Osmium 16. Sulfur 17. Carbon 18. Mercury
ANSWERS: 1. Phosphorus 2. Iodine 3. Oxygen 4. Silver 5. Aluminum 6. Chlorine 7. Magnesium 8. Neon 9. Iron
19

8 Lighter 10 This brittle, heavy

than air, this metal has been used in


gas is used cosmetics for centuries
in colorful to give a shiny glow.
lights and signs.

9 Used to make steel, this


This colorless In its pure form, this
element rusts in its pure metal reacts with air
gas gives off a
red-orange glow
form. It is also found inside to produce rainbow-
when electrified. our bodies and in some colored crystals.
types of food.

Ne Fe Bi

Au Kr Cu Unique reddish-
orange color
A blue-
11 For thousands of years, white glow
13 Soft and flexible
this easy-to-work precious is produced in its pure form, this
metal has been used to when this metal conducts
make jewelry. It was also colorless gas heat and electricity
forged into coins in the past. is electrified. extremely well. For
this reason it is used
to make electrical
wires and saucepans.
12 One of the rarest gases

on Earth, this element was


discovered in 1898.

14 The lightest and


most abundant
Os S
element in the
15 Shiny and hard wearing, 16 Also known as “brimstone,”
universe, this
gas is used as this rare metal is the densest this pale yellow element 17 This non-metal

fuel by stars to of all naturally occurring is found near volcanoes. exists in many forms: as a
generate heat elements and has a very high Many compounds containing black, crumbly solid called
and light. melting point at 5,491°F this element give off a foul graphite, as well as one of
(3,033°C). rotten-egg smell. the hardest substances on
Pure gas glows purple Earth—diamond.
when electrified

H C
Crystals of this element
are often found attached
to volcanic mud.

18 Known as

quicksilver in
the past, this TEST YOURSELF
metal is quite
poisonous, but is STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!
still found in some
thermometers. Gold Aluminum Krypton
Silver Oxygen Osmium
This is the only Copper Neon Chlorine
Hg metal that is liquid
at room temperature.
Iron
Carbon
Magnesium
Mercury
Phosphorus
Bismuth
Sulfur Hydrogen Iodine
20 SCIENCE GEEK

The human
body Building a body 250,000

In numbers
The number of new
Cells: These are the
brain cells a developing
smallest building
blocks of the human baby typically grows
The human body is a miracle of body and come in lots every minute.
of different types.
nature. It is packed full of parts—
25,000
from 206 bones and 21 sq ft The typical number
of breaths you take
(2 sq m) of skin, to hundreds every day.
Tissue: Cells of the
of thousands of hairs and billions same type group

of blood cells. The body is


together to form
a tissue which performs 106
a particular function. The number of bones
organized into various systems found in your hands and
which all perform vital tasks feet—more than half the
number of bones in
to keep you alive. the body.

Organ: A group
65
Body systems of different tissues The percentage of your
make up an organ, body made of oxygen.
such as the heart (left).
Organs that are linked together are called
systems. Here are four body systems.

Skeletal system Muscular system Circulatory system Nervous system


Over 200 bones meet Some 640 muscles make Blood carries oxygen and A network of nerves runs
at joints to form your up 20 per cent of your nutrients around your throughout your body
body’s strong, weight and enable you body through tubes carrying electric signals
movable frame. to move your body. called blood vessels. to and from your brain.

This muscle
Tendon helps your Nerves carry
connects hand grip. signals to and
muscles to from the brain.
bones.
Arteries carry
Ulna bone Veins carry blood from your
runs from blood back heart to parts of
elbow to wrist. to your heart. the body.
21

Looking inside

Anatomy facts
In around 200 ce, Greek
Twisting frame
of DNA forms scientist Galen of Pergamon
the shape of a described how the heart
double helix
X-ray: X-rays are high pumped blood around the body.
energy waves that can
pass through soft tissue
British scientist William
in your body to reveal
hard material such as Harvey accurately described
teeth, joints, and bones. how blood circulated around the
body 1,400 years after Galen.

Czech Jan Evangelista Purkynë


CT scans: Patients lie
in a doughnut-shaped discovered sweat glands in
machine which takes X-ray 1833. Your body can make 3
images from all directions pints (1.51 liters) of sweat a day.
to give a detailed 3-D view
of the body.
In the 1900s, Ernest
Starling and William
Ultrasound: High-pitched Bayliss discovered
sounds are bounced hormones, chemical
around inside the body
and the echoes are put messengers that travel
together to build up around the body.
a picture of internal
organs, or an unborn
baby in the womb.
If the DNA
coiled up in
a cell were
unwound,
it would
stretch for
52⁄5 ft (1.7 m).

Soldier cell
This hungry hunter is a white blood
cell, which seeks out germs and
How do senses work?
infected cells and gobbles
them up to prevent
infections.
Sight: Your brain puts the different
views of your eyes together to
give a 3-D view of the world.

Smell: A small patch of cells


high up in the nostrils of
Making me the nose pick up scent
molecules in the air.
DNA is a special kind of molecule
inside every cell of our body, and it
Taste: Specialized
holds all the instructions needed for a
cells in the mouth and
human being to grow and develop. Just on the tongue detect
0.1 percent of all DNA accounts for all different flavors.
the differences between each one of us.

Touch: Touch
Hearing:
I don’t believe it
receptor cells in
your skin tell you Sound
what objects travels through
You shed around 10 billion dead feel like. the ears as
skin cells from your body every day. vibrations.
22 SCIENCE GEEK

Know your 1 Good for gripping,


these bones form the

bones
fingers and thumbs. You
have similar ones with the
same name in your feet!

2 Each finger and


thumb is connected to
The human skeleton is a fantastic framework of bones the wrist by one of these
that gives us shape, provides anchoring points for long bones in the hand.

muscles, and protects our inner organs. Without it,


your body would just crumple on the floor! The
average adult usually has 206 bones, more than half
of them in the hands and feet. Pick the bones of this
3 Eight small bones
sporty skeleton to prove you are on the ball. help form the wrist and
give it flexibility so you can
turn it this way and that.

4 The long, thin calf


bone runs parallel 5 Longer and heavier
to the shinbone and than any other bone,
helps support the thighbone extends
the ankle. from hip to knee.

6 The shinbone is the 7 This is your 8 Seven small, movable


larger of the bones of kneecap, a small bones form the ankle. The
the lower leg. Run a thick bone that sits knobbly parts that you can see
finger down the front over the knee joint on either side are the ends of
to feel its sharp edge. to protect it. the bones in the lower leg!

Inside the ear


The three smallest bones in the
body are found in the ear. They
pass on sound vibrations from the
eardrum to the inner ear.
10 The tiniest of the ear
bones is shaped like the
ankle supports attached
to a horse’s saddle.
9 Five long bones

11 This flat-topped bone give the foot its


is the middle of the three arched shape—
linked ear bones. point your toes
and take a look!

12 This bone, which looks


like a miniature DIY tool, is
attached to the eardrum.

13. Radius 14. Skull 15. Ulna 16. Mandible 17. Clavicle 18. Scapula 19. Ribs 20. Humerus 21. Sternum 22. Vertebrae 23. Sacrum 24. Pelvis
ANSWERS: 1. Phalanges 2. Metacarpals 3. Carpals 4. Fibula 5. Femur 6. Tibia 7. Patella 8. Tarsals 9. Metatarsals 10. Stirrup 11. Anvil 12. Hammer
23

13 The outer of the two forearm 14 The head has 22 bones


bones is shorter and smaller, in all. Eight of them fuse
and connects to the thumb together to protect the brain
side of the hand. while the rest make up the
frame of the face.

16 The only movable


15This bone is twisted here,
head bone is the lower
but is the inner bone of the
jaw, which allows us to eat,
forearm—this player has
breathe, and speak.
rotated his arm at the elbow.

17 The only long bone


that lies horizontally, this
one attaches your upper
arm to your body.
18 On each side of your
back, there is a big wing-
shaped bone, usually
called a shoulder blade.

19 Vital organs, such as


your heart and lungs, are
protected by this cage of
curved bones.
20The long bone of the
upper arm connects to
the lower arm bones at
the elbow joint.

21 This long, flat bone


runs down the middle
of the chest.

22 The backbone is a long


column made of these
33 small bones stacked
one on top of another.

23 As you grow up, five


24 A bowl of bones at the bottom of your
large, strong backbone fuse together into
bones forms your a large, bony triangle.
hips and connects
your legs to your
backbone.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

Skull Phalanges Tarsals


Ribs Mandible Metatarsals
Pelvis Scapula Ulna
Vertebrae Sternum Sacrum
Femur Carpals Anvil
Humerus Metacarpals Patella
Stirrup Clavicle Tibia
Hammer Fibula Radius
24 SCIENCE GEEK

This open
framework keeps
things light and
actually increases
its strength!

1 This

may look
like delicate
lace—but it’s
strong enough 2 A human can
to help you stand have around 100,000 of
up straight. these stalks just sprouting
from their head.

3 Naming this creepy

creature could have you


scratching your head.

4 No, it’s not a

duvet, but the 5 Hands up!


largest organ of
Do you know
the body does
where to find
snugly cover you
this unique
up in several
body pattern?
layers, with a
total thickness
of 1⁄5 in (4 mm).

6 When you eat a meal, the food

goes down tubes lined with about


5 million little “fingers,” each one
around 1⁄32 in (1 mm) long,
which absorb nutrients
into your body.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

Eyelash mite Sweat pore Fingerprint


Head louse Tooth enamel Bone tissue
Hair Blood cells Intestinal lining
Skin Lip skin Muscle fibers
Under the
microscope
7 Watch out,

there’s a creepy
crawly about,
but at 1⁄100 in
(0.4 mm) long,
you won’t see it,
however hard
Take a really close-up look at yourself! These jaw- you look!
dropping images, magnified many times through a
powerful microscope, reveal the human body—and
some of the things that live with us—in incredible
detail. Can you recognize which bit of you is which?

Individual
bundles
of tissue
8 You need the

hardest substance
in the body for all
that chomping!

9 Ready to run?

These tightly
packed bundles of
tissues will get you
on the move.

Sweat
droplets
10 Stay cool! Salty water
runs through this tiny
tunnel, making it
12 Every day, we
part of the body’s
temperature produce hundreds
control system. of billions of these.
Above you can see
two types—the red
ones transport
11 Allow yourself
oxygen around the
a big smile if you body, and the white
recognize this stretchy ones fight germs.
stuff. It is usually red in
color due to the blood vessels
underneath the thin skin.

9. Muscle fibers 10. Sweat pore 11. Lip skin 12. Blood cells
ANSWERS: 1. Bone tissue 2. Hair 3. Head louse 4. Skin 5. Fingerprint 6. Intestinal lining 7. Eyelash mite 8. Tooth enamel
26 SCIENCE GEEK

Math
Math is the study of numbers and how they
relate to each other and the world. We need
math for many things—for science, for
building everything from houses to bridges, Perfectly packed
and for powering the computers and Bees make their
honeycomb out of
smartphones we use in our hexagons (six-sided
shapes) because they
everyday lives. fit together perfectly.

Petal pattern
I don’t believe it Next time you see a flower, count
the number of petals it has—it is
Although equations existed in ancient times, often a Fibonacci number.
Using your fingers
is also a handy way the equals sign was only invented in 1557,
to communicate by Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde.
numbers without
using words.

Counting
in tens
The first people to
count almost certainly
used their hands and
Nature’s numbers

ten fingers to help


them, like children today.
As a result, our modern
counting system, the
Mathematical patterns can be found in nature.
decimal system, is based
One number series, known as the Fibonacci
on tens. If we only had six
sequence, turns up in all sorts of places. It
fingers and thumbs, we
begins: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 and continues as the
would probably be using a
last two numbers are added together to give
system based on six.
the next. Mathematical patterns can also be
found in nature’s shapes.

Early number systems


Early mathematicians

The Babylonians were the first to devise a number


system and symbols, 4,000 years ago. Other ancient
civilizations developed their own digits.

Modern
1 2 3 4 5 6 Hindu-Arabic
Mayan

Ancient Chinese
Pythagoras: An ancient Archimedes: This Greek
Ancient Roman Greek mathematician, he thinker found ways to
is best known for figuring calculate the area of circles
Ancient Egyptian out the relationship and other shapes as well
between the sides and as using math to create
Babylonian angles of a triangle. many inventions.
27

Natural symmetry
If an object has two halves
that look like reflections, we
Measuring Earth
say it has lateral symmetry. Greek scientist Eratosthenes was one of the
Most animals have lateral first people to use math to measure Earth’s size,
symmetry, including you!
around 2,200 years ago. He did this using the
A snowflake has
lots of lines angles cast by shadows at two different places
of symmetry. in Egypt. He got the answer 25,000 miles
You have only (40,000 km)—almost exactly right!
one—down
the middle.

The distance
around Earth
is called its
circumference.

Infinity

Naming numbers
This is the word used by
mathematicians to define
an endless amount. The
symbol for infinity is an eight
on its side: ∞ .

Zero
Number systems had no
number for nothing until
Indian mathematicians
invented it around 650 ce.

Super spiral
This plant is made up
Googol
The name of the number 1
of five spirals—another
Fibonacci number!
followed by 100 zeros. It
Look for spirals was named by a 9-year-old
on pine cones and US schoolboy in 1920.
pineapples, too.

ic
Math mieandgwith your mind-reading mat
h.

Impress a fr
fold it, and
o n a pie ce of paper,
e numbe r 9 ok at it.
1. Write th te ll in g th em not to lo
our frien d
give it to y
them to:
lc u la tor and ask se
r friend a ca f their hou
2. Give you n d a d d th e number o e r
ir age a eir phone n
umb
• Put in the r digits of th
la st fo u
• Add the 18 er
e result by r. If the answ
Hypatia: The first known Al-Khwarizmi: Born • Multiply th th e a n sw er togethe s unti l
igits of e digit
female mathematician, in 780 CE, this Arabic • Add the d e d ig it , ke ep adding th
an on
Hypatia lived in Egypt mathematician described has more th
more than 2,300 years equations and algebra and ly h av e one left.
they on f paper and
ago and had her own introduced Hindu-Arabic
o k at the piece o
friend to lo always 9.
3. Tell your e answer is
school of math. numbers (1–9) to Europe.
m e n t. T h
amaze
watch their
28 SCIENCE GEEK

Shape up!
There are three
sloping faces.

Everything has a shape. Some things, such as a piece of paper, are


flat, or 2-D (two-dimensional)—they have height and width. Other
objects, like a book, are 3-D (three-dimensional)—they have height,
width, and depth. So while paper is rectangular, a book is cuboid.

2 This shape has four


Perfect for rolling,
basketballs and sides, only two of which
3 This 3-D
marbles are this shape. are parallel to each other.
shape has five
faces, including a
triangle at each end.

The inner angles


of all the corners
of this shape add
1 Every point on the
up to 360°.

surface of this 3-D solid


is the same distance 4 The opposite

away from its center. sides of this shape


are equal and run
parallel with each other.

6 Count up! This

shape has nine sides,


5 This seven-sided all of equal length.
shape gets its name
from the Greek
word for seven.
7 Each of the six

faces of this shape is


a rectangle, and the
faces opposite
each other are
the same size.

10 The giant building

that is home to the US


Department of Defense
takes this five-sided shape.

The angle at each


8 Like a drink can, this corner is 60°.
9 There are four main types of this shape.
shape is round with
two identical and The others are isosceles, right-angled, and
circular flat ends. scalene. The name of this one comes from
the fact its three sides are the same length.
11. Decagon 12. Rhombus 13. Square-based pyramid 14. Kite 15. Hexagonal prism 16. Hexagon 17. Rectangle 18. Square 19. Octagon 20. Cube 21. Cone
ANSWERS: 1. Sphere 2. Trapezium 3. Triangular prism 4. Parallelogram 5. Heptagon 6. Nonagon 7. Cuboid 8. Cylinder 9. Equilateral triangle 10. Pentagon
29

11 This shape 12 This slanting shape


has a total of has four sides that are
ten sides.
13 The ancient
all the same length. Egyptians constructed
buildings in this shape,
with a four-sided
base and four
triangular sides.

The diagonals of
this shape intersect
at 90°.

15 With a six-sided face at

14 This shape is named after each end, bees use this


the traditional flying toy. It has 3-D shape—because lots of
pairs of equal-length sides that meet. them fit together perfectly—
to make a honeycomb.

Each angle
on this shape
measures 120°.

The pointed end 17 This shape


of this shape is has two pairs
called a vertex. of equal-length
16 A traditional soccer ball 18 All four sides of this
sides and
is made up of 20 of these four corners. 2-D shape are the same
six-sided panels (along length and meet at
with 12 pentagons). corners at 90° angles.

19 Resembling a stop 20 Dice are this

sign, this shape has shape—six flat faces


eight sides usually and 12 edges make
of the same length. it good for rolling.

TEST YOURSELF
21 With a circular
base, this shape STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!
narrows to a point
at its other end— Square Hexagon Nonagon
turn it upside down Rectangle Heptagon Decagon
and you could fill
Sphere Octagon Rhombus
it with ice cream.
Cube Pentagon Parallelogram
Cylinder Kite Trapezium
Cone Cuboid Square-based
Equilateral triangle Triangular prism pyramid
Hexagonal prism
30 SCIENCE GEEK

Transportation
Before planes, trains, and cars, long journeys could
How to fly
take months. People walked, rode, used horse-drawn a plane
carriages, or sailed with the wind. Now we fly around
the world in hours, cross oceans in high-tech liners,
and speed overland in all types of vehicles. 01. Start the engine
and release the brakes. The
engine produces
Steaming ahead thrust—a force
that pushes the
Invented over 200 years ago, the steam train would revolutionize travel, plane forward.
connecting cities and countries like never before. Steam trains burn wood or
coal to heat water, which turns into steam. The steam pushes rods that turn
wheels around, propelling the train and the carriages it pulls along the track.

Chimney Boiler Driver’s cab


Smoke leaves the Water is heated in this Driver and fireman
engine through large metal container, (who keeps the
6,000,000

In numbers
this outlet. turning into steam. furnace going)
stand here. The number of parts used to
build a Boeing 747 jet airliner.

1,505 ft
(458.45 m) The length of
the world’s longest ship, the
Seawise Giant supertanker.

36
The number of wheels on the
world’s longest stretch limo,
which is 100 ft (30.5 m) long
and contains a swimming
pool and a double bed.

Speed machines Driving 8 mph


wheels (13 km/h) The top speed of
These are the Benz Motorwagen, the
driven around
The first cars, planes, ships, and trains were first car, made in 1888.
by the steam.
slow, but modern advances in technology
have really sped things up!

Vestas Sailrocket 2: The world’s Westland Lynx AH.1: Spirit of Australia: In SR-71 Blackbird: This military
fastest sailing ship travels at Reaching 249.09 mph 1978, this boat set the jet plane can fly at high levels,
75.22 mph (121.06 km/h). (400.87 km/h), this is the fastest water speed record of at speeds of 2,193.1 mph
helicopter ever made to date. 317.59 mph (511.11 km/h). (3,529.56 km/h).

A4 Mallard: The fastest-ever Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super SCMaglev L0 train: In Thrust SSC: The world land
steam locomotive reached Sport: This supercar has a 2015, this experimental train speed record holder achieved
126 mph (203 km/h) in 1936. top speed of 267.86 mph reached 375 mph (603 km/h). 763 mph (1,227.9 km/h) in 1997.
(431.07 km/h).
31

The Hawk T1A


02. Use the
throttle to increase
03. Pull back on
jet plane is flown
by the British
the control column (the Royal Air Force’s
the engine’s speed steering device) to lift Red Arrows
along the runway. the nose of the plane aerobatics team.
Air moving under up off the ground.
and over the wings
produces lift. Weird watercraft

The
Seabreacher,
a two-person
underwater
craft, can leap
out of the water
like a dolphin.

This Quadrofoil Q2S


electric boat skims
above the water at
04. As the
plane climbs up into
25 mph (40 km/h)
using four wing-like
hydrofoils.
the air, activate the
controls, which pull
the wheels up into
the plane’s body.
05. Flaps on the
This Tredalo
paddleboat looks
wing and tail can be like a giant hamster
moved using the control wheel. In 2012, it
column and rudder bar to carried Chris Todd
steer the plane in the sky. 23 miles (37 km)
across the Irish Sea.

Get moving!
At only 41⁄2 ft (1.37 m)
long, the Peel P50 is the
smallest drivable car in the world.

In 1999, a Mi-26 helicopter


carried a 23,000-year-old
woolly mammoth encased in an ice
block across Russia.
Giant carrier
The body of the giant Airbus A train line crosses right
Beluga stands 562⁄5 ft (17.2 m) over the plane runway at
tall and can carry entire aircraft,
helicopters, and space New Zealand’s Gisborne Airport.
station modules.
The Rinspeed sQuba
car can be driven
both on land and
up to 33 ft (10 m)
under water.

I don’t believe it Space Shuttle This


craft raced through
The first aircraft flight, by the Wright space at 17,500 mph
brothers’ Flyer 1 plane in 1903, lifted (28,000 km/h).
off the ground for just 118 ft (36 m).
32 SCIENCE GEEK

1 This extra-long luxury


car can carry eight or
more passengers in
comfort and style!

2 This 1958 model was

On the road
the first car made by a
famous Japanese car
company. Its engine is
in the back, with room
for storage in the front.

There are more than one billion motor


vehicles on the world’s roads, and most
3 Fifteen million of these
of these are cars! Powered by electric affordable US cars—the first to
motors or internal combustion engines, be mass-produced on a production
line—were built from 1908 to 1927.
they come in all shapes and sizes.
4 This sleek, electric car was
built in 2010 and can travel up to
244 miles (393 km) before its
batteries need recharging.

Wooden
spokes

5 This super Just 81⁄5 ft


small, two-seater (2.5 m) long
car is ideal for
driving around
crowded city streets.

TEST YOURSELF
6 Known for its
Volkswagen Beetle
rocket-shaped tail fins, this
Mini Cooper
iconic 1950s American
STARTER

Smart Car convertible was very heavy,


Willys Jeep at more than 2 tons.
Stretch limousine

To keep the car small,


7 This four-wheel drive the engine sits sideways
Ford Model T under the hood.
vehicle from the
Rolls Royce Phantom
CHALLENGER

1940s was sturdy


Bugatti Veyron enough for driving
Cadillac Eldorado over rough ground.
DeLorean DMC-12

Aston Martin DB2/4


Ford GT40
8 Small and zippy, this British
GENIUS!

Subaru 360
car was first launched in 1959.
Benz Patent-
Motorwagen Its design was later improved
by a Formula 1 car designer.
Tesla Roadster
No doors—making
it easy for people
to hop in and out

9. DeLorean DMC-12 10. Aston Martin DB2/4 11. Ford GT40 12. Rolls Royce Phantom 13. Volkswagen Beetle 14. Bugatti Veyron 15. Benz Patent-Motorwagen
ANSWERS: 1. Stretch limousine 2. Subaru 360 3. Ford Model T 4. Tesla Roadster 5. Smart Car 6. Cadillac Eldorado 7. Willys Jeep 8. Mini Cooper
33

Gull-wing doors
10 This 1950s British sports car
9 Famous for featuring in is known for its speed, and the
open upward
the 1980s Back To The manufacturer is James Bond’s
Future movie series, car producer of choice!
this unusual car
had a stainless
steel body.

11In the 1960s, this American car


won the Le Mans 24-hour The car was just
endurance race four 32⁄5 ft (1.03 m) tall.
times in a row.

Figurehead is
called the “Spirit
of Ecstasy”

12 The manufacturer
of this luxury car
with a ghostly name
is known for its
quality production.

Distinctive bug-
Folding roof shaped body
for rainy days

13 First built in the 1930s, this

German vehicle is the most


popular car ever, with more than
21.5 million models built.
Steering
handle

At 183⁄4 ft (5.7 m), the


car was very long for
a two-door vehicle.

15 Made in 1886, this

German vehicle was


the first car to be built
14 This powerful for sale. It was steered
supercar has a record- using a handle rather
breaking top speed than a steering wheel.
of 268 mph (431 km/h).
34 SCIENCE GEEK

1 This fast, French, electric 2 This American carriage


train whisks passengers had its own electric motors
along at speeds of up to so it could run on rails
199 mph (320 km/h). without an engine to pull it.

The coaches
provide the look
and feel of
royal rail cars.

3 The world’s fastest train


service reached 268 mph 4 There are sleeping cabins, two restaurants, and even a spa
(431 km/h) on a record-
on this luxury train that carries passengers around India.
breaking run in China.

5 A powerful, sturdy train is just right for


hauling sightseers through the hilly
All aboard!
wilderness of northwestern Trains run on rails, or track, and carry millions of people
Canada and US. every day to work, school, or on exciting adventures!
The first trains were powered by steam engines and
hauled small numbers of wagons or small carriages.
Now, modern trains use diesel engines or electric motors
to speed along their routes. Can you name the train?

7 This train travels on the


world’s oldest below-ground
railway system, which opened in
1863. Just please mind the gap!

The nose is streamlined


for travel at high speeds.
6 In Japan, sleek electric trains, such as this one, pull
10 carriages at speeds of up to 199 mph (320 km/h)—
getting passengers where they need to be fast!

8 The first British steam train to race at 100 mph


(160 km/h), this train had traveled 2.08 million miles
(3.35 million km) by 1963 when it retired
from service.

8. The Flying Scotsman 9. The Fairy Queen 10. H-Bahn Sky-Train 11. GM Aerotrain 12. Osaka monorail 13. A4 Mallard 14. The Ghan 15. Stephenson’s Rocket
ANSWERS: 1. Train à Grande Vitesse (TGV) 2. Budd Metroliner 3. Shanghai Maglev 4. Palace on Wheels 5. Rocky Mountaineer 6. JRN Shinkansen bullet train 7. London Underground
35

Each end could be


connected to another
carriage to make
a long train.

10 This
9 Built in 1855, this East Indian Railways driverless train hangs below
train is the oldest steam locomotive still its rail, carrying passengers around
running full-steam ahead. Germany’s Düsseldorf airport.

11 This 1950s American train had a streamlined nose, like a plane,


and carriages that were half the size of usual ones, which made the
train so light that people complained about their rough journey!
Smoke leaves the train’s
boiler through this chimney.

13 Named after a bird, the world’s


fastest steam locomotive reached 14 Powerful engines in this
126 mph (203 km/h) in 1938. train haul up to 44 passenger 12 Most trains run on two
carriages on a 54-hour rails, but this electric train
The horn signals that
journey across Australia. runs through a Japanese
the train is approaching. city on just one!

15 A pioneering steam locomotive,


this vehicle ran on the world’s first
intercity train line between
Liverpool and Manchester
in the UK, in 1830.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

London A4 Mallard Budd Metroliner


Underground Palace on Wheels Shanghai Maglev
Rocky Mountaineer JRN Shinkansen GM Aerotrain
Train à Grande bullet train Stephenson’s
Vitesse (TGV) H-Bahn Sky-Train Rocket
The Flying Osaka monorail The Fairy Queen
Scotsman
The Ghan
36 SCIENCE GEEK

These propellers
tilt upward to help
the plane take
off vertically. 1 The first

powered, heavier-
than-air plane was
built and flown
by two brothers
Pilot lay
in 1903. across
the wing.

2 This unusual military

aircraft can take off and land


like a helicopter and travel
at speeds of up to 310 mph
(500 km/h), like an airplane.

3 With floats underneath its Inflatable bags


stored here for
body instead of wheels, this landing on water
sturdy plane can take off and 4 This military helicopter
land on rivers and lakes. once battled submarines

Taking to
but is now used for search-
and-rescue missions.

the skies
The windshield is made
of armored glass.

For thousands of years people dreamed


of flying through the air like birds. With
the invention of aircraft in the early
5 Known for its top
20th century, they finally could! While speed of up to 447 mph
some aircraft use spinning rotors or (720 km/h), this iconic
British fighter plane
propeller blades to fly, others use powerful was flown in
jet engines to zip through the air. World War II.
37

TEST YOURSELF
Bell 47
Concorde

STARTER
Hindenburg
7 The world’s Wright Flyer
biggest airliner,
6 In the 1930s, this German this plane can hold
airship carried 97 passengers up to 853 passengers.
in style across the Atlantic
Ocean. At 804 ft (245 m) it
was longer than eight and a Lockheed SR71
Blackbird

CHALLENGER
half NBA basketball courts.
The plane’s nose Airbus A380
could droop down de Havilland Canada
when landing to DHC-3 Otter
give the pilots a Fokker Dr.1
better view.
Control cabin
for crew
8 Until its retirement in

2003, this plane was the Westland Sea King


world’s fastest airliner, with Boeing V-22 Osprey
a supersonic speed of

GENIUS!
SpaceShipTwo
1,350 mph (2,180 km/h). Supermarine
Spitfire

9 Passengers may
This aircraft
launches the jet one day fly in space in
plane (center). future models of this
experimental aircraft.

10 With three sets of wings, this

German fighter plane from World War I


could twist and turn in air battles.

Fish-bowl style
canopy for all-
around vision

A special black paint


hid the plane from
enemy radar.

11 With a top speed of 2,193 mph (3,529 km/h), 12 A pioneering helicopter,

this spy plane is the fastest jet aircraft ever— this craft was the first to fly
it flew 3,460 miles (5,566 km) from New York, US, over the Alps mountain
to London, UK, in under 1 hour and 55 minutes. range in Europe in 1950.
6. Hindenburg 7. Airbus A380 8. Concorde 9. SpaceShipTwo 10. Fokker Dr.1 11. Lockheed SR71 Blackbird 12. Bell 47
ANSWERS: 1. Wright Flyer 2. Boeing V-22 Osprey 3. de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 4. Westland Sea King 5. Supermarine Spitfire
38 SCIENCE GEEK

All at sea
1 Shops, restaurants, and
even swimming pools can
be found in this
floating hotel.

Early boats were hollowed-out tree-trunk


canoes or simple rafts, used for short, local
journeys. As their design developed, and
ships and boats grew bigger, people
were able to sail further, to trade and
explore new lands. Today, cargo ships
are so huge you need a bicycle to get
Sail was raised Large gun is used
from one end to the other! for long journeys to fire at targets

2 Ancient Greek ships, such as

this one, were rowed using three


banks of oars on each side.

Ram was
3 Small, rapid military boats
used to
smash into carry cannons or other weapons
enemy ships. for patrolling coastal waters.

4 Fishermen and merchants


use vessels like these to
sail the Indian Ocean
and the Red Sea.
5 The huge, steel, dome-
shaped tanks on this ship
Distinctive transport super-cooled fuel in
triangular sail liquid form across the world.

8 This large, armored military ship


from World War II is one of the
biggest and most heavily armed
6 First used as warships
type of ship in large navies.
more than 500 years
ago, these three- or four-
masted ships were later
sailed by explorers.

7 This 935-ft- (285-m-) long ship


carries cargo in thousands of truck-
sized boxes, which can be then
handled at ports.

9. River steamboat 10. Viking longship 11. Merchant junk 12. Sampan 13. Aircraft carrier 14. Car ferry 15. Icebreaker
ANSWERS: 1. Cruise liner 2. Trireme 3. Gunboat 4. Dhow 5. Gas tanker 6. Galleon 7. Container ship 8. Battleship
39

9 Known for its famous steam whistle,

the engine turns the paddle wheels of this TEST YOURSELF


boat, moving it slowly through the water.
River steamboat
10 Warriors, traders, and Aircraft carrier

STARTER
explorers from Scandinavia Container ship
sailed this shallow- Viking longship
bodied boat using Cruise liner
Paddle wheels woollen cloth sails.
11 A historic Chinese trading

vessel, this ship sometimes


flew silk sails from its masts.
Dhow

CHALLENGER
Gas tanker
Battleship
Car ferry
Bamboo Icebreaker
canes
stiffen
12A traditional, flat-bottomed
the sail. wooden boat, this vessel is
used in China and some parts
Gunboat
of Southeast Asia.
Galleon

GENIUS!
Canopy Trireme
for shelter
Merchant junk
13 This giant military ship acts
Sampan
as a floating airfield for military
planes and helicopters.

This ship is 1,092-ft-


(333-m-) long
14 Transporting motor
vehicles across lakes, and
from one side of a river to
the other, is the main
function of this craft.

Ramp for driving


vehicles onto
the craft

15 This vessel cuts

through frozen seas


to keep routes open
for other ships.

Hull is reinforced
to force its way
through the ice
KNOW-IT-ALL
NATURE
2
Camouflage challenge
The world’s plants come in a variety
of extraordinary colors and patterns.
But there is more than just foliage in this
picture—these leaves are the perfect hiding
place for the imperial moth. Can you see
past its clever camouflage and spot it?
42 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

How fossils are formed

01. To become a fossil, 02. Once the soft parts 03. Over millions of years, 04. Over millions more
a dinosaur body needs rot away, the hard bones minerals fill spaces in the years, wind and rain
to be quickly buried; for end up under deeper bones, which turn the wear the rocks away,
example, by being covered layers of sediment. sediment into rock and exposing the fossil so
by volcanic ash. bones into fossils. it can be found.

The long tail of T. rex


was held high to
balance its heavy head.
How to build a dinosaur

longest specimen o
The f Ty
x m easures 39 ft (1 ran
re 2 m) nos
lon aur
g. us

Dinosaurs 01. Fossil bones are very


heavy and fragile, so take 3-D
scans of them to create casts and
then make copies of them using
lighter materials.
Prehistoric reptiles called dinosaurs walked
the Earth for 180 million years, long before
humans were around. Scientists are able
to tell how the dinosaurs lived by studying
their remains, preserved in rock as fossils.
Extinction event
Many dinosaurs were wiped out
when an asteroid collided
What was a dinosaur? with Earth and destroyed
their habitats.
Dinosaurs were giant scaly reptiles, some with feathers,
that lived on land. They shared their world with many other
kinds of giant reptiles that were not dinosaurs, for example,
flying reptiles such as the pterosaurs and marine reptiles
Types of fossil

such as the plesiosaurs.

Body fossil: Hard body Egg fossil: Dino eggs


parts, such as skeletons, are usually found as fossil
are replaced by minerals shell fragments, but are
that turn them to rock. sometimes intact if buried
and preserved quickly.

Flying reptile Dinosaur Marine reptile


Dino birds
243 million
In numbers

The age, in years, of the fossils of Some dinosaur fossils, such as this
Nyasasaurus, the oldest dinosaur. Archaeopteryx specimen (right),
show the impressions of feathers—

700 these dinosaurs were the first birds. By


comparing body structures, scientists
The number of dinosaur species
discovered and named by 2018. have figured out that birds evolved from
ancestors that were upright-walking

60 ft dinosaurs closely related to T. rex.


(18 m) The height of the tallest
known dinosaur, Sauroposeidon. Fine sediment reveals the details of
the Archaeopteryx’s feathered wing.

2 ft
(60 cm) The length of the biggest T. rex walked with its
fossilized dinosaur eggs. body roughly parallel
to the ground.
Holes for
large nostrils
for sniffing
out prey.

I don’t believe it
The longest and heaviest dinosaur discovered
to date is Argentinosaurus. It was the length of
four fire engines and would have weighed as
much as 17 African elephants!

02. Make computer


models of the bones, and
put them together on
screen to figure out how the

Fossil finds
dinosaur might have looked. Dinosaur fossils have been
found on every continent,
including Antarctica.

03. Using power tools


and cranes, attach the bone
Scientists can often figure
out the height of a dinosaur
from its fossilized footprint.
copies to a metal frame
to build up a life-size Roughly, its leg length is four
T. rex had massively times the length of its footprint.
clawed feet, but tiny
museum exhibit.
two-clawed arms.
Certain fossil sites, such
as some lake beds, have
preserved tissue, ranging from skin
to even the outlines of muscles.

Small stones found in the


stomach cavities of plant-
eating dinosaurs probably helped
them grind up tough leaves.

Mold and cast: Molds are Trace fossil: Preserved


formed when impressions signs of animal life, such
of something, such as this as footprints or poop
dinosaur skin, turn to stone. (called coprolites), are
Later, mud fills the mold known as trace fossils.
to create a cast fossil.
44 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Clawed
1 This creature had
feathery, clawed wings
that enabled it to fly for

carnivores
short bursts—but it also had
a toothy dino-like jaw!

Dinosaurs have ruled the Earth for millions of years. These


extraordinary beasts came in all shapes and sizes—the biggest were
the plant-eaters but the most formidable were the meat-eaters.
Some grew as tall as a three-story building, while other, smaller
ones were the ancestors of modern-day birds.

2 The most famous meat-eating


dinosaur had banana-shaped teeth
that delivered a bone-crushing
bite. Its tiny but strong forelimbs
may have helped to grip prey.

3 This dinosaur had powerful,


muscular legs and may have
run as fast as an ostrich, at up
to 37 mph (60 km/h).

4 Found in
Asia, this large
species had a
bumpy crest along the
middle of its snout.

Three strong
toes, each with
a blunt claw

5 One of the earliest


known dinosaurs was
scarcely bigger than
an adult human at
10 ft (3 m). Its sharp,
angled teeth were
ideal for catching
7 This is one of 8 With lots of tiny
small prey.
the few meat-eaters backward-facing teeth
with horns on its head for seizing slippery
and a ridge of bony fish, this dinosaur
scales down its back. also had front limbs
6 Although small, this feathered armed with claws up
dinosaur had enormous claws—up to to 12 in (30 cm) long.
21⁄2 in (6.5 cm) long—for gripping prey.
7. Ceratosaurus 8. Baryonyx 9. Spinosaurus 10. Allosaurus 11. Dilophosaurus 12. Cryolophosaurus
ANSWERS: 1. Archaeopteryx 2. Tyrannosaurus 3. Gallimimus 4. Monolophosaurus 5. Coelophysis 6. Velociraptor
45

9 Measuring 46 ft
(14 m) long, the biggest TEST YOURSELF
The spiny “sail”
meat-eating dinosaur had was supported
a giant “sail” on its back by bones as long Spinosaurus
and crocodile-like jaws as 6 ft (1.8 m). Archaeopteryx

STARTER
for catching fish.
Tyrannosaurus
Velociraptor

Gallimimus

CHALLENGER
Allosaurus
Coelophysis
Cryolophosaurus

Dilophosaurus
Monolophosaurus

GENIUS!
Baryonyx
Ceratosaurus

The double crests


may have been used
in courting displays.

10 This Jurassic
dinosaur had
more than 70
knife-like teeth,
11 Unusual perfect for
skull crests eating big
set this dinosaur plant-eating
apart from other Three- dinosaurs.
clawed Powerful
meat-eaters. hand legs for
chasing prey

Powerful, three-
clawed hand

12 Found in Antarctica, this


top predator is known for its
strange bony crest, which was
probably used for display.
46 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Plant-eating
giants
1 The extraordinary

neck—that grew up to 39 ft
(12 m) long—of this Chinese
giant made up almost half
of its total length.

The giant plant-eating dinosaurs that walked the Earth


around hundreds of millions of years ago were among The neck was made
up of 19 bones.
the largest land animals that ever lived. While some
had long necks and tails, others had enormous horns
or thickly armored skin.
May have had spiky,
triangular plates

The hollow crest gave it the


name meaning “helmet lizard.”

The dinosaur may


have reached
291⁄2 ft (9 m)
in length.

Bony spikes
covered the
head and snout.
3 A strong 10-in-
(25.4-cm-) thick skull—
thicker than any
2 This North other dinosaur
American plant- skull—may have
eater had a narrow, been used for head-
sharp beak, which it butting contests.
used to rip leaves
from plants.

The 3-ft- (1-m-) long crest


was the longest crest of
any dinosaur.

Heavy tail
helped to
balance the
long neck.

4 The unusual,

hollow head crest


may have been used
to attract mates.
47

The tiny brain inside 6 Unlike most


the skull weighed only
about 4 oz (110 g). dinosaurs, the front limbs TEST YOURSELF
of this plant-eater were longer
than its hind limbs, which allowed Diplodocus
it to browse tall vegetation. Ankylosaurus

STARTER
5 One of the longest land Triceratops
Flat, bony Stegosaurus
animals ever, at 108 ft (33 m), this
plates were
dinosaur could gather leaves from as long as
the top of tall trees. Its vast body 2 ft (60 cm).
contained a huge digestive
system to process the
tough plant food. Iguanodon

CHALLENGER
Brachiosaurus
Corythosaurus
Parasaurolophus

7 Evidence suggests this dinosaur Maiasaura


looked after its young, with babies Mamenchisaurus

GENIUS!
staying in the nest for several weeks. 8 The big, Scelidosaurus
distinctive plates Pachycephalosaurus
on this dinosaur’s
back were possibly
used for show.

9 This dinosaur had a


sharp thumb spike,
possibly used for
defense or for
ripping plants.

Bony neck frill was Narrow head with


a useful defensive strong beak
shield but may
also have been
used for display
to attract mates 10 Rows of bony knobs
or deter rivals. Thumb gave this dinosaur
spike
a tough armor
against predators.
11 The two horns, each

4 ft (1.3 m) long, were


probably used in combat with
rivals of the same species.
Bony
knobs

Bony plates

12 This dinosaur was

protected by an armored
Club-like lump back and a tail club that
of bone could be swung at its foe.
6. Brachiosaurus 7. Maiasaura 8. Stegosaurus 9. Iguanodon 10. Scelidosaurus 11. Triceratops 12. Ankylosaurus
ANSWERS: 1. Mamenchisaurus 2. Corythosaurus 3. Pachycephalosaurus 4. Parasaurolophus 5. Diplodocus
48 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Prehistoric Curved tusks


may have been
used to scrape

creatures
ice and snow.

1 The shaggy
coat of this elephant
cousin was necessary
to survive the bitterly
After the age of the dinosaurs, some cold Ice Age. It measured
extraordinary animals walked the Earth. 111⁄10 ft (3.4 m) at
the shoulder.
Some grew into giant beasts, while others
remained as small as rats. Though they may
look similar to some modern-day animals, A thick layer of
the creatures shown here—many with truly fat helped to
keep it warm.
tricky names—are now all extinct.

2 A giant mammal, this animal


could gather and digest large
amounts of plant food.

Hair could
grow up to 3 ft
3 Unlike its slow-moving (90 cm) long.
modern-day relatives, this
giant beast, at 20 ft (6 m),
was too heavy to climb
trees and lived on the
ground—but used
its large claws to
pull branches
within reach.

4 Possibly the largest


meat-eating land mammal
ever, at up to 13 ft (4 m)
long, this predator
is probably
a relative of
modern-day whales.
49

5 One of the earliest known bats,


this insect-eater may have been TEST YOURSELF
able to use echolocation to locate
its prey, just like present-day bats. Woolly mammoth
Skin stretched Smilodon

STARTER
over four long Woolly rhinoceros
finger bones
6 About the size of a white rhinoceros, Giant ground sloth
which can weigh up to 2.5 tons, this Ice The front horn
Age grazer used its large molars to was flat rather
grind tough vegetation. than conical.

Uintatherium

CHALLENGER
Glyptodon
Gastornis

Procoptodon
Icaronycteris

GENIUS!
Andrewsarchus
Macrauchenia

The short snout


looked like a trunk.

7 This strange-looking
mammal roamed the
grasslands of South America,
8 Flightless, like the
feeding on leaves and grass.
modern-day ostrich, this Hooked
beak
big bird had a long neck
and large beak,
possibly for 10 This mammal had
cracking nuts. strange one-toed feet
that looked like a single,
large claw. It could be
10 ft (3 m) tall.
9 The long, curved,

canine teeth of this


fearsome predator
were used to kill
large prey.
Long,
powerful
legs

The upper
canines
could grow
up to 7 in
(18 cm) long.

Like kangaroos,
mothers carried the
11 Weighing as much as a small baby in a pouch.
car, this armadillo-like herbivore
had tough armor made up of
hundreds of bony plates.

6. Woolly rhinoceros 7. Macrauchenia 8. Gastornis 9. Smilodon 10. Procoptodon 11. Glyptodon


ANSWERS: 1. Woolly mammoth 2. Uintatherium 3. Giant ground sloth 4. Andrewsarchus 5. Icaronycteris
50 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Mammals
Small ears keep heat
loss to a minimum.

From the tiniest shrews and bats to the blue


whale, the biggest animal ever, mammals thrive
in many habitats across the planet. Most live A polar bear
on land, but some can sniff a
seal over
can even hold their
01. In the freezing Arctic
181⁄2 miles
(30 km) away.
breath long enough you need a large skeleton—
to survive in the the bigger the body,
the more heat
deep ocean. generated.

02. A thick fur coat and a layer


of fat—up to 4 in (10 cm) thick—traps
body heat, keeping you even warmer!

How to survive
in the Arctic

Like nearly all


mammals, polar
bear cubs are
born live and
feed on their
mother’s milk.

03. Take care


of your cubs—for up
to two to three years.

A polar bear’s hairs are


actually transparent, but
the way they scatter light
makes them appear white.

04. As a warm-blooded mammal


you can generate your own body heat, Large, padded, and hairy feet help
the polar bear walk across slippery
even in cold climates. ice. Its sharp claws give it extra grip.
51

Flapping
about!
A few kinds of tree-living mammals—
such as squirrels—can glide through
the air, but bats are the only mammals
that can truly fly. Their wings are made
up of skin stretched over very long Thin wings
help bats

Tallest to the smallest


finger bones. move easily The giraffe is the tallest
through mammal, reaching up
the air. to 20 ft (6 m). It grasps higher
leaves by extending its

ood up to its head!


7.7 billion tongue an extra 20 in (50 cm).
In numbers

The world population of the


most abundant large mammal African elephants
ever—humans! are the heaviest land
mammals, weighing up to
75 mph 11 tons. Males also have
the tallest shoulder height—
(120 km/h) Top speed of
the cheetah, the fastest up to 13 ft (4 m).
land mammal.
The Etruscan shrew is

t to pump bl
40 the smallest mammal by
weight, averaging just
The percentage of
mammal species that 0.06 oz (1.8 g). The
are rodents. Hairless wonders! bumblebee bat has a
Many ocean mammals, such as smaller body length, but
2 dolphins, don’t have hairy skin. weighs more.
hear

The number of hours an Instead they have a thick layer of


elephant seal can hold its fat, called blubber, to keep
breath while diving for food. their body warm.
ong
xtra-str

I don’t believe it
s an e

The pangolin is the only mammal with


scaly skin. It has huge scales, which form
a protective armor.
e ha
raf
Types of mammals

A gi

Monotremes: The only Marsupials: These mammals Placentals: Most mammals


egg-laying mammals give birth to tiny young that fall into this group. Mothers
are echidnas and the are usually protected in a nourish their babies inside
duck-billed platypus. mother’s pouch. their womb.
52

The long tail


balances the
cat when it
turns at speed.

1 The tail of
this solitary

Know
American cat
is nearly as 2 The fastest animal
long as the on legs would easily
rest of its body! beat the speediest human

your cats
sprinter—it can reach speeds
of 70 mph (115 km/h).

Cats are more than teeth and claws—although these sharp


weapons are certainly a big part of their lives. They are
sleek, nimble-footed predators. For the smallest, a mouse
makes a decent meal, but others are big enough to tackle
full-grown cattle.

3 Look closer and you’ll be 4 This cat moves its


able to see the telltale spots long, tufted ears to signal
of this African-Asian cat. It’s other members
best known for its orange of its kind.
coat, but comes in black, too!

5 The biggest of
all cats, weighing up
to 800 lb (363 kg),
has giant paws
for swiping prey.

Distinctive rosette-
patterned fur

6 A tropical cat
from the Americas,
this hunter is the
emblem of a
famous luxury car.
53

7 Out on the Asian 8 This small cat lives in the


White cheek with
plains, this short- black stripes
Americas. Each one has a coat with a
legged cat ambushes unique pattern of stripes and spots.
prey from behind
large rocks.
TEST YOURSELF
Cheetah
Jaguar

STARTER
Lion
Tiger

Long, pointed
Puma

CHALLENGER
ears help hearing.
Snow Leopard
Ocelot
Leopard

9 Found high in the mountains,


this Asian cat can leap effortlessly
from ledge to ledge, using its Marbled cat
super strong legs. Caracal

GENIUS!
Pallas’s cat
10 At up to 31⁄2 ft (1.1 m)
Eurasian lynx
this cat may be small, but
The mane
makes the
it has the strength to kill
male look reindeer and wild boar.
bigger than it
really is. 11 The distinctive patterned coat
that gives this cat its name
is a good camouflage
when hunting in
the forests of
Southeast Asia.

12 Found in Africa, the males


of this fierce species have
such loud roars, they can
sometimes be heard
5 miles (8 km) away!

8. Ocelot 9. Snow Leopard 10. Eurasian lynx 11. Marbled cat 12. Lion
ANSWERS: 1. Puma 2. Cheetah 3. Leopard 4. Caracal 5. Tiger 6. Jaguar 7. Pallas’s cat
54

1 After
gnawing
through tree bark,
this primate from
Madagascar uses its long
middle finger to scoop out the
insect larvae lurking beneath.

2 This relative of
3 This monkey from
the lemurs is the
only primate to Borneo has the biggest
produce venom. nose and is also the best
primate swimmer.

Primate
party
Our closest relatives certainly This gibbon’s
make a playful, noisy bunch. throat sac helps
project his call
Monkeys and apes, lemurs, and across 11⁄ 5 miles
(2 km).
lorises use brains and brawn to
survive in the wild. Some—like
us—are more at home on the 4 The largest

gibbon at up to
ground, while others prefer to 351⁄2 in (90 cm), it is
be up in the trees. found across forests
in Southeast Asia.

5 Found in Africa, the

world’s biggest primate


thumps his chest to 6 The tail is
intimidate others.
more than a
good clue.
This primate
covers it in a
smelly substance,
produced by scent
glands, to waft at a
territorial opponent!

7 This African

ape uses sticks


to probe for
tasty termites.

13. Verreaux’s sifaka 14. Angolan colobus 15. Mandrill


9. Golden lion tamarin 10. Orangutan 11. Japanese macaque 12. Geoffroy’s spider monkey
55

Prehensile (meaning it can Glossy mane 10 One of the best


grip) tail acts like a fifth of fur
limb, supporting weight. climbers, this primate,
found in Southeast Asia,
has arms longer than its
legs—its arm span can be
around 71⁄2 ft (2.25 m).

8 A face that is A thick coat helps


it survive the cold
flushed red signals northern winters.
this primate’s 9 This beautiful tiny
good health, not monkey, at 13 in
embarrassment. (33 cm), is the color
It is usually found of a precious metal.
in the Amazon
forest treetops. 11 This primate
from Japan
is known
to take hot
spring baths
to survive in
cold weather.

12 A grasping tail is enough


to match any climbing
superhero—especially
one that lives in high
rain forest canopies.
Tail helps to balance
13Bouncing while climbing.
on two legs
across the
ground gets this
Madagascan
primate from
tree to tree.

14 A white, warm mane is perfect for


this primate’s home—the cool mountain
forests of Central and East Africa.

15 These primates, TEST YOURSELF


with their red and blue
faces (and bottoms!), live in STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!
groups called “troops” in
African rain forests. They Ring-tailed lemur Aye-aye Verreaux’s sifaka
can reach 31⁄2 ft (1.1 m) Gorilla Slow loris Angolan colobus
in length, making them Orangutan Siamang Japanese
the largest monkey. Chimpanzee Proboscis monkey macaque
Mandrill Golden lion Bald uakari
tamarin Geoffroy’s spider
monkey
5. Gorilla 6. Ring-tailed lemur 7. Chimpanzee 8. Bald uakari
ANSWERS: 1. Aye-aye 2. Slow loris 3. Proboscis monkey 4. Siamang
56 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Distinctive 2 Often mistaken for a killer whale, this


sickle-shaped fin
fast swimmer creates a fan-shaped
water spray above the
water—called a
“rooster tail.”

1 In fact a large member of the


dolphin family, this mammal travels in
herds, where there is no one leader.

3 Most cetaceans
live in salt water,
but this one lives
in the rivers of a
vast rain forest.

4 This creature, which likes to swim just below


the water’s surface, is named for a feature that
is missing from its back.
Adult human
diver (6 ft /1.8 m)

5 This thick-
bodied whale has an
enormous curved mouth—
the largest of any animal—and
a heavy skull that it uses to smash
through solid sea ice.

Aquatic
The head makes
up one-third of
this animal’s
total weight.

mammals
This whale can
grow up to
60 ft (18 m).

Fatty blubber
under the skin
Dolphins and whales are cetaceans—air- keeps the heat in.

breathing mammals that live in the water


and have to come to the surface to take
a breath. Their tails move up and down,
not side to side like a fish’s.
6 Jumping up through
the ocean’s surface, this
cetacean often makes a
big splash, and is known
for its song!
57

7 The 8 This slow swimmer has sharp,


pointy shape at curved teeth and is the smaller
the front end holds cousin of one of the
a clue for this friendly biggest whales.
The curved mouth
mammal’s name. makes it look like the
animal is always smiling.

TEST YOURSELF
9 Biggest heart,
Sperm whale
biggest tongue, biggest
animal ever! It can be up to Orca
105 ft (32 m) in length. Common bottlenose

STARTER
dolphin
Narwhal
10The world’s biggest Blue whale
animal with teeth, this
cetacean can dive to great
depths to hunt squid.

Amazon river dolphin


Humpback whale

CHALLENGER
Beluga whale
Long-finned
pilot whale
Indo-Pacific
finless porpoise
11 Here is a

The fin in adult pale-skinned cetacean:


males can be as it gets its name from the
Dwarf sperm
long as 6 ft (1.8 m). Russian word “belukha,” whale
meaning “white.”
Cuvier’s beaked
GENIUS!

whale
12 Also known as
Dall’s porpoise
the “killer whale,” Bowhead whale
this mammal The spiral
is actually a tusk is used to
attract mates.
big dolphin.

13 No other animal has


a single tusk like this 14 Named for the
cetacean from
shape of its snout, this
the Arctic.
cetacean can dive to a depth
of more than 3⁄5 miles (1 km).

7. Common bottlenose dolphin 8. Dwarf sperm whale 9. Blue whale 10. Sperm whale 11. Beluga whale 12. Orca 13. Narwhal 14. Cuvier’s beaked whale
ANSWERS: 1. Long-finned pilot whale 2. Dall’s porpoise 3. Amazon river dolphin 4. Indo-Pacific finless porpoise 5. Bowhead whale 6. Humpback whale
58 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Invertebrates
Animals without a backbone are known as
invertebrates. They make up more than 80 percent 01. As a giant centipede, you have
more than 20 pairs of jointed legs on your
of all types of animal and are incredibly varied. segmented body. As some pairs step
forward, the rest will follow.
Invertebrates include some with hard outer cases,
such as insects and shellfish, and soft-bodied
animals such as jellyfish and worms.

How to move like a centipede

02. Let your


body wriggle
Antennae
Long, jointed
antennae, or
from side to side. “feelers,” sense
This will help you surroundings.
pick up speed.

Leg muscles 03. Use the claws at the ends of


your legs to help you run, grip prey,
Each leg has muscles
to bend or straighten and even climb.
the joints.

grasp prey.
ers
I don’t believe it su
ck
When a pistol shrimp snaps its claws, the sound s
is so loud that it sends out shock waves strong pu
to

enough to kill the shrimp’s prey.


Oc

Types of invertebrates

Cnidarians: This is Worms: There are Molluscs: This group Arthropods: These Echinoderms: These
a group of simple different kinds of includes slugs and include spiders and include sea urchins
invertebrates with long-bodied worms. snails. Molluscs are relatives. They have and starfish, which
tentacles, such as Some can burrow soft and fleshy and an outer skeleton are shaped like disks
jellyfish and corals. and others swim. often have a shell. and jointed legs. or stars.
12.5 trillion
In numbers

Estimated size of the biggest


insect swarm: a plague of
Rocky Mountain locusts.

400,000
Number of known beetle
species, the largest group
of insects. Very many more
await discovery.
Extreme living
14⁄5 oz An invertebrate holds the animal
(50 g) Weight of a goliath
beetle, one of the heaviest record for high-altitude living. A type
flying insects—that’s more of jumping spider lives at heights of
than a golf ball. up to 22,000 ft (6,700 m) on the
slopes of Mount Everest. This little
0.0055 in

Invertebrate facts
predator feeds on tiny insects that A jellyfish has no
(0.139 mm) Length of the get blown high onto the mountain brain. Its simple
smallest known insect, a by the gales of the Himalayas. nervous system carries
fairy fly. electrical messages for
moving but cannot control
complex behavior.

Biggest and smallest Microscopic animals


called tardigrades are
great survivors. They can
dry out into husks that
have lost 95 percent of
40 ft their body water and still
(12 m) 0.003 in recover, and they have
0.002 in (0.07 mm)
survived being sent into
(0.05 mm)
6 ft (1.8 m) space without any oxygen.

Colossal squid Human Rotifer Width of The deep-sea Pompeii


human hair
worm that lives in
The giant of all invertebrates is Some invertebrates, such as rotifers, tubes near volcanic vents
the colossal squid that lives in are so tiny you need a microscope to can bear temperatures of
the deep ocean. It snags fish see them. Thousands could swim in 176°F (80°C).
with its hooked tentacles. one drop of water.

Smart octopus
Although most invertebrates
have tiny brains, a few, such
as octopuses, are quite
intelligent. A super-smart
octopus is able to extract
lobsters from lobster traps,
or even make its escape
from public aquariums.

Living fossils
Horseshoe crabs (more related
to spiders than shellfish) have
been around for more than
400 million years.
60 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

1 This tropical American 3 It’s a busy life for this


butterfly has see-through insect, collecting nectar
wings, so it’s difficult to spot that will be turned
when perched on a leaf. into honey back
at the hive.

2 Sunlight

bouncing off this Central


American beetle makes it shine
like a precious metal and helps
disguise it in the rain forest.

Colored scales
at the edges are
the only way to
spot this insect. Insects Hair traps pollen

everywhere
4 Despite its name, this
jewel-like insect does not
sting, but it does lay its eggs
in other insects’ nests.

There are more species of insects on Earth than


any other living animal, so it’s no wonder they
show up in practically every place you look.
The pattern on Insects have six legs for crawling, and most of
the wings helps
it camouflage them also have wings for flying—and that’s clearly
in forests. a winning combination in their fight for survival.

5 With its strong legs,


this insect can jump
271⁄2 in (70 cm) into the
air—giving it its name.

6 This flying insect lives


for only 1–2 days, and
starts its life as a nymph
that lives underwater
in ponds and lakes.

7 One of the biggest


Wings are
covered with and most colorful
tiny scales. of its kind, this Asian Three
insect has a wingspan tails
of 10 in (25 cm).
Ridged wings
8 Billions of these insects, which are longer than
can be 3 in (7.5 cm) long, form the body.
hungry swarms that can quickly Pattern on the
strip crops of all their leaves. wings reflects light
9 The long “snout”
on this insect’s head
was once thought to
glow in the dark—which
gave it its name.
Broad
fore legs

10 A network of veins in the wings

of this insect makes it look like a


type of delicate fabric.

Long antennae 11 This is the perfect Snout has a pair of


disguise for an insect tiny jaws at the tip.
that lives among
the foliage of
a rain forest. 12 Only the males of this insect
species have impressive
jaws that look like
Only one set
of wings
antlers, which
are used for 15 A distinctive long
13This notorious pest can wrestling with
reach 13⁄4 in (4.4 cm) in size, snout is used by this
rival males.
and can eat almost anything— beetle to bore holes
from food scraps to soap! into hazelnuts for
14 The striped laying eggs.
16 This spotted beetle likes warning pattern of
to munch on infestations of this insect is a bluff—it
greenflies—making it a good does not sting and is a
Wings are hidden
friend of gardeners. harmless nectar feeder. under the wing case.

Hooked claws

TEST YOURSELF
17 That’s not a
stinger—it’s a long Emperor dragonfly
egg-laying tube
Desert locust
that can drill
into timber. Praying mantis

STARTER
American cockroach
Honeybee
Ladybug
Stag beetle

Males have
a bright blue
abdomen with Mayfly
black markings. African termite
CHALLENGER

Common leaf insect


18 Big eyes and Antennae detect wood-living Green lacewing
superb controlled larvae into which eggs are laid.
Hover fly
flight help this
hunter catch other Atlas moth
19 This architect of the insect
insects in mid-air. Froghopper
Spines
world builds towering mounds
where millions of insects live
in enormous colonies.
Golden chafer
Long, transparent Nut weevil
wings with veins
Glasswing butterfly
GENIUS!

21 These insects spend most Sabre wasp


of their lives underground Ruby-tailed wasp
as larvae, emerging Lantern bug
20 Those fierce-
from the ground only Periodical cicada
looking spiny fore legs once every 13 or 17
are used to grab prey years as adults.
with lightning speed.
12. Stag beetle 13. American cockroach 14. Hover fly 15. Nut weevil 16. Ladybug 17. Sabre wasp 18. Emperor dragonfly 19. African termite 20. Praying mantis 21. Periodical cicada
ANSWERS: 1. Glasswing butterfly 2. Golden chafer 3. Honeybee 4. Ruby-tailed wasp 5. Froghopper 6. Mayfly 7. Atlas moth 8. Desert locust 9. Lantern bug 10. Green lacewing 11. Common leaf insect
62 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Under
1 Deep red and covered in
green spots, this creature
waves its tentacles in the

the sea
water to trap tiny prey.

The animal’s muscle


fibers squeeze its body
to move through water.
Peer into a shallow rock pool and you will see the
strangest creatures. Go deeper and you will find a wider
range of animals than on land. The ones on these pages
are all invertebrates, meaning they lack a backbone,
and they come in extraordinary shapes and colors.

2 The paper-thin body of this


colorful animal ripples as it
swims along.

3 The bells of this jellyfish are usually


around 1 ft (30 cm) in diameter.
Its sting is painful but
not dangerous—much
like a well-known
stinging plant!

4 Its name might make this

creature sound edible, but it’s a


relative of starfishes and is actually
poisonous to eat—a good defense!

Prey is paralyzed
by venom. 5 This animal lives
attached to the rocks,
and is a bivalve, which
Big eyes help see
means it has two shell
clearly while moving
at high speeds. parts hinged together.

6 A pale shell is

a good disguise
for scurrying on Fibrous threads
a sandy beach. attach to rocks.

9. Chambered nautilus 10. Purple sea pen 11. Spanish shawl nudibranch 12. Lined chiton 13. Mushroom coral 14. Red general starfish 15. Peacock mantis shrimp
ANSWERS: 1. Strawberry anemone 2. Polyclad flatworm 3. Pacific sea nettle 4. Sea apple 5. Common mussel 6. Horned ghost crab 7. Blue-ringed octopus 8. Christmas tree tube worm
63

The rings flash vividly 8 The feathery


7 One of the when the animal
feels threatened. tentacles might
deadliest animals look festive—but
on Earth, the color they are used for
pattern is a warning catching food.
that its bite is deadly
venomous.

The whorls of tentacles


also help take in oxygen.

TEST YOURSELF
Common mussel
Red general starfish

STARTER
Blue-ringed
octopus
9 Unlike its relatives,
the squid and octopus, Horned ghost crab
this swimming Strawberry anemone
creature lives in
a mobile shell.

Mushroom coral

CHALLENGER
10 This is really Chambered nautilus
a branching Polyclad flatworm
colony of tiny Pacific sea nettle
animals that are like Peacock mantis
It has up to 90 miniature anemones. shrimp
sticky tentacles.

11 This sea slug Lined chiton


is the enemy of
12The flexible shell
Christmas tree
anemones—not only of this snail relative tube worm
can help it roll up

GENIUS!
does it eat them, but Purple sea pen
it steals their stingers for protection.
Sea apple
and stores them
Spanish shawl
on its back! nudibranch
The shell
is made of
8 plates.

14 The shape is a
Tube feet help
the animal giveaway! Each of this
13 Although move and grip. animal’s arms can grow
it might look back after injury.
rather fungus-
like, this creature
moves and slides
across soft sand.

15 This crustacean has two Prey is swallowed


swinging clubs that are used through a central mouth
to smash prey to pieces. on the underside.

Clubs
64

1 Watch out! This arachnid has 2 Often found weaving Long,


a dangerous, venomous stinger tangled webs in the corner spindly
and blends well into its desert of the ceilings, this spider legs
Stinger habitat with its sand-colored skin. traps its prey in silk threads.

Distinctive yellow
and black bands
Pincers hold
captured prey.

4 Looking like a stinging


insect, this spider spins
Long, thin tail a web with a zigzag
pattern to trap prey.

3 Although this arachnid has


no stinger, it can defend itself by
spraying a vinegary acid from
the base of its tail.

Dense
red fur

Long, thin front


legs help to feel
for prey at night.

Arachnids
5 This colorful, soft-

skinned arachnid from


Asia prowls slowly among
leaf-litter, preying on

assemble
smaller insects.
6 This big, hairy
Front legs are raised
to reveal fangs and arachnid from
warn off enemies. North America
has a body up to
4 in (10 cm) long.
Feast your eyes on these eight-legged mini-beasts!
Arachnids are a type of invertebrate that includes
spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites. While some of these
have a venomous bite, others have a stinger in their
tail, but they all use clever ways to catch their prey.
65

8 This spider takes


Two extra- Venom gland
large eyes the plunge to catch
food—it breathes
7 A web held out in underwater by
the legs of this tropical carrying its own air
arachnid is used like a net supply in a bubble.
to scoop up passing prey. This creature is
Bubble of
perfectly disguised
air around
on the dark floor of
the body
an African rain forest.

9 One of the biggest


of its kind, at up to
8 in (20 cm) long, this
arachnid is armed
with large, armored
pincers that are used
to crush and tear
prey, such as lizards
and mice.

Strong muscles in
the pincers give a
Antennae-like powerful grip.
front legs
10 This arachnid likes to wander
into homes. It builds tunnel-like
webs in which it drags its
prey to feast.

Striped legs and


mottled body

TEST YOURSELF
Eight forward-facing
eyes help to judge
11 Lacking any venom, this distance accurately. Mexican red-knee
tarantula
tropical arachnid relies on long,
spiny front limbs to snag prey. House spider
Yellow scorpion

STARTER
Daddy long-legs
Pincers often contain
spider
poison glands. Sydney funnel-web
spider

Wasp spider
Goldenrod crab
13 When this big-eyed arachnid from
CHALLENGER

With pincers
12 spider
North America springs into action, it Diving bell spider
and a flat body, this arachnid
rarely misses its target—it can jump six
might look like a scorpion, but Giant, Emperor scorpion
times the length of its body.
lacks the tail and stinger of one. venomous Regal jumping spider
fangs

Whip scorpion
Whip spider
Broad-headed
GENIUS!

14 Capable of changing its pseudoscorpion


color from white to yellow, Ogre-faced spider
this arachnid hides among Common velvet mite
flowers of matching color
to grab unsuspecting 15 One of the most dangerous arachnids—with

visiting insects. venom potent enough to kill a human—catches prey


by laying trip-wires in front of its tube-like web.
9. Emperor scorpion 10. House spider 11. Whip spider 12. Broad-headed pseudoscorpion 13. Regal jumping spider 14. Goldenrod crab spider 15. Sydney funnel-web spider
ANSWERS: 1. Yellow scorpion 2. Daddy long-legs spider 3. Whip scorpion 4. Wasp spider 5. Common velvet mite 6. Mexican red-knee tarantula 7. Ogre-faced spider 8. Diving bell spider
66 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Birds

nt
wa are
r.
p
te
ns
tra
There are more than 10,000

he
different kinds of birds living in

ses
its t
habitats that vary from wetlands,

er clo
moorlands, coasts, and forests to

s it h
city streets. Being a bird means

The kingfsh
eyelids a
leading a busy life. Flying uses
up a lot of energy, so birds need
plenty of fuel in the form of food.

What is a bird?
Plumage: Vertebrate: A bird is
All birds have a vertebrate, but has
body feathers more neck bones than
and, usually, most other animals
bare legs with backbones. Wings: The
and feet. forelimbs of
birds are in the
form of wings,
but not all birds
can fly.

Lays eggs: Birds’


eggs provide
protection
and food for
growing chicks.
How to hunt like a kingfisher

I don’t believe it
In 1956, a five-year-old albatross called
Wisdom was ringed so that her movements could
be tracked. She was still alive in 2017, aged 66.

The smallest bird


The tiniest bird of all is the bee
hummingbird, found only
on the Caribbean island of
Cuba. Males, which are smaller
than females, measure on
average just 2 in (5.5 cm) long
and weigh 7⁄100 oz (1.9 g).
Feathers Quill

Flying facts
Every feather The oilbird from South
Feathers are made from keratin, has a hard America sleeps in caves
a material also found in animal central quill
or shaft. during the day and flies at night,
hair, nails, and reptile scales. Some using batlike echolocation.
feathers are fluffy for warmth, but
most of the outer ones are flat and Birds’ beaks contain a
stiffened to improve streamlining mineral that is sensitive to
and aid flight. Earth’s magnetic fields. This helps
them navigate on migration.

The longest-known nonstop


Vane bird flight—7,146 miles
The flat surface (11,500 km)—was tracked
(vane) is made up during the migration of
of side branches
(barbs), held a wading bird called a
together by bar-tailed godwit.
tiny hooks.
The wandering
albatross has the
longest wingspan
of any bird—
12 ft (3.65 m).

01. Find a perch


above the water and
watch for fish. Get
ready to dive in a
split second.

02. When a fish


catches your eye, plunge
into the water, pulling
back your wings to
streamline your body.
Using tools
A few brainy birds use tools to
find food. The New Caledonian
crow can even bend twigs into
hooks to get insect grubs
from wood.

03.
Strange bills

Grab the
fish in your bill, float
up to the surface, and
return to the perch to
swallow your meal.

Shoebill: An enormous bill Spoonbill: Sweeping its Hummingbird: This tiny


with a cutting edge helps bill from side to side in South American nectar-
this large wading bird of the water, this bird feels feeder has a long, thin bill
the African swamps catch for insects and shrimp for probing flowers and
and kill big fish by slicing with the touch-sensitive a long, grooved tongue to
off their heads. “spoon” at the tip. collect the liquid inside.
68 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

2 Showing off its spectacular 4 Known for its deep red color,
plumage by dancing in this water bird uses its long beak
the trees is how this to probe for insects in the mud.
bird attracts a mate. 3 In Central America the
long green tail feathers of this
bird, which can be around
3 ft (1 m) long, were used in
ceremonial headdresses.

5 The biggest bill of any bird is just


what you need to fish for your food.

Birds of
a feather
1 The Amazon
rain forest is the ideal
habitat for a bird that
only eats leaves of trees.
The tail was thought
They are masters of land and water, and to resemble a harp-
the champions of the sky—welcome to the like instrument.

wonderful world of birds! No other living


animal has a coat of feathers, and this 6 These birds are
means it’s easy to spot a bird. But famous for mimicking
sounds, from the calls of
can you tell one from another? other birds to car alarms.

About 100–150 7 This giant flightless


feathers make up bird lives in the tropical
this brilliant fan.
rain forests of New Guinea.

8 By 9 The pink of this


spreading bird’s feathers
its brilliant plumes, comes from eating
this male show-off shrimp and other
likes to strut in front of tiny animals living
the females. in the water.
69

10 The hard, hollow


projection on TEST YOURSELF
the upper bill
helps make Ostrich
11 An enormous, colorful
calls louder. Pelican
bill looks inconvenient,
but helps this bird grab Sulfur-crested

STARTER
hard-to-reach fruit. cockatoo
Toucan
Indian peacock
12 The
Flamingo
claws of this
colorful
bird have an
excellent grip,
which helps with Emu
the everyday tasks of Scarlet ibis

CHALLENGER
clasping onto branches Kiwi
and grasping food. Blue-and-yellow
macaw
Lesser bird
of paradise
Southern cassowary

Wingspan is
41–45 in (104–114 cm)
Hoatzin
Resplendent quetzal
13 Well known in Superb lyrebird

GENIUS!
Japan, a pair of these Red-crowned crane
birds will dance and Great hornbill
honk in a beautiful Gray-crowned crane
courtship display.

16 The world’s largest living


14 The second- 15 A white parrot bird is also the fastest animal
largest bird in the from Australia, this bird on two legs—it can run at a
world lives in the is a popular pet—if speed of 43 mph (70 km/h).
Australian outback. you don’t mind the
loud squawks.

17 A fan-like tuft of
stiff golden head Red, inflatable
feathers gives this throat pouch
bird its name.

The big
wings are
too weak
Reddish-brown, for flight.
spiky feathers

18 The national bird of


New Zealand has nostrils
at the tip of its beak to sniff
out worms.
9. Flamingo 10. Great hornbill 11. Toucan 12. Blue-and-yellow macaw 13. Red-crowned crane 14. Emu 15. Sulfur-crested cockatoo 16. Ostrich 17. Gray-crowned crane 18. Kiwi
ANSWERS: 1. Hoatzin 2. Lesser bird of paradise 3. Resplendent quetzal 4. Scarlet ibis 5. Pelican 6. Superb lyrebird 7. Southern cassowary 8. Indian peacock
70

1 A wedge-shaped tail
allows this bird to turn
while in flight, and also
helps to identify it. 2 Found in
icy coniferous
forests, this bird has
pointed wings, much like
a hawk’s, and can hunt
in thick snow.
The wings can
measure 6 ft (1.8 m)
across from tip to tip.

Deadly
hunters
4 Fishes can

be slippery prey,
but this bird has
spiky, clawed
3 A tiny hunter, this talons for keeping
Asian bird targets Watch out! There’s a bird of prey overhead. These a firm grip.
small prey, such as feathered hunters all have a taste for meat. Some
insects and birds.
prefer rotting, dead animals (known as carrion) but
most need fresh prey, and use their deadly talons
and sharp beaks to make a kill.
5 One of the biggest
flying birds, this species
is found soaring over
the longest mountain
range of South America.

6 This bird’s massive and


powerful talons are used for Wingspan can
be more than
killing sloths and monkeys in 10 ft (3 m)!
the Amazon rain forest.
71

TEST YOURSELF
Rüppell’s vulture
Bald eagle

STARTER
Peregrine falcon
Barn owl

7 Faster
than any other Andean condor

CHALLENGER
Long, animal, this hunter Secretary bird
feathery can reach up to 199 mph
tufts Harpy eagle
(320 km/h) when dive-
Osprey
bombing through the air.

Striking white
head feathers Red kite
Pied falconet

GENIUS!
Eurasian eagle owl
8 One of the
Northern hawk owl
biggest of its kind at
around 291⁄2 in (75 cm),
this hunter’s favorite
prey are rabbits and hares.
Its huge orange eyes are
three times more sensitive
than the human eye.

Strong talons
snatch fish near
the water’s surface. 9 The national emblem of
the US also appears on the
country’s coat of arms.
Heart-shaped face

10 Super-sensitive
hearing helps this
pale nighttime
predator track
down mice and A powerful
voles in the dark. hooked beak
makes it easy for
the bird to tear
off flesh and
break bones.

11 A bare neck 12 How do you catch


is perfect for a snake? By stomping it
reaching right This long- to death with strong,
inside a dead legged bird clawed feet like this
animal to feast stands up African bird.
without getting to 47 in
(120 cm) tall.
dirty feathers.

7. Peregrine falcon 8. Eurasian eagle owl 9. Bald eagle 10. Barn owl 11. Rüppell’s vulture 12. Secretary bird
ANSWERS: 1. Red kite 2. Northern hawk owl 3. Pied falconet 4. Osprey 5. Andean condor 6. Harpy eagle
72 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Types of reptile

Crocodilians
These predatory
Reptiles
crocodiles and
alligators with long
With hard, scaly skins and body heat controlled by outside
toothy jaws include temperatures, reptiles are unique animals. Most of them live
the largest reptiles.
in tropical forests and warm deserts, but some can cope with
cooler habitats. A few, such as sea turtles and sea snakes, are
Lizards and snakes
This is the biggest
perfectly at home in the oceans.
reptile group and
What is a reptile?
includes lizards—
with or without
legs—and snakes.
Vertebrate: All reptiles
have a backbone and Cold-blooded: The
a hard bony skeleton. body temperature of
Turtles and tortoises reptiles matches that
of their surroundings.
Both aquatic turtles
and land-living Lays eggs: Most
tortoises have reptiles lay eggs, but
protective shield- a few bear live young.
like shells.
Scaly skin: Hard scales
help protect the body.

Tuatara
This New Zealand
in.
reptile is the only
heir sk
nt
survivor of a group
s have bo
that lived at the time
of the dinosaurs.
ile ny plates embedde di
d
co
Cro

How to hunt like


a crocodile

01. Lurk in the water,


with just your eyes above the
02. When prey moves
close, spring out of the water
03. If your prey needs air
to breathe, hold it underwater
surface of the water, and wait. and grip it with your teeth. until it drowns.
73

Defense tactics Shedding skin


The outer skin of reptiles wears down over
Many reptiles run or crawl time and has to be replaced. As new skin
away from danger, but the grows underneath, the old skin peels away.
frilled lizard from Australia In lizards this usually happens in small
has an extra trick. It opens patches, but in most snakes the skin comes
a wide neck frill to make itself off in one piece like a sleeve.
look bigger. If that doesn’t
scare the intruder, the lizard
rises up on its back legs and
sprints away on two legs!

Crocodilian teeth are


shaped to stab and
hold prey, rather than
slice like knives. A snake can slither
out of its skin in one
piece by rubbing against
a hard surface.

I don’t believe it
Some species of skinks (a type of lizard)
have green blood, which gives them green
hearts, bones, and tongues, too.

Waterproofing Venom flows from the


A reptile’s scales protect the gland down a channel
skin from injury and help in the tooth.
stop the body losing water
A special gland
in dry habitats.
produces and
stores venom.

16,000
In numbers

The power in Newtons


(units of force) of the
bite of a saltwater
crocodile—enough to Hollow
crush a human skull. fangs
Venom is injected
through a tiny hole
3,280 ft in the tooth tip.
(1,000 m) Depth of the
deepest recorded dive
How do snakes
by a leatherback turtle. produce venom?
All snakes are predators of other living
6 miles
04. Keeping hold of
your prey, spin around and
(9.5 km) Distance over
which a Komodo dragon
animals and many kinds kill with venom, a
poison they inject into their prey with a bite.
Venomous snakes store their poison in glands
around like a log, to pull off lizard can smell food.
a lump of flesh. (sacs that release a fluid) that lie behind their
eyes and deliver it through hollow fangs.
74

Muscular tail
can grip
branches.

1 Although slow-

moving by nature, this 2 Green skin is perfect for a


lizard can catch an insect Long claws for climbing lizard that wants to
with a flick of its long tongue. climbing trees
stay hidden in the forests of
South America.

3 A wormlike

lure on the
tongue of this
patient predator Pink lure
attracts fishes into its open
mouth, which then snaps 5 The world’s largest lizard,
shut with a powerful bite. 4 By biting its reaching lengths of 10 ft (3 m), lives
on tiny islands in Indonesia, where

Reptile
tail, and rolling into
a spiky ball, this it is the top predator, hunting prey
armored lizard up to the size of deer.
fends off predators.

room
Scaly skin may make a reptile look like it
belongs to a prehistoric age, but these
animals are still found in most places on
Earth! As cold-blooded creatures, they
rely on the warmth of the sun’s rays to
get them moving, and live on both
land and water. 6 This lizard has an excellent grip. It has
splayed-out toes with pads covered in
sticky “hairs,” which help it climb and
cling to anything—even ceilings!

8 One of only two kinds of

The tail helps venomous lizard, this one is found


7 This beast’s long jaws are filled with up this reptile in the United States and Mexico. It
to 110 sharp teeth—perfect for snatching move in water. has a strong bite and doesn’t let go.
fish in the rivers of northern Asia.
75

TEST YOURSELF
9 In a dry Australian desert, spiky
Radiated tortoise
skin is a good defense against 11A snorkel-like tube on Green turtle
predators for this ant-eating lizard. its nose helps this turtle
Nile crocodile

STARTER
breathe while it’s under the
10 Found in New
water of South American rivers. Tokay gecko
Zealand, this lizard Komodo dragon
looks prehistoric
Sharp claws help
with its spiny crest. dig burrows
for shelter.

Gila monster
Up to 68 teeth Common green

CHALLENGER
line the jaws. iguana
Marine iguana
Panther chameleon
Alligator snapping
turtle
12 Brute strength helps this

African reptile pull large prey


the size of a zebra under water.
Gharial
Matamata
13 At home on the volcanic Galápagos Thorny devil

GENIUS!
Islands, this is the only lizard that
Tuatara
feeds on seaweed. Usually
black, the males turn a vibrant Armadillo girdled
lizard
green or pink during
breeding season.

14 This plant-eating animal


eats algae, which gives its
body fat a unique color.
It also has flipper-like
legs—perfect for
ocean swimming!
A forked tongue allows
this lizard to detect the
scent of potential prey. 15 Native to Madagascar, the
distinctive starlike pattern on
its shell gives this
reptile its name.

Tail will drop


off if the
lizard is
cornered,
to distract
predators.

7. Gharial 8. Gila monster 9. Thorny devil 10. Tuatara 11. Matamata 12. Nile crocodile 13. Marine iguana 14. Green turtle 15. Radiated tortoise
ANSWERS: 1. Panther chameleon 2. Common green iguana 3. Alligator snapping turtle 4. Armadillo girdled lizard 5. Komodo dragon 6. Tokay gecko
76 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Scaly
serpents
1 Most snakes lay
eggs, but this gloriously
green climbing species
from South America gives
birth to live young.

Being legless is no big deal for snakes:


they get around just as well as any other
reptile. Their body is packed with muscle
for gripping the ground, climbing trees,
or even swimming at times. They eat
other living animals, using either An upturned
constricting coils or venom to kill. nose helps this
snake rummage
How many can you identify? 2 Flipping onto its back,
through soil
for prey.
keeping still, and being smelly,
make predators think this snake
is long dead—a clever trick!
Large jaw muscles
clamp down on
prey, such as small
mammals and birds,
with great force.

A scaled hood
Mottled markings helps the
help this snake snake look
disguise itself amongst bigger, warding
rain forest vegetation. off predators.

3 Watch out! When


this snake spreads its
hood, it means it is
ready to strike.

4 In the Amazon
basin, the world’s
heaviest snake—weighing 5 The only venomous
up to 542 lb (246 kg)— snake in many European
spends most of its countries, this species can fold
time in water. away its fangs when not in use. Distinctive zigzag pattern

8. Western diamondback rattlesnake 9. Elephant-trunk snake 10. Black mamba 11. Eastern coral snake 12. Common egg-eating snake
ANSWERS: 1. Emerald tree boa 2. Eastern hog-nosed snake 3. Indian cobra 4. Green anaconda 5. Common adder 6. Gaboon viper 7. Spiny bush viper
77

7 Spiky scales cover


the head and neck of
this venomous snake
from Central Africa.

The scales might help


6 Found in Africa, this the snake to climb
scary serpent has the reeds and stalks.
longest fangs—up to 2 in
Wrinkly skin
(5 cm) long—and produces the
The distinctive patterns
most venom of any snake. on this snake’s skin help it
blend in amongst leaf litter.

The loose, scaly


rings make a
buzzing noise.

9 The wrinkly skin of this


8 By shaking the
tip of its tail, this aquatic snake makes it look like
venomous snake the nose of a land mammal!
warns everyone
to stay away.

This snake’s name


comes from the
color of its mouth.

10 Possibly the
fastest snake, this
speedy striker
from Africa is
lethally venomous.
By wriggling, it punctures
the shell of its meal to
reach the yolky goodness. 11 The brilliant color bands of this
American snake are a warning that
its venom can be deadly.
12 This African snake
swallows its meal whole
and digests it in
TEST YOURSELF
its stomach.
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

Indian cobra Eastern coral Gaboon viper


Common adder snake Emerald tree boa
Western Black mamba Eastern
diamondback Green anaconda hog-nosed snake
rattlesnake Elephant-trunk Spiny bush viper
Common egg- snake
eating snake
78 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Amphibians
The word “amphibian” means
Frog or toad: what’s the difference?
“leading two kinds of life.” Many
of these animals start their lives
underwater as tadpoles and grow
into adults that are as much at home
on land as in water. Most amphibians
prefer damp places with enough
water in which to lay their eggs.
Frogs Toads
Most kinds of frogs around the Toads usually have rough, warty
world have a smooth, moist skin skins and squat bodies. Most have
and very long back legs, which shorter legs than frogs, and prefer
Types of amphibian makes them the best jumpers. to walk rather than hop.

02.
Frogs and toads
Most kinds of amphibians
How to hunt like a tree frog

Open your
are frogs or toads. They mouth wide and stick
usually have long back out your long tongue
legs for swimming, to reach your prey.
hopping, or burrowing.

01. Look for a


juicy insect, then use
your strong back legs
Salamanders and newts to leap toward it.
These have lizardlike
bodies. They waddle or
run over the ground, and
some even climb trees.

Caecilians
The wormlike shape
of the tropical legless
caecilians is ideal for
burrowing in soil
or leaf litter.

Long legs give extra


propulsion power!

Keep away!
I don’t believe it Many amphibians have
brightly colored skin. This is a
Some American salamanders warning that they are
have no lungs and breathe entirely poisonous and may be
through their skin. deadly to eat.
Life-cycle of a frog

Tadpole tales
The tadpoles of amphibians that
In Europe and North America, most amphibians lay their eggs in breed in fast-flowing streams have
water, where the tadpoles can swim. Amphibians native to special suckers so they can cling to
tropical rainforests often lay eggs on wet ground. rocks and not get washed away.

The tadpoles of the paradoxical


frog from South America are much
Adult frog Eggs bigger than the adults they grow into.
They shrink as they develop.

The parents of some kinds of poison


dart frogs carry their tadpoles on
Young frog Tadpoles their backs.

Some tree frogs build a foam


nest for their eggs among the
branches, using froth beaten up with
Froglet their legs. Once hatched, the tadpoles
Legs develop drop into a pool below.

Regrowing limbs
In the same way as lizards often do, salamanders may
grow back tails lost through injury—but they go a stage
further. Some salamanders can regrow lost limbs,
producing perfect new feet and toes in the process.

Stump where tail


has been lost

03. A sticky pad on


your tongue grips the prey.
20,000
In numbers

Pull back your tongue, with


dinner attached! The number of eggs that a
common frog can lay in a
single breeding season.

102
The number of cane toads that
Glass frog were introduced to Australia in
1935. There are now millions of
Some kinds of frogs from tropical North them and they are major pests.
and South America, called glass frogs,
have transparent skin on their underside.
This means that their skeleton and even 10
The number of months spent
their beating heart is visible inside. underground by the African
bullfrog in very dry years.
Red blood vessels can be
seen through the clear skin
on the frog’s belly.
80 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Webbed feet act like 1 Webbed feet aren’t just good


parachutes, slowing for swimming—this rain forest–
down the frog as it falls. dwelling frog uses them for
gliding through the air.

Amazing Green on top


with a yellow
underside makes

amphibians
perfect rainforest
camouflage.

Amphibians are animals with soft, moist skin,


which means they survive best in wet places— A tiny amount of
but they can also live on land. There are poison produced
in the skin could
crawlers, jumpers, and swimmers. Can kill a human.
you tell frogs from toads or newts
from salamanders?

2 Vivid colors warn that


there are deadly poisons
Knobbly back
in the skin of this South makes it look like a
Six feathery
external gills American amphibian. certain giant reptile.

5 Orange bumps

on the back of this


Asian amphibian
show where its poison-
3 This salamander can regrow producing glands are.
its organs and limbs if damaged.
It also never grows up, keeping
its baby gills into adulthood.

Semi-webbed feet
4 A safe place to store
eggs is in the skin of
your back, as this South
American frog does.
A flash of its
colorful eyes scares
away predators.

6 This Central American

Fertilized eggs frog likes to climb trees in


embedded on rain forests, using suction
female’s back cups on its toes to help grip.
81

8 In Northern European
ponds, the male of
this species dances
and fans its tail to
impress females.
The toes are not
webbed, unlike
those of a frog. Only the males
Yellow belly with
have this frill,
black splotches
which grows in
7 This looks like an eel breeding seasons.
but is really an extra-long
salamander with tiny
legs—it can be 31⁄2 ft Legs are around
(1.1 m) long. 4
⁄5 in (2 cm) long

Pointy
nose

9 A big mouth enables Rough, warty


this aggressive amphibian skin is usually
green, brown, 10 A spiky brown head is 11 A quick flash
to swallow big prey—
including small
or gray. a good disguise on the of a red-and-black TEST YOURSELF
mammals leaf-litter of a gloomy belly is a warning
and birds. rain forest floor. to predators that
Axolotl
it is poisonous.
Dry, bumpy Blue-and-black
skin on top poison dart frog

STARTER
Red-eyed tree frog
Japanese giant
salamander
Wallace’s flying frog
Thick, blunt toes
12 Yellow spots mark the

positions of poisonous
glands on this European Red salamander
CHALLENGER

forest amphibian. Great crested newt


Fire salamander
African bullfrog
Oriental fire-bellied
13 This amphibian is the second toad
14 This amphibian not only looks like
biggest in the world and can
a colorful worm but also behaves like
reach 41⁄2 ft (1.4 m) in length—only
one—it burrows in soil.
its relative from China is bigger.
Amphiuma
Small tentacles
help locate prey. Long-nosed
GENIUS!

horned frog
Surinam toad
Caecilian
Crocodile newt

15 This North American

blood-colored amphibian
lacks lungs, so it breathes
entirely through its skin.
9. African bullfrog 10. Long-nosed horned frog 11. Oriental fire-bellied toad 12. Fire salamander 13. Japanese giant salamander 14. Caecilian 15. Red salamander
ANSWERS: 1. Wallace’s flying frog 2. Blue-and-black poison dart frog 3. Axolotl 4. Surinam toad 5. Crocodile newt 6. Red-eyed tree frog 7. Amphiuma 8. Great crested newt
82 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Fish How to make a bait ball

Streamlined bodies, fins, and


gills—fish have all the adaptations
01. When threatened,
stay close to and swim in the
same direction as the
needed to live in water. Some swim other fish around.
in mid-water, others prefer to lurk
near the bottom, but each kind uses
its own special tactics for surviving
below the surface.

Types of fish

Jawless fish
With more than 120 species, this kind of fish,
including this hagfish, do not have a jaw, but
have sucker disks with rows of small teeth.
02. Swim in tight
formation, to form a big, swirling
bait ball. This will confuse the
predators, who will find it tricky
to pick out individual prey.

Bony fish
Most fish, more than 33,000 species, including this
Bluefish and
catfish, have a bony skeleton and a gas-filled bladder, barracudas circle
which helps them keep afloat. the bait ball.

Many cartilaginous fish


have a venomous spine. Cartilaginous fish
Some types of fish have a Deep-sea terror
skeleton made of cartilage—a In deep oceans, where food is scarce,
substance softer than bone. the Sloane’s viperfish makes sure
This ratfish, along with sharks that its prey doesn’t escape
and rays, falls in this group of by trapping the victim with
its long fangs.
more than 1,200 species.
300

In numbers
The number, in millions,

03. Keep moving and


stay alert. The bluefish are
of eggs laid at one time
by an ocean sunfish.
determined, and may
dive into the bait ball 68 mph
at any time and snap (110 km/h) The
at random. maximum recorded
speed of the sailfish—the
fastest fish in the ocean.
Eggs are held
1
⁄ in
4
in the male’s
mouth for up to
(8 mm) The length of 30 days until
the Paedocypris—the
world’s smallest fish.
they hatch.
Parenting
Most fish produce a large number
of eggs and release them in water,
providing no care. However, some species,
such as this cardinalfish, protect their
eggs by brooding them in their mouth.

Fish scales
Diamond-shaped:
04: The tail then The garfish has
swings back as close-fitting,
before, while the interlocking
fins keep the fish scales, which
level in the water. work like a suit
of armor, and
provide protection.

Spines: The spines


of the porcupine
03: The muscles fish are a perfect
on the left defense. When in
contract to danger, the fish
swing the tail inflates, pushing
the other way. the spines out like
tiny needles.

Toothlike: Sharks
are covered in
tiny toothlike
How fish swim
scales, which
makes the skin
02: The sweeping rough—like
Fish swim in a wavelike motion. Their bodies tail pushes against sandpaper.
are packed with strong muscles that bend the the water, helping
spine one way and then the other—a motion to force the fish
that propels them through the water. forward.

Tail swings back


I don’t believe it
The deep-sea barrel-eye fish has a
01: Muscles on the right transparent head to maximize the
side of the body contract amount of light that can reach its eyes.
to pull the tail to the right.
84 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

1 Its tall, flattened The clue to


its name is
shape allows this in the tail.
South American fish
to slip in between 2 This fish, recognizable by its trunk-
grassy weeds. Sucker-like like nose, can generate an electric field
mouth which works like radar to help the fish
find its way through muddy rivers.

Breathing holes

4 This long South


American fish has a
3 A taste for blood drives
scoop-like mouth. It can jump
this long, eel-like European fish 61⁄2 ft (2 m) out of the water to snatch
to attack its prey with a circular, prey such as birds and bugs.
sucker-like mouth.
Long dorsal fin

5 Found in the mangrove


swamps of Southeast Asia,
this tiny fish is named after its
black-and-yellow stripes.

6 A perfect parent, this African fish


protects her eggs by holding them
in her mouth until they hatch.
7 First bred in China 2,000

Just 11/2 in (4 cm) Distinctive


years ago, this favorite pond fish
in length. spots comes in many different colors
including red, white, and orange.
8 The rippling fin running
along the underside
of this knife-shaped
fish helps it
move forward.

Freshwater
f ish
From rivers and streams, to lakes and ponds,
freshwater is a habitat for many kinds of fish. Some
like water to be flowing and churning, while others
prefer it calm and still. Can you spot who’s who
under the surface? Can grow 5 ft
(1.5 m) long, from
tail to the tip of
9 The deep-olive color helps this stealthy predator its pointed nose.
remain camouflaged among water
reeds before it darts out to
grab prey. 10 Armed with
razor-sharp teeth, this
South American fish
bands together in shoals
for safety—and
sometimes to eat.
85

TEST YOURSELF
Long snout is
covered with
sensory pores Goldfish
Koi carp

STARTER
Pike
11 Found only in North America, this fish Freshwater angelfish
collects prey such as plankton by swimming Red-bellied piranha
with its mouth wide-open. Betta fish

13 Known for its aggression,


this fish has been
bred in Asia for Electric eel
12 This South American fish
hundreds of years. Rainbow trout

CHALLENGER
uses its whisker-like barbels
to feel its way around in It uses its colorful Red-tailed catfish
Barbel fins to attract mates and
cloudy waters. Bumblebee goby
scare off enemies. Australian lungfish
Leaf fish

Grows up to
8 ft (2.5 m) long
Arowana
Elephant fish

GENIUS!
Nile tilapia
River lamprey
14 Named for its blue-and-green
American paddlefish
color, this North American fish can be Clown featherback
identified by the pink line running along
its length. It can weigh up to 55 lb (25 kg).
The bright
underside gives
the fish its name. 15Watch out! Lurking in the Amazonian
swamps, this fish can fire a 500–volt
electric shock to stun and capture prey—a
shocking surprise.

A single anal
fin stretches
to the tail.

16 This popular pet fish is

easily recognized by its orange


color, which deepens with the
amount of light it receives. It can Can grow up to
live for more than 20 years! 6 ft (1.8 m) long

Big eyes allow this


fish to see in murky
tropical waters.

17 By looking 18 Most fish breathe


like a piece of Floats with its underwater with gills,
head down
floating foliage, but if the level of oxygen
this fish can creep up in the water drops, this fish
on its underwater prey. can also breathe air on land.
10. Red-bellied piranha 11. American paddlefish 12. Red-tailed catfish 13. Betta fish 14. Rainbow trout 15. Electric eel 16. Goldfish 17. Leaf fish 18. Australian lungfish
ANSWERS: 1. Freshwater angelfish 2. Elephant fish 3. River lamprey 4. Arowana 5. Bumblebee goby 6. Nile tilapia 7. Koi carp 8. Clown featherback 9. Pike
NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Grows up to
61⁄2 ft (2 m)
Strange, glowing
organ or “fishing rod”
1 Shaped like a

torpedo, this top ocean 2 Food is hard to find


predator can suddenly
in the deep, dark sea. But
accelerate at speed to catch its
this hunter overcomes this
prey in its dagger-like teeth.
obstacle by using a glowing
lure to attract prey.
Long fang-
like teeth

3 This scaly fish was

believed to have become


extinct more than 65 million
years ago, but was found to
be alive in 1938!

The bright colors


and patterns give
this fish its name.

4 A narrow mouth

only nibbles tiny


food, but is good for
plucking morsels from
rocky crevices.
5 A razor-sharp spine
Blue spots distort the fish’s in the tail of this fish can
shape when viewed by inject venom into an
Mane of predators from above.
venomous spines attacker, giving an
agonizing wound.

An expandable mouth
helps it swallow large prey.

6 Keep back! The

spectacular fins on this big-


mouthed fish carry vicious
stinging spines.

Dorsal fin A fan-shaped dorsal


fin is displayed in
the mating season.

7 Using its strong


fins, this fish is
able to waddle up
onto the shore.
8 Found near tropical
coral reefs, this sharp-
toothed predator
can be identified by
the color of its skin.
8. Gray reef shark 9. Clownfish 10. Spotted seahorse 11. Mandarinfish 12. Hammerhead shark 13. Common remora 14. Porcupine fish 15. Zebra moray eel
ANSWERS: 1. Great barracuda 2. Humpback anglerfish 3. Coelacanth 4. Butterflyfish 5. Blue-spotted ribbontail ray 6. Red lionfish 7. Mudskipper
87

Marine life The babies are


known as fry.

Most of the world’s 33,500 or so different species of fish live 10 In this species, it’s the

in the oceans. Some live in the deep, where all is dark and father who carries the eggs,
in a pouch on his belly, and
cold. Others swim in the sunlit open seas, while many more when they hatch, he gives birth!
live on colorful coral reefs. How many can you recognize?

Venomous barb

9 Home for this fish is among

the tentacles of an anemone—


a thick, slimy layer on its skin
protects it from stings.

11 This fish

gets its name


from its fantastic
colors, which
resemble those
of the robes of a
Chinese emperor.
12 The distinctively
shaped head is packed
with special sensors that
TEST YOURSELF
can detect prey—even if they
are buried in sand. Clownfish
Zebra moray eel

STARTER
Spotted seahorse
Flat dorsal fin acts as Hammerhead
a sucker so the fish can shark
attach itself to its host. Porcupine fish

13 By sticking
itself to the underside Humpback
of whales and sharks, anglerfish
CHALLENGER

this fish gets a free ride Mudskipper


and feeds on leftovers.
Red lionfish
14 What better way Gray reef shark
to defend yourself than Blue-spotted
by swallowing water ribbontail ray
and swelling up like
Round a spiky ball?
snout
Common remora
Mandarinfish
GENIUS!

Butterflyfish
Great barracuda
Coelacanth
15 This striped, nocturnal fish can be
around 5 ft (1.5 m) long. It has strong teeth
and can bite through the hardest shellfish.
88 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Innate vs. learned Defensive tactics


Animals use many tactics to defend
themselves against attack from
predators. Some animals use
their body parts, such as
horns or claws, as weapons.
Others use very different Black-and-
white stripes
techniques. The skunk, for warn attackers
example, squirts a smelly liquid they might get
from its bottom to deter hunters. a face full of
smelly liquid!

Innate behavior refers to skills animals are


born with, which they don’t have to learn as
they grow up. For example, the praying mantis
snatches prey using lightning-fast front legs
Animal
behavior
instinctively—it was never taught this skill.

Whether they are getting food, avoiding danger, or


raising a family, animals behave in lots of different
ways. Sometimes they do things by instinct; other
times they must learn what they have to do. Animal
Learned behavior develops as an animal
behavior is driven mainly by one thing: the need to
gets older. Young lions are born with a stay alive in the continual fight for survival.
hunting instinct, but have to watch and
follow their parents to get better at it.

The journey to the A smooth, curved edge is


nest can sometimes left where the ant’s jaws have
be 100 ft (30 m) long. sliced through the leaf.

02. Smaller ants can


sit on leaves, to guard them
from predators and keep
them clean on the journey
back to the nest.
89

Working together Tricksters


Sometimes different species help
one another. Oxpeckers are birds
that clean zebras of blood-sucking
ticks—and get a meal in the Cantil snake: Young
process! This mutually beneficial snakes waggle a
wormlike, colored
relationship is called mutualism. tail to help them
attract prey.

Black heron: Opening


3,728 miles its wings over

In numbers
the water like an
(6,000 km) The length of
umbrella, this bird
a giant colony of Argentine
creates shade to
ants in Europe.
attract fish—making
them easy pickings
Using tools 100 for the bird.
The cleverest animals can use The number of words
tools to help them get food— learned by Alex, a famous
such as this young chimpanzee African gray parrot.
learning to “fish” for juicy Flatfish: By changing
termites with a stick. color to match
20 the sea floor, fish
such as the plaice
The number of different
alarm calls used by disguise themselves
from predators.
How to work meerkats to warn others
in the group of different
as a team kinds of danger.

10 Portia spider: This

01. Medium-sized leaf-cutter


ants head into the tropical forests of
The number of seconds
it takes for a European
spider pretends to
be a wriggling
fly stuck in a web
Central and South America to find cuckoo to lay its egg in the so it can prey on
some good leaves and bite off pieces nest of another bird, while other spiders.
they can carry, which can be up to the owner is not looking.
20 times their body weight.

Large ants carry


leaf fragments in
their strong jaws.

03. At the nest, guarded


by the biggest ants, the
smallest ants add pieces
of leaf to the “garden” of
fungus they grow for food.
90 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Tricky
Tail track 1 Footprints with two toes

are unique—these were made


by a large, fast, flightless bird.

tracks Webbed feet


for swimming
Largest
toe can
be 7 in
(18 cm)
There’s an animal nearby, but what is it? A lot of long

animals are very secretive and take care not to


be seen. But if they wander over mud, sand, or
2 Two kinds of prints? Only
snow, they can’t help the tracks they leave
the back feet of this North
behind them. Some might be obvious—but American mammal, known for
others are puzzling. building dams, are webbed.

Wide-spread toes 3 The hooves of this


help in walking
animal are clearly cloven—
each one split down the
middle to give two toes.

Glands between the


Hoof-shaped
toes leave a scent
toenail about
4 This feathered friend, often
trail for others of
23⁄4 in (7 cm)
its kind to follow.
seen in cities, has three toes at the
front and one at the back—making
its tracks easy to spot!

This mammal
walks on the Forelimb feet
soles of it feet. are smaller than
the hind feet

Hind feet can be


twisted backward
Its claws also while climbing
make tracks. down trees.

6 A tree-dwelling rodent

leaves behind these prints


as it scurries around looking
for nuts and seeds.

5 Who’s been lumbering

by? These giant flat-footed


paw prints can only belong
one large, furry mammal, which
can be found in the US.
91

7 Although more at home in

the sea, this mammal moves TEST YOURSELF


on land by using its flippers to
drag its large body forward. Rabbit
Dog

STARTER
Pigeon
Rat

Bear

CHALLENGER
Sidewinder snake
Flipper tracks Deer
Ostrich
Small hook at the Squirrel
end where the
animal curls its tail

9 This furry little animal

sprints at the first sign of Crocodile


danger. Its long, strong Seal

GENIUS!
hind legs give it speed. Penguin
Beaver

8 The winding body of this

reptile leaves behind parallel,


streaky tracks as it zigzags
across its desert habitat. When the chest,
stomach, and tail
are kept flat on the
ground, they make
a track of their own!

12 One of the most


10 The tiny feet that have made these
powerful reptiles, this
tracks belong to a common pest that
animal drags its long,
has reached almost all of the world’s
heavy tail as it prowls
continents as a stowaway on ships.
on the ground.

Most birds walk on


Webbed feet,
11
tiptoes, but this one
seen in these tracks, walks on the soles
help this black-and- of its feet.
white bird to steer
A dew claw at the back
when swimming
of the foot doesn’t
underwater. reach the ground.

Hind feet
are webbed.
13 These paw prints

have been left by a


four-toed animal that
is a popular pet.

8. Sidewinder snake 9. Rabbit 10. Rat 11. Penguin 12. Crocodile 13. Dog
ANSWERS: 1. Ostrich 2. Beaver 3. Deer 4. Pigeon 5. Bear 6. Squirrel 7. Seal
92

1 This egg belongs 2 The world’s biggest


to a giant jungle bird living bird lays the
that cannot fly but biggest egg—
will defend its weighing up to
eggs with huge 3 lb (1.4 kg).
clawed feet.

Green-blue
eggs can be
up to 51⁄2 in
(14 cm) long.

TEST YOURSELF
3 These creatures lay
Chicken
eggs in huge colonies on
Ostrich islands around bitterly
Cassowary cold Antarctica.
STARTER

Leopard tortoise
Corn snake
Frog spawn
Dinosaur
4 The animal that lays

this egg is known for


its melodious call.
Rainbow trout
Ladybug The egg is incubated
CHALLENGER

King penguin between the parents’


belly and feet.
American robin
Mute swan
The eggs take
Japanese quail

Get cracking
42–46 days to hatch.
Cuckoo

Lesser spotted
dogfish 5 Almost all furry
Elegant crested Inside an egg is a baby animal just waiting to hatch out. animals give birth
tinamou The eggs of birds must have a hard shell, to stop them to live young—but
Common guillemot
GENIUS!

this egg was laid by


Leopard gecko
breaking when the parent sits on them to keep them a spiky mammal.
Osprey warm. Most fish, insects, and reptiles lay eggs, too,
Short-beaked echidna and they all look very different.
Garden snail
Song thrush Unlike other
7 You’ll find the egg reptile eggs, this
eggshell is hard,
of this fish-hunting not leathery.
raptor in a massive
The egg is nest made from
known for its sticks, high 8 These eggs are laid in other
blue color. in a tree. birds’ nests. They look like the
other eggs already in the nest,
so they go unnoticed.

6 The nest for this 9 Belonging to a South


egg is made of twigs, African animal, this egg
grass, and feathers by hatches into a female at
a bird with a brightly warmer temperatures; at cooler
colored breast. temperatures it produces a male.
17. Ladybug 18. Garden snail 19. Japanese quail 20. Lesser spotted dogfish 21. Rainbow trout 22. Frog spawn
11. Mute swan 12. Leopard gecko 13. Chicken 14. Elegant crested tinamou 15. Common guillemot 16. Corn snake
93

10 This egg certainly


looks like it’s in very Eggs laid in water
bad shape—but it
is 75 million Eggs that are laid by animals that live
years old! in water are very different from those
that are laid on dry land.

20 Tassels help to

anchor this egg case


to seaweed so it is
not washed away by
ocean currents.

21 The female scatters 22 Masses of jelly-coated

thousands of these eggs laid in a pond will hatch


eggs over gravel in into swimming larvae that
a pool—then leaves develop into hopping
them to develop alone. land animals.
11 The animal that lays

this egg will attack with


big flapping wings if
you get too close.

14 This beautiful,

green egg of a South


American bird has a
glossy texture.
12 The baby that hatches from

this egg has stripes—but will


grow into a reptile with spots. 13 Eaten all

over the world,


this farmed 15 A pointy shape stops
egg is an this sea bird’s egg from
important rolling off the cliff top
food source. ledge where it is laid.

A leathery shell The eggs are


helps protect covered with soil. 17 On hatching, the young
the young from these tiny eggs feed on
16 An oblong egg is reptile inside.
needed if you have greenflies. They later grow
a very thin body up to be greenfly-
to do the laying. munching beetles.

19 A mottled 18 These eggs


pattern helps were laid by a slow-
to disguise this moving invertebrate.
Asian bird’s egg
from predators.

echidna 6. American robin 7. Osprey 8. Cuckoo 9. Leopard tortoise 10. Dinosaur


ANSWERS: 1. Cassowary 2. Ostrich 3. King penguin 4. Song thrush 5. Short-beaked
94

1 In the warty

skin just behind this


amphibian’s eye is a
poison gland that is
used for self-defense.

2 Enormous forward-
facing eyes help this
small primate see at night
as it leaps through trees.
3 Unlike others of its kind,

this spotted reptile has eyelids A ring of muscles,


called the iris, controls
which can open and close.
the amount of light
that enters the eye.
4 Is this like looking in

a mirror? Thousands of
years ago, all of these
mammals had brown
eyes, but now they can

Eye spy
be blue and green as well.

What a sight! All animals have eyes that are just right for them.
While some eyes work well underwater, others are designed
for life on land, and some even see clearly in the dark. But all
of them help animals take in the world around them.
6 A compound eye

(made of many parts)


5 With its luminous yellow eyes,
helps this insect to
this feathered nighttime
see in all directions—
hunter cannot rotate
enabling it to get close
its eyeballs, so it
enough to bite animals
swivels its neck—up
for their blood.
to 270 degrees—to
look around.

7 Lurking just under

the water surface, this


animal waits to snap up
10 With a
passing prey with the eyes
on top of its head sticking out. W-shaped, slit-
The W-shaped pupil
helps improve vision like pupil, this
8 With eyes that move in dim water. distinctive eye
belongs to an
independently of each other,
underwater
this scaly reptile can look in two
creature that can
directions at the same time.
change color.

11 The nighttime eyeshine


The vivid color
9
of this animal
of its bulging eye
inspired the
helps this climbing
invention of
amphibian startle
a road safety
potential enemies—
feature that
giving it time to
reflects the
hop away.
beam of car
headlights.
95

12 An oversized eye helps 13 A vertical slit for 14Descended from


this ocean-dwelling animal a pupil helps this wolves, this furry
hunt for prey at night. scaly, venomous animal has icy
animal focus on blue eyes and is
moving prey from sometimes used
its hiding place in to pull sleds
trees and bushes. over snow.

15 No, this eye does not TEST YOURSELF


belong to a dinosaur! It
belongs to a rare, large Human
tree-climbing lizard that Red-eyed tree frog
lives on the Grand
Multicolored Domestic cat

STARTER
eye filters
Cayman Island.
Husky dog
different colors
Horsefly
Camel
Crocodile
Golden iris

16 Extra-long

lashes are needed to Elephant


help stop sand being This soft-bodied
17 Goat

CHALLENGER
blown into the eye of invertebrate has multiple, Panther chameleon
this desert animal. skillful arms, a big brain, and Giant Pacific octopus
excellent vision to match.
Cane toad
Great horned owl
Bushbaby

Horizontal pupil
draws into a slit
during the day Cuttlefish
Starry puffer fish
Blue iguana

GENIUS!
Red big-eye fish
Leaf viper
Leopard gecko
18 At only 11⁄2 in (3.8 cm), Boomslang snake
this is a small eye for the
world’s biggest land
animal, which can grow
up to 241⁄2 ft (7.5 m) long. A horizontal, rectangular
19

pupil gives this hoofed


mammal a wider field of
view, which increases its
chances of spotting
a predator.

20 The eyes of
21 This sea
this dangerous,
slithery reptile animal moves its
have no eyelids, eyes independently
meaning it of each other, and is
cannot blink. known for swelling
up like a balloon
when threatened.

11. Domestic cat 12. Red big-eye fish 13. Leaf viper 14. Husky dog 15. Blue iguana 16. Camel 17. Giant Pacific octopus 18. Elephant 19. Goat 20. Boomslang snake 21. Starry puffer fish
ANSWERS: 1. Cane toad 2. Bushbaby 3. Leopard gecko 4. Human 5. Great horned owl 6. Horsefly 7. Crocodile 8. Panther chameleon 9. Red-eyed tree frog 10. Cuttlefish
96 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Red tentacles
Plants Types of plants
Nonflowering: These
plants scatter spores
(dust-like cells), which
produce sweet, A world without foliage and flowers grow into new plants
on moist soil.
glue-like
droplets to would be a far less colorful place.
attract the fly. The green leaves of plants make food
using the energy in sunlight, and—
as part of forests and grasslands—
they provide habitats for animals
that live on land. In one way or Flowering: After
another, we all rely on plants. pollination, these plants
form seeds inside fruits.
The seeds scatter and
develop into new plants.

or the le
As the fly struggles,
tes f af
more tentacles stick u to
to its body. in co Nutrients from the fly’s
m il body seep into the
a
0

plant to help it grow.


t3

ro
ou

un
It takes ab

d
th
ef
y.

When the leaf curls, the


fly dies by exhaustion
or suffocation.

02. When the fly


is totally trapped in the
stickiness, slowly coil
the leaf around it as it
struggles to escape.
How to catch a fly

01. As a carnivorous
(meat-eating) sundew, you are
03. Once the fly is dead,
trigger the leaf to produce
perfectly designed as a killer chemicals that will break
plant. First, attract a fly with the down the fly’s body, and then
sugary drops on your leaf. absorb all its nutrients.
Parts of a plant

Record-breaking trees
The world’s tallest tree is a
coastal redwood from California,
Leaves make nicknamed Hyperion, which reaches
food using energy a height of 3803⁄10 ft (115.92 m).
from sunlight.
Fruits contain
seeds which, when A bristlecone pine found in the
Flowers have scattered, produce mountains of the western US is
pollen that is more plants.
carried by insects
the world’s oldest tree, and also one of
or wind to other the oldest of all living things. Its seed
plants, fertilizing first sprouted more than 5,000 years ago.
them so they can
produce seeds.
The Guyana chestnut produces
the widest flowers of any tree—
Stem carries water growing up to 26 in (66 cm) across.
Roots anchor the and minerals into
plant and take in the leaves, fruits, The coco de mer Palm produces the
water and minerals and flowers.
from the soil. largest seed of any kind of plant— each
can weigh up to 66 lb (30 kg).

13 million lb
In numbers

(6 million kg) The estimated


weight of a group of quaking
aspen trees in Utah, which
are connected to form a
giant superorganism.

32,000 years
The age of a seed of the
Arctic Campion—a small
flowering plant—that
was planted and
successfully grown.
Cheeky monkey
2,000 The Dracula simia is an orchid
The number of seeds that can with a surprising feature—the
form in a single sunflower. inside of it looks like a
monkey’s face!

A scientist studies a giant


sequoia, which is more
Strange plants

than 247 ft (75 m) tall.

Titan arum: This plant has the Spanish moss: Not technically Giant water lily: This aquatic Stone plant: This plant
tallest flowering spike, at 10 ft a moss, this flowering plant plant has a giant leaf, which looks like a pebble to deter
(3 m), which stinks of rotting blankets trees and absorbs can measure more than 61⁄2 ft plant-eaters, until its flower
meat to attract pollinating flies. moisture from the air. (2 m) across. gives the game away!
98

2 Native to warm
Spots mimic and tropical regions,
aphids to attract the petals of this large,
predatory insects.
trumpet-shaped flower
are used to make
a type of tea.

1 The flower’s pouch

may look like a piece of


4 In South Asia,
footwear—but is used to
trap pollinating insects. these bright, globe-
shaped flowers are
3 These bell-shaped used to make garlands
for many religious
flowers are narrow, but the
ceremonies.
perfect fit for bumblebees
looking for nectar.

Flower
The flowers
begin opening
from bottom
to top.

power
Flowers are the parts of plants from
which fruits or seeds develop. We love
them because they brighten our gardens
and homes, but their main purpose is to
help plants with pollination. Their showy
colors and sometimes powerful perfumes
attract insects and other animals, who then
carry pollen from one plant to another.

5 The stigma of this 6 Birds and butterflies are


flower is dried to make attracted to the nectar
saffron, which is used produced by these tall
to season or color spikes of striking
food and dye clothes. red flower heads.

Sticky stigma traps


pollen carried
Can grow
by insects
to 5 ft
(1.5 m) tall

8 In many cultures,
Each head is made these fragrant blooms
up of many florets.
are symbols of purity.
They produce a lot
7 These flowers grow wild in of orange pollen,
Asia, where they are the symbol which can stain
of wealth, and have large heads fingers and clothes.
that come in many colors.
99

10 Said to resemble

the plumes of an exotic


bird, this African 11 Though more
flower blooms in
familiar in its red
warm countries.
form, this garden favorite
comes in many colors and
often appears in fairy tales as
9 Prized for their a symbol of love.
bright colors, millions of
these flowers are cultivated in the
Netherlands each year.

13 In Europe,
A native of Australasia
12
this pretty trumpet-
and made up of a cluster shaped flower is a
of bright-red spikes of sure sign that spring
flowers, this flower head has arrived.
looks like it could be
used for cleaning.
14 Prized in Asia, the petals
of this aquatic flower
open during the day and
close at night, perhaps
to stop the pollen from
being damaged by
morning dew.

TEST YOURSELF
Daffodil
Sunflower

STARTER
Tulip
Marigold
15 Fragrant oils Lotus
from this flower are used Rose
to soothe cuts and scrapes,
and to repel mosquitoes.

Hibiscus
CHALLENGER

Chrysanthemum
Lily
The central disk
is made of up to Blue poppy
2,000 tiny flowers. Crocus
17 Found in the Himalayas, this
blue flower has a red European Lavender
relative that is a symbol of
16 These tall, remembrance of war.
nodding, bright-
Lady’s slipper
yellow flowers orchid
always grow
Bird-of-paradise
facing the sun. flower
GENIUS!

One record-
King protea
breaking
specimen grew Red-hot poker
to a height of Bottlebrush
18 The national flower Foxglove
30 ft (9.17 m).
of South Africa survives
wildfires by growing buds
from an underground stem.
10. Bird-of-paradise flower 11. Rose 12. Bottlebrush 13. Daffodil 14. Lotus 15. Lavender 16. Sunflower 17. Blue poppy 18. King protea
ANSWERS: 1. Lady’s slipper orchid 2. Hibiscus 3. Foxglove 4. Marigold 5. Crocus 6. Red-hot poker 7. Chrysanthemum 8. Lily 9. Tulip
2 When ripe, this
Sweet, creamy flesh
tree-borne fruit tastes
like the sweet, creamy
sauce you might pour
1 This fruit can taste
over a dessert.
sour—but when cooked
Smooth-skinned yellow
with sugar it can be used variety grows in warm
to make pies and desserts. areas such as Hawaii

Fruit can be bright


green or red in color

3 This seed-packed fruit is

sour when fresh. The purple


varieties can only be eaten
when the skin is brown and Shiny black seeds Woody shell
wrinkled—unlike this orange
variety, which is ripe and
ready for you to dig into! 4 Traditionally grown in

Central Asia, the two

Fruit
halves of this nut’s
shell break open to
reveal a softer inside.

and nuts
In North America, crops are
flooded to protect fruit from
cold and wind.

5 Crushed to make
a sauce or jelly, these
Fruits grow from the flowers of plants—they berries are popular
are the parts we can eat. They come in different at Christmas and
Thanksgiving.
colors that entice you to dive in for a bite.
This is exactly what the plants want—by eating
the fruits, animals help scatter the seeds inside
in their waste.
7 These are not
technically fruits, but
an expanded part of
the stem that contains
6 Found in
tiny flowers, which
Southeast Asia, the are fertilized by wasps
“King of the Fruits” who enter through a
is one of the hole in the bottom.
stinkiest in the
world, but has a
delicious taste. Tiny seeds embedded
in reddish-pink flesh
Inside every round
fruitlet is a seed.
Thorny rind
9 You’ll find these
fruits growing on a
cactus in deserts and
other dry places.

Sharp spine
8 After developing from
white flowers, these
berries are best picked
when they are at their
darkest—but watch out
for thorns on the bush!
101

The fruit is
pale green
before it
TEST YOURSELF
ripens and
takes a Blackberries
darker color.
Walnuts

STARTER
Cranberries
10 Most of these small, soft, Blueberries
distinctively colored fruits Grapefruit
are grown in North America. Watermelon

11 This bright fruit originated


in the Caribbean and is Figs

CHALLENGER
consumed for its Hazelnuts
delicious juice. Pomegranate
12 Expect lots of small seeds surrounded
Passion fruit
by juicy red flesh when you cut open the Gooseberries
tough pink skin of this fruit.

Custard apple
Mulberries

GENIUS!
Durian
Prickly pears
Cape gooseberries
Pine nuts
14 This small, round, smooth-
shelled nut, also called a
cobnut, is a favorite food
of woodland squirrels.
13 Originating from
15 This huge, juicy fruit—that
Peru and related grows on vines—is just what
to tomatoes, these you need to quench
sweet fruits grow a raging thirst!
inside papery husks.
The biggest
can weigh
more than
200 lb (90 kg).

Edible seeds

16 These seeds
are produced
inside the
cones of a type
of evergreen
tree, but only
20 percent of
species have
seeds big enough
to be worth eating.

These berries come


in a variety of colors,
including black and white.

17 This fruit grows on


a tree that has a double
use—the sweet berries are
delicious, and its leaves are
food for silkworm caterpillars.
10. Blueberries 11. Grapefruit 12. Pomegranate 13. Cape gooseberries 14. Hazelnuts 15. Watermelon 16. Pine nuts 17. Mulberries
ANSWERS: 1. Gooseberries 2. Custard apple 3. Passion fruit 4. Walnuts 5. Cranberries 6. Durian 7. Figs 8. Blackberries 9. Prickly pears
102

3 The crinkly leaves

look as good as they


taste, and are full
of vitamins.

1 Each

bulb is
divided into 2 The pink
Fat roots grow
cloves that pack a leafstalks here under the soil.
very strong taste. are popular in sweet
desserts—but the big
4 Packed
The stalks can be green leaves are poisonous.
red, light pink, or with sticky starch, called
light green. tapioca, this tropical root
vegetable is used for baking.

Plant food Deep-red


color

“Vegetable” is not a scientific term, it’s simply the name we give to


plants grown for food. A few that contain seeds are technically 7 The shape and

fruits, but because they are used in savory dishes, they are color of an organ in
the human body, these Tube-like
known as vegetables. They are all versions of wild plants that are usually dried, and shape
farmers have learned to cultivate over thousands of years. must then be soaked
and cooked before
they are safe to eat.
5 This small-bud

variety of cabbage gets


its name from a city Deep-
6 This is in fact purple skin
in Europe.
a giant berry,
Made of several which can
packed layers be stewed,
fried, roasted,
or mashed.

10 First grown
in the Andes,
this root vegetable (meaning
it grows underground) is
crammed full of nutrients.

8 In North

America and Europe, 9 The tasty “spears”

this is a favorite for of this vegetable are


celebrating Halloween actually young shoots that have
and Thanksgiving. just emerged from the ground.
103

11 The bright-orange pigment in this 12 This vegetable produces

vegetable helps us make vitamin A, long tasty seed pods, picked


which is essential for before the seeds inside
healthy vision. mature and grow tough.

13 This root
vegetable
grows best in
the tropics, and
has a distinctive
sugary flavor.

14 The crisp, peppery roots of

this vegetable are eaten raw in 15 Growing from


Europe, and are found in pickles
a vine, this sweet
and stews farther east.
fruit turns a deeper
orange as it ripens
and is used in soups,
pies, and stews.

Soft,
rounded
This vegetable leaves TEST YOURSELF
comes in many
different colors.
16 The name of Garlic
this variety of Chinese Carrots
smooth-leaved Sweet potato

STARTER
cabbage means Green beans
“white vegetable” Pumpkin
in Cantonese.
Eggplant
Kidney beans
Used in
most canned
baked beans

Asparagus
18 As well as being Radishes
CHALLENGER

17 These beans got tasty, this tropical


Watercress
their name because fruit’s flesh can be
scooped out and the Brussels sprouts
they were a popular
food with sailors. shell made into a Butternut squash
sturdy container. Rhubarb
Navy beans
19 A popular salad
vegetable, this is
grown in water and Each floret is a Oca
has hollow stems, mini version of the
whole vegetable. Kale
which make it float.
Bok choy
GENIUS!

Calabash
21 With its origins in Water chestnut
20This crunchy Italy, this vegetable is Cassava root
root vegetable a variety of cauliflower Romanesco broccoli
grows in muddy that produces edible
marshes in Asia. flower buds.

13. Sweet potato 14. Radishes 15. Butternut squash 16. Bok choy 17. Navy beans 18. Calabash 19. Watercress 20. Water chestnut 21. Romanesco broccoli
ANSWERS: 1. Garlic 2. Rhubarb 3. Kale 4. Cassava root 5. Brussels sprouts 6. Eggplant 7. Kidney beans 8. Pumpkin 9. Asparagus 10. Oca 11. Carrots 12. Green beans
GEOGRAPHY
GENIUS
3
Spot the camels
Natural wonders are found all across the
globe, but there is more to some of them
than meets the eye. See if you can spy the
camels moving across this stretch of the
Sahara desert. They are not just a mirage!
106 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

Earth What’s inside Earth?


Soon after it formed, Earth got so hot that it
melted. This allowed most of its heavy iron
to sink to the center, forming a metallic core.
Our planet is a ball of hot rock and metal, with a cool, This lies within a deep layer of hot rock called
brittle shell and an airy atmosphere. Its surface is just the mantle, which is covered by a thin crust.

the right temperature to hold oceans of liquid water—


a substance vital to the survival of all living things. Inner core: Earth’s inner
Many forms of life thrive on Earth, making their core is made of solid
iron and nickel.
homes in a diverse range of habitats.
Oceans: Water
covers two-thirds
of the planet’s
How the continents formed surface.

01. Earth’s crust is split into plates


that keep moving, carrying the
continents with them. 335 million
years ago, the continents touched.

4.6 billion
In numbers

The number of years


planet Earth has been in 02. Known as Pangaea, this
existence since it formed huge supercontinent began to
from a gigantic cloud of break up 175 million years ago.
dust and gases.

3,958 miles
(6,371 km) The distance
Ea

to Earth’s center.
rt

7 miles
h

th
is

(11 km) The depth of


e
the Mariana Trench in
03. As North and South America w onl
the Pacific Ocean—the ith y k
lif nown pla
moved away from Asia and Africa,
deepest point on Earth.
India and Australia drifted north,
creating the world we know today.
e! net
Habitats

Deserts: A desert can be Grasslands: These get more Tundra: Life must survive Polar regions: Nearly all
hot or cold, but is always rain than deserts, but not long, dark, freezing winters life in the icy polar regions
very dry, with little life. enough for forests to grow. in this near-polar habitat. lives in the seas and oceans.
107

Right temperature
Energy from
the sun
Just right!
Nitrogen
Earth has just the right
Crust: Earth’s rocky shell Atmosphere: temperature to ensure that

N
is made of a thin oceanic A layer of air
crust and thicker helps keep the O water doesn’t freeze or boil
CO
continental crust. planet warm. away into space. The air also
2
has the perfect mixture of
Oxygen gases needed to support life.
Carbon
dioxide Water

Endless water cycle


Much of Earth’s life depends on the water cycle—the way
moisture circulates between the oceans, air, and land.
Many plants and animals rely on the rainfall it creates.

02. The rising water 03. As clouds drift inland they


vapor turns into tiny often rise and get cooler.
water drops, which This leads the droplets inside
form clouds. to grow bigger.

Outer core: Mantle: Below


Molten iron the crust lies the
and nickel mantle, a deep
surround the layer of hot, mobile,
inner core. semi-solid rock. 01. Heat from the sun 04. Raindrops and
makes pure water snowflakes start to
evaporate into the air fall. The water is
from the sea. soaked up by plants.

I don’t
believe it 05. Any water plants
Earth’s rotation is slowing do not absorb flows
down. One billion years ago, into rivers and back
a full day on Earth would to the sea.
have lasted just 20 hours.

Mountains: The air is cold Oceans: These include a Rivers and wetlands: These Forests: A dense forest can
at high altitudes, so this wide variety of habitats, from rich habitats support lots be home to a huge variety
habitat is similar to tundra. icy polar seas to coral reefs. of plants and animals. of life in all its forms.
108 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

2 This cold sea is

dotted with icebergs


that drift south
from Greenland.

3
Dividing
America from
1 The swampy shores of this water
Europe and Africa,

High
the second-largest
body, lined with lagoons and
ocean covers about
beaches, are often battered by
41,100,000 sq miles
destructive hurricanes.
(106,460,000 sq km).

seas 1 4 Cut off from the ocean by a


chain of around 7,000 islands,
such as Saint Lucia (below),
More than two-thirds of Earth’s surface is this tropical sea is home
covered by seawater. Most of this water 4 to coral reefs.
lies in deep oceans, but there are also
other smaller, shallower seas around the
coasts of the continents. Sometimes parts
of a sea can be almost entirely surrounded
by land—these are known as gulfs.

5
By far the biggest ocean in the
world, at around 621⁄2 million sq miles
(161,760,000 sq km), this water body covers
almost half the globe and has an average 6 Named after a

depth of more than 13,000 ft (4,000 m)—which British expedition ship


is more than four times the height of the tallest that sailed here, this
building in the world, Dubai’s Burj Khalifa. Antarctic sea has
floating ice on which
penguins live and
cold, rocky islands
where they nest.
TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!
6
Atlantic Ocean North Sea Sea of Okhotsk
Pacific Ocean Red Sea Persian Gulf
Indian Ocean Yellow Sea Labrador Sea
Gulf of Mexico Caspian Sea Scotia Sea
Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Coral Sea
Arabian Sea Adriatic Sea Laptev Sea
Caribbean Sea South China Sea Java Sea
109

10 Frozen for half the year,


this Russian sea lies on the
edge of the Arctic Ocean.
7 Chalk cliffs line parts of this shallow
coastal sea in Northern Europe.

12 Floating ice in

winter is a danger
to ships crossing this
9 Despite its dark, sinister name, large, cold sea.
this almost completely land-locked
sea near Turkey is a beautiful,
7 tranquil stretch of water.
12
8 This scenic European
sea lies between the 11 Though it is called
coasts of Italy and Croatia. a sea, this is actually the
biggest salt lake on Earth,
9 at around 143,000 sq miles 15 The color of
8
(371,000 sq km). the water flowing
in from a great
Chinese river
14 A vital trade route
gives this water 16 Rocky islands
for centuries, this sea body its name.
also supports a huge dot the waters of
13Many of the world’s Halong Bay (below) at
fishing industry.
earliest civilizations flourished the southern edge of
on the shores of this sea, this sea in the Far East.
which is surrounded by
17
three continents.
16

17 The shallow coastal


waters of this narrow sea
between Africa and Asia 18 Best known for
support coral reefs.
its oil reserves, this
Floating algae can
water body is named
sometimes tint the 20
after the nation that is
water pale red.
known as Iran today.

21

19
Most of this ocean lies
in the warm tropical
region to the south of the
country that it is named after.

20 Islands made of hard


granite are a feature of this
shallow Indonesian sea.

21 A view from

above shows why


this warm, tropical
sea gets its name.

12. Sea of Okhotsk 13. Mediterranean Sea 14. Arabian Sea 15. Yellow Sea 16. South China Sea 17. Red Sea 18. Persian Gulf 19. Indian Ocean 20. Java Sea 21. Coral Sea
ANSWERS: 1. Gulf of Mexico 2. Labrador Sea 3. Atlantic Ocean 4. Caribbean Sea 5. Pacific Ocean 6. Scotia Sea 7. North Sea 8. Adriatic Sea 9. Black Sea 10. Laptev Sea 11. Caspian Sea
110 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

World 8 The capital


city of France
is divided in

waterways
two by this
river, which has
been painted by
many artists.

When rain falls on the land, it trickles downhill in streams,


which flow into rivers, and eventually ends up in the
deep blue sea. Some of these winding
rivers are quite short, but others
7 One of
cover huge distances. Can you Europe’s
name these mighty rivers? biggest rivers
flows from
the Swiss Alps
to Holland.

2 Famous for the

steamboats which
paddle along this
1 Its name
huge river.
5 Cutting through
means “white water
river” and it flows huge areas of tropical 8
through one of the rain forests, this is the
coldest regions of world’s biggest river,
North America. in terms of volume
3 of water.

4 This tropical river

winds around some of


South America’s oldest
mountains and flows
through Venezuela
and Colombia.

3 Beginning at the

famous Rocky Mountains, 5 9 This river cuts


this river has carved
one of the deepest through Africa’s largest
rocky canyons on Earth tropical rain forest, and is
and the “Horseshoe the second-longest river in
Bend” (above). Africa at over 2,900 miles
(4,670 km) long.
6

6 Big ocean-going
ships can use this 15 The waters
wide river to reach of this southern
cities in Argentina African river
and Paraguay. tumble over the
spectacular
Victoria Falls.

11. Volga 12. Indus 13. Nile 14. Euphrates 15. Zambezi 16. Lena 17. Shinano 18. Yangtze 19. Ganges 20. Mekong 21. Murray
ANSWERS: 1. Yukon 2. Mississippi 3. Colorado 4. Orinoco 5. Amazon 6. Paraná 7. Rhine 8. Seine 9. Congo 10. Danube
111

18 For more than half the


10 This European river flows through ten
countries on its way to the sea. Here it is year this Siberian river is
shown going through Budapest, Hungary. covered by thick ice.

16 One-third of the population of


China lives near this 2,700-mile-
(4,350-km-) long river.

16

11 Flowing south through

Russia, this is the biggest


and longest river in Europe.
19 Sacred to the

Hindu religion, this


river flows from the
12 This is the national Himalayas to the
10
river of Pakistan. Bay of Bengal.

20 This river passes through


18
five southeast Asian nations,
17 At 228 miles
including Vietnam (below).
13 (367 km) long,
19
this is both the
longest and
14 The ancient 20 widest river
city of Babylon in Japan.
was built on this
river which goes
through modern-day
Syria, Turkey, and Iraq.

13 Two rivers—one white

and one blue—meet in


15
the Sahara desert to make
one of the world’s longest
rivers, reaching a length
of 4,160 miles (6,695 km).

21
TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

Seine Danube Lena


21 This river forms
Colorado Rhine Volga
the northern border
Amazon Zambezi Murray
of the Australian
Nile Congo Orinoco state of Victoria and
Ganges Indus Paraná flows from the
Yukon Mekong Euphrates Snowy Mountains.
Mississippi Shinano Yangtze
112 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS
1

Formerly known as
Mount McKinley, this is
the highest mountain
peak in North America,
at 20,308 ft (6,190 m).

2 This giant active volcano


rises from the floor of the
Pacific Ocean to form a
volcanic island.

The Aztec name for this peak means


“smoking mountain” and it is the
most active volcano in Mexico.

3 The jagged ridges of this


spectacular mountain are
also home to bears and
even mountain lions.

5
6

6 Exposed by the erosion of


The highest point
softer surrounding rocks, this of the Andes—the
huge mass of hard rock looms world’s longest
over the city of Rio de Janeiro. mountain range— 8
this peak is also the
highest outside Asia,
at 22,841 ft (6,962 m).
7 8 Few mountains have a more
recognizable profile than this one,
7 Only discovered as which forms the backdrop to Cape
recently as 1958, this wall Town at the southern tip of Africa.
of rock is the highest
point in Antarctica.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

Mount Everest K2 Mount Ararat


Mount Fuji Denali Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kilimanjaro Mount Elbrus Mount Cook
Table Mountain Mount Whitney Vinson Massif
Mont Blanc Sugarloaf Aconcagua
Mount Olympus Mountain Mount Wilhelm
Mauna Loa Mount Kinabalu Lianhua Feng
Popocatépetl
113

Peak puzzle
11 The highest peak in
Europe, with the largest
of its two cones reaching
18,510 ft (5,642 m), this
dormant volcano lies in
southern Russia. Earth’s crust is made of vast, slowly moving
plates of rock. In some places these crunch into
each other, pushing the land up into dramatic
Named for the color of its icy
summit, this is the highest mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas. In other
mountain in the Alps. places, volcanoes form where plates meet. Active
at first, they may then lie dormant (sleeping) for
many years then erupt suddenly.
9 This rugged mountain was
the home of the gods of
ancient Greek mythology.
10
11
According to tradition, Although the highest
this snow-capped volcano in the world, at 29,029 ft
12 is where Noah’s Ark came (8,848 m), this mountain
to rest in the great flood. in the Himalayas has
been climbed by
14 thousands of people.

15

16 17
17 The highest peak in
Japan, this dormant
Standing at 28,251 ft volcano has inspired
13
(8,611 m), this mountain Japanese artists and
still has the temporary poets for centuries.
name a surveyor gave
it in the 1850s.
Exposed by 18
This is the tallest mountain in
erosion, this huge Papua New Guinea, named
mass of granite is in 1888 by a German climber
the highest point who visited it.
in Malaysia, at
13,435 ft (4,095 m).

19

13 Despite lying close to the


equator, this dormant African
volcano is so high that its summit
is covered in snow and ice.

16 At 6,115 ft (1,864 m),


21This triple- this is the highest point
peaked mountain 20 of the Huangshan, the
in New Zealand Despite its Polish name, spectacular rocky range in
is named after given by an explorer China. It is sometimes called
a famous from Poland, this is “Lotus Peak” because it
18th-century the highest peak of the resembles a lotus flower.
British explorer. Snowy Mountains, which
21
lie in eastern Australia.

11. Mount Elbrus 12. Mount Ararat 13. Kilimanjaro 14. K2 15. Mount Everest 16. Lianhua Feng 17. Mount Fuji 18. Mount Kinabalu 19. Mount Wilhelm 20. Mount Kosciuszko 21. Mount Cook
ANSWERS: 1. Denali 2. Mauna Loa 3. Mount Whitney 4. Popocatépetl 5. Aconcagua 6. Sugarloaf Mountain 7. Vinson Massif 8. Table Mountain 9. Mont Blanc 10. Mount Olympus
114 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

Wonders of
the world
Spectacular natural features created from rock, ice, and
water are found all over the world. Many are the result
of centuries of rock erosion, while others mark places
where molten rock or superheated water boil up from
deep in Earth’s crust. How many do you recognize?

1 In winter, beneath the icy surface of this Canadian


2 Located in Belize, and lake, methane gas rises from decaying vegetation on
formed by the collapse of a the lake bed to give an amazing frozen bubble effect.
cave beneath a Caribbean
coral reef, this is one of the
world’s most famous scuba
diving sites.

3 Sacred to the

Aboriginal people, known as


Anangu, who live nearby, this
isolated rock in Australia rises
1,142 ft (348 m) above the
surrounding flat, sun-
baked desert landscape.

4 This vast expanse of white

crystals in Bolivia is the largest 5 Yellow sulfur dotted with pools of

salt flat on Earth, formed by the green sulfuric acid make this landscape
evaporation of an ancient salt lake. in Ethiopia look like an alien planet!

7 Over thousands of 6 This huge slab of ancient, hard


years these layers of rock sandstone in Venezuela forms
in Argentina have been a tepui—a flat-topped mountain
carved by wind and rain into with sheer cliff edges.
a dazzling zigzag of color.
12. Erta Ale 13. Perito Moreno Glacier 14. Zhangye Danxia 15. Monument Valley
8. Pamukkale Springs 9. Strokkur geyser 10. Giant’s Causeway 11. Hoodoos, Cappadocia
8 Hot water, rich in dissolved minerals, 9 Fueled by hot rock deep below 10 These rocks may look like stepping-stones,

has built up these terraces of white ground, this Icelandic hot spring but are a natural pattern of geometric shapes
rock in Turkey, which shimmer with regularly erupts into the air, reaching formed by a mass of hot molten rock, which
blue water. heights of up to 131 ft (40 m). shrank as it cooled, splitting into columns.

11 These spires of soft volcanic ash in 12 This Ethiopian volcano contains a lake of

Turkey are capped with harder rock searing hot molten lava. The cooling surface
that protects them from the rain. of the lava is crusted with black basalt rock.
14 These

multicolored rock
layers exposed in
this desert region of
China took millions
of years to form.

13 This Argentinian river of ice flows off the Andes

mountains into a lake, where the ice breaks off to form


a sheer cliff 243 ft (74 m) high and 3 miles (5 km) long.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

Giant’s Causeway Uluru Zhangye Danxia


Perito Moreno Salar de Uyuni Pamukkale
Glacier Lake Abraham Springs
Great Blue Hole Serranía de Erta Ale
15 Used as a backdrop to countless films about the
Monument Valley Hornocal Danakil
American West, this desert landscape in the US consists
Mount Roraima Hoodoos, Depression
of giant sandstone buttes rising above the valley floor.
Cappadocia Strokkur geyser
5. Danakil Depression 6. Mount Roraima 7. Serranía de Hornocal
ANSWERS: 1. Lake Abraham 2. Great Blue Hole 3. Uluru 4. Salar de Uyuni
116 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

Approximately 75 percent
of this country—the eastern
region—lies in Asia. The rest
is in Europe.

1 With 11 different time

zones, this is the world’s


One third of the
biggest country. It stretches country is covered
across two continents in rain forest.
and shares borders with
14 other nations.

TEST YOURSELF
Australia
Chile
Canada
STARTER

Japan
Mexico
United Kingdom
Italy 3 The largest country
Russia in South America has
a tropical climate. The
2 Surrounded by the Indian and
Amazon river, which carries
Pacific oceans, most of the world’s more water than any other
largest island is desert, with its big on Earth, passes through it.
Brazil cities along the coast.
Madagascar
CHALLENGER

New Zealand To the north, the country There are no rivers in


borders the Caspian Sea. this country—95 percent
South Africa
of it is desert!
Spain
Norway
Greece
Egypt

4 Once

Saudi Arabia known as


Algeria Persia, this is the
5 Most of the Arabian Peninsula 6 The Sahara Desert occupies
second-largest country
Ethiopia is taken up by this desert nation, most of Africa’s largest country,
in the Middle East.
Indonesia which supplies almost a quarter which borders the Mediterranean
GENIUS!

Vietnam of the world’s oil. Sea in the north.


Cuba
Bangladesh 7 This narrow nation 8Landlocked by five other 9 Found off

Panama in South America is East African nations, this is the east coast of
Iran the world’s longest the oldest independent Africa, this island
country with more than country on is best known for
3,700 miles (6,000 km) of the continent. its unique wildlife,
Pacific Ocean coastline. including lemurs.
117

Countries
Islands in the Arctic
Ocean, where polar bears
and Arctic foxes live, also
make up this nation.

of the world
Grab your globe and dust off that atlas!
There are a total of 195 countries in the
world today; here are some of them, but
shown only as their outlines on a map. Use
these border shapes and the clues to identify
each nation and prove your geographical genius.
10 The second-largest country in the world

has vast conifer forests and more lakes than


anywhere else on Earth.

11The largest country in Central


America has more Spanish speakers
than any other nation and is known
for its ancient ruins of the Aztec
and Mayan civilizations.

12 Made up of more than 13,000 islands, this country


The western border
with Libya cuts in Southeast Asia has a tropical climate and exotic
through the wildlife, including orangutans and Komodo dragons.
Sahara Desert.

14 This northeast 15 About 3,000

On the southernmost
13 African nation borders islands form this Asian
tip of Africa, the richest the Mediterranean Sea country, characterized
country on the continent to the north and the by modern cities and
has gold and diamond mines. Red Sea to the east. active volcanoes.

There are more


sheep than people on
these volcanic islands.
Borders Russia,
Finland, and Sweden
to the east

16 To the north, the 17 Two main islands in the 18 One of the four 19 With the South China 20 This European

Pyrenees mountains Pacific Ocean make up Scandinavian countries, Sea to the east, this country country looks like a boot
divide this country this nation of earthquakes, this nation has a long has land borders with kicking an island into
from France. volcanoes, and geysers. coastline lined with deep China, Laos, and Cambodia. the Mediterranean Sea.
sea inlets called fjords.
The crocodile-like shape This country lies
of this island gives it the to the east of India,
nickname “El Cocodrilo.” on the Bay of Bengal.

21 Made up of the 22 Sugar cane is grown 23 Called the Cradle 24 This low-lying tropical 25 A canal across

largest island in Europe, on the largest island of Western Civilization, land experiences a this country links
this nation includes a in the Caribbean, which this European country monsoon season. It the Atlantic and
northern region of the has a range of habitats— has more than 2,000 boasts lush vegetation Pacific oceans.
island to the west. from deserts to jungles. islands off the mainland. and a population of tigers.
13. South Africa 14. Egypt 15. Japan 16. Spain 17. New Zealand 18. Norway 19. Vietnam 20. Italy 21. United Kingdom 22. Cuba 23. Greece 24. Bangladesh 25. Panama
ANSWERS: 1. Russia 2. Australia 3. Brazil 4. Iran 5. Saudi Arabia 6. Algeria 7. Chile 8. Ethiopia 9. Madagascar 10. Canada 11. Mexico 12. Indonesia
118 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

38 million
Cities
In numbers

The population of Tokyo


and its surrounding
towns, which have
merged to form the
world’s largest, most
More than half of today’s global population lives in
populous urban area. a city. The first large urban areas were built thousands
of years ago as the power bases of great empires.
492 ft Modern cities still serve the same purpose, providing
(150 m) The minimum
height for a building to
be called a skyscraper.
homes and a base for government and businesses.

46 mph
(74 km/h) The speed
How to build a city
of the world’s fastest
elevator, traveling
I don’t
between the 121 stories
believe it
02.
of the Shanghai Tower
in China’s largest city. Cities need homes. Plan In the caves of
houses and apartments in different Cappadocia in Turkey,
sizes and styles to accommodate a 36 underground cities
growing population. have been excavated,
dating back hundreds

01. Pick the right location.


Choose somewhere with plenty
of years.

of space, a water supply, and


good transport links.

03. Your city must provide


a base for businesses. Where
office space is scarce, you will
have to build upward.

05. Don’t build a


concrete jungle. Make
room for green spaces
and outdoor activities.

04. To keep traffic


moving, lay out a system
of well-paved roads
and make use of space
below ground with
underground trains.
Depths of the city

Extreme living
The world’s highest
Beneath the bustle of a city, a subterranean system of city is La Rinconada
pipes, tunnels, and cables supplies clean water, removes in the Peruvian Andes, at
waste, and provides services and transport. 16,700 ft (5,100 m) above
sea level.

The world’s lowest


city is Jericho in the
Electricity
cable
Middle East, at 853 ft
(260 m) below sea level.

Monrovia, in Liberia,
Gas main carries is the world’s wettest
gas to local Water main
carries clean city, averaging 182 in
distributors.
water to (4,622 mm) of rain a year.
homes and
offices. Aswan, in Egypt, is
Railroad the driest city, with
underground only 1⁄33 in (1 mm) of rain
network takes
people across a year.
the city.

Sewer takes
away waste
matter for
treatment.
Above the
clouds
Towering 2,716 1⁄2 ft
Cities on water
Deep water (828 m) high, the
tunnel channels Cities often develop close to water
for trade and transportation. Venice Burj Khalifa in Dubai
water between
reservoirs and is built on 118 islands in Italy’s is the world’s tallest
treatment Venetian Lagoon. building. Constructed
centers. from 6,200 miles
(10,000 km) of steel, it
has 163 floors of
homes, offices,
and hotels.
City plans

Grid: New York, Radial: Some Canal: Built during Star/Pentagon:


nicknamed the avenues of the the 17th century, The world’s
“Big Apple,” French capital, Paris, Amsterdam, the biggest city, Tokyo,
is laid out in a extend from the Dutch capital, has sprawls out in a
rectangular grid center like the a neat network star shape from
of streets. sun’s rays. of canals. the central hub.
2 Explosive dynamite was used to carve

the four giant heads of these noteworthy


American presidents into the rock.

4 This Italian bell tower started to lean

to one side in the soft ground during


its construction, but has miraculously
survived for more than 600 years!

1 This unique multi-spired

Spanish cathedral has been under 3 This gleaming shrine was built
construction for more than 130 on a site that is sacred to both the
years—and is still not finished. Islamic and Jewish religions in Israel.

Cool
constructions 5 Stretching for more than

13,048 miles (21,000 km) across


Asia, this is the longest human-
made structure on the planet.
Since the dawn of civilization, humans have built
6 In the United
some astonishing structures. Some are dazzlingly
Arab Emirates (UAE),
beautiful, others stupendously big, and some built the tallest building
many centuries ago are miraculously still standing! in the world rises to
a height of 2,7161⁄2 ft
Many of these constructions may look familiar, but (828 m), and has
can you name them all? over 200 stories.

7 A spectacular example of modern

architecture, the roof of this arts venue


resembles the sails of a ship.
121

TEST YOURSELF
Eiffel Tower, Paris
9 This 98-ft- (30-m-) Taj Mahal, Agra
tall statue of a religious The Great Wall

STARTER
figure stands on the
Mount Rushmore,
summit of a mountain, South Dakota
overlooking a city
Great Sphinx of Giza
in Brazil.

10 Made of more than


8 Originally built as a church, this 18,000 pieces of steel Sydney Opera House
magnificent medieval building in riveted together, this Parthenon, Athens
Turkey later became a mosque structure in France is

CHALLENGER
Tower of Pisa
and is now a museum. visited by almost 7 million
Leshan Giant Buddha
people each year.
Christ the Redeemer,
Rio de Janeiro

11 Carved out of a

sandstone cliff in China


more than 1,200 years St. Basil’s Cathedral,
ago, this colossal seated Moscow
figure is an amazing Dome of the Rock,
233 ft (71 m) high. Jerusalem

GENIUS!
Burj Khalifa, Dubai
Hagia Sophia,
Istanbul
Sagrada Família,
Barcelona

12 Despite being

2,450 years old, this


temple to the ancient
Greek goddess Athena
still dominates the
capital city of Greece.

13 Originally cut from solid 14 Made of white marble, 15 Found in Red Square in the capital city of Russia,

rock, this giant ancient Egyptian this beautiful building was this 16th-century structure was originally white,
sculpture has the body of a lion built by a Mughal emperor red, and gold, with the dazzling color scheme
and a human head. as a memorial to his wife. seen today appearing only in the 17th century.
8. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul 9. Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro 10. Eiffel Tower, Paris 11. Leshan Giant Buddha 12. Parthenon, Athens 13. Great Sphinx of Giza 14. Taj Mahal, Agra 15. St. Basil’s Cathedral, Moscow
ANSWERS: 1. Sagrada Família, Barcelona 2. Mount Rushmore, South Dakota 3. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem 4. Tower of Pisa 5. The Great Wall 6. Burj Khalifa, Dubai 7. Sydney Opera House
122 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

City The 1,300 ft- (400 m-) tall


Radio and Television Tower is
the city’s tallest structure, and
contains an observation deck.
This national stadium,
also known as the Bird’s

skylines
Nest, was built for the
Olympics in 2008.

From skyscrapers to sacred sites, stunning


structures both old and new dominate
the skylines of many urban hubs around
the world. Can you correctly identify the 1 This densely populated capital city is a mixture of modern

skyscrapers and historical sites, such as the Forbidden City—


cities from their silhouettes? the palace of the ruling emperor for nearly 600 years.

This glass pyramid is an


The Moulin The Gothic Notre-Dame cathedral
entrance to one of the most-
Rouge is not was built in the Middle Ages and
visited art galleries in the
a red windmill inspired a famous tale about
world, the Louvre Museum,
but a cabaret a hunchback.
home of the Mona Lisa.
theater.
This column stands in Bastille Square,
where a prison stood until destroyed
by revolutionaries in 1789.

2 Surrounded by majestic churches and cathedrals, the Eiffel Tower is the dominant

landmark in this historic capital, sometimes known as the “City of Love.”

The Reichstag is home The Brandenburg Gate


The bell Big Ben
to the nation’s was built as a
marks time in the This former royal palace parliament. symbol of peace.
city center. was once used to lock
up prisoners.

3 Sitting on the banks of the River Thames, one of the world’s 4 This European capital was divided by a wall, between

oldest cities is home to a large parliament building, where the east and west, from 1961 until 1989 when it was torn
nation’s politicians meet. down to unite the city and the country.

The central church roof of St. Basil’s


The Red Fort used to The Jama Masjid has two Cathedral is 200 ft (61 m) high.
be the home of Mughal minarets (towers) that are
dynasty emperors. over 131 ft (40 m) high.

5 This Asian capital city has many preserved historical buildings, 6 At 800,000 sq ft (74,322 sq m) Red Square is huge, and lies at

including religious shrines, temples, tombs, and gardens. the heart of this city, acting as both a political and cultural center.
123

At 1,800 ft (555 m), Couples often attach love


the Lotte World padlocks with their names TEST YOURSELF
Tower is one of the to the fences of this
world’s tallest communications tower.
buildings. New York, USA
Paris, France

STARTER
Rome, Italy
London, UK

Dubai, UAE
Berlin, Germany

CHALLENGER
7 An eye-catching skyline of high-rise buildings sits against the backdrop of the
Namsan mountain in this capital, which also includes historic sites such as palaces. Beijing, China
Moscow, Russia
Built at a site where two
Standing 88 stories high, rivers join, the Jamek
the Petronas Towers are the mosque is the city’s
world’s tallest twin structures. oldest mosque.

Tokyo, Japan
Seoul, South Korea

GENIUS!
Delhi, India
Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia

At 2,7161⁄2 ft (828 m) tall,


8 Traditional Asian architecture mixes with modern skyscrapers in Burj Khalifa has been
this vibrant young capital, which was only given city status in 1972. the world’s tallest
building since 2008.
The Statue of Liberty was A high-end hotel with its
The Empire State completed in 1886. own helipad, the Burj
Building was one
Al Arab stands on its
of the world’s first
own artificial island.
skyscrapers.

9 The office buildings constructed in the 19th and 20th centuries 10 Construction on a rapid scale has produced this modern

turned this coastal city into a high-rise hub, with nicknames ranging high-rise city, known for its luxury hotels and shopping centers.
from the “Big Apple” to “The City that Never Sleeps.”

This tower, similar to one in a European


capital, was opened in 1958.
The world’s largest amphitheater
once held chariot races and
gladiatorial combats.

11 Once the heart of a large empire, this ancient city boasts many 12 Earthquakes prove a problem in this large city, so the skyline

ruins and relics, as well as churches full of classical art. spreads outward rather than upward.

8. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 9. New York, USA 10. Dubai, UAE 11. Rome, Italy 12. Tokyo, Japan
ANSWERS: 1. Beijing, China 2. Paris, France 3. London, UK 4. Berlin, Germany 5. Delhi, India 6. Moscow, Russia 7. Seoul, South Korea
124

2 Standing an impressive 7,350 ft


(2,240 m) above sea level, this city
and its major monuments were
built around the ruins of an
ancient Aztec capital.

1 Canada’s government
building—Parliament Hill—is
located in one of the coldest

Capital
capitals in the world, where
temperatures can reach
–3°F (–16°C) on
1 average in winter.

cities
Pack your bags because you’re off on
a round-the-world trip! Whether it is
the center of government, or a hub of 3

trade and culture, each one of these 2

capital cities has its own unique history 3 Cuba’s colorful capital is home to
classic cars, bright buildings, and the
and identity. 4 sounds of traditional salsa music.

Costa Rica’s capital


is a cultural hub filled with
museums and theaters.
5

6
5 Peru’s coastal capital was founded
by the Spanish explorer Francisco
Pizarro in 1535 and today is one of
the largest cities in South America.
Famed for its
modernist
TEST YOURSELF 7 architecture, this
young city was only
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS! established in 1960.

Cairo Ottawa Abu Dhabi


7 Argentina’s capital boasts
Tokyo Canberra Kinshasa
the widest street in the world—
Brasília Nairobi Ankara 9 de Julio Avenue.
Moscow Dhaka San José
Berlin Lima Kuala Lumpur
Madrid Buenos Aires Bucharest
Bangkok Stockholm Abuja
Mexico City Havana Kabul
Antananarivo
8 With around 1.5 million inhabitants, 20 Originally called Edo, the
Sweden’s most populated city consists Japanese capital is known for
of 14 islands joined by 57 bridges. its advanced technology and
fast transportation.

Divided in two
by a famous
wall until
1989, Germany’s
capital city
has played an
important part in The heart of modern-day Russia holds
European history. 8 lots of beautiful palaces and cathedrals,
10
many found inside its central fortress
known as the Kremlin.
9

11 The stunning architecture


of this Romanian capital
12 once earned it the Nestled among the snowy Hindu
13
nickname “Little Paris.” Kush mountains, Afghanistan’s
capital used to be a key trading
20
16 center on the Silk Road.
Europe’s highest
capital city, at 2,277 ft 14 Bangladesh’s capital since 18Floating markets
(694 m) above sea
1971, this is one of the and grand temples
level, boasts a sunny 15
17 most densely populated are all hallmarks of
Spanish climate and
cities in the world. Thailand’s capital.
famous football teams.

A massive granite monolith, 18


called Aso Rock, dominates A mix of Asian
21 the skyline of this influential and European
Nigerian city. cultures and
19
architectural
styles meet in this
23
historic Turkish city.
22

Animals in Kenya’s oldest


established national park
The capital of
roam alongside this bustling
the Democratic
24 urban city.
Republic of
Congo grew from A range of diverse habitats filled This small inland
a small trading with unique wildlife surround the city was chosen to
town, which hilltop capital of Madagascar. be Australia’s capital
was established in 1911, beating two
in 1881. larger rivals.
15 Lying just off the coast on an island, this city
25
in the United Arab Emirates is best recognized
by the stunning domes of its grand mosque.

19 The iconic
Petronas Towers
are just one of the
14 Full of fascinating historical wonders, impressive skyscrapers
including the pyramids, Egypt’s capital found in this busy
city lies on the Nile River. Malaysian city.
14. Cairo 15. Abu Dhabi 16. Kabul 17. Dhaka 18. Bangkok 19. Kuala Lumpur 20. Tokyo 21. Abuja 22. Kinshasa 23. Nairobi 24. Antananarivo 25. Canberra
ANSWERS: 1. Ottawa 2. Mexico City 3. Havana 4. San José 5. Lima 6. Brasília 7. Buenos Aires 8. Stockholm 9. Berlin 10. Moscow 11. Bucharest 12. Madrid 13. Ankara
126 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

Eye in the sky A 20-ft- (6-m-)


deep moat
3 Built nearly
600 years ago, this
complex of almost
1,000 buildings
Satellites and spacecraft that circle Earth and other planets have surrounds surrounds a
cameras on board that take detailed photographs of their surface. the complex. Chinese palace.

Some show natural features such as rivers, while others show great
cities and other structures created by humans.

2 At 15 miles (24 km) high, the

largest volcano in the solar system


is one of the most spectacular
features of the red planet.

1 Carved by the Colorado

River over millions of years, this More than 740,000 gallons


6
One of the
gorge in North America is more three cliffs (2.8 million liters) of water
than 1 mile (1.8 km) deep and is 188 ft tumble over these huge cliffs in
18 miles (29 km) wide in certain (57 m) tall. North America every second.
places—making it one of the
biggest in the world.

4 Shaped like a boot,

this European country


glows at night with
millions of lights from
buildings and streets.

5 The world’s highest mountain

range has snowy peaks divided


by valleys carved by streams that
flow into great rivers.

7. Nile Delta 8. San Andreas Fault 9. Manhattan Island, New York 10. Ganges Delta 11. Pyramids of Giza 12. Great Barrier Reef
ANSWERS: 1. The Grand Canyon 2. Olympus Mons, Mars 3. Forbidden City 4. Italy 5. Himalayas 6. Niagara Falls
127

7 Fertile land marks the

mouth of the longest


river in the world,
before it joins the
Mediterranean Sea.

A well-known
statue of a woman
holding a flaming
torch stands on
this smaller island.

9 This

famous island,
part of a big US city,
8 Running has a large green park,
through surrounded by skyscrapers.
California, this
800-mile- (1,300-
km-) long fracture
divides Earth’s two
biggest tectonic plates. 10 One of the largest rivers
in Asia flows into the Bay
of Bengal, splitting into
many channels lined with
mangrove swamps.

12 Located off the coast


of Australia and made by
millions of sea creatures,
this is the only structure on
Earth made by living things
that is visible from space.

11 More than 4,500 years

old, these huge structures


in the desert are the tombs
of Egyptian pharaohs.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER CHALLENGER GENIUS!

Nile Delta Italy Olympus Mons,


Pyramids of Giza The Grand Mars
San Andreas Fault Canyon Ganges Delta
Himalayas Niagara Falls Forbidden City
Great Barrier Reef Manhattan Island,
New York
128 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

How to plant a
Staff Charge
The flag pole a flag An emblem on the flag.
hangs from.
flag on the Moon
The first flag to fly on the Moon was a US flag
Fly bought for just $5.50. It was placed inside an
The part of aluminum tube and flown to the Moon
the flag
farthest from on board the Apollo 11 spacecraft in 1969.
the staff.

Field
The basic
background
color of
Hoist the flag.
The part of the flag closest to the staff.

Parts of a f lag
Flags come in a great variety of colors, patterns, and
designs, but they all share the same features and parts.

Flags
Flags developed out of the coat of arms
that armies carried into battle. Some
countries have used the same flag design
for centuries while others have changed
their look. Afghanistan, for instance, has
had more than 20 different flags in the
past 150 years!
01.
I don’t
There’s no
wind on the Moon to
fly a flag. Get engineers
believe it to place a wire into a
hem sewn into the top
The 27 stars on Brazil’s flag show the of the flag so it will stick
22,152 sq ft pattern in the night sky above the city out straight.
In numbers

of Rio de Janeiro on November 15,


(2,058 sq m) The area of a 1889—Brazil’s independence day.
Mexican flag made in 2011.
The biggest flag ever flown
from a flag pole, its area was
bigger than 7 tennis courts.
Where else are flags used?
13,979 ft
(4,261 m) The distance Star state
below sea level that the Each of the stars on the
Mir-1 submersible dived to US flag represents one of
plant a Russian flag at the the 50 US states. Over
bottom of the Arctic Ocean time, as states joined the
in 2007. union of American states,
the flag has had more
Regional: A giant State: All 50
12 than 25 changes.
holding a club states in the US,
The most colors found features on the including Arizona
on a national flag, those of flag of the Finnish (above), have
San Marino and Ecuador. region of Lapland. their own flag.
129

Nepa
In many countries it’s against

Flag laws
l’s
the law to damage or destroy

fag
the national flag. In France, for
Flag study example, the punishment is up

ides.
is the
to six months in prison, while
Vexillology is the name given to
the study of flags. It comes from in Israel the punishment can

ur s
the latin word vexillum, meaning be up to three years in prison.

on
“flag.” Vexillologists even have

fo
ly
their own flag (above). In Denmark it is against

an
ti
na h the law to destroy the flags
on
al ret of other countries but not Denmark’s
fag o
that has m
own national flag.

According to Finnish law,


Jamaica is the only country when a national flag of
FLAG FACTS

with a national flag that does not Finland is washed, it can only
feature the colors red, white, or blue. be dried indoors.

The latest design of the US Some countries have rules


02. Find a
good new spot. Six
flag was adopted in 1960 and was
created by 17-year-old Robert G. Heft
about what time of the day
their flag can be flown. In Iceland,
Apollo missions have as a school assignment. He only earned for instance, the flag must never
planted flags on the a B- grade in class! be raised before seven o’clock in
Moon, and they are the morning.
all still there today. At the 1936 Olympics, Haiti and
Liechtenstein discovered their national
flags were the same. Liechtenstein
03. Try to plant
the flag pole into the
later added a crown to their flag.

lunar surface—this is All official national flags in India


not easy, the ground are made in one factory in Bengeri
is very hard. village, in the state of Karnataka.

04. Check the


pole really is firm—
in 1969, when the
spacecraft left, the
blast of the engines
knocked the flag over!

Sports: A Organizations: The Pirates: Skulls


checkered flag United Nations flag and swords were
is waved to signal features olive leaves, designed to strike
the end of many representing peace. fear into other
motor races. ships’ crews.
130 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

1 A sun with

32 rays adorns
the flag of South 3 This
America’s second- mountainous
biggest country. 2 Traditional carpet weaving European
patterns are part of this former nation is one of
Soviet republic’s flag. the few to fly a
square flag.

5 This nation manufactures the highest

number of cars in all of Europe.

4 This flag flies in a country that’s home 6 Spears and a


7 This island kingdom’s flag
to more than 1,400 million people. shield are said to was formed by combining
protect this African

Raise
three flags into one.
nation’s people.

the flag 8 The country known for its cherry


blossom season and very fast trains
features a crimson sun on its flag.
Every nation of the world flies their own flag
design. Each has been chosen to reflect the
country’s history, colors, and identity. They
represent the pride of the people, uniting
everyone under one big banner.
Red symbolizes
“brightness”

10 A thunder dragon dominates


the flag of this rugged,
9 A bird of
mountainous Asian kingdom. 11 This flag was first flown in 1960, when
paradise stars on this African country became independent.
this South Pacific
island flag, designed
by a 15-year-old
schoolgirl in 1971.

12 The eagle sitting on a cactus is based


on historic symbols of the Aztec empire. 14 The colors of the ancient Inca
civilization are depicted on this
Andean nation’s flag.

13 This country is famed for its

African wildlife and its Maasai peoples


whose shield is found on the flag.
131

16 Formed by

freed slaves, TEST YOURSELF


this African
state based United Kingdom
its design on Japan
the US flag.
15 Depicting the many colors of the “rainbow Switzerland
nation,” this flag first flew in 1994, the year in Canada

STARTER
which Nelson Mandela became its president. South Africa
17 All the official
China
flags of this nation
Brazil
are made of khadi—
a cloth popularized by France
Mahatma Gandhi. Greece

Australia
Argentina
Russian Federation

CHALLENGER
Nigeria
Turkey
18 The flag of the world’s
Mexico
19 This country, which India
biggest country and hosts
the Amazon river flows Germany
of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
through, has the words Italy
“Order and Progress”
on its flag.

Liberia
Kenya
Bhutan
Turkmenistan

GENIUS!
South Korea
Papua New Guinea
Saudi Arabia
22 The world’s best-known long- Swaziland
21 The circular symbol at the distance cycling race has been Peru
center of this Asian nation’s flag hosted by this nation since 1903.
means balance in the universe.

20 Blue represents the

Mediterranean Sea on the


flag of this land of ancient
gods, where the first
Olympic Games took place.

23 A maple leaf reflects

the large forests found in


this North American nation. 24 The shahādah (a Muslim statement

of faith) is written in Arabic on this


oil-producing nation’s flag.

27 A crossroads

between Europe and


Asia, this country’s flag
25 This country is famously 26 Southern hemisphere stars features an Islamic
shaped like a boot when dot the flag of a country star and crescent
looked at from space. famous for its kangaroos. moon symbols.
13. Kenya 14. Peru 15. South Africa 16. Liberia 17. India 18. Russian Federation 19. Brazil 20. Greece 21. South Korea 22. France 23. Canada 24. Saudi Arabia 25. Italy 26. Australia 27. Turkey
ANSWERS: 1. Argentina 2. Turkmenistan 3. Switzerland 4. China 5. Germany 6. Swaziland 7. United Kingdom 8. Japan 9. Papua New Guinea 10. Bhutan 11. Nigeria 12. Mexico
racaibo has
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Weather

nl
All the weather we experience occurs in the
troposphere, the lowest level of Earth’s atmosphere.
Temperature, air pressure, wind speed, humidity,
Everlasting storm and the sun all affect our weather. Around
A unique series of storm clouds
develops over Lake Maracaibo, the world the weather varies along with the

ightning strik
Venezuela, almost every night, changing landscape, from cold, snowcapped

es
generating dramatic

a
thunderstorms. ye mountains to humid, tropical rainforests.
ar
Some tornadoes can be
.
around 21⁄2 miles (4 km) wide!

The Meghalaya state in India


receives the most precipitation
in the world per year with an Thunder Heavy
Snow
average of 4672⁄5 in (11,872 mm).
Cold front:
465 in (1,182 cm) of snow fell Warm front:
A mass of cold
on Japan’s Mount Ibuki in Incoming slow-
air replaces a