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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

M. Tech (Instrumentation & Control Systems)


Course Structure (w.e.f. 2007-2008)
I Semester
Code Subject L P C Int Ext Total
IC101 Transducer Technology 4 - 8 40 60 100
IC102 Digital Control Systems 4 - 8 40 60 100
IC103 Data Acquisition Systems 4 - 8 40 60 100
IC104 Embedded System Design 4 - 8 40 60 100
Electives (Two subjects from the list) -
IC105 a) EMI/EMC 4 - 8 40 60 100
IC106 b) Advanced Digital Signal 4 - 8 40 60 100
Processing
IC107 c) Reliability Engineering in
Electronic System
IC108 d) Fiber Optic Sensors and Devices
IC109 e) VLSI Technology and Design
IC110 f)ANN & Fuzzy set theory
IC111 Transducers & Instrumentation Lab - 3 4 40 60 100
Total: 24 3 52 280 420 700

II Semester
Code Subject L P C Int Ext Total
IC201 Telemetry & Telecontrol 4 - 8 40 60 100
IC202 Bio-Medical Instrumentation 4 - 8 40 60 100
IC203 Process Control Instrumentation 4 - 8 40 60 100
IC204 System Modeling & Simulation 4 - 8 40 60 100
Elective (Two subjects from the list) -
IC205 a) Control and guidance systems 4 8 40 60 100
IC206 b) Digital System Design
IC207 c) DSP Processors & Architecture
IC208 d) Non Linear and Optimal Control
Systems
IC209 e) Adaptive Signal Processing 4 8 40 60 100
IC210 f) Digital Image Processing
IC211 Design and Simulation Lab - 3 4 40 60 100
Total: 24 3 52 280 420 700

III Semester & IV Semester


CC301 Seminar 4
CC401 Project work 24
Total Credits: 132
Grade A: Excellent, B: Good, C: Satisfactory and D: Unsatisfactory and Seminar evaluation is for
a maximum of 100 marks of 4 credits.
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

TRANSDUCERS AND SENSORS

Unit – 1
Introduction: functional elements of an instrument, Generalized performance characteristics of instruments – static
characteristics, dynamic characteristics.
Zero order, first order, second order instruments – step response, ramp response and impulse response. Response of
general form of instruments to periodic input and to transient input Experimental determination of measurement system
parameters, loading effects under dynamic conditions.

Unit – 2
Transducers for motion and dimensional measurements: Relative displacement, translation and rotational resistive
potentiometers, resistance strain guages, LVDT, synchros, capacitance pickups. Piezo-electric transducers, electro-
optical devices, nozzle – flapper transducers, digital displacement transducers, ultrasonic transducers.

Unit – 3
Magnetic and photoelectric pulse counting methods, relative acceleration measurements, seismic acceleration pickups,
calibration of vibration pickups. Gyroscopic sensors.

Unit – 4
TRANSDUCERS FOR FORCE MEASUREMENT: Bonded strain guage transducers, photoelectric transducers,
variable reluctance pickup, torque measurement dynamometers.

Unit- 5
TRANSDUCERS FOR PRESSURE MEASUREMENT: Manometers, elastic transducers, liquid systems, gas
systems, very high pressure transducers. Thermal conductivity guages, ionisation guages, microphone.

Unit – 6
TRANSDUCERS FOR FLOW MEASUREMENT: Hot wire and hot-film anemometers, electromagnetic flow
meters, laser doppler velocimeter.

Unit – 7
TRANSDUCERS FOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT: Thermal expansion methods, thermometers (liquid in
glass), pressure thermometers, Thermocouples. Materials configuration and techniques. Resistance thermometers,
Thermistors, junction semiconductors. Sensors, Radiation methods. Optical pyrometers. Dynamic response of
temperature sensors heat flux sensors. Transducers for liquid level measurement, humidity, silicon and quartz sensors,
fibre optic sensors.

Unit – 8
Smart sensors: Introduction, primary sensors, converters, compensation. Recent trends in sensor technology – film
sensors, semi conductor IC technology, MEMS, Nano-sensors.

Text Book:
1. Doebelin, E.O., “Measurement systems – Application and Design”, McGraw Hill. 4 th Ed.
2. D. Patranabis, “Sensors and Transducers”, PHI, 2nd Edition.

Reference:
1. Instrumentation Measurement & Analysis, by B.C. Nakra, K.K. Choudry, (TMH)
2. Transducers and Instrumentation, by D.V.S. Murthy (PHI)
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

Unit – 1
Introduction: Basic Elements of discrete data control systems, advantages of discrete data control systems, examples.

Unit – 2
Signal conversion & processing: Digital signals & coding, data conversion & quantization, sample and hold devices,
Mathematical modeling of the sampling process; Data reconstruction and filtering of sampled signals: Zero order hold,
first order Hold and polygonal hold.

Unit – 3
Review of z-Transforms, Applications of z-Transforms to Difference equations and ladder Network problem, Signal
between sampling instants using sub multiple sampling method, Modified z- Transforms.

Unit – 4
Transfer functions, Block diagrams, signal flow graphs: Introduction, Pulse Transfer function, and z-Transfer function,
Discrete Data System with cascaded elements separated by a sampler and not separated by a sampler. Closed loop
systems, characteristic equation in discrete domain, causality and physically realizable systems; The Sampled signal
flow graph, Modified z-transfer function, Multirate discrete data systems (slow rate and fast rate), closed loop multirate
sampled systems.

Unit – 5
Comparison of time response of continuous data and discrete data, Steady state error analysis of digital control systems,
correlation between time response and root locations in s-plane and z-plane, Root loci for digital control systems,
Effects of adding poles and zeros to open loop transfer function, discrete data systems: Stability tests of discrete data
systems: Bilinear transformation method, extension of RH criterion, Jury’s Stability Test.

Unit – 6
Frequency – Domain Analysis: Polar plot of GH (z), Nyquist stability criterion, Bode plot, Gain Margin and Phase
margin, Nicholas chart, Band width considerations, sensitivity analysis.

Unit – 7
Review of state space techniques to continuous data systems, state equations of discrete data systems with sample and
hold devices, state diagrams of digital systems, Decomposition of discrete data transfer function, state variable analysis
of response between sampling instants, Controllability, Observability of LTI discrete data systems.

Unit – 8
Design of digital control systems with digital controllers through bilinear transformation. Digital PID controller, Design
for dead beat response, pole placement design by incomplete feedback or output feedback.

Text Book:
1. Digital control systems (Second Edition) by Kuo, Oxford University Press
2. Discrete Time control systems – by Ogatta, 2nd ed. (PHI)

Reference:
1. Digital Control Engineering – by M. Gopal, (New Age Publ.)
2. Control System Engineering – by Nagrath & Gopal (Wiley Eastern)
3. Continuous & Discrete Control Systems – by John Dorsey (MGH)
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

UNIT-1
INTRODUCTION: Objective of a DAS, single channel DAS, Multi-channel DAS,Components used in DAS–
Converter Characteristics-Resolution-Non-linearity,settling time, Monotonicity.

UNIT-2
DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS (DACS): Principles and design of – Parallel R– 2R, Weighted resistor,
inverted ladder, D/A decoding – Codes other than ordinary binary.

UNIT-3
ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS (ADCS): Classification of A/D converters.Parallel feed back – Successive
approximation – Ramp comparison – Dual slope integration – Voltage to frequency – Voltage to Time – Logarithmic
types of ADCS.

UNIT-4
NON-LINEAR DATA CONVERTERS (NDC): Basic NDC configurations – Some common NDACS and NADCS –
Programmable non-linear ADCS – NADC using optimal sized ROM – High speed hybrid NADC – PLS based NADC
– Switched capacitor NDCS.

UNIT-5
DATA CONVERTER APPLICATIONS: DAC applications – Digitally programmable V/I sources – Arbitrary
waveform generators – Digitally programmable gain amplifiers – Analog multipliers/ dividers – Analog delay lines.

UNIT-6
ADC APPLICATIONS: Data Acquisition systems – Digital signal processing systems – PCM voice communication
systems – Test and measurement instruments – Electronic weighing machines.

UNIT-7
Monolithic data converters: typical study of monolithic DACS and ADCS. Interfacing of DACS and ADCS to a µP.

UNIT-8
Error budget of DACS and ADCS: Error sources, error reduction and noise reduction techniques in DAS. Error
budget analysis of DAS, case study of a DAC and an ADC.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Electronic data converters fundamentals and applications – Dinesh K. Anvekar, B.S. Sonde – Tata McGraw Hill.

REFERENCES:
1. Electronic Analog/ Digital conversions – Hermann Schmid – Tata McGraw Hill.
2. E.R. Hanateck, User’s Handbook of D/A and A/D converters - Wiley
3. Electronic instrumentation by HS Kalsi- TMH 2 nd Edition, 2004.
4. Data converters by G.B. Clayton
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

Embedded System Design

Unit – I
An introduction to embedded systems: An embedded system, examples, current technologies, integration in system
design, embedded system design flow, hardware design concepts, software development, processor in embedded
system and other hardware units, introduction to processor based embedded system design concepts.

Unit – II
Devices in embedded system: I/o devices, timer and counting devices, ROM devices, serial communication devices
and parallel communication devices, interrupts and their control of processors.

Unit – III
Programming concepts: Data types, data structures, modifiers, macros, functions, optimization of memory needs,
embedded system tools – hardware and software development tools.

Unit – IV
Program modeling concepts: Modeling process for software analysis, modeling of multi processor system, software
algorithm concepts, software design, implementation and testing, validating and debugging, maintenance.

Unit – V
Software design: Survey of software architecture – round robin, round robin with interrupts, function queue
scheduling architecture, real time operating system architecture, selecting an architecture saving memory space, getting
embedded software in target system, debugging technique.

Unit – VI
Device drivers and interrupts servicing mechanism: Device drivers, parallel port and serial port drivers in a system,
device drivers for internal programmable timing devices, interrupt servicing mechanism, dynamically linked libraries
(DLL), context switching, latency principles.

Unit – VII
Hardware and software co-design in embedded systems: Embedded system design and co-design issues, design
cycle in development phase, ICE, issues in embedded system design.

Unit – VIII
Embedded system design examples: Case studies – design of embedded systems using Xillinx processor based design
i.e. power PC processor based embedded design, Micro blaze processor based embedded design, Altera based Nios
processor embedded system design.

Text Books:
1. Rajkamal, “Embedded system: Architecture, programming and design”, TMH.
2. Frank Vahid, Tony D. Givargis, “Embedded system design: A unified hardware / software introduction”,
John wiley & sons Inc. 2002.

Reference Books:
1. David E Simon, “ An embedded software primer”.
2. Arnold S Burger, “Embedded system design”, CMP.
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

EMI/EMC

Unit I
Introduction: History and concept of EMI, Definitions of EMI/EMC, Electro magnetic environment, Practical
experiences and concerns, frequency spectrum conservations, mechanisms of EMI generation, EMI testing, Methods of
elimination of EMI and Biological effects of EMI.

Unit II
Natural and manmade sources of EMI/EMC: Sources of Electromagnetic noise, typical noise paths, modes of noise
coupling, designing for EM compatibility, lightening discharge, electro static discharge (ESD), electro magnetic pulse
(EMP).

Unit III
EMI from apparatus / Circuits and open area test sides: Electro magnetic emissions, noise from relays and
switches, non-linearities in circuits, passive inter modulation, transients in power supply lines, EMI from power
electronic equipment, EMI as combination of radiation and conduction

Open area test sides: OATS measurements, measurement precautions.

Unit IV
Radiated interference measurements: anechoic chamber, TEM cell, reverberating chamber, GTEM cell, comparison
of test facilities,

Unit V
Conducted interference measurement: Characterization of conduction currents/ voltages, conducted EM noise and
power lines, conducted EMI from equipment, immunity to conducted EMI, characteristics of EMI filters and power
line filter design.

Unit VI
Grounding and Cabling: Safety and signal grounds, low and high frequency grounding methods, grounding of
amplifiers and cable shields, isolation, neutralizing transformers, shield grounding at high frequencies, digital
grounding, types of cables, mechanism of EMI emission / coupling in cables.

Unit VII
Shielding and Bonding: effectiveness of shielding, near and far fields / impedances, methods of analysis, total loss due
to absorption and reflection effects, composite absorption and reflection losses for electric fields / magnetic fields,
magnetic materials as a shield, shield discontinuities, slots and holes, seams and joints, conductive gaskets

Electrical Bonding, Shape and Material for Bond straps, General Characteristics of good bonds.

Unit VIII
Components for EMC and EMC Standards: Choice of capacitors, inductors, transformers and resistors, EMC design
components

National / International EMC standards, military and civilian standards.

Text Book:
1. Engineering Electromagnetic Compatibility by Dr. V.P. Kodali, IEEE Publication, Printed in India by S. Chand &
Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 2000.
2. Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility IMPACT series, IIT-Delhi, Modules 1-9.

References:

1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, Ny, John Wiley, 1992, by C.R. Pal.


2. Radar hand book by Skolink.
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

Advanced Digital Signal Processing

Unit – I
Multi-rate Digital Signal Processing:
Introduction, Decimation by a factor D, Interpolation by a factor I, Sampling rate conversion by rational factor I/D,
Implementation of sampling rate conversion: Poly phase filter structures, Interchange of filters and Down samplers /
Up samplers, Sampling rate conversion with cascaded integrator comb filters, Applications of multi-rate signal
processing, Digital filter banks.

Unit – II
Power Spectrum Estimation:
Estimation of spectra from finite duration observations of signals – Computation of the energy density spectrum,
Estimation of the auto correlation and power spectrums of random signals: The periodogram, The use of the DFT in
power spectrum estimation.

Unit – III
Non-parametric methods for power spectrum estimation:
Bartlett method, Welch method, Blackman and Tukey method, Performance characteristics of non-parametric power
spectrum estimators, Computational requirements of non-parametric power spectrum estimates.

Unit – IV
Parametric methods for power spectrum estimation:
Relationships between the auto correlation and the model parameters, Yule-Walker method for the AR model
parameters, Burg method for the AR model parameters, Unconstrained least squares method for the AR model
parameters, Sequential estimation methods for the AR model parameters, MA and ARMA model for power spectrum
estimation.

Unit – V
Effects of finite Register length in Digital Signal Processing:
Introduction, Effect of number representation on quantization, Quantization in sampling analog signals, Finite register
length effects in realization of IIR & FIR digital filters, Effects of finite register length in DFT computations.

Unit – VI
Linear Prediction and Optimum Linear Filter:
Random signals, Correlation functions and power spectra, Innovations representation of a stationary random process,
Forward and backward linear prediction, Properties of the linear prediction – Error filters, AR lattice and ARMA lattice
– Ladder filters, Wiener filters for filtering and prediction.

Unit – VII:
Introduction to wavelets, Wavelet transform
A first level introduction Continuous Time Frequency representation of signals, The windowed Fourier transform,
Properties of wavelets used in continuous wavelet transform, Discrete wavelet transform, Haar wavelet function,
Orthogonality of φ (t) and ψ (t).

Unit – VIII
Discrete wavelet transform and relation to Filter Banks:
Introduction, Signal decomposition (Analysis) relation with filter banks, Frequency response signal reconstruction,
Perfect matching filters.
Text Books:
1. John G. Proakis and Dimitris G. Manolakis, “Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms, and
Applications” Pearson Education, Fourth edition
2. K.P.Soman and K.I. Ramachandran, “Insight into Wavelets- From Theory to practice” PHI, Second Edition

References:
1. Lawrence R. Rabiner & Bernard gold, “Digital Signal Processing-Theory, Implementation & Applications,”
Prentice Hall of India
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

Reliability Engineering in Electronic System

Unit- I
Definition of reliability and its management Introduction, History, Selected Definitions, General Relationship between
Terms, Reliability Concepts and Patterns of Failure, Variation in Engineering, Control of Variation, Reliability
Management, Reliability for System Effectiveness

Unit- II
Failure Statistics, Reliability and Hazard Rates Introduction, Failure Data, Reliability Function, Failure Rate and
Hazard Rate, Common Distributions in Failure Mechanisms, Model Selection for Component Failures, Methods of
Generic Failure Rate Determination, Failure Analysis

Unit- III
Reliability Prediction and analysis Introduction, Reliability Prediction Based on the Exponential Distribution,
Reliability Prediction – Design Based on Weibull Distribution, Reliability Prediction Method, Probability Theory,
System Reliability Analysis, Prediction in Perspective

Unit- IV
Reliability testing and Maintainability and Reliability Computation Introduction, Reliability Tests, Life Testing,
Accelerated Testing, Sequential Testing, Automatic Test Equipment, Success-Failure Testing, Failure Reporting and
Corrective Action Systems (FRACAS), Demonstration Tests, Maintainability Concepts, Maintainability Programme
Elements, Maintainability Modeling and Allocation, Maintainability Prediction, Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality
Analysis (FMECA), Design Aids for Maintainability, Maintainability Demonstration, Maintainability Data Systems,
Reliability and Maintainability Trade-off, Built-in Test (BIT).

Unit – V
Availability Analysis, Planning for Safety, Reliability Data Systems, Computation Approaches for Complex Systems,
Conventional Computation Approaches, Expert Systems

Unit- VI
Software Reliability Characteristics of Software Reliability Models, Software Reliability Model, Methods of Improving
Software Reliability, Hardware Reliability vs. Software reliability, System Trade-offs, History, Definition.

Unit – VII
Terotechnology The Terotechnology System, The Terotechnology Process, Introducing Terotechnology into
Programmes, Strategies for Terotechnology, Training in Terotechnology, Practice of Terotechnology.

Unit – VIII
Maintenance Cost, Budgeting and total Quality management in ISO 9000 Maintenance Costs, Cost Codes, Cost
Allocations, Overhead Calculations, Budgets, Objectives and Strategies, Cost Reports, Life Cycle Costing, Total
Quality Management, ISO 9000, Quality Audit

Text Book:
Reliability Engineering & Terotechnology - A.K. Gupta, McMillan Publications

Reference:
Inspection Quality Control and Reliability – S.C. Sarma, Khanna Publications
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

FIBRE OPTIC SENSORS AND DEVICES

Unit –1
Optical Sources and Detectors: Light-emitting diode: Principles, Structures, LED characteristics, Modulation of LED.
.Lasers: Principles, Laser diode structures and radiation pattern, Laser characteristics, Modulation of Semiconductor
Laser. Photo detectors: Principles, Quantum efficiency, Responsitivity of P.I.N photodiode, and Avalanche photodiode.

Unit – 2
Optical Fiber Sensors and Devices: Overview of fibre optic sensors - advantages over conventional sensors,
broadband classification.

Unit – 3
Intensity Modulated Optical Fibre Sensors: Introduction, intensity modulation through light interruption shutter/
schlieren multimode fibre optic sensors - reflective fibre optic sensors, evanescent wave fibre sensors -microbend
optical fibre sensors - fibre optic refractometers, intensity modulated fibre optic thermometers, distributed sensing with
fibre optics.

Unit – 4
Interferometric Optical Fibre Sensors: Introduction, basic principles of interferometric optical fibre sensors,
components and applications of interferometric sensors.

Unit – 5
Fused Single Mode Optical Fibre Couplers: Introduction, physical principles (coupling coefficient) polarization
effect, experimental properties, theoretical modelling, and comparison with experiment.

Unit – 6
Single Mode All Fibre Components: Introduction, directional couplers, polarizes, polarization splitters polarization
controllers, optical isolators, single mode fibre filters wave length multiplexers and demultiplexers, switches and
intensity modulators, phase and frequency modulators.

Unit – 7
Fibre Optic Sensor Multiplexing: Introduction, general topological configuration, and incoherent and coherent
detection.

Unit – 8
Signal Processing in Monomode Fibre Optic Sensor Systems: Introduction, Transduction mechanisms, Optical
Signal Processing, Electronic Processing.

Text Books:
1. Optical Fiber Communications – Gerd Keiser, 3 rd Ed. McGraw Hill.
2. Fundamentals of Fibre Optics in Telecommunication and Sensor Systems - Bishnu P PAL Wiley Eastern Ltd.
(1994).

Reference:
Optical Fiber Communications and Sensors – Dr. M. Arumugam.
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

VLSI TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN

Unit – I
Introduction & review of MOS & BICMOS Technologies, Logic gates, switch logic, basic electrical properties, circuit
design processes & scaling.

Unit – II
Combinational Logic Networks: Layout design methods, simulation, Network delay, cross talk, power optimization
& testing.

Unit - III
Sequential Systems & clocking disciplines: Design Power Optimization, Validation & Testing.

Unit – IV
Sub-system Design Principles: Combinational shifters, Adders, ALUs, Multiplier, High-density memory, FPGA,
PLAs.

Unit – V
Floor Planning Methods: Placement-Routing, Power & Clock distribution, Packages-I/O Architecture & Pad Design.

Unit – VI
Architecture Design: Register Transfer Design, High Level Synthesis-Architectures for Low Power-Architecture
Testing.

Unit – VII
Chip Design-Design Methodologies-Examples of chip design from specification to Design Validation, Introduction to
CAD tools and Algorithms, Hardware-Software Co-design.

Unit - VIII
Ultra fast VLSI Circuits & systems: Introduction to Ga-As Technology.

Text Books:
1. Wayne Wolf: Modern VLSI Design, (PHI2nd Edn. 1998.
2. Douglas A. Pucknell, Kamran Eshraghian: Basic VLSI Design, (PHI) 3 rd Edn. 1997.
3. John M. Rabaey: Digital Integrated Circuits (PHI, EEE) 1997.
4. Michel John Sabastian: Application Specific Integrated Circuits (Addison Wesley) 1997.
5. Geizer R.L., Allen P.E. & Strader N.R: VLSI Design Techniques for Analog & Digital Circuits, (McGraw Hill)
1990.
6. Carver Mead & Lynn Convay: Introduction to VLSI Systems, Addison Wesley Publications.
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

ANN & FUZZY SET THEORY

UNIT- 1
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL NEURAL SYSTEMS (ANS) TECHNOLOGY: Elementary
Neurophysiology – From Neurons to ANS – ANS simulation.

UNIT- 2
ADALINE AND MADALINE: Review of signal processing – Adaline and the adaptive linear combiner –
Applications of Adaptive signal processing – The Madaline – simulating the adaline.

UNIT- 3
BACK PROPAGATION: The back propagation network (BPN) – The generalized delta rule – practical
considerations – BPN applications – The back propagation simulator.

UNIT- 4
THE BAM AND THE HOPFIELD MEMORY: Associative Memory Definitions – The BAM – The hopfield
memory – simulating the BAM.

UNIT- 5
SIMULATED ANNEALING: Information Theory and Statistical Mechanics- The Boltzmann Machine-The
Boltzmann simulator-Using the Boltzmann simulator

UNIT- 6
THE COUNTER PROPAGATION NETWORK: CPN Building Blocks-CPN Data Processing-An Image
Classification Example

UNIT- 7
SELF ORGANIZING MAPS: SOM Data Processing – Applications of Self Organizing Maps – Simulating the SOM

UNIT- 8
ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY: ART Network Description, ART1, ART2, ART1 Simulator- ART2
Simulation

TEXT BOOK:

James A. Freeman / David M. Skapura “Neural Networks, Algorithms, Applications, and Programming Techniques”
Pearson Education Asia

REFERENCE:

B. Yegnanarayana “Artificial Neural Networks”, PHI


JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech I Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

TRANSDUCERS AND INSTRUMENTATION LAB


JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech II Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

TELEMETRY & TELECONTROL

Unit – I
Introduction to Telemetry Principles: Introduction: The Basic System, Classification, Non-Electrical Telemetry
systems, Voltage and Current Telemetry Systems, Local Transmitters and Converters, Frequency Telemetry.

Unit – II
Signals, Symbols and Codes: Signals, Bits and Symbols, Time-function Pulses, Line and Channel Coding,
Modulation Codes.

Unit - III
Frequency Division Multiplexed System: FDM, IRIG Standards, FM Circuits, Phase Modulation Circuits.

Unit – IV
Time Division Multiplexing, Multiplexing System: TDM-PAM System, PAM/PM System and TDM-PCM System.

Unit – V
Modems: Introduction to Modems, Modem Protocol X-Modem and Bisync protocol

Unit – VI
Basics of Satellite Telemetry: Introduction, General Considerations, TT&C Services, Digital Transmission System in
Satellite Telemetry, TDM, The Antennas, Some Aspects of TT&C subsystems, Multiple Access Techniques.

Unit – VII
Fibre Optic Telemetry: Introduction, Fibre optical cable, Dispersion, Losses, Sources and Detectors, Wavelength
Division Multiplexing.

Unit – VIII
Advances in Telemetry: Data Acquisition systems, Microprocessor based DAS, Remote control, Internet –Based
Telemetering.

Text books:
1. Telemetry Principles by D. Patranabis (Tata McGrawhill)
2. Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements R.H. Cerni and L.E. Forster (John Wiley)
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech II Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

BIO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION & SIGNAL ANALYSIS

UNIT-I
Sources of Bioelectric potentials and Electrodes: Resisting and Action Potentials, Propagation of Action Potentials,
The Bioelectric Potentials. Electrodes: Electrode theory, Bio Potential Electrodes, Biochemical Transducers.
Introduction to Bio-Medical Signals.

UNIT-II
The Cardiovascular System: The Heart and Cardiovascular System, The Heart, Blood Pressure, Characteristics of
Blood Flow, Heart Sounds, Cardio Vascular Measurements, Electrocardiography, Measurement of Blood Pressure,
Measurement of Blood Flow and Cardiac output, Plethysmography,
Measurement of Heart Sounds.

UNIT-III
Event detection, PQRS & T-Waves in ECG, the first & second Heart beats. ECG rhythm analysis, the di-crotic notch in
the carotid pulse detection of events and waves. Analysis of exercise ECG, analysis of event related potentials,
correlation analysis of EEG channels. Correlation of muscular contraction.

UNIT- IV
Patient Care & Monitory and Measurements in Respiratory System: The elements of Intensive Care Monitory,
Diagnosis, Calibration and reparability of Patient Monitoring equipment, other instrumentation for monitoring patients,
pace makers, defibrillators.

UNIT-V
The Physiology of respiratory system, tests and instrumentation for mechanics of breathing, respiratory theory
equipment. Analysis of respiration.

UNIT-VI
Bio telemetry and Instrumentation for the clinical laboratory Introduction to bio telemetry, Physiological parameters
adaptable to bio telemetry, the components of bio telemetry system, implantable units, applications of telemetry in
patient care – The blood, tests on blood cells, chemical test, automation of chemical tests.

UNIT-VII
X-ray and radioisotope instrumentation and electrical safety of medical equipment: Generation of Ionizing
radiation, instrumentation for diagnostic X-rays, special techniques, instrumentation for the medical use of
radioisotopes, radiation therapy - Physiological effects of electrical current, shock Hazards from electrical equipment,
Methods of accident prevention.

UNIT-VIII
Modern Imaging Systems: Tomography, Magnetic resonance Imaging System, Ultrasonic Imaging System, Medical
Thermography.

TEXT BOOK:
1. Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements – C. Cromwell, F.J. Weibell, E.A.Pfeiffer – Pearson
education.
2. Biomedical signal analysis – Rangaraj, M. Rangayya – Wiley Inter science – John willey & Sons Inc.
Reference:
1. Hand Book of Bio-Medical Instrumentation – R.S. Khandpur, (TMH)
2. Introduction to Bio-Medical Engineering – Domach, (Pearson)
3. Introduction to Bio-Medical Equipment Technology – Cart, (Pearson)
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

M.Tech II Semester (Instrumentation & Control Systems) L P C


4 - 8

PROCESS CONTOL INSTRUMENTATION

UNIT-1
P & ID symbols. Process characteristics: Process load, Process lag, self-regulation.

Control system parameters: control lag, dead time, cycling.

Discontinuous controller modes: two position, multi position, floating control modes.

UNIT-2
Continuous controller modes: Mathematical representation and description of P, I, D controller modes. Composite
control modes: Mathematical representation and description of PI, PD, PID control modes. Response of control modes
to linear, step and square wave error signals.

UNIT-3
Electronic Controller mode implementation: Designing of P, PI, PD, PID using OP-amplifiers.

UNIT-4
Pneumatic controller mode implementation: Implementation of P, PI, PD, PID using flapper – nozzle system.

UNIT-5
Final control: Actuators – Electrical & Pneumatic. Control Valves – Quick opening, linear and equal percentage
control valves, valve sizing. I to P, P to I converters.

UNIT-6
Programmable controllers: Ladder Diagram, Programmable controller program from the ladder diagram of a simple
applications.

UNIT-7
Digital Controllers: Data logging, supervisory control, computer based controller.

UNIT-8
Control Loop Characteristics: Control System Quality, Loop disturbance, optimum control, stability. Process Loop
tuning methods: Open-loop transient response method, Ziegler- Nichols method, frequency response methods.

Text Book:
1. Process control Instrumentation Technology by Curtis Johnson, 4 th Edition – PHI, Dec, 2000.

Reference Books:
1. Principles of Process control by D. Patranabis- TMH 2 nd Edition, 1996
2. P. Harriott, process control, Tata MoGraw – Hill publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi, 1984.
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System Modeling & Simulation

Unit I
System Models: Concepts, continuous and Discrete Systems, systems modeling, types of models, subsystems,
corporate model, system study.

Unit II
System simulation: Techniques, comparison of simulation and analytical methods, types of simulation, distributed log
models, cobwed models.

Unit III
Continuous system simulation: Numerical solution of differential equations, analog computers, hybrid computers,
continuous system simulation languages – CSMP, system dynamic growth models, logistic curves.

Unit IV
Probability concepts in simulation: Monte Carlo techniques, Stochastic variables, probability functions, random
number generation algorithms.

Unit V
Queuing Theory: Arrival pattern distribution, service times, queuing disciplines, measure of queues, mathematical
solutions to queuing problems.

Unit VI
Discrete Systems Simulation: Events generation of arrival patterns, simulation programming tasks, analysis of
simulation output.

Unit VII
GPSS and SEMSCRIPT: General description of GPSS and SEMSCRIPT, programming in GPSS.

Unit VIII
Simulation Programming techniques: Data Structures, implementation of activities, events and queues, event
scanning, simulation algorithms in GPSS and SEMSCRIPT.

Books:

1. Geoffery Gordan : Systems Simulation, PHI 1978.


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CONTROL AND GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

Unit – I
The Accuracy of Target Trackers: Introduction, some objectives with feedback, some general concepts on accuracy,
A tracker servo, Tracking accuracy in the absence of noise, The effect of thermal noise, The effect of other inputs and
disturbances, A self optimising servo.

Unit – II
Missile Servos: Servo requirements, Stored cold gas servos, Hot gas servos, Ram air servos, Hydraulic servos, Electric
servos with d.c. motors, Other electric servos, Some tentative conclusions.

Unit – III
Missile control Methods: Introduction, Why not manoeuvre by banking?, Roll control, Aerodynamic lateral control,
Aerodynamic polar control versus cartesian control, Thrust vector control, Methods of thrust vectoring.

Unit – IV
Aerodynamic Derivatives and Aerodynamic Transfer Functions: Notation and conventions, Euler’s equations of
motion for a rigid body, Trajectory considerations, Control surface conventions, Aerodynamic derivatives,
Aerodynamic transfer functions, Altitude and speed conversion factors, Aerodynamic derivatives with TVC.

Unit – V
Missile Instruments: Introduction, Elementary theory of gyroscopes, Free or position gyros, Rate or constrained
gyros, Accelerometers, Resolvers, Altimeters.

Unit – VI
Line of Sight Guidance Loops: The effect of target and missile motion on missile “g” requirements, Types of LOS
systems, Kinematic closure and stability of the guidance loop, The concept of feed forward terms, Phasing error and
orientation difficulties, The effect of a digital computer inside guidance loop, Some numerical examples on the
estimation of guidance accuracy, Some general conclusions on accuracy.

Unit – VII
Homing Heads and Some Associated Stability Problems: Introduction, Homing head requirements, Some electro-
mechanical arrangements, The effect of radome aberration, Isolated sight line and missile compensation.

Unit – VIII
Proportional Navigation and Homing Guidance Loops: Introduction, A particular case, The mathematical model, A
summary of previous work, The effect of a missile heading error, Miss distance due to a target lateral acceleration,
Miss distance die to angular noise, Miss distance due to glint, Three dimensional homing, An integrated form of
proportional navigation, Other homing guidance laws.

Text Book:
Guided Weapon Control Systems by P. Garnell, Brassey’s Defence Publishers, New York.

Reference Book:
Guided Weapons by R.G. Lee et al., Brassey’s Defence Publishers.
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Digital System Design

Unit I
Computer Aided Minimization Procedure: CAMP Algorithm, Introduction to cube based Algorithms.

Unit II
Design of large scales Digital Systems: ASM Chart Method, Hardware Description language and control sequence
method, Design using PLAs, PALs, ASICs, PLDs.

Unit III
Fault Diagnosis in Combinational Circuits: Fault classes and models, Fault detection and location experiments, paths
sensitization and Boolean difference methods, Kohavi Algorithm. Failure tolerant design, introduction to fault-tolerant
VLSI processor arrays.

Unit IV
Fault Diagnosis in sequential circuits: State Identification and fault detection experiments, machine identification,
and design of fault detection experiment.

Unit V
Programmable Logic Arrays: PLA minimization and PLA folding.

Unit VI
Design for testability: Faults in PLAs test generation, DFT schemes, built in self- test.

TEXT BOOKS:
1.Z.Kohavi: Switching and finite Automata Theory (TMH).
2.N.N.Biswas : Logic design theory (PHI) .
3.Lala : Digital system Design Using PLDs.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Morris Mano : Digital Design.
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DSP PROCESSORS AND ARCHITECTURES

UNIT I
Introduction To Digital Signal Processing: Introduction, A Digital signal-processing system, The sampling process,
Discrete time sequences. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Linear time-invariant
systems, Digital filters, Decimation and interpolation, Analysis and Design tool for DSP Systems MATLAB, DSP
using MATLAB.

UNIT II
Computational Accuracy In Dsp Implementations: Number formats for signals and coefficients in DSP systems,
Dynamic Range and Precision, Sources of error in DSP implementations, A/D Conversion errors, DSP Computational
errors, D/A Conversion Errors, Compensating filter.

UNIT III
Architectures For Programmable Dsp Devices: Basic Architectural features, DSP Computational Building Blocks,
Bus Architecture and Memory, Data Addressing Capabilities, Address Generation Unit, Programmability and Program
Execution, Speed Issues, Features for External interfacing.

UNIT IV
Execution Control and Pipelining: Hardware looping, Interrupts, Stacks, Relative Branch support, Pipelining and
Performance, Pipeline Depth, Interlocking, Branching effects, Interrupt effects, Pipeline Programming models.

UNIT V
Programmable Digital Signal Processors: Commercial Digital signal-processing Devices, Data Addressing modes of
TMS320C54XX DSPs, Data Addressing modes of TMS320C54XX Processors, Memory space of TMS320C54XX
Processors, Program Control, TMS320C54XX instructions and Programming, On-Chip Peripherals, Interrupts of
TMS320C54XX processors, Pipeline Operation of TMS320C54XX Processors.

UNIT VI
Implementations Of Basic Dsp Algorithms: The Q-notation, FIR Filters, IIR Filters, Interpolation Filters, Decimation
Filters, PID Controller, Adaptive Filters, 2-D Signal Processing.

UNIT VII
Implementation of Fft Algorithms: An FFT Algorithm for DFT Computation, A Butterfly Computation, Overflow
and scaling, Bit-Reversed index generation, An 8-Point FFT implementation on the TMS320C54XX, Computation of
the signal spectrum.

UNIT VIII
Interfacing Memory And I/O Peripherals To Programmable DSP Devices: Memory space organization, External
bus interfacing signals, Memory interface, Parallel I/O interface, Programmed I/O, Interrupts and I/O, Direct memory
access (DMA). A Multi-channel buffered serial port (McBSP), McBSP Programming, a CODEC interface circuit,
CODEC programming, A CODEC-DSP interface example.

TEXT BOOKS
1. Digital Signal Processing – Avtar Singh and S. Srinivasan, Thomson Publ., 2004.
2. DSP Processor Fundamentals, Architectures & Features – Lapsley et al. S. Chand & Co, 2000.

REFERENCES
1. Digital Signal Processors, Architecture, Programming and Applications – B. Venkata Ramani and M. Bhaskar,
TMH, 2004.
2. Digital Signal Processing – Jonatham Stein, John Wiley, 2005.
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NON-LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS & OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

Non-linear control systems

Unit – I
Introduction to Non-Linear Control systems.

Unit – II
Describing Functions, Describing function Analysis of Non-Linear Control Systems.

Unit – III
Introduction to Phase plane analysis, Methods for constructing Trajectories, singular points, phase-plane analysis of
linear control systems and Non-linear control systems.

Unit – IV
Introduction to liapunov stability analysis, second method of liapunov, stability analysis of linear systems, stability
analysis of nonlinear systems (Variable gradient method and Krosovskii’s method)

Optimal Control systems

Unit – V
Introduction to optimal control system, Formulation of optimal Control problem – Characteristics of the plant,
requirements made upon the plant, Nature of information about the plant supplied to the controller.

Unit – VI
Calculus of variations – fixed end problem and variable end problems

Unit – VII
Pontragin’s minimum/maximum principle, Hamilton Jacobii’s approach.

Unit – VIII
Introduction to Dynamic Programming, Matrix-Riccati equations.

Text Books:
1. Modern Control Engineering – Ogata.K. Prentice Hall of India, Eastern Economy Edition, 1986.
2. Modern Control System Theory – M. Gopal, Wiley Eastern, Second edition, 1993.
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Adaptive Signal Processing

UNIT I
Stochastic processes and models: Introduction, Correlation matrix, properties of correlation matrix, stochastic models,
auto regressive models, moving-average models, auto regressive – moving average models, Yule walker equations.

UNIT II
Wiener Filters and linear Prediction: Linear optimum filtering, statement of the problem, principle of orthogonality,
minimum mean square error, wiener – hopf equations, error performance surface, forward linear prediction, backward
linear prediction, Levinson Durbin algorithm, properties.

UNIT III
Method of Steepest Descent: Basic idea, steepest descent algorithm applied to wiener filters, stability, limitations and
summary.

UNIT IV
LMS algorithm: Overview, LMS Adaptation algorithms, stability & performance analysis of LMS Algorithms, LMS
gradient, & stochastic algorithms, convergence of LMS algorithm.

UNIT V
Method of least squares: Statement, data windowing, principle of orthogonality, minimum sum of error squares,
normal equations and linear least squares filters, properties, singular value decompositon.

UNIT VI
Recursive least squares adaptive filters: Matrix inversion, Lemma, exponentially weighted recursive least squares
algorithm, recursion for updating the sum of weighted error squares, convergence.

UNIT VII
Kalman filtering: Introduction, recursive mean square estimation random variables, statement of Kalman filtering
problem, filtering, initial conditions, summary of kalman filtering, variants of kalman filtering extend kalman filtering,

UNIT VIII
Adaptive signal processing applications: Adaptive linear combiner, adaptive channel equalizers, adaptive noise
canceling, adaptive echo cancellers, adaptive beam forming.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Simon Haykin-Adaptive filter Theory, PH.
2. Bernard Widrow-Adaptive signal processing, PH Pearson Education, Asia.

REFERENCES:
1. Sophocles. J. Orfamadis-optimum signal processing-An introduction, 2nd Ed., MGH.
2. S.Thomas Alexander –Adaptive signal processing-Theory and applications, Springer –Verlag.
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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Unit – I
Digital Image fundamentals: Introduction, An image model, sampling & quantization, basic relation ships between
Pixels; imaging geometry.

Unit – II
Image Transforms: Properties of 2-D Fourier transform, FFT algorithm and other separable image transforms. Walsh
transforms. Hadamard, Cosine, Haar, Slant transforms, KL transforms and their properties.

Unit – III
Image Enhancement: Background, enhancement by point processing, histogram processing, spatial filtering and
enhancement in frequency domain, color image processing.

Unit – IV
Image filtering and restoration – degradation model, diagnolisation of circulant and block circulant matrices, Algebraic
approach to restoration, inverse filtering, least mean squares restoration, constrained least squares and interactive
restoration, geometric transformations.

Unit – V
Image compression: Fundamentals, image compression modes, error free compression, lossy compression.

Unit – VI
Image segmentation: Detection of discontinuities, edge linking and boundary detection thresholding, region- oriented
segmentation, use of motion in segmentation.

Unit – VII
Representation and description: Various schemes for representation, boundary descriptors, regional descriptors.

Unit – VIII
Image reconstruction from Projections, Radon Transform; Convolution/ Filterback- Projection Algorithms.

Text Books:
1. C. Gonszalez & R.E. Woods “Digital Image Processing” Addison Wesley.

Reference:
1. A.K. Jain: “Fundamental of Digital Image Processing” PHI.
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Design and Simulation Lab